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Information Technology Fundamentals

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1.0

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BASICS

1.1

A World of Computer

Computers are everywhere.

What Is a Computer?
A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own
memory. Its processing cycle begins with collecting data (input) and ends with producing information
(output).

Input
(data)

process

Output
(information)

Data raw facts


Information a collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the
value of the facts themselves.

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The Components of Computer


A computer contains many electric, electronic and mechanical components known as hardware.
Component
Input Device
Output Device
System Unit
Storage Device
Communication Device

Description
Allows user to enter data and instructions into a computer
Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people
Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that
are used to process data
Records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage
Media
Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and
information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices

The Components of a Computer (examples)

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Information Technology Fundamentals

1.2

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Information Systems Vs Information Technology

Information Technology
IT refers to all of the computer-based information systems used by organizations and their underlying
technologies.
Elements of IT : Hardware, software, databases, networks and other related components.

Information System (IS)


A set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate and disseminate data and information and
provide feedback to meet an objective. Examples of IS include ATM, airline reservation systems, course
reservation systems etc. IS is more than a computer.

IS is more than a computer.

Perspective on information systems

Elements of IS

Input
(data)

process

Output
(information)

feedback
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Information System vs Information Technology

1.3

Latest technology in Information Technology

The rate at which new computer hardware products are arriving in the market is simply mind-boggling.
As the technology advances, the size and the price of the devices come down, while the efficiency and
capacity increase. The scenario is same in all cases, whether it is about internal components like
processor, motherboard, RAM, graphics card, and hard disk or for peripheral accessories like mouse,
keyboard, and monitors. Personal computers became popular only before about three decades back. But
already there are huge piles of outdated and antique hardware components and devices. This is a tribute
to the tremendous rate of development of latest technologies in computer hardware field. Perhaps, the
newest entrant into the archeological catalogue of computer peripherals is CRT monitors. The sleek
looking LCD monitors are spreading like computer virus.
Data storage devices have attracted considerable attention of the technology developers. New kinds of
storage devices such as newer versions of flash memory cards, hard disks using latest technology and
disks of ever-increasing capacity are the results of advancement in latest technology in compute
hardware. The memory size of the random access memory (RAM) cards is soaring to enable the smooth
functioning of graphics animation software packages and streaming video websites. Also, computer
motherboards have undergone substantial changes over the years. More and more functions are being
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added to the motherboard. Also, despite the incredible improvement in performance and functionalities,
the price of these components has actually fallen steadily.
The most vital component of a computer is the microprocessor. It is in this field that a battle of
developing latest technologies in computer hardware takes place. The pace of development of
microprocessor increases as the competition between the major processor chip manufacturing
companies, Intel and AMD, intensifies. Both the companies are engaging in a neck and neck competition
and continuously outdo each other in introducing new technologies.
In the field of computer peripherals, the latest technology in computer hardware is in developing yet
another version of wireless mouse and keyboard. The concept of wireless mouse and keyboard is about
a decade old. But the development of these items is still a work in progress. The latest products of
wireless mouse and keyboard are said to be highly durable and error free.
Some of the developments in the latest technology in computer hardware are gearing up for changing
the present concept of desktop and laptop computers. With new developments making possible the
convergence of mobile phone technology and computers, a new breed of fully functional palm-top
computers are going to be introduced in near future. With touch screen monitors and without the need
for a mouse, these gadgets are likely to become the next big leap in the constantly leaping technological
development field.

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Information Technology Fundamentals

2.0

COMPUTER HARDWARE

2.1

Components of Computer Hardware

2.1.1

Input Devices

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An input device is any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions into
a computer.
2.1.1.1 Keyboard
An ergonomic keyboard has a design that reduces the chance of wrist and hand injuries.
Ergonomics incorporates comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of the workplace.

Keyboards on mobile devices typically are smaller and/or have fewer keys. Some phones have
predictive text input, which saves time when entering text using the phones keypad.

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2.1.1.2 Pointing Device


A pointing device is an input device that allows a user to control a pointer on the screen. A
pointer is a small symbol on the screen whose location and shape change as a user moves a
pointing device.

Mouse

A mouse is a pointing device that fits under the palm of


your hand comfortably
Most widely used pointing device on desktop
computers
A mouse can be wired or wireless

Trackball

A trackball is a stationary pointing device with a ball on


its top or side

Touch Screen & Touchpad

A touch screen is a touch-sensitive display device

A touchpad is a small, flat, rectangular pointing device


that is sensitive to pressure and motion

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Pointing Stick

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A pointing stick is a pressure-sensitive pointing device


shaped like a pencil eraser that is positioned between
keys on a keyboard

Pen Input

With pen input, you touch a stylus or digital pen on a


flat surface to write, draw, or make selections

Game Controller

Video games and computer games use a game


controller as the input device that directs movements
and actions of on-screen objects.

Game pads

Joystick & wheels

Light guns

Motion-sensing controller

2.1.1.3 Digital Camera


A digital camera is a mobile device that allows users to take pictures and store them digitally.

Studio cameras

Field cameras

Point-and-shoot camera

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2.1.1.4 Voice Input


Voice input is the process of entering input by speaking into a microphone. Voice recognition is
the computers capability of distinguishing spoken words. Audio input is the process of entering
any sound into the computer.

Speech

Music

Sound Effects

Music production software allows users to record, compose, mix, and edit music and sounds.

2.1.1.5 Video Input


Video input is the process of capturing full-motion images and storing them on a computers
storage medium.
Record video on a digital video (DV) camera or use a video
capture card to convert analog signals to digital

Connect the camera to a port on the system unit

Transfer video and images

A Web cam is a type of digital video camera that enables a user to:
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Capture video and still images

Send e-mail messages with video attachments

Add live images to instant messages

Broadcast live images over the Internet

Make video telephone calls

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A video conference is a meeting between two or more geographically separated people.

2.1.1.6 Scanners & Reading Devices

Optical character recognition (OCR) involves reading characters from ordinary documents. A
turnaround document is a document you return to the company that creates and sends it.
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Optical mark recognition (OMR) reads hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles.
An OMR device scans the documents and matches the patterns of light

A bar code reader, also called a bar code scanner uses laser beams to read bar codes

RFID (radio frequency identification) uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in
or attached to an object. An RFID reader reads information on the tag via radio waves. RFID
can track:

Magnetic stripe card readers read the magnetic stripe on the back of cards such as:
Credit cards
Entertainment cards
Bank cards
Other similar cards

MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) devices read text printed with magnetized ink. An
MICR reader converts MICR characters into a form the computer can process. Banking
industry uses MICR for check processing.

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Data collection devices obtain data directly at the location where the transaction or event
takes place. Used in:
Restaurants
Grocery stores
Factories
Warehouses
The outdoors

2.1.2

Output Devices
An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people.
Four commonly used output devices are a printer, a monitor, speakers and a portable media
player.

2.1.2.1 Display Device


A display device visually conveys text, graphics, and video information. A monitor is packaged as
a separate peripheral:

LCD monitor

Widescreen

Liquid crystal display (LCD) uses a liquid compound to present information on a display device.

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Resolution is the number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a display device. A higher resolution
uses a greater number of pixels.

The graphics processing unit (GPU) controls the manipulation and display of graphics on a display
device. LCD monitors use a digital signal and should plug into a DVI port, and HDMI port, or a
DisplayPort.

Plasma monitors are display devices that use gas plasma technology and offer screen sizes up to
150 inches.

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Televisions also are a good output device - Require a converter if you are connecting your
computer to an analog television. Digital television (DTV) offers a crisper, higher-quality output.
HDTV is the most advanced form of digital television. A CRT monitor is a desktop monitor that
contains a cathode-ray tube. Have a much larger footprint than do LCD monitors.

2.1.2.2 Printers
A printer produces text and graphics on a physical medium. Printed information is called a hard
copy, or printout. The orientation is either Landscape or portrait. Two types of printer:
i.

Nonimpact printer

ii.

Impact printer

Nonimpact Printer

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Printer
Ink-jet Printers

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Description

An ink-jet printer forms characters and


graphics by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink
onto a piece of paper

Color or black-and-white

Printers with a higher dpi (dots per inch)


produce a higher quality output

Photo Printer

A photo printer produces colour photo-labquality pictures

Most use ink-jet technology

PictBridge allows you to print photos directly


from a digital camera

Print from a memory card and preview photos


on a built-in LCD screen

Multi-Function Peripheral

A multifunction peripheral (MFP) is a single


device that prints, scans, copies, and in some
cases, faxes

Thermal Printer

Sometimes called an all-in-one device

A thermal printer generates images by pushing


electrically heated pins against the heatsensitive paper

Two types:
o

Thermal wax-transfer printer

Dye-sublimation printer

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Mobile Printer

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A mobile printer is a small, lightweight,


battery-powered printer that allows a mobile
user to print from a notebook computer, smart
phone, or other mobile device

Label Printer

A label printer is a small printer that prints on


adhesive-type material

A postage printer prints postage stamps

Postage also can be printed on other types of


printers

Plotters

Plotters are used to produce high-quality


drawings

Large-format printers create photo-realistic


quality colour prints on a larger scale

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Impact Printer
Impact printers form characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking a mechanism
against an inked ribbon that physically contacts the paper. Two types of impact printer:

Dot-Matrix printer produces printed images when tiny wire pins on a print head
mechanism strike an inked ribbon

Line printer prints an entire line at a time

2.1.2.3 Speakers, Headphones & Ear buds


An audio output device produces music, speech, or other sounds. Most computer users attach
speakers to their computers to:

Generate higher-quality sounds for playing games

Interact with multimedia presentations

Listen to music

View movies

Headphones are speakers that cover or are placed outside of the ear. Earbuds (also called
earphones) rest inside the ear canal. Wireless speakers are specifically designed to play audio
from a portable media player.

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Voice output occurs when you hear a persons voice or when the computer talks to you through
the speakers.

Some Web sites dedicate themselves to providing voice output

Often works with voice input

VoIP uses voice output and voice input

2.1.2.4 Other Output Devices


Other output devices are available for specific uses and applications.
Devices
Data Projector

Description
A data projector is a device that takes the text and
images displaying on a computer screen and projects
them on a larger screen

Interactive Whiteboards

LCD projector

Digital light processing (DLP) projector

An interactive whiteboard is a touch-sensitive device,


resembling a dry-erase board, that displays the image
on a connected computer screen

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2.1.3

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Storage
Storage holds data, instruction, and information for future use. A storage medium is the physical
material on which a computer keeps data, instruction and information. A storage device is the
computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media.

Reading is the process of transferring items from a storage medium into memory

Writing is the process of transferring items from memory to a storage medium

Access time measures:


o

The amount of time it takes a storage device to locate an item on a storage


medium

The time required to deliver an item from memory to the processor

2.1.3.1 Hard Disks


A hard disk contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use magnetic particles to store
data, instructions, and information. Formatting is the process of dividing the disk into tracks and
sectors so that the operating system can store and locate data and information on the disk. A
head crash occurs when a read/write head touches the surface of a platter. Always keep a
backup of your hard disk.

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2.1.3.2 Flash Memory Storage

A memory card is a removable flash memory device that you insert and remove from a slot in a
computer, mobile device, or card reader/writer.

USB flash drives plug into a USB port on a computer or mobile device (512 MB-100 GB).

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An Express Card module is a removable device that fits in an Express Card slot. It is developed by
the PCMCIA and commonly used in notebook computers.

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2.1.3.3 Cloud Storage

Cloud storage is an Internet service that provides storage to computer users (may or may not be
free).

Users subscribe to cloud storage for a variety of reasons:

Access files from any computer

Store large files instantaneously

Allow others to access their files

View time-critical data and images immediately

Store offsite backups

Provide data center functions

2.1.3.4 Optical Disks

An optical disc consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer that is
written and read by a laser. Typically it stores software, data, digital photos, movies and music.
Two types of optical disks is Read only or rewritable.

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2.1.3.5 Other Types of Storage


Storage
Tape

Description
Tape is a magnetically coated ribbon of plastic capable
of storing large amounts of data and information.
A tape drive reads and writes data and information on a
tape (sequential access)

Magnetic Stripe Cards & Smart Cards

A magnetic stripe card contains a magnetic stripe that


stores information.

A smart card stores data on a thin microprocessor


embedded in the card

Microfilm & Microfiche

Microfilm and microfiche store microscopic images of


documents on a roll or sheet film

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2.1.4

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System Unit
The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process
data. The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes:
1. Drive Bay
2. Power Supply
3. Sound Card
4. Video Card
5. Processor
6. Memory
What is the motherboard? The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit. A
computer chip contains integrated circuits.

What is the Processor? The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets
and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer. It contains Control Unit (CU)
which directs and coordinates operations in computer and Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) which
performs arithmetic, comparison and logical operations.

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The pace of the system clock is called the clock speed, and is measured in gigahertz (GHz). The
leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD. A processor
chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up.
Require additional cooling

Heat sinks

Liquid cooling technology

What is the Memory? Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting
to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of
processing the data. Stores three basic categories of items:

Each location in memory has an address. Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K),
megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB).

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The system unit contains two types of memory:

Three basic types of RAM chips exist:

What is Bay(s)? A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional
equipment. A drive bay typically holds disk drives.

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What is Power Supply? The power supply converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power.
Some external peripherals have an AC adapter, which is an external power supply.

2.1.5

Connector Components
Port / Connector

Description

Serial Port: Transmits one bit of data at a time. Connects slowspeed devices, such as mouse, keyboard and modem.

Parallel Port: Connects devices that can transfer more than one
bit at a time, such as a printer

PS/2 PORTS /6-PIN MINI DIN, 5-PIN DIN

PS/2 keyboard or PS/2 mouse ports are used to connect the PC


to its keyboard and mouse.

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Bluetooth Port
A Bluetooth wireless port adapter converts a USB port into a
Bluetooth port

FireWire Port
FireWire ports are forms of a serial port that make use of
FireWire technology to transfer data rapidly from one electronic
device to another.
SCSI Port
SCSI or Small Computer System Interface is a set of standards for
connecting computers and peripheral devices for data transfer.
SCSI is commonly used for hard disks and tape drives, but can
connect a wide range of other devices like optical drives like
CD/DVD drive if the specific device being connected supports the
standard. There are different SCSI port types like parallel SCSI,
serial SCSI, Fiber SCSI and iSCSI.
eSata Port
eSATA is a External Serial ATA interface. Serial ATA is a
commonly used interface for internal Hard Drives, and eSATA is
an extension of that specification to be used with external
devices.
IrDA Port
Short for Infrared Data Association, a group of device
manufacturers that developed a standard for transmitting data
via infrared light waves.

IrDA ports support roughly the same transmission rates as


traditional parallel ports. The only restrictions on their use is that
the two devices must be within a few feet of each other and
there must be a clear line of sight between them

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2.2

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Portable Device

Portables are built with the intention of being lightweight and fitting within a certain size or form factor.
Portable devices include batteries, hard drives, PCMCIA Cards, and memory.
Hardware

Description

Notebook computers incorporate the system unit, input unit, and output
unit into a single, lightweight package, that can be carried around by the
user. They are also called portables, laptop computers, palmtops, or personal
digital assistant (PDA), depending on their size and what they can do.

Notebook Computers
Originally, portables used Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cad) batteries and were in an
external battery pack that would attach to the portable device. More
recently, Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium-Ion batteries have been
used in portable devices. These batteries usually last for a little over two
Batteries

hours, depending on their size and the power consumption by the device.

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The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)


card is a special expansion card type designed primarily to accommodate the
needs of the portable computer market.
PCMCIA Card
Notebook and laptop computers use non-CRT type displays, also referred to
as flat panel displays. Two examples of such displays are Liquid Crystal
Display (LCD) and gas-plasma panels.

Portable

They are much lighter and more compact than CRT monitors.

They require much less electrical energy to operate.

Both types of display units can be operated from batteries.

Computer

Display
A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to
peripherals through ports built into the device .A docking station is an
external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device

Docking Station / Port


Replicator
Overheating can cause the system to slow down and malfunction. Keeping
the notebook cooler can be as simple as raising the notebook slightly to
allow air to circulate under the computer. Notebook cooler pads can be
purchased that utilize fans powered by the USB port help keep the notebook
cool.
Cooling Fan

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Infrared technology, also known as Infrared Radiation (IR) is used for wireless
transmission between computer devices and in remote controls for
television and stereo systems. To successfully link two devices, there must be
a transmitter and receiver with an unobstructed line of sight between the
devices.
Infrared Device
Radio signals are used in wireless networking technologies to enable
computers to broadcast their information to one another using. A wireless
access point is utilized so that computers in a client/server network
communicate.
Wireless Access point

2.3

Multimedia Capabilities Tools


Multimedia is a term typically used to mean the combination of text, sound, and motion video.

Multimedia has been described as the addition of animated images as in an animated GIF on the web.
Multimedia is distinguished from traditional motion pictures or movies both by the scale of the
production (multimedia is usually smaller and less expensive) and by the addition of audience
participation or interactive multimedia. The minimum hardware requirements include a computer
monitor, video accelerator card, and sound adapter card with attached speakers.
The types of computer hardware and software necessary to develop multimedia on the PC vary.
The minimum hardware requirements include a computer monitor, video accelerator card, and sound
adapter card with attached speakers.

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2.3.1 The Video Adapter

A video adapter is an integrated circuit card in a computer that provides digital-to-analog


conversion, video RAM, and a video controller so that data can be sent to a computer display.

Almost all displays and video adapters adhere to the standard Video Graphics Array (VGA).

VGA is how data is passed between the computer and the display.

A display or monitor is a computer output surface and projecting mechanism that shows text
and often graphic images.

Most computer monitors use analog signals to display the image.

This requirement and the need to continually refresh the displayed image means that the
computer also needs a display or video adapter.

2.3.2 Characterizing Computer Display


The Visual Graphics Array (VGA) mode is the lowest common denominator of display modes.
Depending on the resolution setting, it can provide up to 256 colors.
Dot pitch is the size of an individual beam that gets through to light up a point of phosphor on
the screen.
Computer video displays can be characterized according to the following criteria:
Color capability
Sharpness and view ability
The size of the screen
The projection technology

2.3.3 Sound Card & Speaker System


The output of the sound card requires additional amplification if external
speakers are used. Sound cards do have the capability of directly driving
low-power headphones. The system internal speaker can also produce audio
output, or it can be amplified through external audio amplifier systems for
applications such as "Surround Sound".

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2.3.3.1 Sound Card Operation

A sound card is a device (either in the form of an expansion card or a chipset) that allows
the computer to handle audio information.

Basic responsibility of a sound card is the input, processing, and output of audio
information.

2.3.3.2 Physical Installation of Sound Cards

Installing a sound card is similar to installing any other adapter card.

Refer to the user guide to determine what hardware configuration settings should be
made before inserting the card into the system.

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2.3.3.4 Connecting the CD-ROM or DVD Player to the Sound Card

A common connection is cabling the CD-ROM or DVDROM drive to the sound card to
produce digital audio.

All CD-ROM drives have an analog audio out connector for connecting to a sound card.

Most DVDROM drives offer a digital audio out connection.

DVDs are capable of audio streams containing multiple channels.

2.3.3.5 Sound Card Driver and Software Installation and Configuration

A sound card driver is the software that allows the computer operating system to
communicate with the hardware.

Faulty drivers can cause either distorted audio output, no audio output, or can adversely
affect the performance of a computer.

Most sound card manufacturers include a disk or CD with their product.Once the sound
card is installed, the driver can be installed, changed, or updated by using the Device
Manager.

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2.3.3.6 MIDI and External-Audio Source Connection

Common external-audio source connections include:

MIDI port Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) used to connect musical devices.

Microphones can be connected to a sound card using the female 3.5mm mini jack port
on the face of the sound card.

The microphone in port is to be used with non-amplified sources.

The line in port is used to capture audio from amplified sources with line out options.

Manufacturers are adding external digital audio source capture components.

The major advantage of using the digital in option is that there is no analog to digital
conversion necessary to capture the audio information.

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2.3.4 Drives

Compact Disk, Read Only Memory (CD-ROMs) are a very popular type of removable
media.

CD-ROM drives are categorized by their case type, bus type, and read speed.

The CD-ROM drive needs to be connected to a 40-pin IDE cable that is then connected to
the IDE controller.

An internal CD-ROM drive uses the standard Molex power connector that supplies 12
volts to other devices inside a PC.

2.3.4.1 Recording CDS with CD-R and CD-RW

CD recorders allow users to "burn" their own CDs containing music, data, video, or any
combination thereof.

Currently there are two major types of CD recorders:


1. CD-R - stands for Compact Disc - Recordable
2. CD-RW stands for Compact Disc Rewritable

It is recommended to be aware of copyright or licensing limitations when copying any


type of CD.

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2.3.4.2 DVD Players

DVDs share the same physical size of a CD-ROM but can handle a much greater amount
of information.

DVDs are used for movies and audio, as well as data.

Computer DVD drives can also play movies and music as well as read data discs.

Manufacturers can now place their entire program on a single DVD instead of multiple
lower capacity CDs.

A DVD drive can read DVDs and CDs while a CD-ROM drive can only read CDs.

2.3.4.3 Recordable DVD

There are four different methods of DVD recording.


1. DVD-R (recordable) is similar to CD-R technology in that it allows the media to be
written one time only
2. DVD-RAM Using the Random Access Memory (RAM) technology allows users to
write and overwrite discs 100,000 times
3. The DVD-RW (re-writable) is a technology designed to address compatibility and
re-recording issues

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4. DVD+RW - has the ability to use a variable bit-rate when encoding certain types
of media

2.3.5 Digital Cameras

A digital camera has a series of lenses that focus light to create an image of a scene just
like a conventional film camera.

It focuses light onto a semiconductor device that records the light electronically instead
of focusing this light onto a piece of film.

Many digital cameras use an LCD screen and fixed storage connected to the computer to
download the images.

2.3.6 Video Cameras

There are two types of video cameras: analog and digital.

Analog camcorders record video and audio signals as an analog track on video tape.
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Digital recorders record information digitally, as bytes. This allows the image to be
reproduced without losing any image or audio quality.

Digital video can be downloaded to a computer, where it can be edited or posted on the
Internet.

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3.0 COMPUTER SOFTWARE

Computer Software /program, tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to perform
them. Consist of
1. System Software
2. Application Software

3.1 System Software

System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the
computer and its devices. Consist of
1. Operating System
2. Utility Programs

3.2 Operating System

An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to
coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources

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3.3 Operating System Functions


1. The process of starting or restarting a computer is called booting

Cold boot : Turning on a computer that has been powered off completely

Warm boot: Using the operating system to restart a computer

2. Steps how the pc boot.


a. Then power supply sends a signal to the components in the system unit
b. The processor finds the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS (basic input/output system)
c. The BIOS perform the POST (power-on self test), which checks components, such as the
mouse, keyboard and adapter cards
d. The results of the POST are compared with data in the CMOS chips
e. The BIOS may look for the system files on a USB flash drive or on optical disc drive or may
look directly on drive C (hard disk)
f.

The system files and the kernel of the operating system load into memory (RAM) from
storage (i.e hard disk)

g. The operating system loads configuration information, may request user information, starts
several background processes. And displays the desktop on the screen

3. A boot drive is the drive from which your computer starts

4. You can boot from a boot disk.

5. A recovery disk contains a few system files that will start the computer

6. An operating system includes various shut down options

Sleep mode saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded
functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state

Hibernate saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing
power from the computer

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7. A user interface controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed
on the screen

8. With a graphical user interface (GUI), you interact with menus and visual images

9. With a command-line interface, a user uses the keyboard to enter data and instructions

10. Program management features of operating systems:


a. Single user and multiuser
b. Single tasking and multitasking
c. Foreground and background
d. Preemptive multitasking
e. Multiprocessing
11. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM.
12. Virtual memory is a portion of a storage medium functioning as additional RAM
13. The operating system determines the order in which tasks are processed
14. A driver is a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific
device
15. Plug and Play automatically configures new devices as you install them
16. Operating systems typically provide a means to establish Internet connections.
17. A performance monitor is a program that assesses and reports information about various
computer resources and devices
18. Operating systems often provide users with the capability of:
a. Managing files
b. Searching for files
c. Viewing images
d. Securing a computer
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e. Uninstalling programs
f.

Cleaning up disks

g. Defragmenting disks
h. Diagnosing problems
i.

Backing up files and disks

j.

Setting up screen savers

19. Automatic update automatically provides updates to the program


20. Some operating systems are designed to work with a server on a network.
21. A server operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share
resources on a network
22. A network administrator uses the server operating system to:
a. Add and remove users, computers, and other devices
b. Install software and administer network security
23. Each user has a user account
a. A user name, or user ID, identifies a specific user
b. A password is a private combination of characters associated with the user name

3.4 Types of Operating Systems


1. Stand-alone
2. Server
3. Embedded

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3.5 Stand-Alone Operating Systems


1. A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer,
notebook computer, or mobile computing device
2. Examples: Windows 7, Mac OS X, Unix, Linux
3. Windows 7 is Microsofts fastest, most efficient operating system to date and is available in multiple
editions: Windows 7 Starter , Windows 7 Home Premium , Windows 7 Ultimate , Windows 7
Professional
4. Windows 7 provides programs such as: Windows Firewall, Windows DVD Maker , Windows Media
Player, Desktop Gadget Gallery
5. The Macintosh operating system has set the standard for operating system ease of use. Latest
version is Mac OS X.
6. UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s
7. Linux is an open-source, popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system

3.6 Server Operating Systems


1. Allows users to share resources on a network
2. Administers security by establishing user name and password for each user
3. Windows Server 2008 is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003. It is part of the Windows Server 2008
family and has multiple editions. Most editions include Hyper-V, a virtualization technology.
Virtualization is the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources

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3.7 Embedded Operating Systems


1. An embedded operating system resides on a ROM chip on a mobile device or consumer electronic
device
a. Windows Embedded CE- is scaled-down version of Windows
b. Windows Phone 7
c. Palm OS
d. iPhone OS
e. BlackBerry
f.

Google Android

g. Embedded Linux - Scaled-down Linux operating system designed for smart phones, PDAs, smart
watches, set-top boxes, Internet telephones, and other devices
h. Symbian OS:- Open-source, multitasking operating system designed for smart phones Make
telephone calls, save appointments, browse Web, send and receive text and picture messages,
e-mail messages, faxes, and more

3.8 Utility Programs


1. A utility program is a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks
2. A file manager is a utility that performs functions related to file management
a. Displaying a list of files
b. Organizing files in folders
c. Copying, renaming, deleting, moving, and sorting files and folders
d. Creating shortcuts

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3. A search utility is a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you
specify
4. An image viewer allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file
5. An uninstaller removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files
6. A disk cleanup utility searches for and removes unnecessary files
a. Downloaded program files
b. Temporary Internet files
c. Deleted files
d. Unused program files
7. A disk defragmenter reorganizes the files and unused space on a computers hard disk so that the
operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster
a. Defragmenting
8. A backup utility allows users to copy files to another storage medium
9. A restore utility reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form
10. A screen saver causes a display devices screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no activity
occurs for a specified time
11. A personal firewall detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions
a. A virus describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects a computer Negatively
b. A worm copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network
c. A Trojan horse hides within or looks like a legitimate program
12. An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses

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13. Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the users knowledge that secretly collects
information about the user. A spyware remover detects and deletes spyware and other similar
programs
14. Adware displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window. An adware remover is a
program that detects and deletes adware
15. Filters are programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed
a. Web filtering software
b. Anti-spam programs
c. Phishing filters
d. Pop-up blockers
16. A file compression utility shrinks the size of a file(s).Compressing files frees up room on the storage
media. Two types of compression
a.

Lossy

b.

Lossless

17. Compressed files sometimes are called zipped files. It can be uncompressed.
18. A media player allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on
your computer
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19. Disc burning software writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable
optical disc
20. A personal computer maintenance utility identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects
and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computers performance

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3.9 Application Software


1. Application software consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or
assist with personal tasks.
a. To make business activities more efficient
b. To assist with graphics and multimedia projects
c. To support home, personal, and educational tasks
d. To facilitate communications

2. 4 categories of application Software


a. Business
b. Graphics and Multimedia
c. Home/Personal/Educational
d. communication

3. The software is available in a variety of forms:


a. Packaged software, mass-produced
b. Custom software, performs functions specific to a business or industry
c. Web-based software, hosted by a Web site
d. Open source software, provided for use, modification, and redistribution
e. Shareware, copyrighted software that is distributed free for trial period
f.

Freeware, copyrighted software provided at no cost

g. Public-domain software, freeware with no copyright restrictions

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Business Software is application software that assists people while performing business activities
1. Word processing software allows users to create and manipulate documents
a. Clip art is a collection of electronic drawings, photos, and other images
b. Additional word processing features include

c. Developing a document

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2. Spreadsheet software allows users to organize data in rows and columns and perform
calculations
a. A function is a predefined formula that performs common calculations
b. Charting depicts data in a spreadsheet in graphical form
3. A database is a collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of
that data
a. Database software allows users to create, access, and manage a database
4. Presentation software allows users to create visual aids for presentations to communicate ideas,
messages, and other information to a group
5. Note taking software is application software that enables users to enter typed text, handwritten
comments, drawings, or sketches anywhere on a page
6. A software suite is a collection of individual programs available together as a unit
7. A personal information manager (PIM) is application software that includes Appointment
calendar , Address book and Notepad
8. Scaled down versions of software are available to work with smart phones and other mobile
devices
9. Project management software allows a user to plan, schedule, track, and analyze the events,
resources, and costs of a project
10. Accounting software helps companies record and report their financial transactions
11. Document management software provides a means for sharing, distributing, and searching
through documents by converting them into a format that can be viewed by any user

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3.10 Graphics and Multimedia Software

1. computer-aided design (CAD): Sophisticated application software that allows you to create
engineering, architectural, and scientific designs
2. desktop publishing software: Enables you to design and produce sophisticated documents that
contain text, graphics, and many colors
3. paint/image editing software: Used to create and modify graphical images, and sometimes
called illustration software
4. professional photo editing software: Allows users to customize digital photos and Save images
in a variety of file formats

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5. video and audio editing software:


a. Video editing software allows you to modify a segment of a video, called a clip
b. Audio editing software allows you to modify audio clips
6. multimedia authoring software: Allows you to combine text, graphics, audio, video, and
animation in an interactive application
7. Web page authoring software: helps users of all skill levels create Web pages that include
multimedia and interactive content. Some application software programs include Web page
authoring programs

3.11 Software for Home, Personal, and Educational Use


1. Personal finance software: GnuCash, HomeBank, AceMoney, iCash
2. Legal software: AbacusLaw, Bill4Time, Credenza, Practice Master
3. Tax preparation software: TurboTax, E-filing, TaxBrain, TaxCut
4. Personal DTP software: Microsoft Publisher, Adobe InDesign
5. Personal paint/image editing software: Photoshop, PicniK, Gimp
6. Personal photo editing software: Picasa, Windows Live Photo Gallery
7. Travel and mapping software: Microsoft Streets and Tips, Fugawi Global Navigator
8. Reference software: English-English Talking Dictionary, Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary
9. Entertainment software

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3.12 Communications
1. Web Browser
2. E-Mail
3. Instant Messaging
4. Chat Room
5. Text, Picture, Video Messaging
6. RSS Aggregator
7. Blogging
8. Newsgroup/Message Board
9. FTP
10. VoIP
11. Video Conferencing

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4.0 WORD PROCESSING


4.1 Introduction to Word Processing
4.1.1 Exploring Word Processing Screen
Screen Layout

Menus
When you begin to explore Word 2007 you will notice a new look to the menu bar. You should
remember three features as you work within Word 2007:

the Microsoft Office Button


the Quick Access Toolbar
the Ribbon

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These three features contain many of the functions that were in the menu of previous versions
of Word. The functions of these three features will be outlined below.

The Microsoft Office Button


The Microsoft Office button performs many of the functions that were located in the File menu of older
versions of Word. This button allows you to create a new document, open an existing document, save or
save as, print, send (through email or fax), publish or close.
The Ribbon

The Ribbon is the panel at the top portion of the document. It has seven tabs: Home, Insert, Page
Layout, References, Mailings, Review, and View that contain many new and existing features of Word.
Each tab is divided into groups. The groups are logical collections of features designed to perform
functions that you will utilize in developing or editing your Word document. Commonly used features
are displayed on the Ribbon, to view additional features within each group, click on the arrow at the
bottom right of each group.

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Each of the tabs contains the following tools:


Home: Clipboard, Fonts, Paragraph, Styles, and Editing.
Insert: Pages, Tables, Illustrations, Links, Header & Footer, Text, and Symbols
Page Layout: Themes, Page Setup, Page Background, Paragraph, Arrange
References: Table of Contents, Footnote, Citation & Bibliography, Captions, Index, and Table of
Authorities
Mailings: Create, Start Mail Merge, Write & Insert Fields, Preview Results, Finish
Review: Proofing, Comments, Tracking, Changes, Compare, Protect
View: Document Views, Show/Hide, Zoom, Window, Macros

Quick Access Toolbar

The quick access toolbar is a customizable toolbar that contains commands that you may want to use.
You can place the quick access toolbar above or below the ribbon. To change the location of the quick
access toolbar, click on the arrow at the end of the toolbar and click on Show Below the Ribbon.

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You can also add items to the quick access toolbar. Right click on any item in the Office Button or the
Ribbon and click on Add to Quick Access Toolbar and a shortcut will be added to the Quick Access
Toolbar.

4.2 Working with document


4.2.1 Create a New Document
There are several ways to create new documents, open existing documents, and save documents in
Word:

Click the Microsoft Office Button


and Click New or
Press CTRL+N (Depress the CTRL key while pressing the N) on the keyboard

You will notice that when you click on the Microsoft Office Button and Click New, you have
many choices about the types of documents you can create. If you wish to start from a blank
document, click Blank. If you wish to start from a template, you can browse through your choices
on the left, see the choices on center screen, and preview the selection on the right screen.

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4.2.2 Opening an Existing Document

Click the Microsoft Office Button

and Click Open, or

Press CTRL+O (Depress the CTRL key while pressing the O) on the keyboard, or
If you have recently used the document you can click the Microsoft Office Button and click the
name of the document in the Recent Documents section of the window Insert picture of recent
document.
4.2.3 Saving a Document

Click the Microsoft Office Button


and Click Save or Save As (remember, if youre sending the
document to someone who does not have Office 2007, you will need to click the Office Button, click
Save As, and Click Word 97-2003 Document), or

Press CTRL+S (Depress the CTRL key while pressing the S) on the keyboard, or
Click the File icon on the Quick Access Toolbar

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4.2.4 Renaming Documents


To rename a Word document while using the program:

Click the Office Button


and find the file you want to rename.
Right-click the document name with the mouse and select Rename from the shortcut menu.
Type the new name for the file and press the ENTER key.

4.2.5 Working on Multiple Documents


Several documents can be opened simultaneously if you are typing or editing multiple documents at
once. All open documents will be listed in the View Tab of the Ribbon when you click on Switch
Windows. The current document has a checkmark beside the file name. Select another
opendocument to view it.

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4.2.6 Document Views


There are many ways to view a document in Word.
Print Layout: This is a view of the document, as it would appear when printed. It includes all
tables, text, graphics, and images.
Full Screen Reading: This is a full view length view of a document. Good for viewing two pages at
a time.
Web Layout: This is a view of the document, as it would appear in a web browser.
Outline: This is an outline form of the document in the form of bullets.
Draft: This view does not display pictures or layouts, just text.

To view a document in different forms, click the document views shortcuts at the bottom of the screen

or:
Click the View Tab on the Ribbon
Click on the appropriate document view.

4.2.7 Close a Document


To close a document:

Click the Office Button


Click Close

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4.3 Editing a document


4.3.1 Typing and inserting Text
To enter text just start typing! The text will appear where the blinking cursor is located. Move the
cursor by using the arrow buttons on the keyboard or positioning the mouse and clicking the left
button. The keyboard shortcuts listed below are also helpful when moving through the text of a
document:
Move Action

Keystroke

Beginning of the line

HOME

End of the line

END

Top of the document

CTRL+HOME

End of the document

CTRL+END

4.3.2 Selecting Text


To change any attributes of text it must be highlighted first. Select the text by dragging the mouse
over the desired text while keeping the left mouse button depressed, or hold down the SHIFT key on
the keyboard while using the arrow buttons to highlight the text. The following table contains
shortcuts for selecting a portion of the text:
Selection

Technique

Whole word

double-click within the word

Whole paragraph

triple-click within the paragraph

Several words or
lines

drag the mouse over the words, or hold down SHIFT while using the
arrow keys

Entire document

choose Editing | Select | Select All from the Ribbon, or press

Deselect the text by clicking anywhere outside of the selection on the page or press an arrow key on
CTRL+A
the keyboard.

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4.3.3 Inserting Additional Text


Text can be inserted in a document at any point using any of the following methods:
Type Text: Put your cursor where you want to add the text and begin typing
Copy and Paste Text: Highlight the text you wish to copy and right click and click Copy, put your
cursor where you want the text in the document and right click and click Paste.
Cut and Paste Text: Highlight the text you wish to copy, right click, and click Cut, put your
cursor where you want the text in the document, right click, and click Paste.
Drag Text: Highlight the text you wish to move, click on it and drag it to the place where you want
the text in the document.

You will notice that you can also use the Clipboard group on the Ribbon.
4.3.4 Rearranging Blocks of Text
To rearrange text within a document, you can utilize the Clipboard Group on the Home Tab of the
Ribbon.
Insert picture of clipboard group labeled
Move text: Cut and Paste or Drag as shown above
Copy Text: Copy and Paste as above or use the Clipboard group on the Ribbon
Paste Text: Ctrl + V (hold down the CTRL and the V key at the same time) or use the Clipboard
group to Paste, Paste Special, or Paste as Hyperlink

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4.3.5 Deleting Blocks of Text


Use the BACKSPACE and DELETE keys on the keyboard to delete text. Backspace will delete text to
the left of the cursor and Delete will erase text to the right. To delete a large selection of text,
highlight it using any of the methods outlined above and press the DELETE key.
4.3.6 Search and Replace Text
To find a particular word or phrase in a document:
Click Find on the Editing Group on the Ribbon
To find and replace a word or phrase in the document, click Replace on the Editing Group of the
Ribbon.

4.3.7 Undo Changes


To undo changes:

Click the Undo Button on the Quick Access Toolbar

4.4 Formatting Text and Paragraphs


Styles
A style is a format-enhancing tool that includes font typefaces, font size, effects (bold, italics,
underline, etc.), colors and more. You will notice that on the Home Tab of the Ribbon, that you have
several areas that will control the style of your document: Font, Paragraph, and Styles.

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4.4.1 Change Font Typeface and Size


To change the font typeface:
Click the arrow next to the font name and choose a font.

Remember that you can preview how the new font will look by highlighting the text, and hovering
over the new font typeface.

To change the font size:


Click the arrow next to the font size and choose the appropriate size, or
Click the increase or decrease font size buttons.

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4.4.2 Font Styles and Effects


Font styles are predefined formatting options that are used to emphasize text. They include: Bold,
Italic, and Underline. To add these to text:

Select the text and click the Font Styles included on the Font Group of the Ribbon, or
Select the text and right click to display the font tools

Change Text Color


To change the text color:

Select the text and click the Colors button included on the Font Group of the Ribbon, or
Highlight the text, right click, and choose the colors tool.
Select the color by clicking the down arrow next to the font color button.

Highlight Text
Highlighting text allows you to use emphasize text as you would if you had a marker. To highlight
text:

Select the text


Click the Highlight Button on the Font Group of the Ribbon, or
Select the text and right click and select the highlight tool
To change the color of the highlighter click on down arrow next to the highlight button.

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Copy Formatting
If you have already formatted text the way you want it and would like another portion of the
document to have the same formatting, you can copy the formatting. To copy the formatting, do the
following:

Select the text with the formatting you want to copy.


Copy the format of the text selected by clicking the Format Painter button on the Clipboard

Group of the Home Tab

Apply the copied format by selecting the text and clicking on it.

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Clear Formatting
To clear text formatting:

Select the text you wish to clear the formatting


Click the Styles dialogue box on the Styles Group on the Home Tab
Click Clear All

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4.4.3 Formatting Paragraphs


Formatting paragraphs allows you to change the look of the overall document. You can access
many of the tools of paragraph formatting by clicking the Page Layout Tab of the Ribbon or the
Paragraph Group on the Home Tab of the Ribbon.

Change Paragraph Alignment


The paragraph alignment allows you to set how you want text to appear. To change the alignment:
Click the Home Tab
Choose the appropriate button for alignment on the Paragraph Group.
Align Left: the text is aligned with your left margin
Center: The text is centered within your margins
Align Right: Aligns text with the right margin
Justify: Aligns text to both the left and right margins.

4.4.4 Indent Paragraphs


Indenting paragraphs allows you set text within a paragraph at different margins. There are several
options for indenting:
First Line: Controls the left boundary for the first line of a paragraph
Hanging: Controls the left boundary of every line in a paragraph except the first one
Left: Controls the left boundary for every line in a paragraph
Right: Controls the right boundary for every line in a paragraph

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To indent paragraphs, you can do the following:

Click the Indent buttons to control the indent.


Click the Indent button repeated times to increase the size of the indent.

Click the dialog box of the Paragraph Group


Click the Indents and Spacing Tab
Select your indents

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4.4.5 Add Borders and Shading


You can add borders and shading to paragraphs and entire pages. To create a border around a
paragraph or paragraphs:

Select the area of text where you want the border or shading.
Click the Borders Button on the Paragraph Group on the Home Tab
Choose the Border and Shading
Choose the appropriate options

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4.4.6 Apply Styles


Styles are a present collection of formatting that you can apply to text. To utilize Quick Styles:

Select the text you wish to format.


Click the dialog box next to the Styles Group on the Home Tab.
Click the style you wish to apply.

4.4.7 Create Links


Creating links in a word document allows you to put in a URL that readers can click on to visit a web
page. To insert a link:

Click the Hyperlink Button on the Links Group of the Insert Tab.
Type in the text in the Text to Display box and the web address in the Address box.

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4.4.8 Change Spacing Between Paragraphs and Lines


You can change the space between lines and paragraphs by doing the following:

Select the paragraph or paragraphs you wish to change.


On the Home Tab, Click the Paragraph Dialog Box
Click the Indents and Spacing Tab
In the Spacing section, adjust your spacing accordingly

4.4.9 Lists
Lists allow you to format and organize text with numbers, bullets, or in an outline.
Bulleted and Numbered Lists
Bulleted lists have bullet points, numbered lists have numbers, and outline lists combine numbers and
letters depending on the organization of the list.
To add a list to existing text:

Select the text you wish to make a list


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From the Paragraph Group on the Home Tab, Click the Bulleted or Numbered Lists button

To create a new list:

Place your cursor where you want the list in the document
Click the Bulleted or Numbered Lists button
Begin typing

Nested Lists
A nested list is list with several levels of indented text. To create a nested list:

Create your list following the directions above


Click the Increase or Decrease Indent button

Formatting Lists

The bullet image and numbering format can be changed by using the Bullets or Numbering
dialog box.
Select the entire list to change all the bullets or numbers, or
Place the cursor on one line within the list to change a single bullet

Right click
Click the arrow next to the bulleted or numbered list and choose a bullet or numbering style.

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4.5 Further formatting of document


4.5.1 Styles
The use of Styles in Word will allow you to quickly format a document with a consistent and
professional look. Styles can be saved for use in many documents.
Apply Styles
There are many styles that are already in Word ready for you to use. To view the available
styles click the Styles dialog box on the Styles Group in the Home Tab. To apply a style:

Select the text


Click the Styles Dialog Box
Click the Style you choose

4.5.2 Creating New Styles


You can create styles for formatting that you use regularly. There are two ways to do this: New
Styles or New Quick Styles.
New Styles
To create a new style:
Click the Styles Dialog Box
Click the New Style Button

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Complete the New Style dialog box.


At the bottom of that dialog box, you can choose to add this to the Quick Style List or to
make it available only in this document.

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4.5.3 New Quick Style


To create a style easily:

Insert your cursor anywhere in the chosen style


Click the Styles dialog box

Click Save Selection as New Quick Style

4.5.4 Style Inspector


To determine the style of a particular section of a document:

Insert cursor anywhere in the text that you want to explain the style
Click the Styles Drop Down Menu

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Click the Style Inspector Button

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4.6 Proofing a document


There are many features to help you proofread your document. These include: Spelling and Grammar,
Thesaurus, AutoCorrect, Default Dictionary, and Word Count.

4.6.1 Spelling and Grammar


To check the spelling and grammar of a document
Place the cursor at the beginning of the document or the beginning of the section that you want
to check

Click the Review Tab on the Ribbon


Click Spelling & Grammar on the Proofing Group.
Any errors will display a dialog box that allows you to choose a more appropriate spelling or
phrasing.

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If you wish to check the spelling of an individual word, you can right click any word that has been
underlined by Word and choose a substitution.

4.6.2 Thesaurus
The Thesaurus allows you to view synonyms. To use the thesaurus:

Click the Review Tab of the Ribbon


Click the Thesaurus Button on the Proofing Group.
The thesaurus tool will appear on the right side of the screen and you can view word
options.

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You can also access the thesaurus by right-clicking any word and choosing Synonyms on the menu.

4.6.3 Customize AutoCorrect


You can set up the AutoCorrect tool in Word to retain certain text the way it is. To customize
AutoCorrect:

Click the Microsoft Office button


Click the Word Options Button
Click the Proofing tab
Click AutoCorrect Options button

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On the AutoCorrect Tab, you can specify words you want to replace as you type

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4.6.4 Create a New Default Dictionary


Often you will have business or educational jargon that may not be recognized by the spelling and/or
grammar check in Word. You can customize the dictionary to recognize these words.

Click the Microsoft Office button


Click the Word Options Button
Click the Proofing tab
Click the When Correcting Spelling tab
Click Custom Dictionaries

Click Edit Word List


Type in any words that you may use that are not recognized by the current dictionary.

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4.6.5 Check Word Count


To check the word count in Word 2007 look at the bottom left corner of the screen. It will give you a
total word count or if you have text highlighted it will tell you how many words are highlighted out of
the total.

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4.7 Create header and footer


4.7.1 Insert Common Header and Footer Information
To insert Header and Footer information such as page numbers, date, or title, first, decide if you want
the information in the header (at the top of the page) or in the Footer (at the bottom of the page),
then:

Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon


Click Header or Footer
Choose a style

The Header/Footer Design Tab will display on the Ribbon


Choose the information that you would like to have in the header or footer (date, time, page
numbers, etc.) or type in the information you would like to have in the header or footer

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4.7.2 Create a Page Break


To insert a page break:

Click the Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon


On the Page Setup Group, click the Breaks Drop Down Menu
Click Page Break

4.7.3 Insert a Cover Page


To insert a cover page:

Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon


Click the Cover Page Button on the Pages Group
Choose a style for the cover page

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4.7.4 Insert a Blank Page


To insert a blank page:

Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon


Click the Blank Page Button on the Page Group

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4.8 Tables and graphic


Tables are used to display data in a table format.
4.8.1 Create a Table
To create a table:

Place the cursor on the page where you want the new table
Click the Insert Tab of the Ribbon
Click the Tables Button on the Tables Group. You can create a table one of four ways:
Highlight the number of row and columns
Click Insert Table and enter the number of rows and columns
Click the Draw Table, create your table by clicking and entering
the rows and columns
Click Quick Tables and choose a table

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Enter Data in a Table


Place the cursor in the cell where you wish to enter the information. Begin typing.
Modify the Table Structure and Format a Table
To modify the structure of a table:

Click the table and notice that you have two new tabs on the Ribbon: Design and Layout.

These pertain to the table design and layout.

On the Design Tab, you can choose:

Table Style Options


Table Styles
Draw Borders

To format a table, click the table and then click the Layout Tab on the Ribbon. This Layout tab
allows you to:

View Gridlines and Properties (from the Table Group)


Insert Rows and Columns (from the Rows & Columns Group)
Delete the Table, Rows and/or Columns (from the Rows & Columns Group)
Merge or Split Cells (from the Merge Group)
Increase and Decrease cell size (Cell Size Group)
Align text within the cells and change text directions (Alignment Group)

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4.8.2 Graphics
Word 2007 allows you to insert special characters, symbols, pictures, illustrations, and watermarks.
Symbols and Special Characters
Special characters are punctuation, spacing, or typographical characters that are not generally
available on the standard keyboard. To insert symbols and special characters:

Place your cursor in the document where you want the symbol
Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon
Click the Symbol button on the Symbols Group
Choose the appropriate symbol.

Equations
Word 2007 also allows you to insert mathematical equations. To access the mathematical equations
tool:

Place your cursor in the document where you want the symbol
Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon
Click the Equation Button on the Symbols Group
Choose the appropriate equation and structure or click Insert New Equation

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To edit the equation click the equation and the Design Tab will be available in the Ribbon

Illustrations, Pictures, and Smart Art


Word 2007 allows you to insert illustrations and pictures into a document. To insert illustrations:

Place your cursor in the document where you want the illustration/picture
Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon
Click the Clip Art Button
The dialog box will open on the screen and you can search for clip art.
Choose the illustration you wish to include

To insert a picture:

Place your cursor in the document where you want the illustration/picture
Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon
Click the Picture Button
Browse to the picture you wish to include
Click the Picture
Click Insert

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Smart Art is a collection of graphics you can utilize to organize information within your document. It
includes timelines, processes, or workflow. To insert Smart Art

Place your cursor in the document where you want the illustration/picture
Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon
Click the Smart Art button
Click the Smart Art you wish to include in your document
Click the arrow on the left side of the graphic to insert text or type the text in the graphic.

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Resize Graphics
All graphics can be resized by clicking the image and clicking one corner of the image and dragging
the cursor to the size you want the picture.

Watermarks
A watermark is a translucent image that appears behind the primary text in a document. To insert a
watermark:

Click the Page Layout Tab in the Ribbon


Click the Watermark Button in the Page Background Group
Click the Watermark you want for the document or click Custom Watermark and create
your own watermark
To remove a watermark, follow the steps above, but click Remove Watermark

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4.9 Creating a Web Page


Simple web pages can be created in Word using the Save as Feature. In a web document, you can
insert pictures and hyperlinks. To view the document as you would a web page:

Click the View Tab on the Ribbon


Click the Web Layout Button in the Document Views Group

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Entering Text
To enter text into the document, simply begin typing. If you want to adjust the layout of the page and
text, you should use tables to format the page properly.

4.10 Hyperlinks
Hyperlinks, or links, allow the reader to click on text and go to another web site. To create a
hyperlink:

Select the text that will be the link


Click the Insert Tab of the Ribbon
Click the Hyperlink Button on the Links Group
Type in the web address, or URL, of the link
Click OK

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Saving Web Pages


To save a web page:

Click the Office Button


Move the cursor over Save As
Click Other Formats

Under Save as Type, click Web Page


Type in the name of the document (without spaces)

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SPREADSHEETS

5.1

Getting Started MS Excel 2007

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Getting started with Excel 2007 you will notice that there are many similar features to previous
versions. You will also notice that there are many new features that youll be able to utilize. There are
three features that you should remember as you work within Excel 2007: the Microsoft Office Button,
the Quick Access Toolbar, and the Ribbon. The function of these features will be more fully explored
below.

5.1.1

Spreadsheets

A spreadsheet is an electronic document that stores various types of data. There are vertical columns
and horizontal rows. A cell is where the column and row intersect. A cell can contain data and can be
used in calculations of data within the spreadsheet. An Excel spreadsheet can contain workbooks and
worksheets. The workbook is the holder for related worksheets.

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Microsoft Office Button

The Microsoft Office Button performs many of the functions that were located in the File menu of older
versions of Excel. This button allows you to create a new workbook, Open an existing workbook, save

and save as, print, send, or close.


5.1.3

Ribbon

The ribbon is the panel at the top portion of the document It has seven tabs: Home, Insert, Page
Layouts, Formulas, Data, Review, and View. Each tab is divided into groups. The groups are logical
collections of features designed to perform function that you will utilize in developing or editing your
Excel spreadsheets.

Commonly utilized features are displayed on the Ribbon. To view additional features within each group,
click the arrow at the bottom right corner of each group.

Home: Clipboard, Fonts, Alignment, Number, Styles, Cells, Editing


Insert: Tables, Illustrations, Charts, Links, Text
Page Layouts: Themes, Page Setup, Scale to Fit, Sheet Options, Arrange
Formulas: Function Library, Defined Names, Formula Auditing, Calculation
Data: Get External Data, Connections, Sort & Filter, Data Tools, Outline
Review: Proofing, Comments, Changes
View: Workbook Views, Show/Hide, Zoom, Window, Macros

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Quick Access Toolbar

The quick access toolbar is a customizable toolbar that contains commands that you may want to use.
You can place the quick access toolbar above or below the ribbon. To change the location of the quick
access toolbar, click on the arrow at the end of the toolbar and click Show Below the Ribbon.

You can also add items to the quick access toolbar. Right click on any item in the Office Button or the
Ribbon and click Add to Quick Access Toolbar and a shortcut will be added.

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Mini Toolbar

A new feature in Office 2007 is the Mini Toolbar. This is a floating toolbar that is displayed when you
select text or right-click text. It displays common formatting tools, such as Bold, Italics, Fonts, Font Size
and Font Color.

5.2 Customized Excel


Excel 2007 offers a wide range of customizable options that allow you to make Excel work the best for
you. To access these customizable options:

Click the Office Button


Click Excel Options

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Popular

These features allow you to personalize your work environment with the mini toolbar, color schemes,
default options for new workbooks, customize sort and fill sequences user name and allow you to access
the Live Preview feature. The Live Preview feature allows you to preview the results of applying design
and formatting changes without actually applying it.

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Formulas

This feature allows you to modify calculation options, working with formulas, error checking, and error
checking rules.

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Proofing

This feature allows you personalize how word corrects and formats your text. You can customize auto
correction settings and have word ignore certain words or errors in a document through the Custom
Dictionaries.

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Save

This feature allows you personalize how your workbook is saved. You can specify how often you want
auto save to run and where you want the workbooks saved.

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Advanced

This feature allows you to specify options for editing, copying, pasting, printing, displaying, formulas,
calculations, and other general settings.

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Customize

Customize allows you to add features to the Quick Access Toolbar. If there are tools that you are
utilizing frequently, you may want to add these to the Quick Access Toolbar.

5.3

Working with a workbook

5.3.1

Create A Workbook

To create a new Workbook:

Click the Microsoft Office Toolbar


Click New
Choose Blank Document

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If you want to create a new document from a template, explore the templates and choose one that fits
your needs.

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5.3.2

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Save a Workbook

When you save a workbook, you have two choices: Save or Save As.
To save a document:

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click Save

You may need to use the Save As feature when you need to save a workbook under a different name or
to save it for earlier versions of Excel. Remember that older versions of Excel will not be able to open an
Excel 2007 worksheet unless you save it as an Excel 97-2003 Format. To use the Save As feature:

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click Save As
Type in the name for the Workbook
In the Save as Type box, choose Excel 97-2003 Workbook

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Open a Workbook

To open an existing workbook:

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click Open
Browse to the workbook
Click the title of the workbook
Click Open

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Entering Data

There are different ways to enter data in Excel: in an active cell or in the formula bar.
To enter data in an active cell:

Click in the cell where you want the data


Begin typing

To enter data into the formula bar

Click the cell where you would like the data


Place the cursor in the Formula Bar
Type in the data

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5.4

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Manipulating Data

Excel allows you to move, copy, and paste cells and cell content through cutting and pasting and copying
and pasting.
5.4.1

Select Data

To select a cell or data to be copied or cut:

Click the cell

Click and drag the cursor to select many cells in a range

5.4.2

Select a Row or Column

To select a row or column click on the row or column header.

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Copy and Paste

To copy and paste data:

Select the cell(s) that you wish to copy


On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Copy

Select the cell(s) where you would like to copy the data
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Paste

5.4.4

Cut and Paste

To cut and paste data:

Select the cell(s) that you wish to copy


On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Cut

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Select the cell(s) where you would like to copy the data
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Paste
Undo and Redo

To undo or redo your most recent actions:

5.4.6

On the Quick Access Toolbar


Click Undo or Redo

Auto Fill

The Auto Fill feature fills cell data or series of data in a worksheet into a selected range of cells. If you
want the same data copied into the other cells, you only need to complete one cell. If you want to have
a series of data (for example, days of the week) fill in the first two cells in the series and then use the
auto fill feature. To use the Auto Fill feature:

Click the Fill Handle


Drag the Fill Handle to complete the cells

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5.5

Modifying a Worksheet

5.5.1

Insert Cells, Rows, and Columns

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To insert cells, rows, and columns in Excel:

5.5.2

Place the cursor in the row below where you want the new row, or in the column to the left of
where you want the new column
Click the Insert button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click the appropriate choice: Cell, Row, or Column

Delete Cells, Rows and Columns

To delete cells, rows, and columns:

5.5.3

Place the cursor in the cell, row, or column that you want to delete
Click the Delete button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click the appropriate choice: Cell, Row, or Column

Find and Replace

To find data or find and replace data:

Click the Find & Select button on the Editing group of the Home tab
Choose Find or Replace
Complete the Find What text box
Click on Options for more search options

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Go To Command

The Go To command takes you to a specific cell either by cell reference (the Column Letter and the Row
Number) or cell name.

Click the Find & Select button on the Editing group of the Home tab
Click Go To

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5.5.5

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Spell Check

To check the spelling:

On the Review tab click the Spelling button

5.6

Performing Calculations

5.6.1

Excel Formulas

A formula is a set of mathematical instructions that can be used in Excel to perform calculations.
Formals are started in the formula box with an = sign.

There are many elements to and excel formula.


References: The cell or range of cells that you want to use in your calculation
Operators: Symbols (+, -, *, /, etc.) that specify the calculation to be performed
Constants:
Numbers
or
text
values
that
do
not
change
Functions: Predefined formulas in Excel
To create a basic formula in Excel:

Select the cell for the formula


Type = (the equal sign) and the formula
Click Enter

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5.6.2

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Calculate with Functions

A function is a built in formula in Excel. A function has a name and arguments (the mathematical
function) in parentheses. Common functions in Excel:
Sum: Adds all cells in the argument
Average: Calculates the average of the cells in the argument
Min: Finds the minimum value
Max: Finds the maximum value
Count: Finds the number of cells that contain a numerical value within a range of the argument
To calculate a function:

Click the cell where you want the function applied


Click the Insert Function button
Choose the function
Click OK

Complete the Number 1 box with the first cell in the range that you want calculated
Complete the Number 2 box with the last cell in the range that you want calculated

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5.6.3

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Function Library

The function library is a large group of functions on the Formula Tab of the Ribbon. These functions
include:
AutoSum: Easily calculates the sum of a range
Recently Used: All recently used functions
Financial: Accrued interest, cash flow return rates and additional financial functions
Logical: And, If, True, False, etc.
Text: Text based functions
Date & Time: Functions calculated on date and time
Math & Trig: Mathematical Functions

5.6.4

Relative, Absolute and Mixed References

Calling cells by just their column and row labels (such as "A1") is called relative referencing. When a
formula contains relative referencing and it is copied from one cell to another, Excel does not create an
exact copy of the formula. It will change cell addresses relative to the row and column they are moved
to. For example, if a simple addition formula in cell C1 "=(A1+B1)" is copied to cell C2, the formula would
change to "=(A2+B2)" to reflect the new row. To prevent this change, cells must be called by absolute
referencing and this is accomplished by placing dollar signs "$" within the cell addresses in the formula.
Continuing the previous example, the formula in cell C1 would read "=($A$1+$B$1)" if the value of cell
C2 should be the sum of cells A1 and B1. Both the column and row of both cells are absolute and will not
change when copied. Mixed referencing can also be used where only the row OR column fixed. For
example, in the formula "=(A$1+$B2)", the row of cell A1 is fixed and the column of cell B2 is fixed.

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5.7

Sort and Filter

5.7.1

Basic Sorts

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To execute a basic descending or ascending sort based on one column:

Highlight the cells that will be sorted


Click the Sort & Filter button on the Home tab
Click the Sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button

5.7.2 Custom Sorts


To sort on the basis of more than one column:

Click the Sort & Filter button on the Home tab


Choose which column you want to sort by first
Click Add Level
Choose the next column you want to sort
Click OK

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5.7.3

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Filtering

Filtering allows you to display only data that meets certain criteria. To filter:

Click the column or columns that contain the data you wish to filter
On the Home tab, click on Sort & Filter
Click Filter button
Click the Arrow at the bottom of the first cell
Click the Text Filter
Click the Words you wish to Filter

To clear the filter click the Sort & Filter button


Click Clear

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5.8

Graphics

5.8.1

Adding a Picture

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To add a picture:

Click the Insert tab


Click the Picture button
Browse to the picture from your files
Click the name of the picture
Click Insert
To move the graphic, click it and drag it to where you want it

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5.8.2

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Adding Clip Art

To add Clip Art:

Click the Insert tab


Click the Clip Art button
Search for the clip art using the search Clip Art dialog box
Click the clip art
To move the graphic, click it and drag it to where you want it

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5.8.3

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Editing Pictures and Clip Art

When you add a graphic to the worksheet, an additional tab appears on the Ribbon. The Format tab
allows you to format the pictures and graphics. This tab has four groups:
Adjust: Controls the picture brightness, contrast, and colors
Picture Style: Allows you to place a frame or border around the picture and add effects
Arrange: Controls the alignment and rotation of the picture
Size: Cropping and size of graphic

5.8.4

Adding Shapes

To add Shape:

Click the Insert tab


Click the Shapes button
Click the shape you choose
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Click the Worksheet


Drag the cursor to expand the Shape

To format the shapes:

Click the Shape


Click the Format tab

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5.8.5

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Adding SmartArt

SmartArt is a feature in Office 2007 that allows you to choose from a variety of graphics, including flow
charts, lists, cycles, and processes. To add SmartArt:

Click the Insert tab


Click the SmartArt button
Click the SmartArt you choose

Select the Smart Art


Drag it to the desired location in the worksheet

To format the SmartArt:

Select the SmartArt


Click either the Design or the Format tab
Click the SmartArt to add text and pictures.

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5.9

Charts

5.9.1

Create a Chart

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Charts allow you to present information contained in the worksheet in a graphic format. Excel offers
many types of charts including: Column, Line, Pie, Bar, Area, Scatter and more. To view the charts
available click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon.

To create a chart:

Select the cells that contain the data you want to use in the chart
Click the Insert tab on the Ribbon
Click the type of Chart you want to create

5.9.2 Modify a Chart


Once you have created a chart you can do several things to modify the chart.
To move the chart:

Click the Chart and Drag it another location on the same worksheet, or
Click the Move Chart button on the Design tab
Choose the desired location (either a new sheet or a current sheet in the workbook)

To change the data included in the chart:

Click the Chart


Click the Select Data button on the Design tab

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To reverse which data are displayed in the rows and columns:

Click the Chart


Click the Switch Row/Column button on the Design tab

To modify the labels and titles:

Click the Chart


On the Layout tab, click the Chart Title or the Data Labels button
Change the Title and click Enter

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5.9.3

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Chart Tools

The Chart Tools appear on the Ribbon when you click on the chart. The tools are located on three tabs:
Design, Layout, and Format.
Within the Design tab you can control the chart type, layout, styles, and location.

Within the Layout tab you can control inserting pictures, shapes and text boxes, labels, axes,
background, and analysis.

Within the Format tab you can modify shape styles, word styles and size of the chart.

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5.10

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Formatting a Worksheet

5.10.1 Modify Fonts


Modifying fonts in Excel will allow you to emphasize titles and headings. To modify a font:

Select the cell or cells that you would like the font applied
On the Font group on the Home tab, choose the font type, size, bold, italics, underline, or color

5.10.2 Format Cells Dialog Box


In Excel, you can also apply specific formatting to a cell. To apply formatting to a cell or group of cells:

Select the cell or cells that will have the formatting


Click the Dialog Box arrow on the Alignment group of the Home tab

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There are several tabs on this dialog box that allow you to modify properties of the cell or cells.
Number: Allows for the display of different number types and decimal places
Alignment: Allows for the horizontal and vertical alignment of text, wrap text, shrink text, merge cells
and the direction of the text.
Font: Allows for control of font, font style, size, color, and additional features
Border: Border styles and colors
Fill: Cell fill colors and styles
5.10.3 Add Borders and Colors to Cells
Borders and colors can be added to cells manually or through the use of styles. To add borders
manually:

Click the Borders drop down menu on the Font group of the Home tab
Choose the appropriate border
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To apply colors manually:

Click the Fill drop down menu on the Font group of the Home tab
Choose the appropriate color

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To apply borders and colors using styles:

Click Cell Styles on the Home tab


Choose a style or click New Cell Style

5.10.4 Change Column Width and Row Height


To change the width of a column or the height of a row:

Click the Format button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Manually adjust the height and width by clicking Row Height or Column Width
To use AutoFit click AutoFit Row Height or AutoFit Column Width

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5.10.5 Hide or Unhide Rows or Columns


To hide or unhide rows or columns:

Select the row or column you wish to hide or unhide


Click the Format button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click Hide & Unhide

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5.10.6 Merge Cells


To merge cells select the cells you want to merge and click the Merge & Center button on the
Alignment group of the Home tab. The four choices for merging cells are:
Merge & Center: Combines the cells and centers the contents in the new, larger cell
Merge Across: Combines the cells across columns without centering data
Merge Cells: Combines the cells in a range without centering
Unmerge Cells: Splits the cell that has been merged

5.10.7 Align Cell Contents


To align cell contents, click the cell or cells you want to align and click on the options within the
Alignment group on the Home tab. There are several options for alignment of cell contents:
Top Align: Aligns text to the top of the cell
Middle Align: Aligns text between the top and bottom of the cell
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Bottom Align: Aligns text to the bottom of the cell


Align Text Left: Aligns text to the left of the cell
Center: Centers the text from left to right in the cell
Align Text Right: Aligns text to the right of the cell
Decrease Indent: Decreases the indent between the left border and the text
Increase Indent: Increase the indent between the left border and the text
Orientation: Rotate the text diagonally or vertically

5.11

Page Properties and Printing

5.11.1 Set Print Titles


The print titles function allows you to repeat the column and row headings at the beginning of each new
page to make reading a multiple page sheet easier to read when printed. To Print Titles:

Click the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon


Click the Print Titles button
In the Print Titles section, click the box to select the rows/columns to be repeated
Select the row or column
Click the Select Row/Column Button
Click OK

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5.11.2 Create a Header or Footer


To create a header or footer:

Click the Header & Footer button on the Insert tab


This will display the Header & Footer Design Tools Tab
To switch between the Header and Footer, click the Go to Header or Go to Footer button

To insert text, enter the text in the header or footer


To enter preprogrammed data such as page numbers, date, time, file name or sheet name, click
the appropriate button
To change the location of data, click the desired cell

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5.11.3 Set Page Margins


To set the page margins:

Click the Margins button on the Page Layout tab


Select one of the give choices, or

Click Custom Margins


Complete the boxes to set margins
Click Ok

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5.11.4 Change Page Orientation


To change the page orientation from portrait to landscape:

Click the Orientation button on the Page Layout tab


Choose Portrait or Landscape

5.11.5 Set Page Breaks


You can manually set up page breaks in a worksheet for ease of reading when the sheet is printed. To
set a page break:

Click the Breaks button on the Page Layout tab


Click Insert Page Break

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5.11.6 Print a Range


There may be times when you only want to print a portion of a worksheet. This is easily done through
the Print Range function. To print a range:

5.12

Select the area to be printed


Click the Print Area button on the Page Layout tab
Click Select Print Area

Customized the Layout

5.12.1 Split a Worksheet


You can split a worksheet into multiple resizable panes for easier viewing of parts of a worksheet. To
split a worksheet:

Select any cell in center of the worksheet you want to split


Click the Split button on the View tab
Notice the split in the screen, you can manipulate each part separately

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5.12.2 Freeze Rows and Columns


You can select a particular portion of a worksheet to stay static while you work on other parts of the
sheet. This is accomplished through the Freeze Rows and Columns Function. To Freeze a row or
column:

Click the Freeze Panes button on the View tab


Either select a section to be frozen or click the defaults of top row or left column
To unfreeze, click the Freeze Panes button
Click Unfreeze

5.12.3 Hide Worksheets


To hide a worksheet:

Select the tab of the sheet you wish to hide


Right-click on the tab
Click Hide

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To unhide a worksheet:

Right-click on any worksheet tab


Click Unhide
Choose the worksheet to unhide

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6.0

PRESENTATION

6.1

Introduction to PowerPoint

For Internal Circulation Only

1.
PowerPoint is a complete presentation graphics package. It gives you everything
you need to produce a professional-looking presentation. PowerPoint offers
word processing, outlining, drawing, graphing, and presentation management
tools-all designed to be easy to use and learn.
2.

The following gives you a quick overview of what you can do in PowerPoint:

6.1.1

When you create a presentation using PowerPoint, the presentation is made up of a


series of slides. The slides that you create using PowerPoint can also be presented
as overhead transparencies or 35mm slides.
In addition to slides, you can print audience handouts, outlines, and speaker's notes.
You can format all the slides in a presentation using the powerful Slide Master,
which will be covered in the tutorial.
You can keep your entire presentation in a single file- all your slides, speaker's
notes, and audience handouts.
You can import what you have created in other Microsoft products, such as Word
and Excel into any of your slides.

Starting PowerPoint
1.

You can start PowerPoint in two ways:

Method 1: Double click on the Microsoft PowerPoint icon on the desktop.

Method 2: Click on Start --> All Programs --> Microsoft PowerPoint 2007

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6.1.2

For Internal Circulation Only

Exploring PowerPoint Features


1. There are three features that you should remember as you work within PowerPoint
2007:

Microsoft Office Button


Ribbon
Quick Access Toolbar

6.1.2.1 Microsoft Office Button


The Microsoft Office Button performs many of the functions that were located in the
File
menu of older versions of PowerPoint. This button allows you to create a new presentation, Open an
existing presentation, save and save as, print, send, or close.

6.1.2.2 Ribbon
The ribbon is the panel at the top portion of the document It has seven tabs: Home, Insert,
Design, Animations, Slide Show, Review and View. Each tab is divided into
groups. The groups are
logical collections of features designed to perform function that you will utilize in developing or editing
your PowerPoint slides.

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Commonly utilized features are displayed on the Ribbon. To view additional features
each group, click the arrow at the bottom right corner of each group.

within

6.1.2.3 Quick Access Toolbar


The quick access toolbar is a customizable toolbar that contains commands that you
may want to use. You can place the quick access toolbar above or below the ribbon. To change
the location of the quick access toolbar, click on the error at the end of the
toolbar and click Show
Below the Ribbon.

You can also add items to the quick access toolbar. Right click on any item in the Office Button
or the Ribbon and click Add to Quick Access Toolbar and a shortcut will be
added.

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6.1.2.4 Mini Toolbar


A new feature in Office 2007 is the Mini Toolbar. This is a floating toolbar that is
displayed when you select text or right-click text. It displays common formatting tools, such as
Bold, Italics, Fonts, Font Size and Font Color.

6.1.3

Creating New Presentation

1.

You can start a new presentation from:

2.

a blank slide
a template
existing presentations
a Word outline.

To create a new presentation from a blank slide:


i.
ii.
iii.

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click New
Click Blank Presentation

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3.

For Internal Circulation Only

To create a new presentation from a template:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click New
Click Installed Templates or Browse through Microsoft Office Online Templates
Click the template you choose

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4.

To create a new presentation from an existing presentation:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

5.

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click New
Click New from Existing
Browse to and click the presentation

To create a new presentation from a Word outline:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

6.1.4

For Internal Circulation Only

Click the slide where you would like the outline to begin
Click New Slide on the Home tab
Click Slides from Outline
Browse and click the Word Document that contains the outline

Saving Presentation

1.

When you save a presentation, you have two choices:

Save
Save As.

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2.

To save a document:
i.
ii.

3.

For Internal Circulation Only

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click Save

To use the Save As feature:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Click the Microsoft Office Button.


Click Save As.
Type in the name for the Presentation.
In the Save as Type box, choose Excel 97-2003 Presentation.

You may need to use the Save As feature when you need to save a presentation
under a different name or to save it for earlier versions of PowerPoint.

to

Remember that older versions of PowerPoint will not be able


open PowerPoint 2007 presentation unless you save it as a
PowerPoint 97-2003 format.

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6.2

Organizing Slides and Text

6.2.1

Adding Slides

1.

There are several choices when you want to add a new slide to the
presentation:

2.
i.
ii.
iii.

3.
i.
ii.
iii.

For Internal Circulation Only

Office Themes
Duplicate Selected Slide
Reuse Slides.

To create a new slide from Office Themes:


Select the slide immediately BEFORE where you want the new slide
Click the New Slide button on the Home tab
Click the slide choice that fits your material

To create a slide as a duplicate of a slide in the presentation:


Select the slide to duplicate
Click the New Slide button on the Home tab
Click Duplicate Selected Slides

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4.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

For Internal Circulation Only

To create a new slide from another presentation:


Select the slide immediately BEFORE where you want the new slide
Click the New Slide button on the Home tab
Click Reuse Slides
Click Browse
Click Browse File
Locate the slide show and click on the slide to import

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6.2.2

For Internal Circulation Only

Navigate Through Slides

Navigation through the slides can be accomplished through the Slide Navigation menu on the left side of
the screen. Also, an outline appears from materials that have been entered in the presentation. To
access the outline, click the outline tab.

6.2.3

Slide Views

Presentations can be viewed in a variety of manners. On the View tab, the Presentation Views group
allows you to view the slides as Normal, Slide Sorter, Notes Page, Slide Show, Slide Master, Handout
Master, and Notes Master.

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6.2.4

For Internal Circulation Only

Applying Themes

Themes are design templates that can be applied to an entire presentation that allows for consistency
throughout the presentation.

1.

To add a theme to a presentation:


i.
ii.

2.

To apply new colors to a theme:


i.
ii.

3.

Click the Design tab.


Choose one of the displayed Themes or click the Galleries button.

Click the Colors drop down arrow.


Choose a color set or click Create New Theme Colors.

To change the background style of a theme:


i.

Click the Background Styles button on the Design tab

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6.2.5

Adding Text

1.

To insert text into slide:


i.
ii.

2.

For Internal Circulation Only

Select the slide where you want the text


Click in a Textbox to add text

To add a text box:

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

3.

Select the slide where you want to place the text box
On the Insert tab, click Text Box
Click on the slide and drag the cursor to expand the text box
Type in the text

To select the text:


i.

Highlight the text

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4.

To copy and paste data:

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

5.

Select the item(s) that you wish to copy


On the Clipboard Group of the Home Tab, click Copy
Select the item(s) where you would like to copy the data
On the Clipboard Group of the Home Tab, click Paste

To cut and paste data:

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

6.

Select the item(s) that you wish to copy


On the Clipboard Group of the Home Tab, click Cut
Select the items(s) where you would like to copy the data
On the Clipboard Group of the Home Tab, click Paste

To undo or redo your most recent actions:


i.
ii.

7.

For Internal Circulation Only

On the Quick Access Toolbar


Click Undo or Redo

To check the spelling in a presentation:


i.
ii.

Click the Review tab


Click the Spelling button

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8.

For Internal Circulation Only

To change the font typeface:


i.
ii.

Click the arrow next to the font name and choose a font.
Remember that you can preview how the new font will look by highlighting the text, and
hovering over the new font typeface.

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9.

For Internal Circulation Only

To change the font size:


i.
ii.

10.
i.
ii.

11.
i.
ii.
iii.

12.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Click the arrow next to the font size and choose the appropriate size, or
Click the increase or decrease font size buttons.

To change font styles and effects:


Select the text and click the Font Styles included on the Font group of the Home tab or
Select the text and right click to display the font tools

To change the text color:


Select the text and click the Colors button included on the Font Group of the Ribbon, or
Highlight the text and right click and choose the colors tool.
Select the color by clicking the down arrow next to the font color button.

To apply Word Art:


Select the text
Click the Insert tab
Click the WordArt button
Choose the WordArt
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13.
i.
ii.
iii.

14.
i.
ii.

15.
i.
ii.

For Internal Circulation Only

To modify the styles of WordArt:


Select the WordArt
Click the Format tab for the Drawing Tools
Click the WordArt Fill button, the WordArt Outline button, or the Text Effects button

To change paragraph alignment:


Click the Home Tab
Choose the appropriate button for alignment on the Paragraph Group:
Align Left: the text is aligned with your left margin
Center: The text is centered within your margins
Align Right: Aligns text with the right margin
Justify: Aligns text to both the left and right margins.

To indent paragraphs:
Click the Indent buttons to control the indent.
Click the Indent button repeated times to increase the size of the indent.

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16.
i.
ii.
iii.

17.
i.
ii.

To change the text direction:


Select the text
Click the Text Direction button on the Home tab
Click the selection

To resize a textbox:
Click on the textbox
Click the corner of the box and drag the cursor to the desired size

6.2.6

Creating Bulleted and Numbered Lists

1.

To add a list to existing text:


i.
ii.

2.

For Internal Circulation Only

Select the text you wish to make a list


Click the Bulleted or Numbered Lists button

To create a new list:


i.
ii.

Place your cursor where you want the list in the document
Click the Bulleted or Numbered Lists button
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iii.

3.

For Internal Circulation Only

Begin typing

To create a nested list:


i.
ii.

4.
i.
ii.
iii.

Create your list following the directions above


Click the Increase or Decrease Indent button

To change bullet and lists format:


Select the entire list to change all the bullets or numbers, or
Place the cursor on one line within the list to change a single bullet.
Click the arrow next to the bulleted or numbered list and choose a bullet or numbering style.

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6.3

Adding Graphics

6.3.1

Adding Movie & Sound Files

1.

To add a video clip:

For Internal Circulation Only

Click the Movie button on the Insert tab


Choose Movie from File or Movie from Clip Organizer

i.
ii.

2.

To edit the video options:


Click the movie icon
Click the Format tab

i.
ii.

3.

To add an audio clip:

4.

Click the Audio button on the Insert tab


Choose Sound from File, Sound from Clip Organizer, Play CD Audio Track, or Record Sound

To edit the audio options:


i.
ii.

Click the audio icon


Click the Format tab

6.3.2

Adding Picture, Clip Art and Shapes

1.

To add a picture:
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i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

2.

Click the Insert Tab


Click the Picture Button
Browse to the picture from your files
Click the name of the picture
Click insert
To move the graphic, click it and drag it to where you want it

To add Clip Art:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

3.

For Internal Circulation Only

Click the Insert Tab


Click the Clip Art Button
Search for the clip art using the search Clip Art dialog box
Click the clip art
To move the graphic, click it and drag it to where you want it

To edit Pictures and Clip Art:

When you add a graphic to the presentation, an additional Tab appears on the Ribbon. The Format Tab
allows you to format the pictures and graphics. This tab has four groups:
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4.

For Internal Circulation Only

Adjust: Controls the picture brightness, contrast, and colors


Picture Style: Allows you to place a frame or border around the picture and add effects
Arrange: Controls the alignment and rotation of the picture
Size: Cropping and size of graphic

To add Shapes:
i.
ii.
iii.

Click the Insert Tab


Click the Shapes Button
Choose any shape.

i.
ii.

To resize shapes:
Click the Slide
Drag the cursor to expand the Shape

i.
ii.

To format the shapes:


Click the Shape
Click the Format tab

5.

6.

6.3.3

Adding SmartArt

SmartArt is a feature in Office 2007 that allows you to choose from a variety of graphics, including flow
charts, lists, cycles, and processes.
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1.

For Internal Circulation Only

To add SmartArt:
Click the Insert Tab
Click the SmartArt Button
Click the SmartArt you choose

i.
ii.
iii.

2.

To format SmartArt:

Click the SmartArt


Click either the Design or the Format tab
Click the SmartArt to add text and pictures.

6.3.4

Creating Table

1.

To create a table:
i.
ii.
iii.

Place the cursor on the page where you want the new table
Click the Insert Tab of the Ribbon
Click the Tables Button on the Tables Group. You can create a table one of four ways:

Highlight the number of row and columns


Click Insert Table and enter the number of rows and columns
Click the Draw Table, create your table by clicking and entering the rows and columns
Click Excel Spreadsheet and enter data

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2.

For Internal Circulation Only

To enter data in a table:

Place the cursor in the cell where you wish to enter the information. Begin typing.

3.

To modify the structure of a table:

Click the table and notice that you have two new tabs on the Ribbon: Design and Layout. These pertain
to the table design and layout.
On the Design Tab, you can choose:

4.

Table Style Options


Table Styles
Draw
Borders

To format a table:

Click the table and then click the Layout Tab on the Ribbon. This Layout Tab allows you to:

View Gridlines and Properties (from the Table Group)


Insert Rows and Columns (from the Rows & Columns Group)
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5.

For Internal Circulation Only

Delete the Table, Rows and/or Columns (from the Rows & Columns Group)
Merge or Split Cells (from the Merge Group)
Increase and decrease cell size (Cell Size Group)
Align text within the cells and change text directions (Alignment Group)

To insert a table from Word or Excel:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Open the Word document or Excel worksheet


Select the chart
Click Copy on the Home tab
Go to the PowerPoint document where you want the chart located
Click Paste on the Home tab

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6.3.5

Creating Chart

1.

To create a chart:
i.
ii.
iii.

2.

For Internal Circulation Only

Click the Insert tab on the ribbon


Click the type of Chart you want to create
Insert the Data and Labels

To edit chart data:


i.
ii.
iii.

Click on the chart


Click Edit Data on the Design tab
Edit data in the spreadsheet

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3.

For Internal Circulation Only

To move the chart:


i.
ii.
iii.

4.

Click the Chart and Drag it another location on the same slide, or
Copy it to another slide
Choose the desired location and click Paste

To modify the chart size:


i.
ii.

5.

Click the Chart


Click on any of the corners and drop and drag to resize

To modify the labels and titles:


i.
ii.
iii.

Click the chart


Click the Layout tab
Choose the appropriate label to change

6.
Chart Tools:
The Chart Tools appear on the Ribbon when you click on the chart. The tools are located on three tabs:
Design, Layout, and Format.
Within the Design tab you can control the chart type, layout, styles, and location.

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Within the Layout tab you can control the insertion of pictures, textboxes, and shapes, labels,
backgrounds, and data analysis.

Within the Format tab you can adjust the Fill Colors and Word Styles.

7.

Paste a Chart from Excel


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Open the Excel worksheet


Select the chart
Click Copy on the Home tab
Go to the PowerPoint document where you want the chart located
Click Paste on the Home tab

6.4

Animation Effects

6.4.1

Hyperlink & Actions

1.
Hyperlink can create a link to external files, web page, email address and the same document.
Actions can add an action to the selected object to specify what should happen when you click on it or
hover over it with your mouse.
2.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

To create hyperlink to external file:


Click Insert tab from the ribbon.
Click Hyperlink.
Click Existing File or Web Page.
Choose the file you need.

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3.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

4.
i.
ii.
iii.
5.
i.
ii.
iii.

For Internal Circulation Only

To create hyperlink to the same presentation:


Click Insert tab from the ribbon.
Click Hyperlink.
Click Place in this Document.
Choose slide number.

To create hyperlink to a web page:


Click Insert tab from the ribbon.
Click Hyperlink.
Type URL address in the Address field.
To create action effects:
Click Insert tab from the ribbon.
Click Actions.
Set the actions under either the Mouse Click or Mouse Over tabs.
Actions specified for Mouse Click will execute when the button is clicked on the slide while
actions for Mouse Over will occur when the mouse pointer hovers the button.
Select an action for the button by choosing a Hyperlink to destination.
If you want a sound to be played when the button is clicked, check the Play sound box and
choose a sound from the drop-down menu.

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6.4.2

For Internal Circulation Only

Slide Transitions

Transitions are effects that are in place when you switch from one slide to the next.
1.

To add slide transitions:


i.
ii.
iii.

2.

Select the slide that you want to transition.


Click the Animations tab.
Choose the appropriate animation or click the Transition dialog box.

To adjust slide transitions:


i.

Add sound by clicking the arrow next to Transition Sound.

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ii.

For Internal Circulation Only

Modify the transition speed by clicking the arrow next to Transition Speed.

To apply the transition to all slides:

4.

Click the Apply to All button on the Animations tab

To select how to advance a slide:


i.
ii.

Choose to Advance on Mouse Click, or


Automatically after a set number of seconds

6.4.3

Slide Animation

1.

Slide animation effects are predefined special effects that you can add to objects on a slide.

2.

To apply an animation effect:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Select the object.


Click the Animations tab on the Ribbon.
Click Custom Animation.
Click Add Effect.
Choose the appropriate effect.

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3.

For Internal Circulation Only

To preview the animation on a slide:

Click the Preview button on the Animations tab

6.4.4

Slide Show Options

1.

The Slide Show tab of the ribbon contains many options for the slide show. These options
include:

2.

Preview the slide show from the beginning


Preview the slide show from the current slide
Set up Slide Show

To set up slide show:

This option allows you to set preferences for how the slide show will be presented. The options include:

Whether the show will run automatically or will be presented by a speaker


The looping options
Narration options
Monitor resolutions

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3.

For Internal Circulation Only

To record narration for the slides:


i.
ii.

iii.

Click the Record Narration button


Click Set Microphone Level to check the levels of
audio input
Click OK to record the narration

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4.

For Internal Circulation Only

Rehearse Timings:

Use Rehearsed Timings to rehearse the timings of slide with audio.


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

5.

Click the Rehearse Timings button


Practice speaking and advance the slides as you would in the presentation
When you have completed this click through the end of the slide
Choose whether or not to keep this timing or to retry

Create Speaker Notes:

Speaker Notes can be added to allow you to create notes for each slide. To add speaker notes:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Select the slide


Click View
Click Note Pages
Click the Click to add Notes section of the screen
Type in the Notes for that slide

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6.5

Printing a Presentation

1.

There are many options for printing a presentation. They are:

2.

For Internal Circulation Only

Slides: These are slides that you would see if you were showing the presentation, one slide per
page
Handouts: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9 per page, this option allows for more slides per page
Notes Page: This includes the slides and the speaker notes
Outline View: This will print the outline of the presentation
To access the print options:

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

3.

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click Print
In the Print Dialog Box, click the arrow next to Print what
Choose the format and click OK to print

To print preview:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Place the cursor over Print
Click Print Preview
Click the arrow next to Print What to change print options
To print from Print Preview, click Print

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4.

For Internal Circulation Only

To exit Print Preview:

Click the Close Print Preview button

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6.6

For Internal Circulation Only

Package a Presentation

1.
There are times when you want to package a presentation with all of the additional files
attached as well. To package a presentation for CD:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Click the Microsoft Office Button


Click Publish
Click Package for CD
Type a name for the CD
Click Copy to CD or Copy to Folder

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7.0

DATABASES

7.1.

Introduction

For Internal Circulation Only

A database is a collection of information that's related. Access allows you to manage your information in
one database file. Within Access there are four major areas: Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports
1.
2.
3.
4.

7.1.1

Tables store your data in your database


Queries ask questions about information stored in your tables
Forms allow you to view data stored in your tables
Reports allow you to print data based on queries/tables that you have created

Data Hierarchy

Before proceeding, it is important to understand common Microsoft Access Data Types.

7.1.2

Exploring Database Screen

The first step in creating an Access 2007 database, is to create a blank database file. This is done from
the Getting Started Screen when you launch Access. The file is saved onto one of your PCs folders (which
you specify). The procedure for doing this is outlined below.

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7.1.2.1 Launch Access


To begin, launch Access by clicking on the desktop icon, or choose Access from the start menu. This
brings up the GETTING STARTED WITH MICROSOFT OFFICE ACCESS screen.

7.1.2.2 Select Blank Database Template

Towards the top left of the screen you will see a "Blank Database" icon. Click this icon to bring up the
Blank Database side bar on the right hand side of the screen. This is where you will enter details about
the database file that you are about to create.
7.1.2.3 Enter filename for your Access 2007 Database

Browse and select folder

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Begin by entering the name that you want to call the database in the filename textbox.

7.1.2.4 Browse and select folder


Next click the folder icon and browse for a folder to put your database. Once selected you should see
the file path below the textbox.

Click Create
All you need to do now is click the "Create" command button below, and your database file saves to the
location that you specified, and opens for you to work on.

7.2 Design a simple database


7.2.1

Create table

Like all other databases, Access 2007 stores data in tables. They look a lot like the cells of a spreadsheet
with columns and rows. Each horizontal column represents a table record, and each vertical column
represents a table field. See Table example below:
A simple Table
StudentID

Name

Address

BHD12122011 Ahmad Mikail N0. 3, Jalan Kenanga, 34300 Kuala Kangsar, Perak

TelephoneNo
012-2225566

BDA12121113 Juhariah

No.48, Jalan Kesatria, Taman Kesatria,45000 Kajang,


Selangor

011-1154627

BDB12121001

Lot 234, Jalan Panglima Si Guntang, 84000 Batu Pahat,


Johor

014-8978987

Anuar Rahimi

In the example Table above, there are four fields containing information about an individuals StudentID,
Name, Address, and TelephoneNo. Below the field headings there are 3 records containing information
or data for each individual.

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When planning a database table, most database designers will decide which column headings or fields
they are going to use. This is the basis of the table structure. The actual data is added later and is not a
part of the design process.

7.2.1.1 Create Access Table


Open database file
You should see the file name that you just created towards the top of the right hand side bar (If you cant
see it, click the folder icon to browse for the file). Click on the file name to bring up your blank database.
If, at this stage, you get a security warning underneath the ribbon, click where it says options, select the
"enable this content" radio button (in the pop-up window), and then click ok.
Your blank database file should now be fully open as below.

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Click Table 1
Click View
Select Design View

Save the table name as Student

This brings up the TABLE DESIGN GRID where you enter each field name and its data type.

Before you save the table you will need to choose the Primary Key, which in this case is StudentID. To do
this, select the ID row by clicking on it, and then simply click the primary key symbol on the Ribbon.

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If you want to set certain Data Type format for your field name, which in this case is TelephoneNo, click
Input Mask, then click the

button.

Input Mask Wizard box will appear as below, click Edit List button.

Type format as below.

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Then click close and finish button.


You can now save the table by clicking the save icon on the top left of the screen above the Access
Ribbon. To view your table selects DATASHEET VIEW from the VIEWS group under the DESIGN TAB. This
brings up the datasheet view of the table that you have just created. Look at the TelephoneNo field; it
follows the format as you set using the Input Mask.

Add another 1 field which named as gender and fill in the field.
To add the field, you must click the View and Select Design View, and then named the field and select
text as the data type with field size is 1.

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Save the table. Then go to Datasheet View and fill in the data for gender. Put M for Male and F for
Female. Your datasheet table should now look like this:

7.2.2

Create form using wizard

7.2.2.1 Select form wizard


Open your database if it is not already open. Click the CREATE tab on the ACCESS RIBBON and then
select MORE FORMS from the forms group. A drop down list of form types appears. You need to select
FORM WIZARD from this list.

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7.2.2.2 Select table and fields


The Form wizard then opens as the pop up window below.

On the first page of the form wizard we select which table we are going to use as the DATA SOURCE.
Since there is only one table in this database so far, it should already be selected for us in the
TABLES/QUERIES combo box.
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Underneath there is a list of the five fields in your table. You could select each field individually by
highlighting the field name and clicking the single arrow >. We can, however, select all five just by
clicking the double arrow >>. Once they have been transfered into the right hand box they are selected.
We can now click NEXT to go to page 2 of the form wizard.

7.2.2.3 Form Layout

This is where we choose the FORM LAYOUT. We are going to leave this on the default setting of
COLUMNAR. Click NEXT again to move onto page three of the form wizard.

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7.2.2.4 Form Style

Here we select a style that from the list box. Preview a style by clicking on its name. This step just
determines how the form looks aesthetically. Once you have selected a style to your taste, click NEXT
again.

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7.2.2.5 Form Title

This is the last stage of the wizard. Here we are going to choose the name for our form - lets say FORM1.
We are going to leave the radio button selected for OPEN THE FORM TO ENTER OR VIEW INFORMATION
All we need to do now is click FINISH and our form should like something like this:

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7.2.2.5 Navigate Records via Access Form


As you can see, the form opens with the first record in your original table displayed. You can navigate
through each record using the NAVIGATION BUTTON at the bottom left of the form window.

To move to the next record click the right arrow button on the navigation control. To move to the last
record click the >| button on the navigation control. To move backwards through the recordset use the
left arrow buttons. You could edit any record from the form, which will update the data in your table.
For now, though, just try navigating through the three records without changing any data.

7.2.3

Create report using wizard

Access REPORTS are a way of displaying and printing information from your database. Developers often
use Reports to display the results of a Query, which is what we are going to do next.
Like other Access database objects, there a number of ways to create an Access REPORT. We are going
use the REPORT WIZARD. Our task is to display the results of QUERY1 which we created in the previous
tutorial lesson.

7.2.3.1 Open Report Wizard


Begin by selecting the CREATE TAB on the Access Ribbon. Then click REPORT WIZARD from the REPORTS
group to open the pop up window.

7.3.3.2 Select Report Data Source and Fields


The first page of the Report Wizard is almost identical to that of the Form Wizard. On this page we will
select QUERY1 as the DATA SOURCE for the Report. This is done by selecting the query from the list in
the TABLES/QUERIES combo box. Then select all fields from Table: Student by clicking the double arrow
to the right of the text box labelled AVAILABLE FIELDS. The field names will now appear in the SELECTED
FIELDS text box on the right. Click next to go to the second page of the wizard.

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7.2.3.3 Report Grouping Levels


Page two of the wizard is where you can add grouping levels if required. So we could, for example,
group each person in our report with others of the same Gender.

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7.2.3.5 Record Sort Order


Page three of the wizard is where you determine what order the records are displayed in your report..
For this example, we are going to put your records into alphabetical order for Name. Begin by clicking
the top drop down box and selecting Name, this means that records are sorted alphabetically and is
used to determine which record comes first etc.
Click Next

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7.2.3.6 Report Lay Out


This page of the Wizard is where you set the lay out for your report. There are various lay out options,
but in our case we shall keep to the default setting of STEPPED. Click next.

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7.2.3.7 Style
For style, select Metro from the list and click next.

7.2.3.8 Name of Report


Name your report Student Info and then click FINISH.
Your access report will now be displayed on the screen, and should look something like this:

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7.3

Manipulate table

7.3.1

Add records

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Add another 4 records as below :

7.3.2

Delete records

Click any record by using right mouse and delete a record as below :

Clickk button Yes to proceed delete record.

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7.4

Managing data

7.4.1

Filter Record

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Click on small arrow on stdntNm field. Choose Text Filters and Contains as below :

Type binti in the TextBox contains and the filter result as below :

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7.4.2

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Sort Record

Sort the record stdntNm by Alphabet A to Z. Click on small arrow and click Sort A to Z.

The sort result by stdntNm as below:

7.4.3

Find Record

Go to Find Panel and click Find button.

To find any record example type abdullah in the TextBox and follow instruction as below :

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The result of find record will highlight as below:

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Exercise 1:
Create database db_MusicStore in a folder using your own name.

(1 mark)

Create table tblSongInfo using the data below and use suitable data type.

(5 marks)

Set SongID as primary key.

(1 mark)

Insert new field Distributor after field ReleaseDate with appropriate value

(1 mark)

Rename Singer to Artist

(1 mark)

Set column width for SongName and Artist to 19.

(1 mark)

Create form using form wizard with the following criteria:


Use SongID, SongName, Artist and ReleaseDate

(1 mark)

Apply Tabular layout

(1 mark)

Use Flow style

(1 mark)

Give a title Music Store Information to your form

(1 mark)

Create report using reports wizard with following criteria:


Use songID, SongName, Artist , ReleaseDate , distributor, and active

(1 mark)

Group by active

(1 mark)

Sort by SongName - Ascending

(1 mark)

Set the orientation of the page to Landscape

(1 mark)

Use Flow style

(1 mark)

Give a title Artist @ Music Store to your report

(1 mark)

Save and close the database.


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Exercise 2:
Create database dbStudent in a folder using your own name.

(1 mark)

Create table studentRegister using the data below and


Use suitable data type.

(4marks)

Set StudentID as primary key.

(1 mark)

Rename column Semester to Sem_Register and set column width to 18.

(1 mark)

Delete record for StudentName AMALINA BT HAMDAN from table studentRegister. (1 mark)
Insert column StudentTel after StudentName field and insert data as follows:
StudentID

StudentTel

AB10012

013-5545858

AB10013

016-6614758

AB10014

017-2442529

AB10015

018-8841252
(2 marks)

Create form using form wizard with the following criteria:


Use all fields

(1 mark)

Apply Columnar layout

(1 mark)

Use Civic style

(1 mark)

Give a title Event Detail to your form

(1 mark)

Create report using reports wizard with following criteria:


Use StudentID, StudentName, SubjectCode, Sem_Register, CreditHour

(1 mark)

Group by Sem_Register

(1 mark)
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Sort by CreditHour - Ascending

(1 mark)

Set the orientation of the page to Landscape

(1 mark)

Use Metro style

(1 mark)

Give a title Student Details Report to your report

(1 mark)

Save and close the database.

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Exercise 3:
Create database db_Travel in a folder using your own name.

(1 mark)

Create table tblEvents using the data below and


Use suitable data type.

(5 marks)

Set Event as primary key.

(1 mark)

Insert new field EventId with Data Type AutoNumber before Event field.

(1 marks)

Rename Location field to Place.

(1 mark)

Set column width for StartTime and EndTime field to 20.

(1 mark)

Create form using form wizard with the following criteria:


Use all fields

(1 mark)

Apply Columnar layout

(1 mark)

Use Civic style

(1 mark)

Give a title Event Detail to your form

(1 mark)

Create report using reports wizard with following criteria:


Use Event, Location and Description

(1 mark)

Group by Event

(1 mark)

Sort by Location - Descending

(1 mark)

Set the orientation of the page to Landscape

(1 mark)

Use Metro style

(1 mark)

Give a title Event Detail Report to your report


Save and close the database.

(1 mark)
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Exercise 4:
Create database db_KesumaLakeClub in a folder using your own name.

(1 mark)

Create table tblADinner using the data below and


Use suitable data type.

(5 marks)

Set MemberID as primary key.

(1 mark)

Insert new field Gender after Mbr_Phone with appropriate value and change the field size for Gender to
1.
(1 mark)
Rename Fee(pls tick if paid) to Attendance Confirmation.

(1 mark)

Set column width for Mbr_Name and Attendance Confirmation to 17.

(1 mark)

Create form using form wizard with the following criteria:


Use MemberID, Mbr_Name, Mbr_Phone and Resident Status

(1 mark)

Apply Tabular layout

(1 mark)

Use Concourse style

(1 mark)

Give a title Kesuma Lake Club Membership to your form

(1 mark)

Create report using reports wizard with following criteria:


Use MemberID, Mbr_Name, Resident Status, and Attendance Confirmation

(1 mark)

Group by Attendance Confirmation

(1 mark)

Sort by Mbr_Name - Ascending

(1 mark)

Set the orientation of the page to Landscape

(1 mark)

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Use Civic style

(1 mark)

Give a title Annual Dinner Kesuma Lake Club to your report

(1 mark)

Save and close the database.

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8.0 COMPUTER NETWORK


8.1 Computer Network Definition
Computer Network is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by
communication channels that allow sharing resources and information. It is at least one process in one
device is able to send or receive data to or from at least one process residing in a remote device, then
the two devices are said to be in a network.
In 1969, 4 universities in United States of America, the University of California at Los Angeles, the
Stanford Research Institute of Stanford University, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the
University of Utah established the first operational packet switching network as the beginning of the
Advanced Research Project Agency Network or ARPANET network using 50kilobits per second circuit.
The ARPANET project was funded by the Unites States Department of Defence.

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8.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Network


Advantages
Facilitates
communication

Disadvantages

Using
a
network, May be insecure
people
can
communicate
efficiently and easily
via
email,
instant
messaging,
chat
rooms,
telephone,
video telephone calls
and
video
conferencing.

Permit sharing of files, In


a
network May interfere with
data and other types environment,
other technologies
authorized users may
of information
access
data
and
information stored on
other computers. The
capability of providing
access to data and
information
shared
storage devices is an
important feature of
many networks.

Computer
network
may be used by
computer hackers to
deploy
computer
viruses or worms on
devices connected to
the network or to
prevent these devices
from
normally
accessing the network
(Denial of Service)
Power
line
communication
strongly
disturbs
certain forms of radio
communication,
e.g
amateur radio. It may
also interfere with last
mile
access
technologies such as
ADSL and VDSL.

Share network and In


a
network May be difficult to set A complex computer
environment,
each up
network
may
be
computing resources
computer may access
difficult to set up. It
and user resources
may also be very costly
provided by devices
to set up an effective
such as printing a
computer network in a
document on a shared
large organization or
network printer.
company.

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8.3 Communication Media


Wired technologies
Twisted pair wire

Wireless technologies

Most widely used Communication


medium
in Satellite
telecommunication.
Consists of copper
wires that are twisted
into pairs.
Computer networking
cabling consists of 4
pairs of copper cabling
that can be utilized for
both voice and data
communication. The
used of two wires
twisted together to
helps reduce crosstalk
and electromagnetic
induction.

Satellites communicate
via microwave radio
waves, which are not
deflected by Earths
atmosphere.
The
satellites
are
stationed in space,
typically
in
geosynchronous orbit
35,400
km above
equator.
These Earth orbiting
system are capable of
receiving and relaying
voice, data and TV
signals.

The
transmission
speed ranges from 2
million bits per second
to 10 billion bits per
second. Twisted pair
cabling comes in the
form of :
Unshielded
Twisted
Pair
(UTP)
Shielded Twisted Pair
(STP)
Coaxial cable

Widely used for cable Radio and spread


television
systems, spectrum technologies
office buildings, and
other work-sites for
local area network.
Cable
consists
of
copper or aluminium
wire surrounded by an
insulating
layer
(typically by flexible
material with a high
dielectric
constant),

Wireless local area


network use a highfrequency
radio
technology similar to
digital cellular and a
low-frequency
radio
technology.
Wireless LANs uses
spread
spectrum
technology to enable
communication
between
multiple
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which
itself
surrounded
by
a
conductive layer.

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devices in a limited
area.

The insulation helps


minimize interference
and
distortion.
Transmission
speed
ranges
from
200
million bits per second
to 500 million bits per
second.
Optical fibre

Actually a glass fibre Infrared


that uses pulses of communication
light to transmit data.
Advantages of using
optical fibre over metal
wires :

It can transmit signals


for small distances,
typically in no more
than 10 meters.

Less transmission loss;


Immunity
from
electromagnetic
radiation;
Very fast transmission
speed, up to trillions of
bits per second;

8.4 Communication Protocols


A communication protocols is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network. It is typically a
protocol stack in which each protocol uses the protocol below it. An important example of a protocol
stack is HTTP is running over TCP over IP over IEEE 802.11. This stack is used between the wireless router
and the homes user personal computer when the user is surfing the web.

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Network Communication standards

Details

Ethernet

A family of connectionless protocols used in Local Area


Networks, has a flat addressing scheme and mostly situated
at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model.

Internet Protocols (IP)

Often called Transmission Control Protocol / Internet


Protocol (TCP/IP), is the foundation of all modern
internetworking. Offer connection-less as well as
connection-oriented services over network by datagram
transmission at the Internet Protocol level. The traditional
IP using Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPV4) but now are
using Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPV6).

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

A standard switching technique, design to unify


telecommunication and computer networks. This differ
from other protocols such as Ethernet and IP that were
using variable sized packets or frames.
ATM uses a connection-oriented model in which a virtual
circuit established between two endpoints before the
actual data exchange begins. ATM provides data link layer
services that run over a wide range of OSI Physical layer.

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)

A popular technology that allows electronic device to


exchange data wirelessly using radio waves over a
computer network including a high-speed Internet
connection. It is using IEEE 802.11 standards :
Protocol Type

Data rate per


stream

Indoor
range

Outdoor
range

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Bluetooth

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802.11

1 2 Mbps

20m

100m

802.11a

6 54 Mbps

35m

120m

802.11b

1 11 Mbps

35m

140m

802.11g

6 - 54 Mbps

38m

140m

802.11n

7.2 150 Mbps

70m

250m

A proprietary open wireless technology standard for


exchanging data over short distances using shortwavelength radio transmission from fixed and mobile
devices. It can connect several devices, overcoming
problems or synchronization.
Bluetooth range can up to from 5 meters to 100 meters.

Infrared Data Association (IrDA)

A complete set of protocols for wireless infrared


communications. Main characteristics are physically secure
data transfer, Line-Of-Sight (LOS) and very low bit error rate
(BER) that makes if very efficient.

RFID

Use a wireless non-contact system that uses radiofrequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag
attached to an object, for the purpose of automatic
identification and tracking.
The tag contains electronically stored information which
can be read from up to several meters away. Unlike bar
code, the tag does not need to be within the line of sight of
the reader and may be embedded in the tracked object.

Worldwide Interoperability for


Microwave Access (Wi-MAX)

A wireless communication standard designed to provide 30


to 40 megabit per second data rates. It is part of 4G
wireless communication protocol. Wi-MAX offering a
metropolitan area network with a signal radius of about
50km.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

A technical standard for accessing information over a


mobile wireless network. Before the introduction of WAP,
mobile service providers had limited opportunities to offer
interactive data services, but needed interactivity to
support Internet and web applications such as :

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a) email by mobile phone


b) sport results
c) news headlines
d) music downloads

8.5 Types of Network


Types of Network
Personal Area Network (PAN)

Details
A computer network used for communication among
computer and different technological devices close to one
person.
Examples of devices that used in a PAN :
a) personal computers
b) printers
c) fax machines
d) telephones

e) PDAs
f) scanners
g) video game consoles

The reach of a PAN typically extends up to 10 meters. A


wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and FireWire
connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and
Infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.
Local Area Network (LAN)

A network that connects computers and devices in a limited


geographical area such as home, school, computer
laboratory, office building or closely positioned group of
buildings. Each computer or device is a node. Current wired
LANs are most likely to used Ethernet technology.
Characteristics of LANs as below :
a) higher data transfer rate
b) smaller geographical range
c) no need for leased telecommunication lines.
Current LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10Gbps.

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Home Area Network (HAN)

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A residential LAN which is used for communication between


digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a
small number of personal computers, laptops and
accessories such as printers and mobile computing devices.
An important function is the sharing of Internet access,
often a broadband service through a cable TV or Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL) provider.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A large computer network that usually spans a city or a


large campus. Usually interconnect a number of LAN using a
high-capacity backbone technology, such as fibre-optical
links, and provide up-link services to WAN and the Internet.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A computer network that covers a large geographic area


such as a city, country or spans even intercontinental
distances, using a communications channel that combines
many types of media such as telephone lines, cables and air
waves.
WAN technologies generally function at the lower three
layers f the OSI model ;
a) the physical layer
b) the data link layer
c) the network layer

Private Virtual Network (PVN)

A computer network in which some of the links between


nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in
some larger network (e.g Internet) instead of by physical
wires. One common application is secure communications
through the public Internet but VPN need not have explicit
security features such as authentication or content
encryption. For example, VPN can be used to separate the
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traffic of different user communities over and underlying


network with strong security features.

8.6 Intranet, Internet and Extranet


Intranet

A set of networks, using the Internet Protocol and IP-based


tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications,
under the control of a single administrative entity.
Mostly an Intranet is the internal network of an
organization. A large intranet will typically have at least one
web server to provide users with organizational
information.

Internet

A global system of interconnected governmental, academic,


corporate, public and private computer networks. It is
based on the networking technologies of the Internet
Protocol and also the successor of the Advanced Research
Project Agency Network (ARPANET). The Internet also the
communications backbones underlying the World Wide
Web (www).

Extranet

A network that is limited in scope to a single organization or


entity and also has limited connections to the networks of
one or more other usually, but not necessarily, trusted
organizations or entities.

An extranet can be categorized as MAN or WAN but not


LAN, it must have at least one connection with an external
network.

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8.7 Network Topology


Bus network

A network architecture in which a set of clients are


connected via a shared communications line, called a bus.
This was the layout used in the original Ethernet, called
10Base5 and 10Base2.

Star network

Most common computer network topology, in its simplest


form, a star network consists of one central switch, hub or
computer, which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. If
the central node is passive, the originating node must be
able to tolerate the reception of an echo of its own
transmission, delayed by the two-way transmission time.
An active star network has an active central node that
usually has the means to prevent echo-related problems.
Advantages :
a) Better performance : prevents the passing of data
packets through an excessive number of nodes.
b) Isolation of devices : each device is inherently isolated by
the link that connects it to the hub. It also prevents any
non-centralized failure from affecting the network.
c) No disruptions to the network when connecting or
removing devices.
Disadvantages :
a) High dependence on the functioning of the central hub
b) Failure of the central hub renders the network
inoperable

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Ring network

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A network topology in which each node connects to exactly


two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for
signals through each node, data travels from one node to
another, with each node along the way handling every
packet.

Advantages :
a) very orderly network where every access to the token
and the opportunity to transmit.
b) Performs better than a bus topology under heavy
network load.
c) Does not require a central node to manage he
connectivity between the computers
Disadvantages :
a) One malfunctioning workstation can create problems for
the entire network
b) Communication delay is directly proportional to number
of nodes in the network
c) Bandwidth is shared on all links between devices.
Mesh network

A type of networking where each node must not only


capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as
relay for other nodes, that is, it must collaborate to
propagate the data in the network.
Mesh network can be designed using a flooding technique r
a routing technique.

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8.8 Network Components


Network Interface Card (NIC)

Allow computers to physically access a networking medium.

Ethernet hub

A device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together


and making them act as single network segment. It has
multiple input / output ports, in which a signal introduced
at the input of any port appears at the output of every port
except the original incoming.

Switch

A computer networking device that connects network


segments or network devices. The term commonly refers to
a multi-port network bridge that processes data and routes
data at the data link layer of the OSI model.

Router

A device that forwards data packets between computer


networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is
connected to two or more data lines from different
networks.
When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router
reads the address information in the packet to determine
its ultimate destination.
Then using information in its routing table or routing policy,
it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.
Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the
Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one
router to another through the networks that constitute the

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internetwork until it gets on its destination node.

Repeater

An electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it


at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of
an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer
distances.
Repeaters are used to boost signals in coaxial and twisted
pair cable and in fibre optic.

Firewall

A firewall can be software-based or hardware-based and is


used to help keep a network secure. Its primary objective is
to control the incoming and outgoing network traffic by
analyzing the data packets and determining whether it
should be allowed through or not, based on predetermined
rule set. A network s firewall builds a brigade between an
internal network that is assumed to be secure and trusted,
and another network usually an external network, such as
the Internet, that is not assumed to be secure and trusted.

8.9 Internet Connection Speed Comparison


Carrier
Technology

Description

Speed

Physical Medium

Dial-up Access

On demand access using a modem


and regular telephone line

2400 bps to 56
Kbps

Twisted pair (regular


phone line)

ISDN

Dedicated telephone line and router


required.

64 Kbps to 124
Kbps

Twisted pair

Cable

Special cable modem and cable line


required

512 Kbps to 20
Mbps

Coaxial cable

ADSL / DSL

This new technology uses the


unused digital portion of a regular
copper telephone line to transmit

128 Kbps to 8
Mbps

Twisted pair

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and receive information.


Wireless

Satellite

T1

T3
OC-1

OC-3

Access is gained by connection to a


high speed cellular like local multipoint communications system via
wireless transmitter / receiver.

30 Mbps or
more

Airwaves.

In older versions, the computer


sends request for information to an
ISP via normal phone dial-up
communications and data is
returned via high speed satellite to
rooftop dish, which relays it to the
computer via a decoder box.

6 Mbps or more

Airwaves

Newer versions have two-way


satellite access, removing need for
phone line.
Special lines and equipment
(DSU/CSU and router) required.
Typically used for ISP to Internet
infrastructure
Typically used for ISP to Internet
infrastructure within Internet
infrastructure
Typically used for large company
backbone or Internet backbone

Requires outside
antenna

Requires outside
antenna

1.544 Mbps

Twisted-pair, coaxial
cable or optical-fibre

44.736 Mbps

Optical fibre

51.84 Mbps

Optical fibre

155.52 Mbps

Optical fibre

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