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Original Title: 120498_lecture32

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- Bias

You are on page 1of 10

1. need to consider DC level ... sets VBIAS

2. junk pickup (antenna) on possibly long interconnection -->

appears at the amplifier input

VDD

iSUP

vjunk

R

VBIAS

vO

- +

R(P)

R(P) = R + R where R P

another example: a temperature-sensitive resistor = thermistor

Lecture 32

Use Wheatstone bridge: voltage on one side goes up with pressure; voltage on

the other side goes down

R +(P) = R + R and R -(P) = R + R

Use a differential amplifier as the input stage

VDD

RD

R-(P)

R+(P)

- +

R+(P)

R-(P)

RD

+ vo _

vjunk

- +

vjunk

IBIAS

R + R

R R

v ID = V DD -------------------------------------- + v junk V DD ----------------------------------------- + v junk

R R + R R

R + R + R R

R

2R

v id = V DD ----------- = V DD -------

R

2R

Note that vjunk is common to both inputs and is rejected by the CMRR of the

amplifier

Lecture 32

Simple approach: take the output from one side

V+

RC

RC

+

vo

Q1

vi 1

Q2

IBIAS

vi 2

rob

gm RC

vo

1

------- = --- ( g m R C ) = -------------2

v

2

id

Lecture 32

V+

IBIAS

IBIAS

M1

vi1

+

vo1

+

vo2

M2

vi 2

IBIAS

Drawbacks:

Bias stability is not possible without a feedback circuit

Taking the output from one side still reduces the gain by 50%

Lecture 32

transistor), this amplifier has a stable bias

V+

IBIAS

2

+gmvgs1

M3

vi1

M1

vgs1

iD 2 =

I

iD1 = BIAS +gmvgs1

2

+

IBIAS

M4

IBIAS

M2

IBIAS

vgs 2

+ gmvgs1

+ gmvgs2

+

vo

+

+

vi 2

rob

VOUT = V+ - VSG3

so that the amplifier is balanced and the output is a small-signal short-circuit

Note that this amplifier is not symmetrical and that half circuits do not apply

Lecture 32

I BIAS

i D1 = I D1 + g m1 v gs1 = ------------- + g m v gs1

2

I BIAS

i D2 = I D2 + g m2 v gs2 = ------------- + g m v gs2

2

Current mirror forces the drain current -iD4 = -iD3 = iD1

Kirchhoffs current law at the output states that

i O = i D2 ( i D4 ) = i D2 i D1

I BIAS

I BIAS

i O = ------------- + g m v gs2 ------------- + g m v gs1 = g m ( v gs2 v gs1 )

2

2

Kirchhoffs voltage law at the input states that vgs2 - vgs1 = vi2 - vi1 = -vid

i o = g m ( v id ) -->

io

G md = ------- = g m

v id

Lecture 32

to the entire amplifier

ro3

gm3vsg3

vsg3

vsg4

io3

io4

io1

io2

+

vgs1

ro4

gm4vsg4

it

+

vt

+

gm1vgs1

ro1

ro2

gm2vgs2

vx

vgs2

rob

R od = r o2 r o4

Lecture 32

Current-Mirror Supply

The output port is referenced to ground, in contrast to the earlier model of the

symmetrical amplifier with vo = vod

Rod

+

vd

+

Gmdvd

Rod

vd

avdvd

(a)

(b)

Lecture 32

The range of DC common-mode inputs over which the differential amplifier can

function is an important practical specification (see op amp spec. sheets)

V+

RC

RC

VIC

+

V

+ IN

+

VO1

+

VO2

VX

+

VIN +

VIC

IBIAS

3

V

devices 1 and 2 leave their constant-current regions

Lower limit to VIC

bias current device 3 leaves its constant-current region

Lecture 32

VO1 = V+ - (IBIAS/2)RC

Q1 enters saturation when VBC1 = VBE1 - VCE(sat)1 = 0.7 V - 0.1 V = 0.6 V

I BIAS

+

V IC(max) = V O1 + 0.6 V = V ------------- R C + 0.6 V

2

VX = VIC - VBE1 = VIC - 0.7 V

Q3 enters saturation when VX - V - = VCE(sat)3 = 0.1 V

Lecture 32

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