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APPLICATION OF

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

GEOSYNTHETICS

CE451A

MechanicallyStabilised Wall

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

MechanicallyStabilised Wall

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geosynthetics

Geosynthetics

Whataregeosynthetics?

Geosyntheticsarehumanmadematerialsmadefromvarioustypesof
polymersusedtoenhance,augmentandmakepossiblecosteffective
environmental,transportationandgeotechnicalengineering
constructionprojects.

Whywouldwewanttousethem?
Howshouldweusethem?

CE451A

Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics

Reasons for the development of new geosynthetic products


Theyarequalitycontrolmanufacturedinafactorenvironment.
Theycanbeinstalledrapidly
Theygenerallyreplacerawmaterialresources
Theygenerallyreplacedifficultdesignusingnaturalmaterials
Theyaregenerallycostcompetitiveagainstnaturalsoilsthatthey
replace
Theyareactivelymarketedandwidelyavailable

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics

Seperation
Filtration

Separation

Drainage
Reinforcement
Containment

Drainage

Protection

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics


Reinforcement

Filtration

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics


Reinforcement

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics


Seepage barrier

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics


Lateral restraint

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics


Bearing capacity improvement

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics

Basic functions of Geosynthetics

Geomembrane tension

Reflection cracking

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics


Primary Functions

Containment
Drainage
Filtration
Separation
Reinforcement
Combinationof
above

New challenges ! !
Siteconstraints
Tighttimeschedule
Max.usageoflocallyavailable
resources
Leastenvironmentimpact
Least environment impact
Longtermperformance
Highcosteffectiveratio

Theuseofgeosyntheticmaterialshastwoaims:
1) Todothejobbetter(nodeteriorationofmaterialorexcessiveleakage)
2) Todothejobmoreeconomically(eitherthroughlowerinitialcostor

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Major applications of Geosynthetics


In Engineered landfills:
Reinforcement of covers
Hydraulic barriers
Gas and leachate collection
system

In Reinforced Soil Systems:


Embankments over soft
foundations,
Reinforced Steepened
slopes,
Reinforced soil walls.

In Roads and Pavements:


Subgrade
S b d separation
ti and
d
Stabilization,
Base Reinforcement,
Overlay Stress Absorption
and Reinforcement.

In Subsurface Drainage:
Subgrade dewatering,
Road base drainage,
Structure drainage.

In Seepage control systems


Structure water proofing,
Environmental Protection.

In Erosion and Sediment


Control
Hard Armor Systems,
Silt Fence.

throughdurabilityandlongerlife,thusreducingmaintenancecosts)

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geosynthetics

Geosynthetics

How to emphasize
the reinforcement
effect?

Separation

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Prior to Geosynthetics

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Basic functions of Geosynthetics

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geosynthetic Reinforced Segmental Retaining Walls

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geosynthetic Reinforced Segmental Retaining Walls

External
a) base sliding

b) overturning

c) bearing capacity
(excessive settlement)

d) pullout

e) tensile over-stress

g) connection
failure

h) column shear failure i) toppling

Internal
f) internal sliding

Facing

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geosynthetic Reinforced Segmental Retaining Walls

Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns


Geogrid coating

Material bowl
and vibrator
charge

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Insertion of
vibrator with
geogrid

Pull-out of
Column is
vibrator,
completed
adding material
and compaction

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geosynthetics Reinforced Soil Barriers

Geosynthetics Reinforced Soil Barriers

Membrane effect

350mm
220mm
1.2m thick URSB having
overburden pressure
equivalent of landfill cover
systems

1.2m thick GRSB having


overburden pressure
equivalent of landfill cover
systems

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geosynthetics

Flexible Geosynthetics Sand Containers

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Polymers used in Geosynthetics

Chemicallylinkedlargemoleculesofcarbonatoms
withhydrogenorotheratomsattached
Polypropylene
Polyethylene
Polyester
Polyamide
Polystyrene
PolyVinylChloride

Geotextiles
Geotextilesareflexible,textilelikefabricsofcontrolledpermeability
usedtoprovidefiltration,separationorreinforcementinsoil,rockand
wastematerials
CHARACTERISTICS
CanbeusedforSeparation,
Reinforcement Filtration Drainage
Reinforcement,Filtration,Drainage.
Porousandallowflowofwaterthroughit.
Composedofpolymerslikepolypropylene,
highdensitypolyethylene,polyester
Theymaybeeitherwovenornonwoven
WovenGeotextiles

NonwovenGeotextiles

PP/Polyester/PEGeosynthetics MostwidelyusedacrosstheGlobe(more
than95percent)

Geotextiles

Coir Geotextiles

Geotextiles
Samples

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Geotextile-GSI.JPG
CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geomembranes
Geomembranesareverylowpermeabilitysyntheticpolymericsheets
usedasmembranelinerorbarrierforliquidorsolidwastecontainment
systems
CHARACTERISTICS
Canbeusedforwastecontainment.
Relativelyimpermeable(1x1012 to1x1015
m/s)whencomparedtoclayeysoil.
Composedofpolymericmaterialslike
HDPE,LDPE,VFPE,PVC,PP
Availableinsmoothandtexturedsurfaces.
Thesesheetsareprefabricatedinfactory
andtransportedtothejobsite,where
placementandfieldseamingare
performedtohavecompleteisolation

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)


GCLsareverylowpermeabilitylinerconsistsofathinlayerofbentonite
claysandwichedbetweentwogeotextilesorgluedtogeomembranes,
primarilyusedforsolidwastecontainmentsystems
CHARACTERISTICS
Canbeusedforwastecontainmentand
water proofing
waterproofing.
Relativelyimpermeable(1x1010 to1x1012
m/s)whencomparedtoclayeysoil.
GCLcontainapproximately5kg/m2 of
bentonite.Ithelpsinselfsealingat
overlapsbetweenpanels whenwater
hydratestheclayinGCL,theclayswelland
automaticallysealtheoverlap.
Thesesheetsareprefabricatedinfactory
andtransportedtothejobsite,where
placementandoverlappingaredone.

GCL
samples

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geogrids
Geogridsareplanarstructureformedbyaregularnetworkoftensile
elementswithaperturesofsufficientsizetoallowinterlockingwith
surroundingsoil
CHARACTERISTICS
Canbeusedforreinforcement.
Geogrids areformedeitherstretchedin
are formed either stretched in
one(uniaxial geogrids)ortwodirections
(biaxialgeogrids)forimprovedphysical
propertiesormadeonweavingmachinery
byuniquemethods.
Ithashighdimensionalstabilityandhigh
tensilemodulusatverylowelongation.
Basicloadtransferoccursintheformof
passiveearthpressureontransverse
elementofgeogridandinterlockingof
grainparticlesingeogrids.

Uniaxialgeogrid Biaxialgeogrid

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CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geocells
Geocellsarethreedimensional,expandablepanelsmadefromHDPEor
polyesterstripsusedforcellularconfinementsystems.
CHARACTERISTICS
Canbeusedfortensilereinforcementand
shearresistancetoincreasethebearing
capacityofsubgradeandcoversoil.
it f b d
d
il
Comprisesofhighstrengthplasticnetwork
(3D)withsoilfilledwithinthecell.
Internalcellstransformintoreinforcement
andconfinedsoilbuildscompression
insidethestructure.
Cellularconfinementsystemsimprovethe
structuralandfunctionalbehaviourofsoil
infillmaterials
Reuseable/Recyclable

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geonets
Geonetsareplanarstructureconsistingofintegrallyconnectedparallel
setsofribsoverlyingsimilarsetsatvariousanglesforplanardrainageof
liquidsorgases.
CHARACTERISTICS
Canbeusedforinplanedrainage.
Availableinbiplanerandtriplanar
Available in bi planer and tri planar
geonets.Triplanargeonets resistsvertical
compressionunderloadandallowlarger
inplaneflow.
Becauseofitsopenstructure,itmustbe
protectedfrombecomingcloggingbysoil
oradjacentmaterials.
Hence,inmostcasesitmustbeusedalong
withgeotextiles whichformsgeo
composites.

Geonet samples

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CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geopipe
Geopipesarepolymericbasedgeosyntheticmaterialconsistingof
flexibleplasticpipeswhichareplacedbeneaththegroundsurfaceand
subsequentlybackfilled.
CHARACTERISTICS
Canbeusedforundergroundpipeline
transmission of water gas oil and various
transmissionofwater,gas,oilandvarious
otherliquid.
ItmaybemadeofPVC,HDPE,PP,
CelluloseAcetateBuytrate.
Itcanbesolidwallorcorrugated.
Mainlyusedinleachate collectionsystem
tofacilitatecollectionandrapiddrainage
oftheleachate totheremovalsystem.
InBioreactorlandfillsitcanbeusedto
transportandredistributeofleachate

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Geocomposite
Geocompositesrepresentsasubsetofgeosyntheticswherebythebest
featuresofdifferentgeosyntheticmaterialsarecombinedtosolvethe
specificproblemintheoptimalmanner.
CHARACTERISTICS
Canbeusedforenhancedperformancein
separation reinforcement filtration
separation,reinforcement,filtration,
drainageandcontainment.
Geotextilegeonet composites:improved
drainage,separationandfiltration
Geotextilegeomembrane composites:
enhanceresistancetopunctureandtear
Geotextilegeogridcomposites:enhance
drainageandmechanicalstrength
Geomembranegeogridcomposites:same
polymerenhancedstrengthandfriction

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CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Summary of Type and Function of Geosynthetics


Type

Nonwoven
geotextiles

+ * +

Woven
Geotextiles

* +

Geogrids

Geomembranes
b
Geocells

+
+

Geocomposite

Cover system
Side lining
system

Hydraulic barrier /
can be replaced
with geomembrane
or GCL

geopipe
g
pp

Base lining
system

Geopipe

S - Separation
D -Drainage
F - Filtration
R - Reinforcement
B - Barrier
P - Protection
P t ti

GCL
Geonet

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Role of Geosynthetics in Engineered MSW Landfills

+
+
+

* *

+ Main Function
* Secondary
Function

geopipe
Hydraulic barrier /
Geomembrance / GCL

+
*Adopted

Subgrade soil

from Lecture notes on Landfills from Prof. Gourc, LTHE, Grenoble, France

Geomembrane
GCL with
geotextiles

Geocomposite

Geomembrane
Typical Landfill Base-Lining System
CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Typical Landfill System prior to Closure


CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

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CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Cover soil
Geocomposite
Geomembrane
GCL with geotextiles
Needle punch nonwo en geotextiles
woven
Geogrid

Comparison

Component

Soil

GeosyntheticProduct

Drainagelayer

Coarsegrainedsoils

Geonet,Geocomposite

Filter layer

Coarsegrainedsoils

Geotextiles

Hydraulicbarrier

Clay soil

Geomembrane,
GeosyntheticClayLiner

Gastransmission layer

Coarsegrainedsoils

Geotextiles,Geocomposite

Protectionlayer

Finegrainedsoils

Geotextiles,Geogrid

Erosion

Finegrainedsoils

Geogrid,Geonet,Geocell

Daily cover soil


Typical Landfill Cover System
CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Overview of Geosynthetics
Geotextiles flexible,textilelikefabricsofcontrolledpermeabilityused
toprovidefiltration,separationorreinforcementinsoil,rockandwaste
materials
Geomembranes essentiallyimpermeablepolymericsheetsusedas
barriersforliquidorsolidwastecontainment
Geogrids
Geogrids stifforflexiblepolymergridlikesheetswithlargeapertures
stiff or flexible polymer gridlike sheets with large apertures
usedprimarilyasreinforcementofunstablesoilandwastemasses
Geonets stiffpolymernetlikesheetswithinplaneopeningsused
primarilyasadrainagematerialwithinlandfillsorinsoilandrockmasses
Geosyntheticclayliners prefabricatedbentoniteclaylayersincorporated
betweengeotextilesand/orgeomembranesandusedasabarrierfor
liquidorsolidwastecontainment

Major Concerns
Majorissuesrelatedtolongtermperformanceofgeosynthetic
productsinwastecontainmentsystemsare:

LifetimeofGeosyntheticproducts
Interfacefriction
D i ti
DesiccationofGCL
f GCL
Waves(orWrinkles)inGMs
WindUplift
SeamsandDetails
ChemicalResistance
BiologicalClogging
QC/QA

Geocomposites hybridsystemsofany,orall,oftheabovegeosynthetic
typestosolvethespecificproblemintheoptimalmanner

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CE451A : Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur

Snap-shots of Failures of Geosynthetic Products

GM Wrinkles and
desiccation

Wind uplift

Desiccation of GCL

Differential settlement

Wrinkles and tear of GM

Geocomposite

Slope failure

Chemical attack
Blowout of GM

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