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From Knowledge Generation To Science-based

Innovation

Integration of Distributed Energy Resources


in Power Systems
J. A. Peas Lopes
Labora2014

Introduction
Driving forces for the future development of the electric energy
systems:
1) Environmental issues: (reduce emissions by replacing fossil generation by zero emission
generation, reduce network losses), minimize visual impacts and land use.
2) Replacement of old infrastructures (generation and grid)
3) Security of Supply
4) Increase quality of service (more automation and remote control)
5) Electricity market liberalization (energy and services)

1) Increase renewable generation (large facilities and distributed generation)


2) Distributed Generation (renewables and cogeneration)
3) Exploitation of storage solutions
3) Active demand Side Management
4) Electric mobility deployment

DER

1) Increase on monitoring and control through new communication infrastructures


2) New management and control architectures
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Introduction

Introduction : The Portuguese Case

The Variability of the RE Generation

Different generation profiles from RE

From REN:
http://www.centrodeinformacao.ren.pt/PT/InformacaoExploracao/Paginas/EstatisticaDiariaDiagrama.aspx5

TheVariability
variabilityofofthe
Renewable
Generation
The
RE Generation
28 Outubro 2012 - domingo

Consumption :
113 GWh
Special Regime Production > 60% of consumption

3000 MW in valley hours


< 1000 MW in peak afternoon hours

Pump Storage in valley hours

Reservoirs in peak hours

The variability of
The Variability
ofRenewable
the RE Generation
Generation
29 March 2013 Friday (holiday)
Consumption
128.3 GWh
-------------------------------------Hydro
66 GWh
(4160 MW)

Wind

78 GWh

(3780 MW)

Export

37 GWh

(2000 MW)

Large Variability of Renewables Generation

Flexibility

Load
Generation
Storage
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Changes in Load Diagrams


Germany 2012

Peak load has changed

Germany 2012: simulation with 53 GW of solar PV

Increased flexibility from gas fired plants

How to Tackle with Large Scale integration of DER


Increasing Flexibility
From DER units
Wind generators and PV generation should be capable to provide ancillary services and
adapt their operating points (deloading strategies)
Increasing the presence of storage
Increasing active load demand participation (including managing charging on Electric
Vehicle deployment) in the provision of ancillary servives and in helping controlling the
grid

From Large Generation Units


Allow them to change operating points in a faster way
Increase efficiency in different operating regimes

Through the adoption of new technical and management tools


Better forecasting load and renewable generation
New Control architectures Microgrids / Multi-microigrids
Increase monitoring and control through new communication solutions

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Multi-Level Storage Management


Storage should be managed at different levels:
System level

Peak shaving
Reserves management

Distribution network level


Power quality and reliability
Avoid branch congestion
Low voltage distribution
network

Generation level Market participation


Provision of ancillary services (different technologies)
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Community Energy Storage (CES)


the energy storage needs to follow the generation move towards the
new paradigm based on distributed energy resources (DER).
inserting energy storage systems in the low voltage (LV) grid, and
in the proximity of prosumers, increases the global value of the
storage solution.
due to the proximity with the costumers, this system is commonly
named Community Energy Storage (CES).

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Storage at the distribution level


BAU

Reinforcement
needed

with Sustainable functionalities


S effect
Reinforcement
postponed

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The effect of storage

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Residential Demand Response: The Smart Home


tion
nera
e
g
o
r
Mic
Electricity and
Reserve Services
Markets
Gen
Module
(kW)

Smart Appliances
State of Operation
Control Signals

HEMS
Central
Unit

(h)
Flexibility
Aggregator
Energy and
Reserve Prices

Consumer
comfort
preferences

Energy
Box
(Gateway)

Network
Smart
Meter

DSO

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Day ahead flexibility estimation: Appliance Level


Flexibility
EWS

Flexibility is calculated taking into account:


The consumer patterns (hot water usage);
The physical characteristics of the appliance;
Comfort constraints imposed by the consumer;
Energy price variation;
Remuneration offered for the reserve
provision.

kW

HEMS
Central
Unit

(h)

Flexible consumption to provide Reserve Services


Baseline Demand

Temperature (C)
100

P (kW)
6
5

80

60

Temperature Comfort limits

40

3
2

20

1
22:00

20:00

18:00

16:00

14:00

12:00

10:00

8:00

6:00

4:00

2:00

0
0:00

0
time

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Day ahead flexibility estimation: Aggregation


Aggregation Algorithms:
Considering the reserve prices and the probability of reserve to be dispatched,
Aggregators can decide their bids to offer in the reserve markets for the day ahead.
The decision process is based on the remuneration expected value and on the value at
risk.
Hourly Reserve
Prices

HEMS
Central
Unit

Deviations
Costs

Flexibility
kW

Aggregator
Algorithms

Day-ahead Bids
MW

HEMS
Central
Unit
HEMS
Central
Unit

kW
Remuneration
probability distribution

time

Day-ahead
Reserve
Services
Markets

kW

Probability of upward and


downward reserve dispatch

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Day ahead flexibility estimation: DSO


Services to the DSO:
Residential consumers flexibility (upward and downward) is communicated to the DSO in
order to be used as a resource in the distribution network operation.
DSO is capable of estimating the share of flexible and inflexible load in each hour of the
day ahead load diagram.
HEMS
Central
Unit
HEMS
Central
Unit
HEMS
Central
Unit

Flexibility
kW

kW

DSO

kW

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Grid technical problems and their management by controlling load


consumption from EVS
Technical challenges Integrated management of EV and RES

Increase load
Reduce load

Charging rate

Power

Max.

Reduce load
Increase load

Min.

Power
Charging rate

Voltages
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MicroGeneration (and Microgrids): Enabling SmartGrids


PV

MC
LC

MC

Microturbine

LV

LC

Wind Gen

MV

LC

MC
LC

MC
MGCC

Storage
Device

MC
LC
Fuel Cell

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Evolution
of the MicroGrid Concept
The Multi-Microgrid
Concept
New concept Multi-Microgrids

150 kV
Sk=3000 MVA

150/21 kV, 50 Hz, 40 MVA


uk=16%, Dyn1
12

630 kVA

630 kVA

630 kVA

630 kVA

400 kVA
Central
storage
MW, MWhr
to be determined

400 kVA

400 kVA

1000 kVA

1000 kVA

400 kVA

630 kVA

630 kVA

1000 kVA

1000 kVA

400 kVA

400 kVA

20 kV
Typical rural MV/
LV substation

0.4 kV

LV network
with CHP

250 kVA

630 kVA

160 kVA

630 kVA

400 kVA

400 kVA

250 kVA

250 kVA
400 kVA
LV network
with CHP

400 kVA

2x630 kVA

2x630 kVA

250 kVA
2.5 MVA

GS

GS

0.75 MW 1.5 MW
250 kVA

Small
hydro
Wind
farm

160 kVA

250 kVA

Loop section
(N.O. switch)

2000 kVA
0.4 kV

160 kVA

20 kV

160 kVA

Typical urban MV/


LV substation

160 kVA
GS

1 MVA

GS

CHP

6x1.5 MW

2x1 MW

Requires a higher level structure, at the MV level, consisting of LV Microgrids and DG


units connected on several adjacent MV feeders

Microgrids, DG units and MV loads under DSM control can be considered as active cells,
for the purpose of control and management

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Management of the Distribution Grid with DER


Intra-day Corrective Markets
Responsible for
the grid technical
operation

Requests to manage
DER in order to solve
the problems
detected.

Intra-day Markets

Offers to manage DER,


in accordance with the
requests presented by
the DSO.

DSO

Set-points related with DER adjustments


(only if negotiations with aggregators in
intra-day corrective markets were fruitless
and aggregators activities were
suspended). These set-points can be sent to
both flexible and inflexible DER.

Each time interval of 15


min: bus where the DER
is connected, current DER
status. This information is
required from both
flexible and inflexible
DER.

Bids for selling the


excess of energy
or for buying
extra energy.

Aggregator
Set-points related with
adjustments (only if
negotiations with the DSO in
intra-day corrective markets
were fruitful).

DER information: bus where DER is


connected, period during which
DER is available, owner
preferences.

Smart
Meter
G
Owner preferences

G
Storage
EV Charger

EV

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Smart Players
Smart

Smart

Generation

Storage

Smart

Smart

Consumptio
n

Grid

Distribution system operators need to manage


Flexibility from consumers, DG and network
(including new ancillary services)
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Future Research

Need for Operation reserves and their management


Determination of the correct generation mix
Advanced forecasting for wind and solar PV generation
Need for faster markets
Evaluation of the demand response participation
Managing large scale storage solutions (concentrated and distributed)
Model aggregated RES/DER, flexible conventional generation, demand and storage systems for
market design, market mechanisms and simulation tools for planning and operation purposes
Validate the contribution of RES and DER to voltage and frequency control and, balancing using
VPP concepts
Exploit DER to increase resilience of the system when facing catastrophic events
Stochastic planning and operating tools
Regulation of Flexibility
Increse the articulation between TSO and DSO (exchange of information on interconnection
buses, forecasts, ..) to enable ancillary and balancing services provision
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Thank you for your attention!

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