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TLIA2607C

Monitor storage
facilities
Learner Guide
Contents
What this Learner’s Guide is about ........................................ 1
Plan your learning .................................................................. 2
How will you be assessed? .................................................... 5

Section 1 Determining your storage site functions and operations7


What factors determine the layout of a storage facility? ........ 9
What influences storage facility workflow?........................... 11
What activities go on in a storage facility? ........................... 13
What storage types are used in your facility? ...................... 15
How do you identify the purpose of a storage facility?......... 20
What are the risks related to storage facilities? ................... 23
How are inventory lists accessed what types of lists are
available? ............................................................................. 25
What are storage separations and co-storage applications?28

Section 2 Monitoring your storage operations ......................... 31


Why do I need to match inventory data with freight and
available storage? ................................................................ 33
Addressing changes to storage requirements and inventory
lists? ..................................................................................... 39
What is the response to breaches of procedures or to an
emergency or incident?........................................................ 41
Why should outcomes of operational actions and investigations
be documented? .................................................................. 43

Additional resources....................................................................... 45

Feedback on activities .................................................................... 49


TLIA2607C Monitor storage facilities

What this Learner’s Guide is about

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  about  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  
monitor  storage  facilities  in  accordance  with  workplace  requirements  
including  determining  site  functions  and  operations,  monitoring  
storage  operations  in  accordance  with  workplace  procedures,  and  
taking  appropriate  action  in  response  to  identified  discrepancies,  
changes  to  storage  requirements,  or  breaches  in  operational  
procedures.  

The  unit  of  competency  TLIA2607C  Monitor  storage  facilities  is  from  
the  Transport  and  Logistics  Training  Package  (TLI07).  It  has  a  number  
of  elements  of  competency  that  are  covered  in  this  guide.  These  are:  
• Determine  site  functions  and  operations.  
• Monitor  storage  operations.  

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Plan your learning

It  is  important  to  plan  your  learning  before  you  start  because  you  may  
already  have  some  of  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  are  covered  in  this  
Learner’s  Guide.  This  might  be  because:  
• you  have  been  working  in  the  industry  for  some  time,  
and/or  
• you  have  already  completed  training  in  this  area.  

Together  with  your  supervisor  or  trainer,  use  the  checklist  on  the  
following  pages  to  help  you  plan  your  study  program.  Your  answers  to  
the  questions  in  the  checklist  will  help  you  work  out  which  sections  of  
this  Learner’s  Guide  you  need  to  complete.  

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  written  with  the  idea  that  learning  is  made  
more  relevant  when  you,  the  learner,  are  actually  working  in  the  
industry.  This  means  that  you  will  have  people  within  your  enterprise  
that  can  show  you  things,  discuss  how  things  are  done  and  answer  any  
questions  you  have.  Also  you  can  practise  what  you  learn  and  see  how  
what  you  learn  is  applied  in  the  enterprise.  

If  you  are  working  through  this  Learner’s  Guide  and  have  not  yet  found  
a  job  in  the  industry,  you  will  need  to  talk  to  your  trainer  about  doing  
work  experience  or  working  and  learning  in  some  sort  of  simulated  
workplace.  

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Section 1: Determine your storage site functions


and operations

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. Identify  in  each  work  zone,  the  storage  
facility  layout,  workflow  and  activities  
taking  place?        
2. Identify  the  type  of  storage  facilities  in  use  
and  any  related  risk  factors?        
3. Access  inventory  lists  through  the  record  
management  system?        
4. Identify  storage  separations  and  co-­‐
storage  applications?        

Section 2: Monitor your storage operations

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. Confirm  that  your  inventory  data  matches  
the  freight  held  in  storage  and  that  there  
is  sufficient  storage  facilities  available?        
2. Supervise  storage  areas  to  ensure  the  
movement  of  personnel,  goods  and  freight  
is  conducted  in  accordance  with  workplace  
procedures?        
3. Check  storage  facilities  to  ensure  that  you  
have  sufficient  operational  capacity?        
4. Monitor  the  integrity  of  goods  and  
materials  to  ensure  the  appropriate  quality  
is  maintained?        
5. Note  discrepancies  and  changes  to  storage  
requirements  and  inventory  lists  and  
undertake  action  in  accordance  with  
workplace  procedures?        
6. Initiate  appropriate  action  in  response  to  
breaches  of  operational  procedures  or  
other  emergencies  and  incidents?        

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7. Investigate  operational  outcomes  and  


document  outcomes  in  accordance  with  
workplace  procedures?        

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How will you be assessed?

Assessment  of  this  unit  of  competency  will  include  observation  of  real  
or  simulated  work  processes  using  workplace  procedures  and  
questioning  on  underpinning  knowledge  and  skills.  It  must  be  
demonstrated  in  an  actual  or  simulated  work  situation  under  
supervision.  

You  will  be  required  to  demonstrate  that  you  can:  


• identify  storage  facility  layout  and  activities  
• identify  storage  facility  types  and  related  risks  
• access  the  record  maintenance  system  for  inventory  lists  
• identify  storage  separations  and  co-­‐storage  applications  
• match  inventory  data  with  freight  held  in  storage  and  with  
available  storage  facilities  
• supervise  storage  areas  to  ensure  the  movement  of  
personnel,  goods  and  freight  is  conducted  in  accordance  
with  workplace  procedures  
• check  storage  facilities  to  ensure  that  you  have  sufficient  
operational  storage  capacity  
• monitor  the  integrity  of  goods  and  materials  to  maintain  
quality  
• take  action,  in  accordance  with  workplace  procedures,  
when  discrepancies  or  changes  to  storage  requirements  
and  inventory  lists  occur  
• take  appropriate  action  in  response  to  breaches  of  
operational  procedures  or  emergency  incidents  
• document  outcomes  of  operational  actions  and  
investigations.  

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Section 1 Determining
your storage site
functions and
operations

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Section outline
Areas  covered  in  this  section  are:  
• storage  facility  layout  and  activities  
• storage  facility  types  and  risk  factors  
• record  management  systems  
• storage  separations  and  co-­‐storage  applications.  

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What factors determine the layout of a storage


facility?

Storage  facility  layout  depends  on  a  combination  of  factors.  You  


should  become  familiar  with  your  operation  and  consider  what  factors  
determined  the  layout  of  your  facility.  

The  layout  of  a  storage  facility  is  dependent  on:    


• the  types  of  goods  and  materials  to  be  stored  
• the  type  of  storage  required  
• the  handling  requirements  of  goods  and  materials  in  
storage  
• the  packaging  requirements  of  goods  and  materials  in  
storage.  

The  types  of  goods  and  materials  that  require  storage  can  be  grouped  
as  follows:  
• temperature  controlled  goods  
• non-­‐refrigerated  goods  
• refrigerated  goods  
• fragile  goods  
• perishable  goods  
• overseas  export  goods  
• dangerous  materials  
• hazardous  materials.  

There  are  a  variety  of  storage  types  and  devices  available  and  they  
include:  
• bins  and  binning  systems  
• rack  refrigeration,  freezers  and  cold  rooms  
• marked  floor  space  storage  
• containers  
• racks  and  racking  systems  
• blocks  and  stacks  
• pallets.  

The  key  to  efficient  storage  layout  comes  from  good  design  and  
workflow  processes.  

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Activity 1: Storage facility layout

Walk  around  your  storage  facilities  and  note  the  types  of  groups  that  
stored  materials  fall  into.  Consider  any  special  requirements  or  
restrictions  involved  with  their  storage.  

List  the  types  of  goods  and  materials  stored  in  your  facilities.  

Select  from  the  list  below  the  type(s)  of  storage  used.  

Bins            Racks         

Refrigeration          Blocks  and  stacks       

Marked  floor  space        Pallets         

Containers       

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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What influences storage facility workflow?

Storage  facility  workflow  can  be  influenced  by:  


• regulations  and  workplace  requirements  
• goods  and  materials  types  
• warehouse  setup,  distribution  and  storage  space  
• work  environment  
• site  restrictions.  

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Activity 2: Storage facility workflow

What  factors  influence  the  workflow  in  you  storage  facility?  

Draw  a  diagram  of  your  storage  facility  showing  its  layout.  Show  all  
relevant  storage  and  equipment  and  outline  the  workflow  for  storing,  
receiving  and  distributing  goods.  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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What activities go on in a storage facility?

Storage  facility  activities  can  be  listed  as  follows:  


• lifting  and  handling  goods  and  materials  
• handling  incidents,  accidents  and  breakdowns  
• movement  of  equipment,  goods,  materials  and  vehicle  
traffic  
• keeping  and  maintaining  inventories  
• communication  in  the  work  area.  

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Activity 3: Storage facility activities

Storage  facility  activities  can  be  grouped  into:  


• materials  movement  
• dealing  with  incidents,  accidents  and  breakdowns  
• creating  and  updating  inventories  
• communications  in  the  work  area.  

What  are  the  activities  that  you  are  involved  with  at  your  storage  
facility?  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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What storage types are used in your facility?

The  types  of  storage  that  are  in  common  use  include:  
• bins  and  binning  systems  
• rack  refrigeration,  freezers  and  cold  rooms  
• marked  floor  space  
• containers  
• racks  and  racking  systems  
• blocks  and  stacks  
• pallets.  

Figure  1:  Storage  bins  

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Figure  2:  Cool  storage  

Figure  3:  Freezer  storage  

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Figure  4:  Container  storage  

Figure  5:  Rack  storage  

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Figure  6:  Pallet  storage  

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Activity 4: Storage facility types

Inspect  your  work  area  and  list  the  storage  setups  you  have  identified.  

Is  your  storage  facility  of  a  single  type  or  does  it  handle  multiple  
storage  types?  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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How do you identify the purpose of a storage


facility?

The  purpose  of  your  storage  facility  will  be  determined  by  the  
following  factors:  
• physical  storage  types  
• groups  and  categories  of  goods  and  materials  
• characteristics  of  goods  and  materials.  

The  details  of  each  factor  are  listed  below.  The  physical  storage  types  
used  will  be  dependent  on  the  categories  and  characteristics  of  the  
goods  and  materials  that  require  storage.  

Physical  storage  types  include:  


• bins  
• racks  
• floor  space  
• stacks  
• pallets.  

Goods  and  material  categories  include:  


• small  parts  
• perishable  goods  
• dangerous  goods  
• hazardous  goods  
• fragile  goods  
• refrigerated  stock  
• temperature  controlled  stock.  

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Goods  and  material  characteristics  include:  


• toxicity  
• flammability  
• form  
• weight  
• size  
• product  state,  solid,  liquid  or  gas  
• perishability  
• fragility  
• security  risk.  

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Activity 5: Purposes of storage types

In  your  work  area  what  are  the  storage  types  in  use  and  what  purpose  
do  they  serve.  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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What are the risks related to storage facilities?

Risks  related  to  storage  facilities  vary  and  depend  on  the  types  of  
goods  and  materials  stored.  Risks  fall  into  three  groups;  those  related  
to:  
• the  content  of  the  goods  and  materials  stored  in  the  
facility  
− hazardous  materials  
− dangerous  materials  
• the  work  environment  
− contamination  of,  or  from  materials  being  handled  
− noise  light  and  energy  sources  
− stationary  and  moving  machinery,  parts  or  components  
− faulty  equipment  
− service  lines  
− spills,  leakages  and  ruptures  of    goods  and  materials  
− dust  and  vapours  
− oil  or  water  on  the  floor  
− fire  or  explosion  
− debris  on  the  floor  
• the  physical  storage  of  goods  and  materials  
− damaged  packaging  or  pallets  
− faulty  racking  
− poorly  stacked  pallets.  

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Activity 6: Risks related to storage

Look  around  your  work  area  and  determine  what  risks,  there  may  be  
for  the  storage  of  goods  and  materials.  Speak  to  work  mates  and  your  
supervisor  about  the  risk  issue  and  find  out  what  practices  are  in  place  
to  reduce  the  risks  in  your  work  area  to  make  it  safe.  

Make  a  list  of  the  risks  you  have  identified  and  discuss  them  with  your  
supervisor.  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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How are inventory lists accessed what types of


lists are available?

Inventory  lists  are  used  to  track  the  stock  levels  of  goods  and  
materials.  Your  organisations  inventory  lists  will  be  accessed  through  
the  record  management  system.  The  process  of  accessing  inventory  
lists  depends  on  the  system  in  operation.  

 
Figure  7:  Computerised  data  entry  for  an  inventory  list  
 

 
Figure  8:  Computerised  inventory  list  

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Inventory  lists  can  be:    


• automated  -­‐  goods  brought  into  and  out  of  the  storage  
facility  would  be  scanned  and  inventory  records  updated  
automatically  
• manual  -­‐  similar  to  the  automated  system,  except  a  stores  
person  will  record  goods  brought  into  or  out  of  the  
storage  facility  and  update  inventory  records  
• paper-­‐based  -­‐  same  as  the  manual  system,  however  
records  would  be  updated  on  a  ledger  or  card  index  
system  
• computerised  –  this  would  involve  the  use  of  a  database  
system  which  would  track  the  movement  of  goods  and  
materials  and  update  stock  levels  with  information  being  
entered  manually  or  by  the  use  of  scanners  
• microfiche  type  –  lists  would  be  printed  on  film  and  viewed  
with  a  microfiche  machine,  however  there  is  no  way  to  
quickly  update  these  records.  

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Activity 7: Inventory lists

In  your  organisation  what  system  of  record  management  is  in  use?  

List  five  inventory  list  systems.  

Which  inventory  list  cannot  be  readily  updated?  

a)  automated  

b)  manual  

c)  paper-­‐based  

d)  computerised  

e)  microfiche  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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What are storage separations and co-storage


applications?

How  products  are  stored  together  or  separately  within  a  single  storage  
facility  depends  on  a  number  of  factors  including  material  
characteristics  and  compatibility  with  other  products.  State  
Government  Regulations  recognising  dangerous  goods  classes,  
packaging  groups  and  other  key  characteristics  of  the  product,  will  
determine  how  products  will  be  stored.  

Co-­‐storage  of  goods  allows  you  to  store  products  together  in  shared  
storage  facilities.  You  should  consult  your  workplace  procedures  and  
any  relevant  polices,  regulations  and  rules  for  the  correct  goods  
associations  that  can  be  made.  

As  an  example,  storing  fruit  and  vegetables  together  causes  problems  


which  are  not  easy  to  sort  out.  To  use  mixed  storage  for  short  periods,  
you  need  to  understand:  
• temperature  needs  
• danger  to  tainting  
• Ethylene  (chemical  hormone  for  ripening  fruits)  sensitivity  
of  products  being  stored  to  avoid  incompatibilities.  

The  storage  of  different  food  stuffs  in  one  room  is  often  unavoidable  
in  retail  markets.  Unfortunately,  when  different  types  of  fruit  and  
vegetables  are  stored  together  at  the  same  temperature,  one  
foodstuff  is  often  tainted  by  odours  given  off  by  another.  A  second  
important  problem  is  that  the  optimum  storage  temperatures  and  
relative  humidities  for  different  produce  vary  widely.  

If  mixed  storage  cannot  be  avoided,  use  it  only  for  short  periods  (a  few  
days  to  one  week)  and  store  only  those  fruit  and  vegetables  that  are  
compatible.  Long,  mixed  storage,  periods  should  not  be  used.  

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Activity 8: Storage separations and co-storage applications

In  your  storage  facility  what  goods  are  stored  together?  

If  you  were  storing  fruit  and  vegetables  together  what  problems  could  
you  encounter?  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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Section 2 Monitoring
your storage operations

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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  are:  


• inventory  matches  between  freight  and  storage  
requirements  
• supervision  of  storage  areas  in  accordance  with  workplace  
procedures  for  personnel,  goods  and  freight  
• storage  facility  checks  to  ensure  sufficient  operational  
capacity  
• monitoring  the  integrity  of  goods  and  materials  to  
maintain  quality  
• taking  action  for  discrepancies  and  changes  to  storage  
requirements  
• appropriate  action  to  respond  to  breaches  of  operational  
procedures  
• documenting  operational  actions  and  investigation  
outcomes.  

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Why do I need to match inventory data with


freight and available storage?

To  effectively  run  a  storage  facility  you  must  always  be  aware  of  goods  
movements.  

Matching  the  inventory  data  with  freight  and  available  storage  is  a  
priority  for  good  management  of  storage  facilities.  If  you  had  a  
situation  where  your  storage  facility  had  the  capacity  of  150  items  but  
the  incoming  order  indicated  that  170  items  were  on  their  way,  then  
there  would  be  a  problem.  It  is  situations  like  this  that  require  you  to  
keep  a  close  eye  on  stock  levels  to  maintain  a  smooth  flowing  storage  
operation.  

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Activity 9: Matching inventory data with goods and freight and


available storage

Talk  to  your  work  mates  and  your  supervisor  to  find  out  what  
processes  are  in  place  to  match  inventory  data  with  goods,  materials  
and  available  storage?  

Have  there  been  any  situations  where  the  amount  of  available  space  
was  insufficient  and  what  was  done  to  remedy  the  situation.  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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Why is it important to supervise the movement


of personnel, goods and freight in a storage
facility?

Storage  facilities  needs  to  be  supervised  to  ensure  the  movement  of  
personnel  and  goods  and  freight  are  in  accordance  with  your  
workplace  procedures.  

Supervision  will:    
• provide  safety  for  personnel  
• ensure  inventory  is  tracked  
• ensure  an  efficient  operation  
• maintain  the  quality  of  stored  goods  and  materials  
• ensure  stock  turnover.  

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Activity 10: Supervising the movement of personnel, goods


and freight

Speak  with  your  supervisor  regarding  the  workplace  procedures  that  


are  in  place  at  your  organisation’s  storage  facility.  

What  are  the  procedures  in  place  for:  


• The  safe  movement  of  personnel.  

 
• Tracking  inventory.  

 
• Maintaining  the  quality  of  stored  goods  and  materials.  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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Why do I need to monitor goods and materials


to maintain their quality?

The  characteristics  of  goods  and  materials  determine  their  safe  and  
usable  life.  Monitoring  these  products  will  identify  any  problems  or  
concerns  that  arise  and  allow  you  to  act  on  them.  ‘One  bad  apple  can  
make  the  whole  barrel  go  bad’.  

Risk  of  damage  and  contamination  can  lead  to  safety  issues,  especially  
if  the  material  is  hazardous  or  dangerous.  For  example,  explosives  and  
chemicals  can  have  a  huge  impact  on  safety  and  quality  if  not  
monitored  correctly.  Some  characteristics  of  materials  that  require  
monitoring  to  maintain  quality  include:  
• toxicity  
• flammability  
• product  state,  whether  the  material  is  a  solid,  a  liquid  or  a  
gas  
• perishability  as  in  their  usable  life  
• fragility  as  these  materials  require  special  storage  
considerations.  

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Activity 11: Monitoring goods and materials to maintain


quality

In  your  storage  facility  name  the  goods  and  materials  that  require  
close  monitoring.  

Of  those  goods  that  require  close  monitoring,  what  workplace  


procedures  are  in  place  to  maintain  their  quality?  

Which  goods  require  a  quick  turn  over  to  maintain  their  quality?  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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Addressing changes to storage requirements


and inventory lists?

From  time  to  time  discrepancies  and  changes  will  occur  with  your  
storage  requirements  or  to  your  inventory  lists.  The  reasons  will  vary  
but  you  must  take  action  to  correct  these  issues  or  the  discrepancy  will  
increase,  causing  more  serious  problems  later  on.  

Whenever  you  find  a  discrepancy  your  first  task  should  be  to  find  out  
what  goods  are  affected  and  how  serious  the  discrepancy  is.  Calculate  
the  amount  of  the  discrepancy  and  determine  where  and  why  it  
happened.  Then  go  about  correcting  it.  

Your  organisation  should  have  in  place  workplace  procedures  to  help  
you  deal  with  these  situations.  Always  follow  these  procedures  and  
notify  your  supervisor  about  the  situation.  And  always  document  the  
actions  you  took  to  correct  the  discrepancy.  

To  help  you  sort  out  discrepancies  you  should  consider  the  following  
sources  of  information  related  to  goods  and  materials  in  storage.  
Information  includes:  
• goods  identification  number  and  codes  
• manifests,  picking  slips,  merchandise  transfers,  stock  
requisitions  and  bar  codes  
• supplier  and  client  instructions  
• dangerous  goods  declarations  and  material  safety  data  
sheets  
• emergency  procedures.  

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Activity 12: Changes to storage requirements and inventory


lists

Talk  to  your  work  mates  and  your  supervisor  about  how  discrepancies  
are  handled  at  your  workplace.  Have  a  look  at  the  records  kept  to  gain  
an  understanding  of  what  has  been  done.  

If  you  noted  a  discrepancy  with  an  inventory  list,  how  would  you  go  
about  sorting  it  out?  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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What is the response to breaches of procedures


or to an emergency or incident?

See  your  workplace  procedures  and  follow  regulatory  policies,  


procedures,  rules  and  guidelines  as  set  up  for  your  storage  facility  type  
for  dealing  with  breaches  of  procedures,  emergencies  or  incidents.  

The  types  and  characteristics  of  the  goods  and  materials  you  store  will  
determine  the  action  you  need  to  take.  Speak  to  your  supervisor  for  a  
full  understanding  of  your  obligations  and  requirements  should  a  
breach  of  procedures  occur.  

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Activity 13: Breaches of operational procedure

Speak  with  your  work  mates  and  your  supervisor  about  breaches  to  
operational  procedures  and  how  they  should  be  dealt  with.  

Can  you  think  of  a  situation  where  there  was  a  breach  of  procedure  at  
your  storage  facility  and  how  it  was  dealt  with?  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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Why should outcomes of operational actions


and investigations be documented?

Records  should  always  be  kept  of  operational  actions  and  investigative  
outcomes.  This  is  most  likely  mentioned  in  your  workplace  procedures.  

There  are  a  number  of  reasons  for  recording  actions  and  outcomes,  
and  they  include:  
• recording  what  happened  at  your  operation  
• as  a  record  that  can  be  analysed  and  reviewed  at  a  later  
date  
• to  create  a  database  of  information  so  that  trends  with  
operational  problems  can  be  identified  and  addressed.  

Your  operation  will  have  procedures  available  for  correctly  


documenting  operational  actions  and  investigative  outcomes.  

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Activity 14: Documenting the outcomes of operational actions


and investigations

What  are  the  procedures  in  your  organisation  to  document  operational  
actions  and  investigative  outcomes?  

There  is  feedback  on  this  activity  at  the  back  of  this  Learner’s  Guide.  

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Additional
resources

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The  websites,  organisations  and  resources  listed  below  provide  more  


information  on  topics  relevant  to  unit  TDTA2698B  Monitor  storage  
facilities.  

Web  Sites  
• Organisations  
− Australian  Safety  and  Compensation  Council  
http://www.ascc.gov.au/  
− Dangerous  Goods  Storage  and  Handling  (Code  of  Practice  No.  
27,  2000)  
http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/WorkSafe/
Home/Forms+and+Publications/Publications/import_Dangerou
s+Goods+Storage+and+Handling+%28Code+of+Practice+No.27
%2C+2000%29  
− International  Maritime  Dangerous  Goods  Code  
http://www.imo.org/Safety/mainframe.asp?topic_id=158  
− Australian  Radiation  Protection  and  Nuclear  Safety  Agency  
http://www.arpansa.gov.au/  
− Department  of  Infrastructure,  Transport,  Regional  
Development  and  Local  Government  
http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/  
− ACT  Work  Cover,  Dangerous  Substances  
http://www.workcover.act.gov.au/docs/ds.htm  
− HACCP  Australia  
http://www.haccp.com.au/  
− Department  of  Agriculture,  Western  Australia  
http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/  

Online  documentation  
• Organisations  
− Transport  requirements  for  chemicals,  Chemlink  Pty  Ltd  
http://www.chemlink.com.au/transpor.htm  

General  
• Organisation  
− Inventory  Operations  Consulting  
http://www.inventoryops.com/index.htm  
− Food  Tech  
http://www.foodtechstructures.com/index.html  

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Training  
• Organisation  
− Australian  Training  Products  
http://www.atpl.net.au/Index.aspx  

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Feedback on activities
The  responses  provided  in  this  section  are  suggested  responses.  
Because  every  workplace  is  different,  your  responses  may  vary  
according  to  your  specific  workplace  procedures,  the  equipment  
available  and  the  nature  of  the  business.  

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Activity 1: Storage facility layout

The  key  to  efficient  storage  layout  comes  from  good  design  and  
workflow  processes.  

The  layout  of  a  storage  facility  is  dependent  on:    


• the  types  of  goods  and  materials  to  be  stored  
• the  type  of  storage  required  
• the  handling  requirements  of  goods  and  materials  in  
storage  
• the  packaging  requirements  of  goods  and  materials  in  
storage.  

Goods  and  materials  can  be  grouped  as  follows:  


• temperature  controlled  goods  
• non-­‐refrigerated  goods  
• refrigerated  goods  
• fragile  goods  
• perishable  goods  
• overseas  export  goods  
• dangerous  materials  
• hazardous  materials.  

Storage  types  include:  


• bins  and  binning  systems  
• rack  refrigeration,  freezers  and  cold  rooms  
• marked  floor  space  storage  
• containers  
• racks  and  racking  systems  
• blocks  and  stacks  
• pallets.  

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Activity 2: Storage facility workflow

The  factors  that  may  influence  the  workflow  in  your  storage  facility  
include:  
• regulations  and  workplace  requirements  
• goods  and  materials  types  
• warehouse  setup,  distribution  and  storage  space  
• work  environment  
• site  restrictions.  

On  the  workflow  diagram  you  have  created  you  should  indicate:  


• storage  areas  
• characteristics  of  stored  materials  and  any  restrictions  
• passageways,  including  traffic  movement  and  direction  
• loading  and  discharge  points.  

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Activity 3: Storage facility activities

Activities  that  you  may  be  involved  with  include:  


• lifting,  handling  and  transporting  materials  
• investigating  and  documenting  incidents,  accidents  and  
breakdowns  
• the  movement  of  equipment  and  vehicle  traffic  
• maintaining  inventory  lists  
• communicating  work  requirements.  

Activity 4: Storage facility types

Storage  set  ups  may  be  dedicated  to  a  single  type  of  storage  
requirement  or  may  comprise  a  multiple  goods  type  storage  setup.  

Common  storage  setups  would  include:  


• bin  storage  
• racks  for  refrigeration,  freezers  and  cold  rooms  
• marked  floor  space  for  designated  items  
• containers  
• racks  and  racking  systems  
• blocks  and  stacks  
• pallets.  

Activity 5: Purpose of storage types

The  storage  types  you  see  around  your  work  area  will  depend  on  the  
categories  and  types  of  goods  and  materials  that  are  stored.  Any  
number  of  combinations  of  types,  categories  and  characteristics  could  
be  used  to  achieve  the  storage  requirements  you  need.  

The  purpose  of  your  storage  facility  will  be  determined  by  the  
following  factors:  
• physical  storage  types  
• groups  and  categories  of  goods  and  materials  
• characteristics  of  goods  and  materials.  

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Activity 6: Risks related to storage

Risks  related  to  storage  include:  


• goods  content  including  
− health  and  safety  risks  of  hazardous  and  dangerous  materials  
• work  environment  including  
− contamination  to  materials  handled  
− faulty,  handling  this  equipment  is  a  risk  to  goods  and  personnel  
− spill,  leakages  and  ruptures  of  goods  and  materials  
− dust  and  vapours  of  goods  and  materials  
− debris,  oil  and  water  spills  
− materials  that  are  at  risk  of  fire  and  explosion  
• physical  storage  risks  including  
− damaged  and  faulty  packaging  and  poorly  stacked  goods  and  
materials.  

Activity 7: Inventory lists

Inventory  list  systems  are  as  follows:  


• automated,  the  list  is  updated  as  goods  come  and  go  to  
the  storage  facility  
• manual,  updated  by  stores  personnel  
• paper-­‐based,  records  kept  in  files  and  ledgers  
• computerised,  database  system  for  tracking  goods  
movement  
• microfiche,  lists  printed  on  film.  

All  systems  except  the  microfiche  system  can  be  readily  updated.  

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Activity 8: Storage separations and co-storage applications

Material  characteristics  and  compatibility  with  other  products  will  


determine  how  products  are  stored  together.  State  Government  
Regulations  recognising  dangerous  goods  classes,  packaging  groups  
and  other  key  characteristics  of  the  product,  will  determine  how  
products  will  be  stored.  

Co-­‐storage  of  goods  allows  you  to  store  products  together  in  shared  
storage  facilities.  You  should  consult  your  workplace  procedures  and  
any  relevant  polices,  regulations  and  rules  for  the  correct  goods  
associations  that  can  be  made.  

Storing  fruit  and  vegetables  together  causes  problems.  To  use  mixed  
storage  for  short  periods,  you  need  to  understand:  
• temperature  needs  
• danger  to  tainting  
• ethylene  (chemical  hormone  for  ripening  fruits)  sensitivity  
of  products  being  stored  to  avoid  incompatibilities.  

If  mixed  storage  cannot  be  avoided,  use  it  only  for  short  periods  (a  few  
days  to  one  week)  and  store  only  those  fruit  and  vegetables  that  are  
compatible.  Long,  mixed  storage,  periods  should  not  be  used.  

Activity 9: Matching inventory data with goods and freight and


available storage

To  effectively  run  your  storage  system  constantly  compare  your  


inventory  data  with  goods  received,  goods  freighted  and  the  available  
storage  space  you  have.  Your  storage  management  system  needs  to  
be  able  to  indicate  potential  problems  so  that  they  can  be  addressed  
before  they  become  serious  storage  problems.  

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Activity 10: Supervising the movement of personnel, goods


and freight

To  ensure  the  safe  movement  of  personnel,  goods  and  freight  in  
accordance  with  your  workplace  procedures,  the  storage  facility  must  
be  supervised.  

Supervision  will:    
• provide  safety  for  personnel  
• ensure  inventory  is  tracked  
• ensure  an  efficient  operation  
• maintain  the  quality  of  stored  goods  and  materials  
• ensure  correct  stock  turnover.  

Activity 11: Monitoring goods and materials to maintain


quality

Product  characteristics  determine  their  safe  and  usable  life.  


Monitoring  these  goods  will  identify  problems  or  concerns  that  may  
arise  and  allow  you  to  act  on  these  issues.  The  potential  for  risk  of  
damage  and  contamination  will  also  lead  to  safety  issues.  

Some  materials  characteristics  that  require  monitoring  to  maintain  


quality  include:  
• toxicity  
• flammability  
• product  state,  whether  the  material  is  a  solid,  a  liquid  or  a  
gas  
• perishability  of  materials  
• fragility  of  materials.  

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Activity 12: Changes to storage requirements and inventory


lists

Discrepancies  and  changes  will  occur  with  storage  requirements  and  


inventory  lists.  Action  must  be  taken  to  correct  these  issues  or  the  
discrepancy  will  escalate.  

Always  try  to  determine  what  goods  are  affected  and  how  serious  the  
discrepancy  is.  Calculate  the  size  of  the  discrepancy  and  reasons  for  its  
occurrence.  Workplace  procedures  should  help  you  deal  with  these  
situations.  

Always  follow  these  procedures  and  notify  your  supervisor  of  the  
situation,  and  always  document  the  actions  you  took  to  correct  the  
discrepancy.  

Consider  the  following  information  to  help  sort  out  discrepancies:  


• goods  identification  number  and  codes.  Information  
includes:  
• manifests,  picking  slips,  merchandise  transfers,  stock  
requisitions  and  bar  codes  
• supplier  and  client  instructions  
• dangerous  goods  declarations  and  material  safety  data  
sheets  
• emergency  procedures.  

Activity 13: Breaches of operational procedure

For  information  about  breaches  of  operational  procedure  see  your  


workplace  procedures  and  also  regulatory  policies,  procedures,  rules  
and  guidelines  as  set  up  and  used  by  your  storage  facility  type.  The  
types  and  characteristics  of  the  goods  and  materials  you  store  will  
determine  the  action  you  need  to  take.  You  should  understand  your  
obligations  and  requirements  so  that  breaches  do  not  occur.  

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Activity 14: Documenting the outcomes of operational actions


and investigations

Reasons  for  recording  outcomes  of  actions  and  investigations  include:  


• maintaining  a  record  of  what  happened  at  your  operation  
• analysing  and  reviewing  records  at  a  later  date  
• creating  a  database  of  information  so  that  trends  with  
operational  problems  can  be  identified  and  addressed.  

Your  operation  will  have  procedures  available  for  correctly  


documenting  operational  actions  and  investigating  outcomes.  

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