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USALAMA

WATER PROJECT

OPERATIONS &
MAINTENANCE
MANUAL

COMPILED BY
ENGINEERS WITHOUT BORDERS – NEW YORK
JUNE 2014
USALAMA@EWBNY.ORG
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contacts
Summary
Safety
Operations and Maintenance Checklist
Tank Inspection and Maintenance
Water Treatment
Monthly Team Meeting Guideline
Record Keeping

p. 3
p. 4
p. 5-6
p. 7-9
p. 10-11
p. 12-14
p. 15
p. 16

Appendix:
Water System Photographs
Tank Inspection Drawings
Water Treatment Calculations

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CONTACTS
In case of questions or emergency, the following people can be contacted.
Affiliation

Name

Phone Number

Email

Usalama Primary School Chairman /
Village Headman

Jackson Maweu

0720974666

jacksonmaweu@yahoo.com

EWB-NY Project Lead

Claire Wang

+1 347-272-3487

claire.b.wang@gmail.com

EWB-NY Technical Lead

Patrick Farnham + 708-738-1359

ptf23@cornell.edu

EWB-NY Chapter President

Jessica Miller

+1 718-986-5927

president@ewbny.org

KIMAWASCO Director

Kimeu Ndundu

0726-838-730

kimeundundu@ymail.com

KIMAWASCO Project Manager

Joseph Kilonzu

0729312628

KIMAWASCO Technical Manager

Elijah Mzungu

0721623856

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It is followed by an Appendix with more details and photographs. and the photographs show the construction process. so a treatment procedure utilizing chlorine was implemented.New York (EWB-NY) and the Usalama community was to restore the water system so that it would service the five (5) existing water kiosks and make water more easily accessible for the community.000 Liters of storage Galvanized iron (GI) pipe fittings and gate valves at tank Float valve at tank Tank access door Distribution: PVC piping GI piping Five kiosks with brass faucets Treatment: Chlorine measurement/dispensing containers The five kiosks and original piping were installed by the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) in 2008. distribution and treatment components: Storage: Concrete masonry water storage tank with 40. The drawings compiled by EWB-NY show the constructed system. among other uses.SUMMARY This document explains how to maintain and operate the water distribution system for the community of Usalama. The system is maintained consistently by two designated maintenance workers. Water from the system is used for drinking. The system consists of storage. EWB-NY constructed the new water tank and installed new piping to reroute the distribution system between 2013 and 2014. The goal of Engineers Without Borders . Page 4 of 16 . and operators at each kiosk.

This will prevent skin and eyes from burning when the hypochlorite is transferred from the storage container (50 kg tin) to the 5 liter jugs used for creating the stock solution. Follow these rules to remain safe while performing maint enance or routine system operation. Do not let the chemicals touch the skin or eyes. Wear gloves when using PVC pipe cement or bitumastic paints. Breathing in hypochlorite fumes can cause coughing and lung irritation. Personnel handling the chlorine stock solution as well as the kiosk operators should wear gloves for protection during all handling of the solutions. Keep away from children and animals. and vomiting are signs that somebody has been exposed to these fumes for a long time. Hypochlorite is good for treating water. dizziness. but it is harmful in high. undiluted concentrations. Only use these unstable chemicals in a wellventilated area. Carefully clean any spilling of the powder or stock solution. and not indoors). Being continuously exposed to hypochlorite fumes will cause PERMANENT lung damage. Do not inhale calcium hypochlorite Open the hypochlorite containers only in areas with good ventilation (in the open air. Page 5 of 16 . Use GLOVES AND SAFETY GLASSES when handling chlorine Wear rubber gloves and safety glasses when handling the hypochlorite powder.SAFETY ! PERSONAL PROTECTION It is very important to use the correct personal prot ective equipment (PPE) when working on the water system. Nausea. Use GLOVES when handling paint or PVC glue. to prevent the spilled chemical from harming other people or animals.

SAFETY ! FIRST AID ! IF YOUR EYES OR SKIN ARE EXPOSED DIRECTLY TO CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE POWDER OR STOCK SOLUTION If calcium hypochlorite or the stock solution comes in contact with the eyes or skin. Seek professional medical attention if irritation persists. IF YOU CONSUME CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE POWDER OR STOCK SOLUTION If calcium hypochlorite or the stock solution is consumed by drinking or eating. DO NOT induce vomiting. Page 6 of 16 . carefully flush out of eyes or rinse affected skin with clean water for at least ten (10) minutes or longer if irritation remains. IMMEDIATELY drink large quantities of water and seek professional medical attention.

KEY PIPING SYSTEM WATER TREATMENT Page 7 of 16 WATER TANK SAFETY . 2. monthly. and yearly) to keep the water system running smoothly. semi-yearly. and 3.4 Maintain proper hypochlorite storage Keep hypochlorite containers in a location out of direct sunlight. See the instructions in the Water Treatment section of this manual for the proper amounts. 3.7 if kiosk water usage and water bill do not match. weekly. and sealed against air exchange.3 Record hypochlorite usage The amount of hypochlorite powder should be recorded as a check against water purchased. 1. using the instructions in the Water Treatment section of this manual. away from heat sources.5 Maintain safety standards Use gloves/glasses and adequate ventilation during handling of undiluted hypochlorite to avoid injury.1 Log water usage at kiosks Compare total amount of water used to amount on water bill.4. Perform 3. mark the task and date completed in a separate book. 1. 1. Use the photographs in the Appendix of this manual to compare the condition of the water system. WEEKLY TASKS TASK # TASK 2.6.2 Make chlorine stock solution Liquid chlorine stock solution will be made as needed. 3.3. 1. 1. Use the water usage data to analyse seasonal demand. DAILY TASKS TASK # TASK CATEGORY FOLLOW-UP TASK 1.1 CATEGORY Monitor kiosk operators’ dosing operations FOLLOW-UP TASK Check that the proper amount of diluted chlorine is being added to each jerrican.OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST These tasks should be followed at different frequencies (daily. When these tasks are completed.

7 if the water meter reading and kiosk water use do not match.2) Check for leaks and tight seal of valves at the tank and along the pipeline. 3. 3.1 or 3. Repair damaged pipe and cover exposed pipe as needed.2) Refer to the Tank Inspection section of this manual to complete these inspection tasks.OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST 3. 3.8 Clean tank exterior Sweep tank roof with broom to prevent dust and dirt from entering tank during opening of access door. according to the Monthly Team Meeting Guideline within this manual. fittings. 3. 3.4 Check valves. See the Appendix of this manual for a photograph to compare to.4.2) Check for rust. 3.1 or 3. 3.3. and 3. 3.2 Log flow rate at kiosks Perform 3.3 Walk along pipeline (Perform if required by 3. MONTHLY TASKS TASK # TASK CATEGORY FOLLOW-UP TASK 3.3.7 Inspect float switch (Perform if required by 3. KEY PIPING SYSTEM WATER TREATMENT Page 8 of 16 WATER TANK SAFETY .1 or 3.4. Clean valves if necessary.7 if the flow rate seems remarkably low.6 Inspect tank for cracking or spalling (Perform if required by 3. 3. Open and close the valves. 3.1 Log water meter readings Compare meter readings with kiosk water use. and 3. See the Tank Inspection drawings in the Appendix of this manual for details.2) Check for leaks and exposed pipes. and test the float switch by hand to make sure that the hinge is working.9 Monthly Team Meeting Conduct a monthly meeting of all Operation and Maintenance Personnel.6. 3. Perform 3. Refer to the photos in the Appendix for the condition that the valves.5 Inspect interior of tank for solids buildup Clean interior of tank yearly or as needed. and taps (Perform if required by 3.6. fittings and taps should be in.1 or 3. 3.

5. scrub. and rinse walls and floor of tank to remove sediment and deposits.1 CATEGORY Clean valves FOLLOW-UP TASK Clean any solid material out of the valves at the tank.2 Restock hypochlorite stock Purchase enough hypochlorite to continue chlorination operations at kiosks. 5.1 Clean tank interior Drain tank during system shutdown using cleanout valve. Scrape. SEMI-YEARLY TASKS TASK # TASK 4. KEY PIPING SYSTEM WATER TREATMENT Page 9 of 16 WATER TANK SAFETY . either by flushing with water or cleaning by hand.OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST 4. YEARLY TASKS TASK # TASK CATEGORY FOLLOW-UP TASK 5.

2. Spalling Observations Spalling: Concrete is chipped or breaking off from the bottom of the roof slab inside the tank What this means: LOW RISK Reinforcing bars have rusted and expanded What you should do: 1. Carefully remove loose concrete with a hammer. it is a full-depth crack. Inspect the inside and outside of the tank wall. the possible causes of these problems. OR: • Ground slab has been undermined by erosion from wind or water. Wall and Slab Cracks Observations Cracks are visible on the roof. If the tank is leaking from a crack.Determine if it is a full-depth crack. 4. 3. 1.Re-plaster and waterproof surface of wall.Remove plaster and waterproofing from affected area. 2.TANK INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE ! ! !This section describes some of the problems that may arise during the tank’s use. See the drawings at the Appendix of this manual for the drawings that are referenced in this table. wall (both vertical and diagonal cracks) and slab. Place mortar over reinforcing bars to protect them from future corrosion. 3. and suggested solutions. What you should do: 1. Remove rust from reinforcing bars with wire brush. 3. What this means: MODERATE RISK There is small movement between the stone courses. What this means: SEVERE RISK • Tank is settling unevenly on ground.Patch full depth cracks by applying new mortar. What you should do: • Fill below the slab with compacted soil Provide additional soil around the perimeter of tank 2. Page 10 of 16 . all at the same time. Horizontal Wall Cracks Observations Horizontal cracks are visible between stone layers in the wall mortar beds.

Prevent anyone from going on top of tank Observations Cracking occurs soon after the tank is put in to use (for example. Use grout and a waterproofing sealer as needed. However. What this means: LOW RISK There are local stresses within the wall/slab. Monitor carefully 2. 6. What this means: SEVERE RISK Large cracks may indicate that the tank will fail very soon. Cracks extending from openings Observations Cracks are occurring radially outward from wall pipe penetrations or at the corners of the roof hatch opening. Sudden or large cracks Observations Large cracks. What you should do: Patch cracks to prevent water infiltration. Cracks after the tank is filled with water Note: small hairline cracks are expected in concrete and stone What this means: SEVERE RISK The material is failing to resist the load. long or wide. 5. What you should do: 1. What you should do: 1. or sudden cracking anywhere on the structure are visible. after it is filled for the first time). Determine extent of cracking and make sure it is not getting worse Page 11 of 16 . any cracks that are big enough to allow water through will continue to deteriorate the concrete and stone. which are not likely to weaken the structure. Reduce the amount of water in tank 2.TANK INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE ! ! ! 4.

well-ventilated place. Follow the instructions in this manual to create and distribute the chlorine stock solution.com Water treatment process Maintenance team Purchases chlorine Creates chlorine stock solution (see instructions) Distributes stock solution (5 Liter container) to kiosk operators Kiosk operator Puts chlorine solution into each jerrican and fills jerrican with water (see instructions) Customer Waits for 30 minutes before drinking chlorinated water CHLORIN E HANDLING TIPS Use gloves and safety goggles when handling the hypochlorite powder. TCL Powder can be purchased from: Nairobi Ironmongers Ltd Homabay Road. Store and prepare the solution in a dry. and flammable material. Exposure to moisture may react with the powder and cause burns. so that it does not react with light. moisture. Do not keep the chlorine solution for longer than one week. Do not inhale calcium hypochlorite powder. The Kiosk Operators will then dispense this solution into individual jerricans at the kiosks.WATER TREATMENT A member of the water system maintenance team should make the chlorine solution out of Tropical Chloride of Lime (TCL) powder and water. Nairobi 00100 Tel: 254 20 555 879 / 558 805 Fax: 254 20 555 854 Email: info@nil1949. Industrial Area P O Box 43524. Page 12 of 16 . or produce dangerous chlorine gas. Keep away from the sun. The chlorine solution must be kept in a dark container. Keep away from children.

'(or'other'approved'vendor)'as'needed'and'store'away'from'sunlight'in'a'dry'area. ' ' Shake'5=liter'jug'vigorously' for'one'(1)'minute.'Kenya'(2014)' ' Page 13 of 16 .756mg/L)& Prepared'by'Engineers'with'Borders.%ama%duka%lolote%lingine.'Then.' (Concentration'of'5=liter' jug'stock'solution'='4.000%kwenye%Duka%liitwalo% Nairobi%Ironmongers%Ltd.'''''''Keep'out'of'sunlight.' Tingisha&hii&jagi&iliyo&na&maji&lita& tano&kwa&nguvu&ili&uchanganye&& kwa&muda&wa&dakika&moja.Hifadhi%mahali%pakavu%pasipo%na%jua%kali.' Industrial'Area'' P'O'Box'43524.'' ' Chota&vijiko&&vidogo&vitatu&vya& Calcium&Hypochlorite&powder& kisha&weka&kwenye&jagi&iliyo&ya& na&maji&lita&tano(5lita) 2.000)'from'Nairobi'Ironmongers.' Ltd.'add'water.' ' Ngoja&dakika&thelathini(30&min)& kabla&upeleke&mchanganyiko& huo&ulio&kwanye&jagi&ya&lita& tano(5l)&kwenye&kila&kiosk.' & Hifadhi&mahali&pasipo&Jua& kali(Mchanganyiko&lita& tano(5lita)&=&4.com' Steps& & 1. Wait'30'Minutes!' Ngoja'dakika'Thelathini(30'min)!' ' 4.' Nunua%67%%Calcium%Hypochlorite%Powder%ulio%kwenye%mkebe%wa%kilo%hamsini(50kg)%kwa%shilingi%12.%(Lita%tano):% Obtain'67%'Calcium'Hypochlorite'Powder'in'50'kg'tin'(kes'$12.756' mg/L).% Nairobi$Ironmongers$Ltd' Homabay'Road.How$to$Make$Chlorine$Stock$Solution$(5L):$ Jinsi%ya%Kutengeneza%Mchanganyiko%wa%Chlorine.'New'York'Professionals'Chapter' For'the'Usalama'Water'Project.& 3.' Nairobi'00100' Tel:'254'20'555'879'/'558'805' Fax:'254'20'555'854' Email:'info@nil1949.''''''''Set'5=liter'jug'aside'for' thirty'(30)'minutes'before' distributing'to'each'kiosk. ' Scoop'three'(3)' Tablespoons'of'calcium' hypochlorite'powder'into' 5=liter'jug.'DO' NOT'inhale.

&Kenya&(2014) % && Page 14 of 16 .%% (Klorini%Kipimo%=%2.&au&2.%Jerrican%Ruhusu%kwa%kuchanganya%wakati%kufanya% mtu.5&mg/L.% Scoop&one$(1)$teaspoon&of&concentrated&stock&solution&into&small&(10L)&Jerrican.%% Kuchanganya%wakati%=%dakika%30%kabla%ya%kunywa.&& Mixing&time&=&30&minutes&before& drinking.& Kuhifadhi%kujilimbikizia%chlorine%hisa%ufumbuzi%katika%eneo%salama%mbali%na%jua%moja%kwa%moja%na%akitoa% ufumbuzi%katika%kila%Jerrican%kwa%mujibu%wa%maelekezo%ya%chini.5&mg&/&L.5%mg%/%L. Allow&Jerrican&to&mix&while& carrying&home.&then&fill&with&water.& Scoop%moja%(1)%kijiko%cha%ufumbuzi%kujilimbikizia%hisa%Katika%ndogo%(10L)%Jerrican.5&ppm)& & Kuruhusu%kuchanganya%wakati%Jerrican%Kubeba%mtu.%% Kuchanganya%wakati%=%dakika%30%kabla%ya&kunywa.% Steps:$$ 1.& Scoop%mbili%(2)%chai%ya%ufumbuzi%kujilimbikizia%hisa%Katika%kubwa%(20L)%Jerrican.How$to$Dispense$Chlorine$Stock$Solution$(5L)$ into$Jerrican:$ Jinsi%ya%akitoa%chlorine%hisa%ufumbuzi%(5L)%Katika%Jerrican:$ Store&concentrated&chlorine&stock&solution&in&a&secure&area&away&from&direct&sunlight& and&dispense&the&solution&into&each&Jerrican&according&to&the&instructions&below. Scoop&two$(2)$teaspoons&of&concentrated&stock&solution&into&big&(20L)&Jerrican.&New&York&Professionals&Chapter& For&the&Usalama&Water&Project.&or&2.5&ppm)& Prepared&by&Engineers&with&Borders.& (Chlorine&Dosage&=&2.%au%2.% & For$Big$(20L)$Jerrican:$2$teaspoons$ Kwa%kubwa%(20L)%Jerrican%vijiko%2 ! $ & & & & Concentrated& Stock&Solution& For$Small$(10L)$Jerrican:$1$teaspoon$ & Kwa%ndogo%(10L)%Jerrican%vijiko%1 $ & Concentrated& Stock&Solution& ! & & & & & 2.&& (Klorini&Kipimo&=&2.&then&fill&with&water.5%ppm)%% Mbili.

by conducting it in a fair and organized manner*** Getting started: Each month a different team member will take his/her turn to be the host. Team members should use personal protective equipment such as gloves and goggles when it is appropriate. etc. • • Tools: Be cautious when working on high surfaces. Page 15 of 16 . and thank everyone for attending. and anyone who is interested in learning about the project should be encouraged to attend as well. Go around asking each person who attended if they have any questions and end the meeting once everyone has had an opportunity to speak. and this individual will conduct the meeting according to the guidelines provided below. All Operation and Maintenance Team members (kiosk operators.) must attend. Ask the team the following questions and discuss it with the team: • • • • Has the team followed the Operation and Maintenance Manual accurately in the past month? Has the team reported any incidents/problems with the water system. Review information from the Safety section of the Operation and Maintenance manual. unless real concerns are being discussed. as it can be harmful to humans and animals if it is inhaled or comes into contact with the surface of your body including your eyes.. maintenance personnel. Congratulate your team on doing a good job. This meeting should not go on for a lengthy period. It is important for all team members to be aware of their environment and other people working around them at all times. and did you get feedback? Was the problem resolved? What can we do to improve the way we operate the system? Are all team members contributing to the process as they should be and how can we work better as a team? After asking and discussing the questions above. Step 1: Greet and welcome all attendees to the meeting. Give an example of a possible injury that can occur when using tools. Ensure that you discuss previous goals that were set for the team last month. Give an example of how an injury can occur when working with chemicals. and try to achieve it before the next meeting. Purpose: The purpose of this meeting is to encourage effective communication between the Operation and Maintenance team whilst promoting safe and correct operation of the water distribution system.. ***Please respect everyone who attends this meeting.MONTHLY TEAM MEETING GUIDELINE Frequency: This meeting should be held at least once per month. and with tools. Chemicals: Be careful when handling any chemicals. This is only a guideline and team members should feel free to express their concerns and raise issues in order to improve the process. Step 2: Safety. Step 3: Performance. Prevent injury to yourself as well as the people around you. say a little prayer if you would like. Step 4: Progress.. set a goal for the team if necessary..

and cost.RECORD KEEPING Keep a record of this information. MONTHLY TEA M MEETI NGS See guidelines for the Monthly Team Meetings inside this manual. Page 16 of 16 . including materials and tools. and planning the operating budget. PVC glue…) • Cost and description of labor for maintenance or repair. concrete. This information will be useful for when calculating revenue from water sales. KIOSK-BASED WATER USAGE • Date water was sold • Volume of water sold each day at each kiosk • Unit price water was sold at • Total revenue from water sales per month WATER BILL • Amount of water recorded on monthly bill • Total cost of water for the month • Unit price of water CHLORIN E PURCHASES • Dates that chlorine was purchased and delivered • How much chlorine was purchased PURCHASES FOR MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR • Description of maintenance or repair task • Date that maintenance or repair was performed • List of items purchased for maintenance or repair. (For example: shovels. Record the date of the meeting and names of everyone who attended.

USALAMA WATER PROJECT OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE MANUAL APPENDIX • WATER SYSTEM PHOTOGRAPHS • TANK INSPECTION DRAWINGS • WATER TREATMENT CALCULATIONS .

USALAMA WATER PROJECT OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE MANUAL APPENDIX • WATER SYSTEM PHOTOGRAPHS • TANK INSPECTION DRAWINGS • WATER TREATMENT CALCULATIONS .

Typical outlet (show fittings.PHOTOGRAPHS Tank 1.Typical Inlet 2. valves. valve box) .

PHOTOGRAPHS 3. Tank access door . Float valve 4.

Tank in general .PHOTOGRAPHS 5.

with the label of the PVC pipe brand shown.typical connection of two PVC pipes. as shown here. . If too much glue is used.Pipes should never be connected using too much glue.PHOTOGRAPHS Piping PVC Pipe . it will clog the pipe. PVC Pipe .

USALAMA WATER PROJECT OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE MANUAL APPENDIX • WATER SYSTEM PHOTOGRAPHS • TANK INSPECTION DRAWINGS • WATER TREATMENT CALCULATIONS .

. DIAGONAL AND VERTICAL CRACKS IN THE WALL MAY INDICATE THAT THE TANK IS SETTLING UNEVENLY. SIMULTANEOUS WALL AND SLAB CRACKS CRACKS ON TOP OF ROOF TANK MAY INDICATE THAT THE TANK IS SETTLING UNEVENLY.1.

SPALLING ON BOTTOM OF ROOF SLAB SPALLING CONCRETE FROM UNDERSIDE OF ROOF SLAB MAY INDICATE RUSTING REINFORCEMENT.2. .

3. HORIZONTAL WALL CRACKS HORIZONTAL CRACKS BETWEEN LAYERS MAY INDICATE DIFFERENTIAL MOVEMENT BETWEEN COURSES. .

CRACKS EXTENDING FROM OPENINGS CRACKS THAT OCCURR RADIALLY OUTWARD FROM OPENINGS ARE FROM LOCALIZED STRESSES IN THE WALL OR SLAB. .4.

.5. SUDDEN OR LARGE CRACKS IF SUDDEN OR LARGE CRACKS APPEAR UNLOAD TANK REMOVE WATER. MAKE SURE PEOPLE ARE NOT ON TANK CRACKS ON TOP OF PILASTER OR ON BOTTOM OF SLAB MAY INDICATE EXCESSIVE LOADING .PEOPLE SHOULD GET DOWN IF THEY ARE ON TANK.

USALAMA WATER PROJECT OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE MANUAL APPENDIX • WATER SYSTEM PHOTOGRAPHS • TANK INSPECTION DRAWINGS • WATER TREATMENT CALCULATIONS .

000 Rearrange and solve: mg ! ∗ !5!L 23.756 Calculation for concentration of hypochlorite in 5L jug: mg ! ∗ !X mg kg = 4. Chlorine Solution Jerrican Disinfections Dosage Calculation (4.105!L Conversion to teaspoons: 0.756 Mass!of!powder! = !X! = !0.5 mg/L) in 20 L jerrican: mg ∗X L = 2. volume of jerrican.105!L 4.756 5!L L 670.000 670. or required chlorine dosage changes.105!L!×1.93 g kg = 3!tbsp g 0.780 L X =! = = 0.5!mg/L 20!L 4. size of mixing jug.035!kg ∗ 1000 Rearrange and solve: X= mg ∗ 20!L 50 L mg = 4.8 g/ml Equation for calculating the concentration of dosage (2.8 g/cm3 = 0.000 mg/kg hypochlorite per mass • Density of hypochlorite: 0.5 Volume!of!Chloride!Solution!to!use! = !0.WATER TREATMENT Detailed Chlorine Dilution calculations If characteristics of hypochlorite powder.000 4.1!tsp Amount!of!Chloride!Solution!to!add! = !2!teaspoons .79!mL/tbsp mL Powder!to!add! = !3!tablespoons ml tsp ml L = 2.035!kg mg 670.756 L 2.035!kg Conversion to tablespoons: 0.000 kg 4.756 mg hypochlorite/L) Given that • Powder 670. the new amount of chlorine to be used can be calculated by substituting the new value into the below equations.756 = 0.8 ∗ 14.