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Sovereignty and Anarchy are faces of the same coin. Anarchy is the
lack of authority. Sovereignty is based on the non-interference
principle in domestic matters; it is a European concept, and a result
of the Westphalia Treaties and is enshrined in the UN Charta. There
is no clear delimitation in the interaction of state (usually includes a
breach of sovereignty).
EU Agreements limits sovereignty. For example, external influences
in African States are breaches in sovereignty.
The nature of inter-African international/regional relations
African international institutions have an international background
based on pan-African solidarity and ideals after the 1960s.

1963, oldest organization supposed to gain a confederate

Based on political rhetoric and not action, the principle of non
Lack of recourses
Ineffective, no provisions for intervention
Replaced by the African Union in 2002
The Charta: intervention is possible under great circumstances
Peer review of maintaining democratic standards


New partnership for African development

Bring African state to improve economic performance
Objective = good governance
Attracted foreign aid, FDI investments
Lacks transparency, doesnt engage civil society
Top down process

Failed to act in Darfur, the Zimbabwe crisis

At regional level: South African Development Community
Approximately all states south of Zaire
In 1994 South Africa was a member
Purpose to counter apartheid
1992 broaden international organizations
Focuses on economic cooperation and integration
Customs unions in the South


ECOWAS = Economic Community of West African States


Purpose: economic cooperation

After the cold war focused on political cooperation and
Took up peace keeping missions in Liberia, Sierra Leone

Few states versus states conflicts, Examples:

1979: Uganda Tanzania
Ethiopia Eritrea
Angola Civil War:

MPLA (Marxist inspired party) Cuban direct intervention


UNITA supported by Zaire (Congo), South Africa and the US

The second Congo War


At the end of the 90s

5 million casualties
Involved all neighboring states

The Cold War Period


An ideological military confrontations between two

Africa did not have a strategic output
Zero Sum Game what one side won the other side lost
Because of the Cold War logic, by competing for new allies,
the African countries were important
Propaganda so not to lose allies
For example: Egypt was a URSS client till the 70s after allied
the US (after Israel, Egypt receives the most money for the


Portrayed itself as an ally, it considered itself as a recent state

(the monarchic history was removed)
Anti-imperialistic discourse
Provided financial aid to Ghana, Guineea, Mali, Ethiopia,
Angola, Mozambique

Pragmatic politics 1950-1960

Access to the military facilities on the African continent
Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal to be able to finance the
construction of a dam on the Nile, to be built by the USSR

The Cold War


Hot in the 3rd world countries

War by proxy
Egypt and Syria vs. Israel


The most important state in the socialist camp

Anti-imperialist solidarity
Sent specialist to the African countries, and development and
trade programmes


Close to the USSR until the conflict between the 2 started

The Chinese policy in African countries is anti-sovietic
Pragmatic implication, exterior commerce for constructing
local infrastructure

The paradox of the conflict represents the fear of USA and USSR to
be attracted in a conflict by the allies
- Containment policy, limited strategic importance for the USA
- SYA closed its eyes on the totalitarian regimes and the human
rights issues (Zaire and South Africa)
- Doesnt pressure the apartheid during the conflict. For
example American athletes in Africa are given the title of
honorary white
Great Britain
- Discrete policy during the Cold War
- Entered commercial agreements
- In 1964 it supports Kenya, Zimbabwe and Tanganyika

The most consistent involvement in the Cold War

de Gaulle supported the project of the African community

He extended its influence on territories with different colonial


C. Claupham
- The triad: people- money- force = the success of France
France continues its mission civilisatrice in the post-colonial period
- Direct bonds between African leaders, with high functions in
the French administration
- Financially, it offered the most foreign aid
- The French treasury guaranteed the coin of the African
Economic Community
- Military cooperation agreements with former colonies
- During the cold War 13000 French soldiers were stationed
- Numerous political interventions

Scandinavian countries

The second founder of African states

Arab states

Supported infrastructure and religion

Opportunities: loans with low interests (acquiring weapons
worth 4,5 million), technic aid and infrastructure
Risks: getting attracted into a war. For example: Mobutu
expert of the game

After the end of the Cold War

- Decreasing intensity and the end of the proxy war
- Political regimes dependent of the foreign aid disappear
- The White regime= the devil you know, racial segregation is
no longer supported/ overseen
Somalia: Black Hawk Down, 1994
- Until present day, no American soldier has intervened in Africa
(with the exception: the bombing of a factory as a response to
the bombing of an embassy and the presence in the Indian
Ocean for protection against pirates)
The Rwanda Genocide
- No intervention from the world powers
- Transformation of the international system, compromises of
the cold war are no longer possible
- Daniel Arap Moi was removed from office without his external

- Does not support the CFA
- Continues to intervene military: The Ivory Coast, 2002; Mali
Great Britain
- Much more active, especially during the mandate of Tony Blair
- Supports good governance and reducing poverty
- Raises the issue of the African in the G8 meeting
- Policy of erasing debts (110 million dollars dismissed in 2009)
- For developing countries: 1997 3 million dollars; 2005-2006
1 billion dollars
- Conditions: the state should adopt the policy of fiscal
responsibility and aim to reduce poverty
- Most involved after the Cold War (1988-2008)
- The value of commercial trades increased 10 times
- The important economic partner of Africa
- It buys natural resources: wood and especially oil
- Offers loans without conditions - amoral neo-colonial policy
- Massive program of infrastructure (Chinese companies import
both raw materials and the work force)
- Little evidence that it supports local economy
- In Nigeria and South Africa, they suppressed the local textile
industry (but imposed export quota)
- Cheep loans to Zimbabwe

Africas problems remain contestant

40% of Africans are analphabets
Burundi, Angola, Congo life expectancy is under 40 years
Burundi 40% of its adult population has AIDS
The neo-liberal and left wing interpretation affirms Africas
problems are the result of the global economic structure
The impact of intervention Africans have entered
colonialism with a shovel and emerged from it with the same
Mono-industrial economies, lack of know-how, no education
Ghana and the Ivory Coast cocoa exporters but are buying
foreign industrial products which reduces the negotiation
1983, Sucden bought the whole production

At the end of the Cold War, the external debt is enormous.

- Decline of loan benefits.

73-79 Opec raised the oil prices

Raise in loan interest rates
Conditions imposed: reducing poverty, good governance and
transition towards democracy
Forced to privatize lead to unemployment
Crash of the clientele network which enforced inequality
Unclear efficiency of foreign aid.