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OTPR

SESSIONS: 16-17-18
MODULE 5
Dynamic Processes in Organization
Coordinator & Facilitator
Manoj Ghadge

DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT

Management is the art/science of decision making and problem solving through

process of designing and maintaining an environment in which, individuals working


together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims.

Management functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling

All managers carry out managerial function but the time spent for each function may
differ

Managerial skills

Technical skills

Human skills

Conceptual skills

Design skills
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MANAGERIAL SKILLS

Technical skill: is the knowledge of and proficiency in


activities involving methods, processes, and procedures.

Human skills: is the ability to work with people

Conceptual skill: ability to see the big picture

Design skills: ability to solve problem in a way that will


benefit the enterprise

MANAGERIAL SKILL AND HIERARCHY

GOAL OF THE MANAGER

The aim of all managers should be to create a surplus


To create an environment in which people can accomplish

group goals with less amount of time, money, materials, and


personal dissatisfaction

To ensure productivity, effectiveness and efficiency

PRODUCTIVITY, EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY

Productivity = Output / Input ; within a time period and


quality ensured.

Effectiveness : achievement of objectives.

Efficiency : achievement of ends with the least amount of


resources.

MANAGING: SCIENCE OR ART?

Managing as practice is an art

The organized knowledge underlying the practice is a


science

The elements of science

Concepts

Principles

Theory
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THE FUNCTIONS OF MANAGER

Planning

Selecting missions and objectives as well as the actions to


achieve them

Organizing

Establishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in


an organization

Staffing

Filling and keeping filled the positions in the organization


structure
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THE FUNCTIONS OF MANAGER

Leading

Influencing people so that they will contribute to organizational


and group goals

Controlling

Measuring

and

correcting

individual

and

organizational

performance to ensure that event conform to plans

PLANNING

Types of planning

Mission or purposes

Objective or goals

Strategies

Policies

Procedures

Rules

Programs

Budgets

Selecting missions and objectives as well as the actions to achieve them


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STEPS IN PLANNING
1.

Being aware of opportunities

2.

Establishing objectives

3.

Developing Premises

4.

Determining alternative courses

5.

Evaluating alternative courses

6.

Selecting a course

7.

Formulating derivative plan

8.

Quantifying plan by budgeting


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PROBLEMS WITH ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL

Levels are expensive

Departmental level complicate communications

Numerous department level complicate planning and control

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FACTORS INFLUENCING SPAN OF MANAGEMENT

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ORGANIZING

Identification and classification of required activities

Grouping of activities necessary for attaining objectives

Assignment of each group to a manager with the authority to


supervise

Provision for coordination horizontally and vertically

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ASPECTS OF ORGANIZING

Creating an environment for entrepreneurship

Innovation and entrepreneurship

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STEPS IN ORGANIZING

Establishing enterprise objectives

Formulating supporting policies and plans

Identifying, analyzing and classifying the activities necessary to accomplish


these objectives

Grouping these activities in light of human and material resource available

Delegation of authority

Tying the groups together through authority relationship and information


flows
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REENGINEERING THE ORGANIZATION

The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business


processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical
contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality,

service and speed.


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REENGINEERING THE ORGANIZATION

Fundamental rethinking on what the organization is doing

Radical redesign is reinvention

50 to 70 % of reengineering efforts fail to deliver the intended dramatic


results

Analysis and questioning of business processes

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STAFFING

Filling and keeping filled the positions in the organization structure

Number of manager needed in an enterprise depend upon size,


complexity of organization structure, the plans for expansion and the
turnover rate of managerial personal.

The management inventory

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ACTION BASED ON MANGER SUPPLY AND DEMAND


Supply of Managers

High

Selection
Placement
Promotion

Low

Internal :
Training and development
Compensation

External :
Recruitment

Low

Demand for Managers

High

Change in Company Plans


Outplacement
Layoffs
Demotions
Early Retirement

Training and development if


change in demand is
expected in future

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RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, PLACEMENT, PROMOTION

Recruitment is attracting qualified candidate to fill


organizational roles

In Selection approach applicants are sought to fill a position


with rather specific requirements

In Placement approach the strength and weaknesses of the


individual are evaluated and a suitable position is found or
even designed

Promotion is a move within the organization to a higher


position that has greater responsibilities and required more
advanced skills
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SITUATIONAL FACTORS AFFECTING STAFFING

External factors:

Education: high technology used in some industries may require


extensive and intensive education

Socio-cultural environment: order taking attitudes

Legal-political: employment policies, etc.

Economic environment: competitive situation demand and


supply of managers
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STAFFING IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

Three sources of staffing

Manager from home country

Manager from host country

Manager from third world countries

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SITUATIONAL FACTORS AFFECTING STAFFING

Internal factors :

Promotion from within the organization

The policy of open competition Vacant position should be


opened to the best-qualified person available, whether
inside or outside the enterprise

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SELECTION PROCESS: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Interviews

Tests: different types of tests are conducted . Intelligence test,


proficiency test, vocational test, personality test

Assessment center

games,

include psychological test, management

management

situations,

group

discussions,

oral

presentation, recommending actions, and preparing reports.


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DECISION MAKING

Decision making is selection of a course of action among alternatives

Organization level decision making involves many managers and that


final choice is based on a coalition among the managers rather than by
one at the top based on information fed to them.

A coalition is an alliance among several managers and stakeholders


(managers from line departments, staff departments etc) who agree
about the organizational goal and priorities.

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COALITION ARE MADE BECAUSE


1.

Organizational goals are often ambiguous and operative goals


of the department are inconsistent

2.

Managers do not have time, resources, and mental capacity


to identify all dimensions and process all information for
decision making

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REALITY

Under one approach, decisions are made to satisfy rather than


optimize problem solutions. The coalition will accept a solution
that is perceived as satisfactory to all coalition members.

Managers

are concerned with immediate problem and their

immediate solution. They dont expect a perfect solution in a


conflict laden and ill defined situation.
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CHOICE PROCESSES IN DECISION MAKING


Uncertainty
Information is
limited
Managers have
many constraints

Conflict
Managers have
diverse goals,
opinions, values,
experience

Coalition Formation
Hold joint discussion
and interpret goals
and problems
Share opinions
Establish problem
priorities
Obtain social support

FIGURE: CARNEGIE MODEL

Search
Conduct a simple,
logical search
Use established
procedures if
appropriate
Create a solution,
if needed

Satisfying
Adopt the first
alternative
that is acceptable
to the coalition

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Thank YOU!
HAPPY READING
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