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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 31, Issue 2, August 2015 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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1

**System Model of TH-UWB Using LDPC Code
**

Implementation

M. Marjanović-Jakovljević

Abstract— A Low-Density Parity- Check (LDPC) code is an error-correcting code in a noisy-channel transmission that closely

approaches the Shannon limit, also called channel capacity. Time Hopping-Ultra Wideband (TH-UWB) is a relatively new

technology that might have a huge impact on improving wireless communications. Since that current TH-UWB systems apply

convolutional codes as their channel coding scheme, it is very usefull to investigate LDPC codes performance for those

systems. This paper presents a mathematical model in order to simulate TH-UWB systems with LDPC code implementation.

Using this implementation, it is shown that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in the real multipath channel environment, the

-3

difference between LDPC coded and non-coded system is negligible, but for BER=10 , the gain of the coded system compared

to the non-coded system is approximately 4 dB. Owing to this implementation, in this accurate and flexible system model, BER

performance of a TH-UWB System in different scenarios is presented and good performance in terms of BER versus SNR is

achieved. An additional result is the validation of the simulated results with performance formula for TH-UWB systems when

LDPC is implemented.

Index Terms— TH-UWB, LDPC codes, Multiuser interference (MUI), BER, Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN).

—————————— u ——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

TH-UWB technology, introduced in [1], [2] and [3], presents some very attractive features for future indoor wireless systems in terms of achievable transmission rate and

multiple access capabilities. Thus, it is very important and

useful to continuously work on performance improvement of those systems.

TH-UWB systems, as any other system, deal with the

problems with signal transmission over a noisy communication channel. The job of the encoder and decoder is to

transmit information about the source across the noisy

channel. Numerous studies have attempted to obtain the

minimum channel capacity, needed to almost surely asymptotically observe and stabilize the system [4].

In [5] it is demonstrated that coding techniques for noisy

channels have near optimal performance in wireless systems. Therefore, a comprehensive description of the coding techniques, including convolution, trellis, concatenated, turbo and LDPC codes is given.

The Noisy Channel Coding Theorem is discovered by C.

E. Shannon [6] in order to reduce error rate on noisy

channels to negligible levels without affecting the data

rates. In order to reach BER performance close to the

Shannon limit, in [7] the low density parity check codes

were developed by Robert Gallegar.

Current TH-UWB systems apply convolution codes as

their channel coding scheme. Thus, it is very usefull to

investigate LDPC codes performance for TH-UWB.

Based on this accurate and flexible model, a description

on how to simulate system in a multipath environment

————————————————

• M. Marjanović-Jakovljević is Associate Professor at Singidunum Universitz, Belgrade, Serbia.

**through employing RAKE receiver [5] is presented. Additionally, the TH-UWB system model with LDPC code
**

implementation is described and the influence of LDPC

codes on TH-UWB system performance is presented. The

impact of different factors on TH-UWB system performance over AWGN channel is shown.

Section II describes the system and signal model used

for the purposes of this paper. Sections III and IV elaborate on the implementation of LDPC coding and decoding

schemes into this system model. In Section V, the theoretical value of Error Probability of LDPC decoding in

AWGN is calculated. Section VI depicts simulation results, whereas Sections VII offers conclusions from present work.

**2 SYSTEM AND MODEL
**

2.1 Signal Model

Bit structure of the TH-UWB System for the kth user is

shown in Figure 1. The total number of bits is Nb. Each bit

is subdivided into Nf frames, and each frame is subdivided into Nh chips.

th

Signal transmitted through the k link can be presented

as follows:

s (k ) (t ) =

∞

∑ w (t − d ( )λ − jT

tr

k

j

f

− c (jk )Tc

)

(1)

j = −∞

**where wtr represents the transmitted waveform. In [8],
**

some possible waveforms have been proposed. In this

work, we select the pulse shaper to be the second derivative of the Gaussian function that has been normalized to

have unit energy. In order to normalize its energy, we

consider that

2

( j +1)T f

∫

( j +1)T f

wtr2

∫ (

wtr2

(t )dt =

jT f

wrec (t ) = wtr (t ) * hdist (t )

)

t − d (jk )λ − jT f − c (jk )Tc dt = 1 (2)

jT f

**where d (jk ) represents a sequence of time-shifts in a PPM
**

modulation [9].

c (k ) ∈ {0,1,..., N }is the orthogonal sequence, where N

{ }

j

h −1

h

**is the integer number that denotes the position within the
**

frame where the monocycle should be transmitted in order to mitigate the Multi User Interference (MUI) as described in [10]. For the purposes of this paper, we use

pseudorandom TH codes.

(5)

For the sake of simplicity, we consider the perfect channel and signal estimation and the perfect synchronization.

For the same reason, this analyze will be limited on observing the only one symbol transmission. In order to

simulate a UWB system assuming that channel is not perfectly synchronized, synchronization might be achieved,

i.e. as in [11] or [12].

2.3 Receiver

In order to collect multipath energy and to recover the

information, as a general case of receiver, in this simulator, we describe this simulator model using selective

RAKE receiver as it is proposed in [13]. This receiver

gives the correlation between the received signal r(t) and

template signal that should be previously synchronized.

The statistics for the ith frame on the qth receiver is given as

follows:

( i +1)T f + ci( q )Tc

α i (t ) =

∫ r (t ) ⋅ v

( q)

(t − iT f − ci( q ) Tc )dt (6)

iT f + ci( q )Tc

**where v ( q ) (t ) represents the template signal described as
**

follows:

v ( q ) (t ) =

Lma x

∑ β φ (t −τ )

( q)

m

( q)

m

(7)

m =0

Figure 1. Bit structure of TH-UWB Symbol for the kth user

2.2 Channel Model

The transmitted signal of the kth user through the multipath channel has the following structure:

Nu

r (t ) =

∑s

(k )

(t ) * h ( k ) (t ) + n(t )

(3)

k =1

**where * denotes the convolution between transmitted
**

signal s(k)(t) and normalized channel response h(k)(t).

n(t) represents the AWGN with mean zero and a dou-

**The signal φ (t) depends on the type of the modulation
**

employed. Since we apply the binary PPM, this signal

might be defined as:

φ (t ) = wrec (t ) − wrec (t − λ )

(8)

Lmax represents the number of RAKE fingers with the amplitudes β m(q) and the corresponding finger duration

τ m(q ) . Once the frame statistics has been calculated, a bit

decision should be taken. Supposing that wtr (t ) and

wtr (t − λ ) are orthogonal, soft decision [14] is obtained as

**ble-sided power spectral density σ n2 / 2 .
**

Considering that multipath channel is parameterized as

a combination of L paths, each characterized by delay

decision = ⎧⎨0, ∀α ≥ 0,

⎩1, ∀α < 0

{τ l(k ) } and amplitude {β l(k ) }, signal from (3) can be writ-

where the bit statistic for soft decision is presented as

ten as

⎡ N u

r (t ) = ⎢

⎢⎣ k =1

L

∞

β l( k ) wrec (t

l =1 j = −∞

∑∑ ∑

]

− c (jk ) Tc − τ l( k ) + n (t )

Nf

α=

− d (jk ) λ

− jT f −

(9)

∑α

i

(10)

i =1

(4)

th

**where wrec (t) represents the received pulse of the k user
**

after the multipath propagation. Received pulse can be

presented as a convolution between the transmitted monocycle and the distorted channel response hdist (t) as

**3 PROPOSED MODEL FOR LDPC CODE
**

IMPLEMENTATION

This chapter addresses the issue of robust and progressive transmission of TH-UWB signals encoded with

LDPC codes over noisy channels. It demonstrates that this

3

coding technique has near optimal performance in wireless systems close to the Shannon limit [6]. In LDPC encoding, a form of parity-checking is used, where extra bits

are added to the transmission. In this way, the decoder in

receiver enforces the constraint check for each received

bit.

LDPC are codes that are specified by a matrix that contains mostly 0’s with few 1’s. LDPC codes use paritycheck sparse matrix H with dimensions MXN. Matrix H

can be either regular, meaning that there is a specific

number of 1’s per row or per column, or irregular, where

there is no constraint on the number of 1’s.

**In this paper, we are going to use irregular matrix H, which
**

means there is no specific number of 1’s per row and column. The sparseness of matrix H means that there is a very

low number of 1’s in H compared to its total size. Figure 2

presents a block diagram of the system for the kth user. The

matrix H is used to encode a message of codeword d(k ) . The

columns in H correspond to the bits of the transmitted message, and the rows of matrix H correspond to the parity

checks of the codeword. When LDPC are used, the coder

would first take binary sequence and map our transmitted

sequence into a redundant sequence, i.e. codeword.

In this work, we use binary PPM and the vector

{

d ( k ) = d 1 , d 2 ,… , d N b −1

}

contains information on infor-

**mation bits. If di=0, transmitted bit is si=0, while when di=1,
**

transmitted bit is si=1, where i ∈ {1,2,..., N b }.

**Figure 2. Block diagram of the proposed System model for the kth
**

user

**As an example, in Figure 3, Tanner graph is presented with
**

its corresponding matrix, where the number of bits is Nb =7.

In general, this paper defines the rate R of the LDPC as a

ratio of the length of the information sequence to the length

of the codeword. Since, we are transmitting a sequence with

N b bits, there are 2 N b possible sequences from the source

that are mapped into n length codeword. Therefore, a fraction 2 − n (1− R ) of the 2 n different n length sequences can be

used as codewords.

Figure 3. LDPC Matrix with its corresponding Tanner graph

**The parity-check matrix is used to encode an imput message
**

d. A valid codeword will satisfy Hd=0, where H is MXNb

dimension matrix. M = n(1-R), represents the number of

check bits.

For instance, when a codeword d = {1011} is received, each

check bit performs the binary XOR operation with the

corresponding bit in d (k ) . If all check nodes generate 0, the

4

**codeword is correct. In case of the example shown in the
**

Figure 3., we obtain the following equations:

C1(k ) = d1(k ) + d 2(k ) + d 4(k ) = 1 ⊕ 1 ⊕ 1 = 1

(11)

C2(k )

(12)

=

d 2(k )

+ d 3(k )

+ d 5(k )

= 1⊕ 0 ⊕ 0 = 1

C3(k ) = d1(k ) + d 2(k ) + d 3(k ) + d 4(k ) + d6(k )

(13)

C3(k ) = 1 ⊕ 1 ⊕ 0 ⊕ 1 ⊕ 1 = 0

(14)

C4(k ) = d 5(k ) + d 6(k ) + d 7(k ) = 1 ⊕ 1 ⊕ 1 = 1

(15)

**4 LDPC PARITY CHECK DECODING
**

In the receiver, the decoder contains knowledge on which

sequences are considered as codewords. Therefore, the receiver is capable of separating the transmitted n length

codeword from the channel noise. As a result, the codeword

is mapped back into the Nb information bits. Numerous decoding schemes were used to decode the codeword. In this

paper, we have used LDPC decoding based on the BitFlipping decoding algorithm [7]. This decoding scheme

takes an intermediate decision and operates with the a posteriori probabilities of the input symbols.

In case shown in Figure 4, we assume that the codeword is

T

T

α (k ) ={1111} . Compared to d (k ) ={1011} , which is assumed as a correct codeword, we can see that error is located

in the second bit of the received codeword α (k ) .

d)

Steps from a), b) and c) until all parity

checks are zero should be repeated.

**5 BER PERFORMANCE OF LDPC CODES IN
**

AWGN CHANNEL

In (19), a theoretical analysis of the performance of a THUWB systems under certain restrictions is presented,

based on the one presented in [17].

In order to validate our approach, we made comparison

between simulated results and the theoretical response. If

we consider Nu independent users, the MUI can be modeled as Gaussian and the BER for soft decision can be expressed as (18).

**We have assumed likelihood receiver which output is given
**

by (since one of two waveforms is transmitted):

[

Pr [s

]

= 1 r (t ) ]

Pr s ( k ) = 0 r (t )

α j = ln

(k )

(16)

**In the block diagram in Figure 2, decision block is located
**

after LDPC decoder. This is because if the output is

converted into binary digit prior to attempting to the block

the data, some information about transmitted sequence

might be destroyed.

If one of the two waveforms is transmitted every T seconds,

these signals appear in the receiver with equal energy.

T

Ec =

∫

T

x 02 (t )dt = x12 (t )dt

(17)

∫

0

0

Let n(t) be a sample of white Gaussian noise of power density σ n2 = N 0 . Then, the probability of error on the input is

[

BER = Q SNR ( N u )

]

(18)

where

+∞

(N f

SNR ( N u ) =

Received codeword is α (k ) ={1011}T.

b)

For each variable node, the nonzero parity

check sums are counted.

c)

The bit of variable node having the largest

number of nonzero parity check sums is flipped.

Nu

σ n2 =

2

(19)

∑( N

+∞

f

/ T f ) [ wrec (t − s )φ (t )dt ]2 ds

k =2

Figure 4. Bit flipping algorithm

a)

rec (t )φ ( t )dt )

−∞

σ n2 +

The steps are the following:

∫w

∫

−∞

4 E c (1 − ρ ) 4 RE(1 − ρ )

;

=

N0

N0

(20)

and

ρ=

1

Ec

T

∫

0

x 0 (t ) x1 (t )dt =

1

RE

T

∫ x (t ) x (t )dt

0

0

1

(21)

5

**E is available energy per information digit. In [7] it is
**

1

shown that the rate R =

has the best performance com2

pared to other rates due to time duration of block length and

we have used this value for the purpose of this paper.

information symbols per second. BER curve for the system that is not coded is presented with the solid line, and

the corresponding BER curve of the coded system (for the

same number of users) is presented with the same color

dashed line. It is shown that for BER=10-3, for the same

number of users, the gain of the coded system compared

to the non-coded system is approximately 4 dB.

7 SIMULATION RESULTS

10

0

10

BER

-2

10

-4

10

-6

10

-8

**Theoretical curve for non-coded system
**

Theoretical curve when LDPC is implemented

Simulated curve for non-coded system

Simulated curve when LDPC is implemented

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

SNR[dB]

14

16

18

Figure 5. Comparison between the simulated response and the theoretical expression (based on formula (18)) for a PPM-TH-UWB system for LDPC coded and non-coded system in the multipath channel

environment. fs=25e9;tc=1ns;Tf=20ns;Nf=4; Nh=4; Ec=1;R=0.5;

10

0

10

-2

BER

10

-4

10

-6

10

-8

10

-10

Tf=20n

Tf=40n

s

Tf=60n

s

Tf=80n

s

s 2

0

4

6

8

10

12

SNR[dB]

14

16

18

Figure 6. Duration of frame influence on BER performance employing Single User Receiver; multipath channel; fs=25e9;tc=1ns; Nf=4;

Nh=4;R=0.5;

-1

10

**Second Derivative of the Gaussian Monocycle
**

Rayleigh Monocycle

Cubic Monocycle

BER

**Since an accurate and flexible simulation model is obtained, this chapter analyzes the influence of different
**

factors (number of users, number of chips, waveform designs, frame duration, LDPC coding influence). Simulation results are obtained using MATLAB Monte Carlo

simulations [15].

In Figure 5, it can be seen how theoretical value describes

exactly the behavior of the simulated response. It is

shown that for low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in the

presence of reach multipath environment, the difference

between LDPC coded and non-coded system is negligible,

but for

BER=10-3, the gain of the coded system compared to the

non-coded system is approximately 4 dB. Unfortunately,

the development of a software simulator for UWB has

several difficulties derived from the extremely large sampling rate necessary to process these UWB signals. Since

the length of the array that contains the samples of a single bit can be very large. Therefore, in a real channel multipath environment, in order to achieve low BER, a long

time simulation process is required.

In Figure 6, it is shown how BER performance decreases

as duration of frame increases.

Since, the real TH-UWB channel has large number of multipath components and considering several users, the

necessary computational requirements to evaluate produce high simulation time, especially for low BERs.

Therefore, for the rest of result, we are going to present

simulation curves taking into account AWGN channel.

In Figure 7, monocycle shape influence on BER performance employing Single User Receiver is shown. It is

demonstrated that under the same scenario, the type of

the monocycle does not have a considerable impact on the

system performance. Anyway, for the rest of the results,

we have decided to use the Second Derivative of the

Gaussian Monocycle.

In Figure 8, number of chips influence on BER performance employing Single User Receiver where Nu=64,

Nf=64, fs=200/Tc is presented. The results are expected,

since when the number of chips gets bigger, the performance becomes better. As we have already mentioned in I

section, Nh is the integer number denoting the position

within the frame where the monocycle should be transmitted in order to mitigate the Multi User Interference

(MUI). Since this number is bigger, the MUI is lower and

BER performance is better.

In Figure 9, we have shown the LDPC influence on BER

performance for different number of users. We have con1

sidered two systems, one coded at rate

and other one

2

that is not coded, both transmitting the same

number of

-2

10

-3

10

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

SNR

**Figure 7. Monocycle Shape Influence on BER performance employing Single User Receiver; AWGN channel; Nu=64, Nh=64, Nf=8,
**

fs=200/Tc; Ec=1;

6

**(the number of users, waveform design, time-hopping
**

codes, channel models, multiuser receivers [19]-[22]) and

achieve a low BER in a real time application even in the

presence of reach multipath environment.

0

10

-1

10

-2

BER

10

REFERENCES

-3

10

Nh=2

Nh=16

Nh=32

Nh=64

-4

10

-5

10

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

SNR

**Figure 8. Number of Chips Influence on BER performance employing
**

Single User Receiver; Second Derivative of the Gaussian

Monopulse; AWGN channel; Nu=64, Nf=64, fs=200/Tc;

**Figure 9. Low Density Parity Codes influence on BER performance
**

for different Number of users, employing Single User Receiver; Second Derivative of the Gaussian Monopulse; AWGN channel with

σ 2 = 1; Nf=4, Nh=64, Tc=1ns, fs=250/Tc, R=1/2;

7 CONCLUSION

presents an encoder-decoder design solution, for practical

LDPC coding TH-UWB system implementation.

Computer simulations have shown that the LDPC codes

have significant error-correcting performance in those

systems. We believe that the simulation model of THUWB systems with LDPC design approach will give

communication system designers a unique opportunity to

explore attractive features of TH-UWB Systems in many

real-life applications.

Since the simulation of TH-UWB systems in the multipath

environment requires large sampling rates, our future

work shall mostly be directed towards reducing the simulation time by considering LDPC codes implementation in

Low Complexity Simulation Algorithm described in [16]

and presenting BER performance of TH-UWB systems

using the real channel model from [17] or [18].

With this low complexity simulation model; we

might analyze the performance of the TH-UWB system

and the impact of different factors of TH-UWB systems

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in UWB Systems,” ICUWB 2006, IEEE International Conference on

Ultra-Wideband, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA, September, 2006.

[20] E. Fishler and H. V. Poor, “Low-Complexity Multi-User Detectors for Time Hopping Impulse Radio Systems,” submitted for publication at the IEEE Trans. On Signal Processing

[21] S. Verdu, “Multiuser Detection,” Cambridge University Press,

1998.

[22] M. Marjanovic, J. M. Páez Borrallo, “A Low Complexity Simulation Algorithm for TH-UWB MMSE RAKE Receiver,” ISSPIT 2006,

The 6th IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, Vancouver, Canada, August, 2006.

7

**M. Marjanović Jakovljević received the Electrical Engineer degree
**

from Belgrade University, Serbia, in 2002. In 2007. She received

Ph.D. degree in Telecommunications at the Signal Processing Group

of the Polytechnic University de Madrid (UPM). She has been

awarded a Telefonica Moviles Fellowship to the best academic

trajectory. She is currently working as an Associate Professor in the

department of the Computer Engineering at the Singidunum

University in Belgrade. Her research interests include Information

Retreival Systems, UWB systems, ad hoc networks, and wireless

communications.

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