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A Rhumb line, being a curved line on the earth surface:
(a) Is a curved line of equal bearing
(b) Is the shortest distance between two points
(c) Cuts all meridians at the same angle
An aeroplane flying at G/S of 200mph, takes 6 minutes between two reporting points plotted on a
chart having a scale of 1:1 000 000. The distance between the reporting points on the chart is:
(a) 139.35 cm
(b) 13.93 cm
(c) 16.04 cm
In the Southern Hemisphere a QDM of 075 degrees is determined by means of the ADF. Variation 17
degrees W, CA 2 degrees. The
bearing to plot on a Mercator Chart is:
(a) 236 degrees
(b) 238 degrees
(c) 240 degrees
On a Lambert's Chart convergency is:
(a) constant, throughout the chart, but not correct
(b) constant, but correct only at the parallel of origin
(c) constant, but correct only at the standard parallels
The convergency between the meridians E079:00 and 098:00 at S32:00 on a Lambert's Chart with
standard parallels at
S35:00 and S75:00 is approximately:

(a) 12.95 degrees

(b) 10.06 degrees
(c) 15.56 degrees
UTC and GD of D on the E080:35 meridian is 0445, January 2nd. LMT and LD of F on the W010:45
meridian is:
(a) 0528, January 2nd
(b) 0402, January 2nd
(c) 2157, January 1st
An Aeroplane takes off from Upington (2800ft AMSL) climbing to FL150 at a constant RAS of 130kts.
Mean rate of climb 490ft/min, temperature
deviation ISA +12C. The mean TAS for the climb is:
(a) 152 kts
(b) 157 kts
(c) 162 kts
On a Mercator Chart the scale is 1:2 000 000 at N35:00. The scale is equal to 1:1 000 000 at latitude:
(a) N65:49
(b) N40:35
(c) N33:33
Parallels of Latitude on a Mercator Chart are:
(a) parallel straight lines equally spaced
(b) parallel straight lines unequally spaced
(c) arcs of circles radius to the pole
An A/c flies the rhumb line track from Orlando, Florida (N28:32 W016:16) at an average G/S of 450 kts.
The flight time is:
(a) 7 hrs 13 minutes
(b) 7 hrs 25 minutes
(c) 7 hrs 37 minutes
An A/c flies from A to B distance 640 nm in 2 hrs 30 minutes. On the return flight the elapsed time is 3 hrs.
Assuming a constant TAS and W/V throughout, the A/c's
TAS was:
(a) 200 kts
(b) 235 kts
(c) 262 kts
An A/c is maintaining a track of 127 degrees true, heading 151 magnetic, variation 16 degrees West. The
heading to fly the reciprocal track is:
(a) 315 degrees (M)
(b) 323 degrees (M)
(c) 331 degrees (M)
The standard time of sunrise at Paris, France (N48:44 E002:22) on February is:
(a) 0756
(b) 0705
(c) 0656
An A/c, G/S 384 kts, is approaching a checkpoint OSCAR, ETA 1950Z. ATC request the A/c to cross
OSCAR at 1955Z.
To accomplish this, the a/c reduces its G/S to 320 kts at:
(a) 1920Z
(b) 1925Z

(c) 1930Z
On a Lambert's Chart the meridians through A (S50:00 E008:30) and B (S48:00 W006:30) converge at an
angle of 10 degrees.
The parallel of origin of the chart is:
(a) S41:49
(b) S45:23
(c) S49:00
If 150 km is represented by a line 13 inches in length on a chart, a line 21 cm would represent:
(a) 51.5 nm
(b) 57.3 nm
(c) 63.8 nm
1200 Overhead Victoria West (S31:24 E023:08), set heading 067 degrees true, TAS 95 kts.
1330 Overhead Burgersdorp (S30:59 E026:17)
The mean W/V experienced is:
(a) 135/30
(b) 315/30
(c) 195/30
The mean magnetic heading to steer from Richards Bay (S28:46 E032:07) to Upington (S28:24 E021:16),
W/V 040/40, TAS 160 kts is:
(a) 302 degrees (M)
(b) 295 degrees (M)
(c) 283 degrees (M)
1000 Overhead Durban (S29:55 E031:00) set heading 315 degrees true, TAS 120 kts, W/V 135/35.
1100 Alter heading to 180 degrees True
1200 Alter Heading for Durban. ETA Durban is:
(a) 1320
(b) 1328
(c) 1312
1137 Overhead Port St John PJ (S31:38 E029:32) on a track for Durban DNV (S29:55 E031:00).
FL180, G/S 140 kts. Plan a descent to arrive overhead Durban at 1500ft. ROD 660ft/min, descent G/S
154 kts.
The ETA overhead Durban is:
(a) 1230Z
(b) 1235Z
(c) 1240Z
0710Z Overhead Wolsley Bay WY (S33:25 E019:10) on a track to Sutherland NDB SL (S32:24 E020:14)
TAS is 150 kts
0725Z Position is S33:00 E019:47. The ETA for Sutherland NDB is:
(a) 0746Z
(b) 0751Z
(c) 0756Z
1530 Overhead Durban DNV (S29:55 E031:00) on a direct track to George GGV (S34:00 E022:22).
1619 East London Vortac ELV (S033:02 E027:53) Radial 003, DME range 85 nm.
The ETA at George is:
(a) 1722
(b) 1728
(c) 1734

1530 Overhead Niewoutville NVV (S31:21 E019:03) FL170, TAS 180 kts, W/V 250/55 on direct track to
Ghanzi GZ
(S21:41 E021:39). The ETA at the Windhoek IFR Boundry (S27:30) is:
(a) 1641Z
(b) 1650Z
(c) 1658Z
1109Z Overhead Lichtenburg (S26:10 E026:11) on a direct track to Cookhouse (S32:46 E025:46).
1202Z Overhead Bloemfontein VOR BLV (S29:06 E026:19).
At 1202Z the alteration of heading required to arrive overhead Cookhouse is:
(a) 5 degrees Right
(b) 10 degrees Right
(c) 15 degrees Right
An A/c maintaining a track of 117 degrees (M) at G/S 275 kts obtains the following bearings from
NDB GF (S19:36 E018:06)
1000Z GF RMI 078
1011Z GF RMI 042
1025Z GF RMI 345
The position of the A/c at 1025 is:
(a) S20:16 E018:28
(b) S20:37 E018:40
(c) S20:59 E018:51
0815 Overhead Walvis Bay NDB (S23:00 E014:37) TAS 240 kts, heading 017 degrees True.
0849 Alter heading 053 degrees True
0929 Overhead Grootfontein NDB GF (S19:37 E018:06). The mean W/V since 0815:
(a) 278/36
(b) 309/31
(c) 354/37
An A/c departs from D (N25:00 E013:53) at 1000Z on the 3rd of February and arrives at G (S15:00
W009:43), a total distance of 2769 nm
at 0321 LMT on the 4th February. The average G/S of the A/c was:
(a) 166 kts
(b) 218 kts
A/c A is overhead NDB CN at 0915, G/S 197 kts
A/c B is overhead NDB CN at 0928, G/S 270 kts
If both A/c are following the same track , B will overtake A at:
(a) 1003
(b) 0950
(c) 0952
200 km is represented by a line 7.5 inches long on a specific chart. The scale of the chart expressed as a
reprentative fraction is:
(a) 1:104 986
(b) 1:10 298 680
(c) 1:1 049 869
With reference to the Lamberts Conformal Projection, the scale:
(a) Is corrected between the standard parallels and contracts outside of them
(b) Is corrected along the standard parallels, expands between them and contracts outside of them
(c) Is corrected along the standard parallels, contracts between them and expands of them.

A radio bearing of an A/c, determined at a VHF D/F station in the Southern Hemisphere is 090 degrees
If the convergency between the A/c and the VHF D/F station is 6 degrees, the position line to be plotted
on a Mercator Chart is:
(a) 087
(b) 096
(c) 084
An A/c in the DR position S18:59 E027:18, heading 265 degrees, Variation 10 degrees West, obtains a
relative bearing of 234 degrees
on the ADF from an NDB in position S20:01 E028:38. Convergency between the two positions is 0.67
degrees. The bearing to plot from
the NDB on a Lamberts Chart is:
(a) 309.67 degrees
(b) 308.33 degrees
(c) 319.67 degrees
From Wonderboom to Piet Retief on a direct flight, distance 218 nm. After flying 80 nm the position is 12
nm right of track. The heading
change requires to arrive overhead Piet Retief:
(a) 9 degrees Left
(b) 14 degrees Left
(c) 12 degrees Left
The duration of evening civil twilight at Gander, New Foundland (N48:57 W054:34) on February is:
(a) 27 minutes
(b) 33 minutes
(c) 39 minutes
On a Mercator Chart:
(a) Distances are measured along a straight line because that is the shortest distances between two
(b) The shortest earth distance between two points can be represented by a curved line.
(c) parallels are concave to the equator
If 100 nm is represented by a line of 30 cm on a chart, the length of a straight line representing 80 km is:
(a) 12.97 cm
(b) 24 cm
(c) 1,297 cm
On a Lamberts Chart in the Northern Hemisphere, a straight line is drawn from A to B, the track measured
at A is 070 degrees True.
An A/c leaves A on a constant heading of 070 degrees True, zero wind conditions and will pass:
(a) North of B
(b) Overhead B
(c) South of B
The position of A is N40:00 E008:00, position B is on the same parallel latitude. The Great Circle track
from A to B is 276 degrees. The longitude of B is:
(a) W001:20
(b) W010:40
(c) E026: 40
The following wind velocities are forecasted for the climb to cruise altitude:W/V 210/20

W/V 240/25
W/V 295/40
The Mean W/V for the climb is:
(a) 259/23
(b) 240/28
(c) 251/32
A to B
209 (T)
107 nm
B to C
267 (T)
96 nm

230 kts
230 kts


29 minutes

Assuming the W/V remains constant, the heading to steer from B to C is:
(a) 262 degrees (T)
(b) 265 degrees (T)
(c) 269 degrees (T)
A/c heading 315 degrees (T), TAS 260 kts, W/V 230/45. The G/S is:
(a) 240 kts
(b) 250 kts
(c) 260 kts
An A/c flies from Orlando, Florida (N28:32 W081:20) to Tenerife (N28:32 W016:16) in 7hrs37minutes at
and average G/S of:
(a) 450 kts
(b) 465 kts
(c) 480 kts
A to B, distance 159 nm, FL130, OAT -10C, TWC 25 kts. The required RAS to fly from A to B in 46
minutes is:
(a) 150 kts
(b) 170 kts
(c) 190 kts
1127Z Overhead Richards Bay (S28:46 E032:07) set heading 283(T) for Upington (S28:24 E021:07) TAS
160 kts.
1303Z Bloemfontein NDB BL (S29:05 E026:18) bears 259 degrees relative.
The ETA to Upington is:
(a) 1436Z
(b) 1423Z
(c) 1428Z
An A/c maintaining a track of 180 (M) at G/S 240 kts, obtains the following bearings from Francistown
NDB FT (S21:12 E027:30)
1640Z FT NDB 323 (T)
1652Z FT NDB 265 (T)
1700Z FT NDB 208 (T)
The A/c position at 1700Z is:
(a) S22:08 E027:00
(b) S22:22 E026:49
(c) S21:46 E027:09
2107Z Overhead Alexandra Bay ABV (S28:34 E016:31) on a track to Mafikeng MMV (S25:50 E025:31),
TAS 230 kts.
2156Z Upington VOR UPV (S28:24 E021:15) Radial 359.
2215Z MMV Radial 284 DME 125 nm.
The A/c position at 2215Z is:

(a) S25:54 E023:15

(b) S27:00 E022:05
(c) S27:10 E022:35
0930Z Overhead George GGV (S34:00 E022:22) on a direct track to Durban DNV (S29:55 E031:00)
1050Z East London Vortac ELV (S33:02 E027:53) Radial 030, DME Range 100 nm.
The ETA at Durban is:
(a) 1122Z
(b) 1127Z
(c) 1134Z
The initial magnetic heading from Grootfontein GF (S19:36 E018:06) to Burgersdorp BDV (S30:59
E026:17), TAS 240 kts.
W/V 240/55 is:
(a) 165 degrees
(b) 168 degrees
(c) 172 degrees
An A/c, G/S 450 kts. Cruising at FL370, obtains a fix at 0956Z which gives 377 nm to go to destination. A
descent is planned to arrive
overhead destination at FL090. Mean ROD is 2000ft/min at G/S of 360kts. The ETA at destination is:
(a) 1035
(b) 1045
(c) 1049
2115Z Overhead Phalaborwa (S23:56 E031:07) on a flight to Durban (S29:56 E031:00)
2147Z Maputo VOR VMA (S25:55 E032:34) Radial 283, DME 65 nm. At
2147Z the alteration of heading required to arrive at Durban:
(a) 3 degrees Right
(b) 7 degrees Right
(c) 11 degrees Right
1000Z Overhead Burgersdorp VOR BDV (S30:58 E026:18), TAS 240 kts, heading 043(T)
1055Z Overhead Ladysmith VOR LYV (S28:33 E029:45)
The Mean W/V is?
(a) 338/32
(b) 296/37
(c) 247/41
1927Z Overhead Dias Point (S26:40 E015:05), heading 037(T). TAS 252 kts, W/V 195/60
2009Z Alter heading for Walvis Bay (S23:00 E014:37)
The Heading to steer for Walvis Bay at 2009Z is:
(a) 285 (M)
(b) 292 (M)
(c) 299 (M)
CAA Navigation Plotting:
Overhead Cookhouse HDG 030(C), Compass DEV +2East, Drift 10R, VAR 22W. Track made good is:
(a) 000 (T)
(b) 016 (T)
(c) 020 (T)

Airplane overhead Harare at FL070 and climbing to FL180 at mean ROC of 600ft/min. RAS 160 kts, Temp
DEV = ISA +10C.
The mean TAS on the climb is:
(a) 193 kts
(b) 197 kts
(c) 202 kts
An aircraft flies from A to B in 2hrs20min, distance 588 nm, TAS 288kts. In order to fly from B to A in 2hrs
27min, the
TAS for the return flight should be:
(a) 240 kts
(b) 252 kts
(c) 204 kts
Airplanes A and B are both flying on the same track are initially 72 nm apart. GS of A is 288 kts. Airplane A
passes B
after 1hr 20min. The GS of B is:
(a) 248.7 mph
(b) 433.6 kph
(c) 216,0 kts
An airplane leaves A (S12:02 W157:04) on July 31st at 0900 LMT on a flight to B (S41:20 E174:48) at an
average GS of
312 kts and arrives at B at 1119 LMT on August 1st, having flown a distance of:
(a) 1308 nm
(b) 1414 nm
(c) 725 nm
On Mercator chart the scale is 1: 2 000 000 at N32:00. The scale is equal to 1:1 000 000 at latitude:
(a) N65:49
(b) N40:35
(c) N33:33
Aircraft A, GS 425 kts, passes over NL at 1345Z. Aircraft B, at FL310, OAT -40C, passes over NL at
1357Z, overtaking A at 1539Z.
Aircraft B relative closing speed was:
(a) 50 kts
(b) 75 kts
(c) 95 kts
A to B, Distance 159 nm, FL130, OAT -10C, TWC 25 kts. The required RAS to fly from A to B in 46 min is:
(a) 150 kts
(b) 170 kts
(c) 190 kts
Forecast wind velocities for a climb to cruise altitude are:W/V 270/20
W/V 315/30
W/V 360/35
The mean climb W/V is:
(a) 324/24
(b) 315/28
(c) 330/30
Standard time of sunrise at Paris, France (N48:44 E002:22) on 17 February is:
(a) 0756

(b) 0705
(c) 0656
An Airplane at DR position (S33:55 E028:15) Var 22 degrees, obtains a RMI QDM of 310 degrees from an
NDB (S29:30 E020:30) Var 19W.
The bearing to plot from the NDB on a Lambert's Chart (CCF 0,5) is:
(a) 108 (T)
(b) 112 (T)
(c) 115 (T)
Position of A is S31:35 E029:46. Position B is on the same parallel of latitude. The great circle bearing of
B from A is 262 degrees. The Longitude of B is:
(a) E000:47
(b) E000:24
(c) W000:47
A route facility chart has scaleof 1:2 600 000. One cm on the chart is equal to:
(a) 12 nm
(b) 14 nm
(c) 16 nm
1300 Overhead Sishen NDB SS (S27:42 E023:00) TAS 230 kts
1400 Overhead Victoria West VOR VWV (S31:24 E023:09)
At 1400 the aircraft returns to Sishen. The ETA at SS is:
(a) 1449
(b) 1455
(c) 1500
0943 Victoria West (S31:24 E023:08) set heading 089(T) for NewCastle (S27:45 E030:00) FL110 TAS
160 kts
1119 Bloemfontein VOR BLV (S29:06 E026:19) Radial 110, DME range 17 nm
ETA for New Castle is:
(a) 12:42
(b) 13:04
(c) 12:56
On track between Alexander Bay (S28:34 E016:31) and Upington (S28:24 E021:31)/ Alexander Bay radio
requires report abeam
Keetmanshoop VOR KTV (S26:33 E018:00). Variation at KTV is 17.5W. When abeam KTV the radial is:
(a) 196
(b) 178
(c) 220
At 1048Z aircraft is heading 169(M) inbound to East London ELV (S33:02 E027:53). The ELV VOR/DME
indicates radial 349 degrees DME 12 nm.
At this point a diversion to Port Elizabeth PEV (S33:58 E025:36) is planned. Assume no wind and
variation 23W. The distance and initial heading is:
(a) 130nm, 240(M)
(b) 126nm, 262(M)
(c) 130nm, 251(M)
While en route from George VOR GGV (S34:00 E022:22) to Sir Lowry's Pass NDB SP (S34:09 E019:58),
GS 120 kts, a relative bearing of 083 degrees
is obtained from Sutherland NDB SL (S32:24 E020:40)/ From this position the flight time to SP NDB is:
(a) 51 min
(b) 39 min

(c) 43 min
Aircraft overhead East London at 0930Z en route to Durban, mean track 041(T), distance 246 nm, mean
W/V 270/45, FL110, OAT -7C.
The RAS that has to be maintained in order to arrive overhead Durban at 1030Z is:
(a) 186 kts
(b) 195 kts
(c) 204 kts
1515 Overhead Selebi-Pikwe SP (S22:03 E027:48) TAS 240 kts, heading 280(M)
1630 Overhead Ghanzi GZ (S21:41 E021:40). The mean W/V:
(a) 125/44
(b) 058/46
(c) 236/44
1121Z Overhead Ghanzi GZ (S21:41 E021:40), FL180, TAS 170 kts, W/V 250/55 on direct track to
Niewoudtville NVV (S31:21 E019:03).
ETA at Cape Town FIR (S27:30) is:
(a) 1636Z
(b) 1350Z
(c) 1402Z
1342Z Overhead Cookhouse (S32:46 E025:46) on direct track to Lichtenburg LG (S26:10 E026:10).
1449Z VOR KMV. radial 106 degrees, DME 35 nm.
At 1449Z the alteration of heading required to arrive overhead Lichtenburg is:
(a) 10 degrees Right
(b) 14 degrees Right
(c) 19 degrees Right
0815 Overhead Walvis Bay NDB RK (S23:00 E014:37), TAS 240 kts, heading 017(T).
0849 Alter heading 053 (T)
0929 Overhead Grootfontein NDB (S19:37 E018:06)
The Mean W/V is:
(a) 276/36
(b) 309/31
(c) 354/37
Two A/c depart at 13:00Z from aerodromes 400 nm apart. Airplane A, Track 063 (T), GS 188 kts. Airplane
B, Track 243 (T), GS 155 kts.
Time at which they cross will be:
(a) 14:10Z
(b) 14:05Z
(c) 14:00Z
An A/c departs from N60:00 E005:00 on a rhumb line track 270(T). After flying 265 nm it arrives at:
(a) E013:50
(b) E003:50
(c) W003:50
From Europe Island (S22:20 E040:21) to Cape Town (S33:58 E018:36), departure 01:30Z 2nd January.
ETA Cape Town 17:30 SAST 2nd January.
The total distance is 4850 sm. The average G/S is:
(a) 301 kts
(b) 346 kph
(c) 346 kts

From Clan William NDB CW to Kimberley VOR KMV, distance 364 nm. At 116 nm from CW the A/c is 11
nm right of planned. To fly direct KMV from this
position, heading must be changed:
(a) 6 degrees left
(b) 8 degrees left
(c) 12 degrees left
On a Mercator chart:
(a) Distance is measured along a straight line because that is the shortest distance between two points.
(b) The shortest earth distance between two points can be represented by a curved line. (G/C =
curved line.)

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