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MATH 1113 PRACTICE TEST 3 ANSWERS, FALL 2013

1. Simplify sec 2 x(1 sin 2 x)


1
(cos 2 x)
cos 2 x
1

2. Simplify

sec 2
csc 2

1
sec 2 2
csc
1

sin 2
2
cos
sin 2

cos 2
tan 2

3. Simplify cot 2 x cot 2 x cos 2 x


= cot 2 x(1 cos 2 x)
cos 2 x
(sin 2 x)
2
sin x
cos 2 x

4. Simplify

1
1

sec x 1 sec x 1

sec x 1
sec x 1

(sec x 1)(sec x 1) (sec x 1)(sec x 1)


sec x 1 (sec x 1)

sec 2 x 1
2

tan 2 x
2 cot 2 x

5. Establish the identity

cos( )
sec tan
1 sin( )
cos( )
1 sin( )
cos

1 sin
cos (1 sin )

(1 sin )(1 sin )


cos (1 sin )

1 sin 2
cos (1 sin )

cos 2
1 sin

cos
1
sin

cos cos
sec tan

6. Establish the identity cos 4 x sin 4 x 1 2sin 2 x


cos 4 x sin 4 x
(cos 2 x sin 2 x)(cos 2 x sin 2 x)
(1)(cos 2 x sin 2 x)
cos 2 x sin 2 x
(1 sin 2 x) sin 2 x
1 2sin 2 x
7. Find all solutions in the interval [0, 360)
1
(a) cos x
2
The cosine is negative in QII and QIII and we know cos 60
the solutions

60
60

1
so use the following picture for
2

The angle must be measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and be less then one full
circle, so x 180 60 120 or x 180 60 240 .
x 120, 240
(b) sin x

3
2

The sine is positive in QI and QII and we know sin 60

3
so use the following picture for the
2

solutions

60

60

The angle must be measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis and be less then one full
circle, so x 60 or x 180 60 120 .
x 60,120
2
(c) 1 2 cos x sin x
First use the identity sin 2 x 1 cos 2 x 1 2 cos x 1 cos 2 x
Now solve for cos x as you would solve a quadratic equation
cos 2 x 2 cos x 0
cos x(cos x 2) 0
cos x 0 or cos x 2
cos x = 2 has no solution
cos

0 for angles with terminal side on the y-axis


We know
x 90, 270
8. Solve cos 4 x

3
2

3
so use the following picture for
2
the solutions for 4x. (Since we are finding all solutions we may measure the angles any way we
choose. For instance we could use 30 and 330.) We also need to add multiples of 360 to
these solutions
The cosine is positive in QI and QIV and we know cos 30

30
30

4 x 30 n360 or 4 x 30 n360
30 n360
30 n360
x

or x

4
4
4
4
x 7.5 n90 or x 7.5 n90

9. Using sum or difference formulas find exact values without using a calculator.
(a) tan 15
(b) sin 105
(c) cos 75
cos(30 45)

sin(60

45

)
tan(60 45)
sin 60 cos 45 cos 60 sin 45 cos 30 cos 45 sin 30 sin 45
tan 60 tan 45

3 2 1 2
3 2 1 2

1 tan 60 tan 45

2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
3 1
6 2
6 2

1 3
4
4
10. Write as the sine or cosine of an angle
(a) cos 60 cos 20 + sin60 sin20
Use cos(u v) cos u cos v sin u sin v
cos(60 20)
cos 40

(b) sin 37 cos 13 cos 37 sin 13


Use sin(u v) sin u cos v cos u sin v
sin(37 13)
sin 24

1
11. Evaluate tan(cos

4
5
sin 1 )
5
13

1
= tan(u v) , where u cos

4
1 5
and v sin
5
13

Use the following pictures for u and v:

5
u

13

3
v

tan(u v)

5
12

tan u tan v
1 tan u tan v

3 5

4 12
3 5
1
4 12
3 5

4 12
5
1
16
3 5
48( )
4 12

5
48(1 )
16
36 20

48 15
56

33
12. Find all solutions in the interval [0, 360): sin 2 x sin x 0
2sin x cos x sin x 0
sin x(2 cos x 1) 0
sin x 0 or 2 cos x 1
1
sin x 0 or cos x
2
From a unit circle diagram: x 0,180,120, 240

13. Find the exact value of cos 2u if sin u

3
5

Use cos 2u 1 2sin 2 u


3
cos 2u 1 2( ) 2
5
9
1 2( )
25
18
1
25
7

25
14. Use a half angle formula to find cos 105
u
1 cos u
Use cos
with u 210 . Use the sign because cos 105 is negative.
2
2
210
1 cos 210
cos

2
2

1 (

3
)
2

2
3
2

1
2

3
)
2
2(2)

2(1

2 3
4

2 3
2

Questions 9 11Cuse the following figure

15. Solve the triangle if A 28.6, C 79.3 and b 12.3 Round answers to three decimal
places.
C
79.3
12.33

AC

28.6
c

First find B: B 28.6 79.3 180


B 72.1
b
a

sin B sin A
12.3
a

sin 72.1 sin 28.6


a sin 72.1 12.3sin 28.6
12.3sin 28.6
a
sin 72.1
a 6.187

Now use the law of sines to find a:

b
c

sin B sin C
12.3
c

sin 72.1 sin 79.3


a sin 72.1 12.3sin 79.3
12.3sin 79.3
c
sin 72.1
c 12.701

Now use the law of sines to find c:

16. Solve the triangle if A 30, a 8 and b 12 Round answers to three decimal places.
Note that this is the ambiguous case, so we will find the height of the triangle to determine how
C

many solutions.
12

30
c

h
12
h 12sin 30
h6
Because h a b there are two solutions
b
a

Find B using
:
sin B sin A
12
8

sin B sin 30
8sin B 12sin 30
12sin 30
sin B
8
sin B .75
One solution is B sin 1 .75 48.590377 . Note that to ensure accuracy use three more decimal
places in calculations than you use in answers.
Find h: sin 30

The picture is for B is:

48.59

48.59

The two possible solutions are:


B 48.59
Find C:
C 180 48.590377 30 101.409623
C 101.41
c
a

Find c using
:
sin C sin A
c
8

sin101.409623 sin 30

B 180 48.590377 131.419623


B 131.41
C 180 131.409623 30 18.590377
C 18.590

c
8

sin18.590377 sin 30

8
c sin101.409623
sin 30
c 15.684
11. Find the area of the triangle if C 30, a 6 and b 11
1
Use A ab sin C
2
1
A (6)(11)sin 30 16.5
2

8
c sin18.590377
sin 30
c 5.101