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2015 AoPS Mathematical Olympiad

AoPSMC
May 23, 2015
Welcome to the 2015 AoPSMO! Before you start the test, here are a few things you need to know:
1. You have 3 hours total to take the test in.
2. Please submit your solutions through PM.
3. Solutions will be scored in a 1 - 10 range for correctness
4. Solutions will be scored in a 1 - 10 range for quality.
5. Your total score for a problem will be the sum of the points for correctness and quality.
6. If you are taking this test as a team, you have 2 options for solving and submitting solutions:
(a) Divide up the problems and the time, where each person gets 2 problems and 45 minutes.
(b) Each member of the team will solve complete the test by themselves, and then all the team
member interact to pick the best solutions to submit.
(c) No aids other than scratch paper, graph paper, ruler, compass, and protractor are permitted. In
particular, calculators and computers are not permitted.
7. The 3 tops scoring users/teams will be announced, and your prize will be . . .

Problems!
1. There exists a function G(x) such that G(x) + G


x
3
x 3+1

2 + x. Find G(x).

Proposed by beanielove2
2. In tetrahedron ABCD, let V be the volume of the tetrahedron and r the radius of the sphere that is
tangent to all four faces of the tetrahedron. Let P be the surface area of the tetrahedron. Prove that
r=

3V
.
P

Proposed by CaptainFlint.
3. A small apartment building has four doors, with door numbers 1, 2, 3, 4. John has 24 1 = 15 keys,
labeled with all possible nonempty subsets of {1, 2, 3, 4}, but he forgot which key is which. If an
element on the key label matches the door number, the key can open the door (e.g. key {1, 2, 4} can
open Door 4). He picks a key at random and tries to open Door 1, which fails, so he discards it. John
then randomly picks one of his remaining 14 keys and tries to open Door 2, but it doesnt open, so he
throws away that key as well. He then randomly selects one of the remaining 13 keys, and tests it on
Door 3. What is the probability that it will open?
Proposed by dantx5.
4. Jake, Jonathan, and Joe are playing a dice game involving polyhedron dice. The dice are as follows:
4 sides, 6 sides, 12 sides, and 20 sides. An n-sided dice has the numbers 1 through n labeled on the
sides. Jake starts by selecting a 4-sided die and a 20-sided die. The amount of points that a player
gets is the sum of the numbers on the rolled dice. Jonathan then selects a 12-sided die and an 20-sided
die. Finally, Joe selects a 20-sided die and a 6-sided die.
(a) What is the probability that Joe places last?
(b) What is the probability that Joe places second?
(c) What is the probability that Joe places first?
(d) What is the probability that there is a three-way tie?
Proposed by beanielove2.
5. Let ABC be a triangle with orthocenter H. Let AH, BH, and CH intersect the circumcircle of 4ABC
]
at points D, E, and F . Find the maximum value of [DEF
[ABC] . (Here [X] denotes the area of X.)
Proposed by tkhalid.
6. Find the five-hundredth-smallest positive integer that can be written using only the digits 1, 3, and 5
in base 7.
Proposed by CaptainFlint.
7. Let ABC be a right triangle with 6 C = 90 . Let PA , PB , and PC be regular pentagons, with side
lengths BC, CA, and AB. respectively. Prove that [PA ] + [PB ] = [PC ].
Proposed by CaptainFlint.
8. Consider the function f (x) = 5x4 12x3 + 30x2 12x + 5. Let f (x1 ) = p, where x1 and p are
non-negative integers and p is prime. Find with proof the largest possible value of p.
Proposed by tkhalid.