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The data in this report were derived from several State and Federal agency sources, and from
field reports sf the Texas Epidemiotogy Work Group of persons with specialized knowledge of
drug problems or knowledge of drug abuse patterns in various parts of the state.

Agency sources were the Texas Departrnent of Public Safety (DPS) data systems for motor
vehicle accidents, alcohol and drug arrests, and drug seizures; Texas Departrnent of Health for
deaths and AIDS incidence data Texas State Board of Pharmacy data for triplicate prescription
trends; Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission data on alcoholic beverage consumption;
National Institute on Drug Abuse data on hospital emergency room episodes; Drug
Enforcement Administration intelligence summaries; and the Texas Commission on Alcohol
and Drug Abusc database on clients admitted for treatrnent of subsunce abuse.

Membcrs of the cpidemiology work group were selected on the basis of their expert knowledge
related to substance abuse problems, or on the basis of their direct sources of information
conceming drug use patterns and U,ends "on the streel" Appendices to this report contain a
sampling of the excellent work performed by work group members in these areas. The drug
knowledge, professional experience, and varied disciplines of these work group members
Featly assisted the effort to combine several sources of indirect data, direct measures, and
intelligence reports and to develop an assessment of probable emerging trends as summarized
in ttris rcporl


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Texas Drug Epidemiology Work Group

Robert Almonte, Sgt. Fiilel Garza

Narcotics Office HIV Counselor
El Paso Police Departnent Corpus Christi Drug Abuse Council,Inc.
911 North Raynor 405 John Sartain
ElPaso,TX 799A9 Corpus Chdsti, TX 78403
(915)779-3972 (512) 882-9979

Syloia Btackerby lohn Hatch, Deputy Director

Austin Travis County MHMR Texas Narcotics Control Program
3001 South I-a.mar, Suite 201 Governor's Office
Austin,fi 78704 P. O. Box 12428
(572\ 472-6261, Austin,fi 78711
(512) 463-1919
Tuty Bmouq Captain
Narcotics Service Rogu Htnanilez
Departrnent of Public Safety Senior Compliance Officer
1414 North 18th Texas State Board of Pharmacy
McAlleryfi 78501 &505 Cross Creek Drivg Suite 110
(512) 582-5555 Austin, TX 787544533
(s12) 832-0551
Wes Boyil
Intelligence Group Oscar fones,Director
Dallas Field Division DrugUnit
Drug Enforcement Administration Lubbock Regional MHMR Center
1.880 Regal Row 1.210 Te:<as Avenue
Dallas, TX 75235 Lubbock,fi 79401
(214)767-784 @007ean7
foeCastorana loseph Kotarba
Asst. Chief Toxicologist Reflective Research Co;
Bexar County Forensic Science Cenbr 5000 Maple
500North Leona Street Bellaire, TX n40l
SanAntonio,TX 78207 (713' ffi-7336
(210) 225-3826
lamal Khalil
Donalil Cohn, Captain Houston Police Deparhnent
Narcotics Service Planning & Research Dvision
Texas Departrnent of Public Safety 51 Reirser
9000IH-35 North Houstorvfi 2002
Austin,TX 78753 (773) 247-5802
(512) 87$3100
Marty Krepcho
Dartd Fishburn Asst. Program Manager for
AIDS Educator Education and Researc]r
Dallas County Health Deparknent Dallas County Health Department
500 Commerce SL,9th Floor 600 Commerce St., 9th Floor
Dallas, TX 75202 Dallas, fi 75202
(214) 5s$.6820 (214) 6s3-5820
Texas Drug Epidemiology Work Group


B. C.Lyon, Captian Houtaril Williams, Sgt'

Narcotics Service Organized Crime Division
Texas Departrnent of Public Safety 1105 Clayton Lane, Suite 35&W
P. O. noxeOgZ Austin,TX 78723
Austin,fi 7823 (512) 458-M22
$12) 465-9062
Street Address: 5805 N. Lamar Bob Wimbeiley
Austin, fi 78752 Diversion Group Supervisor
Dallas Field Division
lane Maxzoetl, Director DrugEnforcementAdministration
Planning and Evaluation Deparbnent 1880 Regal Row
TexasCommissiononAlcohol&DrugAbuse Dallas, TX 75235
T2}Brazos, SuiE 403 Q1'4)757-7254
Austin, TX 78707-2576

lntelligence Analyst
Houston Field Division
Drug Enforcernent Administration
333 West Loop North, Suite 300
Housbn,fi 2024
V13) ffi1.-7n1. ext.226

8621 Lakehurst St.
El Paso,M n972
(91$ 584-1985

Richaril Spence, Ph.D., Chair

Research and Development Division
Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Ahse
T20Brazns, Suite 403
Austin,lX 78707-?576

Dept. of Psychiatry
University of Tocas
Health Science Center
Z(B Floyd Cul
San Anbni o, TX ft284,7792



AppendixA--TREATMENTDATA.i....... ......... L3








Appendixc -- AIDS/HIV STATISTICS ..... 99

Appendix H -- LOCAL REPORTS @PS & Potce Dept. Reports) 107

H-1: Austin Police Depairnent .......... 109
H-2: EI Paso Police Dept. & County Statistics 115
H-3: L992 General Summary of Narcotics Use in Houston r23
H-4: Texas Depr of Public Safety, McAllen District 131



J-1: Houston Division L43
I-2: DallasDivision 151

Appendix K - K-1:
Rcport fromCorpw Christi Drug Abwe Council,Inc.,
by Kenna Roberts 159
K-2: Re,port from Austin Travis C-ounty MHMR:
Patterns andTrends of Drug Abuse,W SylviaBlackerby 165
K-3: An Ethnographic Stndy of tlu Rave Scene in Hotnton,
by loseph A. Kotarba t73
K-4: HN RiskBehavior Clwnge in a Predominantly Hispanic
Sanple of Injecting DrugUsers, by K. Vogtsberger,
D. Desmond" & J. Maddux .............. 181
K- 5: Gay Men and Adolescents in Dallas , Texas: Snbstance Abwe
Patterns Arnong Two Groups at Riskfor HN, by Daniel Fishburn.... 189


L1: Deaths in Texas, L99t & L992 r99
L.2: Drug Abusc Related Deaths-in Bexar County, 1992
by Jamcs Ganiott and loe Castorena 221

Jane C. Maxwell, M.A.
Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Austin, Texas
Cocaine treatrnent admissions and deaths continue to rise. Cocaine admissions are
nearly equal to alcohol adnrissions and cocaine overdose deaths in San Antonio
have surpassed heroin, which- has been the traditional drug of abuse there. There
are two patterns of cocaine use: crack smokers and injecting cocaine users who often
injgct cocaine in combination with heroin. During the past six months, the percent
of cocaine smokers has continued to increase to nearly three-fourths of all iocaine
admissions. Medcan black tar and brown heroin arl the predominant forms of
heroin, although Colombian heroin is expected to become- more available soon.
There are rePorts of new heroin users and the movement of some crack users back
to heroin, but this trend is not yet shown in the traditional indicators. Vicodin and
Dilaudid are the most commonly abused prescription drugs. Marijuana is readily
available and over three-fourths of all marijuana admisiions to treatment are
referrils from the, criminal justice system. 'ie*us is stilt a major prod.ucer of
amphetamines and- methamphetamines, and MDMA (Ecstasy) is iicreasing in
popularity. Benzodiazepines continue to be used in combination with cocain6 or
heroin. Hallucinogens are reported as increasi^gly available and popular among
youth. The _larges_t increases in rates of AIDS cases are among ?emales
heterosexual needle users, and the interrelationship of crack- and sexually "ttd
transmitted diseases continues to be a major concern.

Area Description

The population of Texas is distributed. among 28 metropolitan statistical areas and

254 counties. The ethnic/raciil composition is 51'percenCwhite,2G percent Hispanic,
and 12 percent black. Traditionally, the border with Mexico and the coastline bf the
Gulf of Mexico have been the majbr routes for the transportation of illicit substances
into Texas, and_tr"ffie^g is expected to increase significantly with the North
American Free Trade Agreemgnt In addition, drug trlffic *oo"r through Texas
across the 'three east-to-west interstate highways.-The international aiiports in
Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth are-significant poits for the distribution of drugs in
and out of the State. Other modes of Eansportation, such as buses, trucks, and plrcel
services, are used as well.

Data Sources

Data were obtained from the following sources:

r Ethnographic information-The Texas Epidemiology Work Group (TEWG) met
on May !8, 7993. Information on patterns of diirg use was provided on a
statewide basis and for individual communities.
corresPondents reported on
Data on price, purity, TEW9of the st"t" on May 18' 1993'
current drug priies and purity in various areasfield divisions are members of
Representative of the Dallas
Alcohol and Drug- Atuse's (TCADA)
Treatrrent data-The Texas Commission on(CoDAP)-provided da-f on clients at
Client Oriented Data Acquisitiott
the first quarter of 1993'
(Dul) 9{ the National
, Drug use by arrestees--Drug use Forecasting system and
provided iJormation Cy1992 for Dallas'
Institute of Justice-ei.tonio
Houston, s^r, for arrestees who were interviewed and tested for the
of 'lruii;;; &gt. rn"
presenc. "oa data for third quarter 1992 is not
representative because th-e tests were run
around the time of the Republican
ur,a *uoy of the potential arrestees were not
"On the
Presidential cOnvention
streef' during this time'
correspondents reported
. Trafficking and distribution information--The TEWGthe State on May 18' 1993'
on current arlr! ti;"t and purity in various :r^eas
Representative-o? the Dalra, u".i Houston DEA
field divisions are members of

data for calendar

. ;:::_The Bexar county Medical Examiners office provided
years 1982 through 7992'

o data for Dallas for 1990

Emergency room GR) mentions-DAwN provided
throu[tr the third quarter of 1992'
Safety (DPS) Crime
. Drug analysis data--The Texas Department of Publicanalyzed from cY1988
Laboratories provided data ott tt. cintent of evidence
through C"{7992.
. Rave scene in Houston was
Special studies--An et}nographic study .of the
presented. at the May 1g, pSg.tgwc *"ttiog by Joseph
A. Kotarba, Ph.D', of the
iJniversitY of Houston.
o Human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)/acq"it9d
(AIDS) data-The Texas Deparhent oi Telas AIDS Cases: Surveillance
Report provideJ cumulati". a"t" and data
for the period May 1, 7992, through
April 30,1993.

1. Cocaine
by. two distinct
cocaine abuse in Texas is increasing. It had -been characterized
and iniecting cocaine users who
patterns of abuse: crack users who tented to be brack
months, crack use has
tended to be **i. or Hispanic. Howevgr, in the last six although treatrnent
continued to ,pr..a i"to n. white and rtispanic communities,
statistics do noi yet show this Eend'
Cocaine is readily available with a purity ranging uP t9 90 percent' The price.of a
kiiogram ranges t.t* 912,000 utra $24000, with the lowest prices reported in El
the price ranging
pasoi. Ounce
luantities are reported at 70 to 87 percent purf with An ounce of crack
from $000-$13b0. The price pei gr"* ranges betureen 970 and $100.
costs tetween $500 aira $rioo ind a roik costs between $5 and, $20. A ${0 -rock in
Austin contains .1.-.2 gram and sells for $20; a $20 rock in El Paso contains .27 gram.
The Jamaicans sell $5-0 rocks that can contain 0.7 gram, and "biscuits" or "cookies"
containing 50 rocks are available in Austin for $250'

Cocaine continues to be the number-one illicit substance abuse problem for adult
clients admitted to publicly funded treafinent programs in Texas. During 1991" 55
percent of nonalco'hol admissions were for a Primary-.problem of cocaine, as
^compared to 60 percent in 1992 and. 62 percent for the first quarter of 1993. The
age of iatlt cocaine clients at the time of admission has continued to
increa-se tJ Sf years of age. The race/ethnic pattern continues to change, with the
percentage of blacks incrdasing from 59 percent in 1992 to 61 percent in first quarter
iggg. Atihe same time, the pioportion of whites remained stable "t ?9 percent and
the proportion of Hispanics decieased from 13 percent to 11 percent. The proportion
of fe-male dients has remained stable at34 percent since 1991,.

The proportion of cocaine admissions who are crack users continues to increase,
risin! from 57 percent in 1991 to 74 percent in the first quarter of 1993. Dqing these
two fears, the percent
-droppedinhaling has dropped from L3 to LL percent while the percent
injeiting has fron 18 percent to 13 percent., A comparison of the
characte-ristics of cbiaine ubers by ioute of administration shows that inhalers tend
to be male (77 percent), and the percent Hispanic has increased from 38 percent to 47
percent, while the percent white has decreased from 36 to 32 percent and the perce-nt
bhck has dropped from 25 percent to 21 percent. Inhalers are more likely to-be
employed (49 pircent), criminal justice referrals (58 percent), a1{_users of alcohol
ana mari;uana. Only 20 percmt of the inhalers use cocaing 9n a daily basis. tniect911
are less likely than-inhalers to be male (68 percent), less likely to be a minority (62
percent whiti, 21 percent Hispanic, and 16 percent black), Iess likely to be employed
(25 percent), less likely to be criminal justice referrals (44 percent), and $ey- usq
alcoirol, marijuana, heroin, and amphetamines. Crack smokers are the least likely of
all cocaine users to be male (64 perCent); 19 percent are white,5 percent are Hispanic,
and 76 percent are black. They are least likely to be employed (ooly 2L percent), the
least tiliely to be criminal justice referrals (37 percent), and they use alcohol and
marijuani. About 46 percent of both the injectors and the smokers who are
unemployed say they are unable to work because of their drug abuse. About 45
perceit of bottr inlect6rs and crack smokers use cocaine on a duily basis, and a highel
percentage of these two groups are impaired. CODAP reports physical and social
problems among adult dients at admission: while about 33 percent of the inhalers
ieport problems, 51 percent of the injectors and 63 to 55 percent of the smokers
report problems. to DIJF, the percentage of arrestees testing positive for cocaine was stable
in Dallas and San Antonio. Although the Houston data is problematic for one
(56 to 41
quarter, it still showed_large-decrease in positive cocaine tests for both males
fercent) and females (52 to M percent)'
cocaine arrests
The uniform crime Reporting system does not differentiate between
Public Safety
and arrests for most other drugs. However, the Texas Departrnent of drugs' Of
renorts the substances found when the crime laboratories analyze-seized
found, the proportion of cocaine increased from 29 percent
in 1988 to 58 Percent int992
cocaine in Texas, which originates in Bolivia and Peru, is processed
in Colombia
and Laredo are major
and then truosst ipped throrfgh Mexico. Houston, El Paso,
into Texas from Arizona and southern
foints of entry Uui it is also transported utilizing
carifornia. It is smuggled across the border in multi-kilogram quantities it is in
hidden .o*p"rt*entE"in vehicles, hulls of ships, and human "mules." Once
scale traffickers
Texas, it is dansported by private vehicles, buses, and aircraft. Large
of powde, ur" *hit" or Hispanic, with mid to lower-level dealers being
Blacls. Crack distribution varies u.orttld the state. In the Dallas area, Nigerians,
are involved in the heroin trade, are trying to establish a foothold in the crack
and ]amaican posses continue to .ot dtt.I extensive crack trafficking. Tle Bloods,
Crips, and Latin Kings are expanding $e distribution of crack cocaine in Dallas, the
panhandle and ,orrtf,"* Texis. Th+ have been identified as transporting cocaine
.ttydrochloride and cocaine base from Los Angeles to. the Dallas area for further
Cubans aie also involved in crack distribution
fio..*i"g and sale as crack. Marielito
it, tt e northern part of the state. Houston is identified as a CaIi stronghold wjth
emphasis o. *o^r,.y laundering rather than cocaine traffickllg. Crack and cocaine
are often distributed. from automobile repair and body shops, nightclubs, and
restaurants, which are used not only for distribution and storage of the drug, but
also as a way to launder the profits. Crack supplies are centered in Dallas, F{ouston,
Los Angeles, and Miami. It ii transported by- i1---------------1t9mobile, personal carry in aircraft
and buses, couunercial parcel, and the U. S. Mail. Narcotics officers along the border
catching only 1 out of every 10 traffidcers.
. estimate they are
The office of the San Antonio Medical Examiner reports that cocaine alone was
(12). This is
responsible for more than twice as many d93ths Qn in 1992 than heroin
the'first time cocaine deaths have exceeded heroin deaths. Use of heroin and cocaine
in combination caused another 6 deaths. In addition, the Medical Examiner tracks
the presence of drugs in victims of violent deaths, and in 7992, 82 cases were
forifrGTor cocaine,5for heroin, artd2} for heroin and cocaine combined. In l'985,
'tt.t" were only 6 cases where cocaine was detected and 3 involving cocaine and
heroin combined.
Cocaine ER mentions in the Dallas area averaged 257 per quarter in 1990, 329 p9t
quarter in 1991, and 312 for the first tfuee quariers of 1992. The proportion of blacks
has increased from 41 percent in 1991 to 43percent ir.7992, while the proportion of
females has dropped fiom 41 percent to 35 percent. The age of -the cocaine-using
patients has incrbised: the propbrtiot ug.d 26 to 34 has declined from 45 percent _to
i2 p.r.rr,t while the proportion aged 35 and 9y9r has glne--from 24 percent to "9
pertent. The numbet iocaine mEntions per 100,000 in Dallas exceeds the overall

national rate: for third quarter 1992, the rate is 1.5.1 per L00,000 in Dallas versus 13.5
per 100,000 nationally.

2. Heroin
Texas has a variety of heroin available and its availabilig is increasing. TEWG
correspondents predict an increase in the use of heroin. Heroin is being used by
higher socio-economic groups and by young generations of Hispanic families whose
elders have traditionally used heioin. Gangs are selling to their own age groups to
revitalize a market that had been flat for years. In addition, young Hispanic adults
who are burned out from dealing with black crack dealers are reportedly turning to
heroin, and non-traditional young white males are smoking heroin as part of a
"return to the '1960's" movement. Available data do not yet document this
antecdotal increase in heroin use.

Brown heroin, with a purity of 4,30 percent is reported to be selling for $200-$ 375 a
gram and $900 to $4,000 an ounce. A pound is selling for $43,000. Black Tar, with a
purity of 17-85 percent, is selling for $140-$325 a gram and $1,700 to $2000 an ounce.
Southeast Asian (SEA), with a purity of 40-92 percent, is selling for $1.50-$300 per
gram and $4,200-$9,000 per ounce. Southwest Asian (SWA), with a purify of 95
perc€rr-t, is selling for $18&$300 per gram and $5,000-$8,500 per ounce. Colombian,
with a purity of 80-95 percent, is selling for $140-$145 per gram and $3,900-$4,100 per

Heroin is the number-two illicit drug problem for adult clients admitted to
substance abuse treatnrent, but as a percent of nonalcohol admissions, it has dropped
to 18 percent in t992. The average age at admission for the heroin client has risen
from 33 in 1985 to 35 in 1992;71. percent of those admitted are male.. About 49
percmt of adult heroin clients are Hispanic,35 percent are white, and 15 p\cent are
black. The prefened route of administration is injection (9T percent in 199i and 95
percent in 1992), but other routes have increased very slightly.

While 39 percent of the heroin addicts report no secondary drug of abuse, 38 percent
havg a secondary problem with cocaine and 13 percent r-eport a secondary ploblem
with alcohol. The- heavy use of cocaine further documents the common pattern of
ejther using heroin and cocaine in combination as a Speedball or using the two
drugs sequentially for maximum effect.

Drug arreqts do not differentiate between those involving heroin or any other opiate
and those involving other drugs; however, the crime laboratories oi the
Departrrent of Public Safety reported that while 4 percent of the exhibits analyzed
each yea: from 1988 to 1991 were opiates, the peicent of opiate exhibits in 1992
increased to 5 percent. to DUF reports, the average proportion of arrested males testing positive
for opiates during 1991 and 1992 hal remained. constant. The proportion oif females
testing positive was stable in Dallas and Houston, but droppedin San Antonio.
The predominant forms are Mexican brown and btack tar, which are readily
availible and are imported from Mexico by Hispanic traffickers who then distribute 3
to black and Hisputi. .o^*unities. The traffiikers are well organized, close-knit
family gtoups wlio have existed for many -Ie1t?- Mefcan heroin transport methods $
inclube",,p6rsonal catry" on commerciai airlines and covert comp_artments in i::
personal vehicles. In some areas of the state, such as El Paso and north Texas, the

is usually Black Tar, while in other areas, such as Corpus Christi and Austiry
brown is most common and it is a major source of revenue for Hispanic gangt tl+
as the Latin Kings. Some Mexican 'ividrio" or "glass" _is occasionally -available. .:

Narcotics officerJalong the lower Texas border report that the heroin that comes
across is destined farther north and very little remains for use along the border. .l

Southeast Asian heroin (SEA) has remained constant during 1'gg2. Nigerian
traffickers control the distribution of SEA heroin in Texas as well as Southwest
Asian (SWA). Presently, more SEA is available than SWA, althougl_mafY cities
reported that any white heroin was quite rare. Much of the SEA and SWA is flown
through Europe into Mexico, where it is then brought into the U.S. by "mules."

Colombian heroin is becoming more available as it is being introduced through _the

established Colombian cocaine network. Found in Houston, El Paso, and San
Antonio, its low price and high purity suggests that the Colombians are seriously
competing for a share of the market.

The San Antopio Med.ical Examiner reported L2 heroin overdose deaths and 6
heroin/cocaine\overdose deaths r\ 1992. The decline in heroin overdose deaths is
now similar to ihe level of overdose deaths seen in the early 1980's before the
appearance of Black Tar heroin. Only 5 homicides had heroin detected, which is a
decrease from 14 in 1985.

Heroin ER mentions in the Dallas area fluctuated from Em average of 79 per quarter
in 1990 to 59 per quarter in 1991 to 76 for the fust three quarters of 1992. The rate of
heroin mentions per 100,000 in Dallas is lower than the national rate: 3.8 per 100,000
in Dallas for the third quarter versus 5.9 per 100,000 nationally.
3. Other Opiates

This group includes opiates such as methadone, codeine, hydromorphone

(Dilaudid), morphine, meperidine (Demerol), and opium, but excludes heroin.
Dallas ER mentions for other opiates averaged 83 per quarter in 1990, 90 per quarter
in 1991, and 81 for the first three quarters of 1992.
While abuse of these drugs is not as corrmon as heroin abuse, the addicts who use
other types of opiates are quite different from the heroin addicts. About 1.3 percent
of all nonalcohol dients who entered treatrrent duringl99? used opiates other than
heroin. Nearly one-half of the admissions were female (49 percent);78 percent of the
admissions were white, 14 percent were black, and 8 percent were Hispanic; only 39
percent used needles. Users of other opiates were the most impaired of all dients at

admission, with 73 percent reporting physical problems and 65 percent reporting
social problems.

Statistics from DUF f.or 199'L and L992 show that only arrestees from San Antonio
consistently tested positive for methadone, while tests in Dallas and Houston
varied. No data were available about whether or not this methadone was legally

According to DEA reports, hyd.rocodone (Vicodin), hyd.romorphone (Ditaudid),

Preludin, Percodan, Demerol, methadone, and Talwin NX are commonly abused.
Vicodin is constantly available and stable in price, while Dilaudid is becoming
cheaper and easier to obtain. Indiscriminate prescribing, doctor shopping, and
pharmacy theft are the main methods used to obtain these drugs. In addition, these
drugs are easily obtained in Mexico.

While anabolic steroids are not in the opiate family, they remain a problem. They
are often smuggled in from Mexico and physical fibress centers remain the primagy
distribution points for steroids. Needle use with steroids is common.
4. Marijuana

Marijuana is the illicit substance most commonly used. by Texans and it is

considered the number two cash crop in the state. Domestic cultivation, coupled
with indoor growing operations and imported Mexican marijuana, provide a
regular supply. Marijuana cigarettes laced with cocaine or heroin qr dipped in
formaldehyde continue to be smoked. \
Smsimilla, with a usual THC content of 7-74.5 percent, sells for $100-$450 per ounce
and $1725-$5,000 per pound. Commercial marijuana has a THC content of *t1,
percent and sells from $40-$85 per ounce and $500-$1,200 per pound depending on
the proximity to the Mexican border and the quality of the marijuana.

Marijuana was the primary problem for 15 percent of adult nonalcohol ad.missions
to treatment programs in 1992. The average age of marijuana clients continues to
insease: in 19&5, the average age was24; in 1990, the average age was 27; in L992, the
average age was 28. At the same time, the lag between first heavy use and admission
to treaturent has increased from 9 years to 72 years. The proportion of males remains
stable at 82 percent. Over time, the proportion of white adllt clients has decreased
fSom 50 percent in 1985 to 45 percent n 1992; the proportion of Hispanics has
decreased from 34 percent in 1985 to 30 percent iu;-1992; anh the proportion of blacks
has increased from 15 percent in 1985 io 25 percent in 1992. Another trend is the
increase in the proportibn of marijuana abuseis referred into treabnent through the
criminal justice system: 59 percent in 1985 compared to 7g percent n lgg2.

F tr" D-Ul PlggraT, the percentage of arrestees who test positive for marijuana
increased significantly from 1991
to 1ggZ. For !992,28 percenf of the males in Dallas
and San Antonio artd 24 percent of the males in Houston and, females in Dallas
tested positive. In addition, L6 percent of the san
Antonio feinares and 12 percent of
the Houston females tested positive'
83 percent o{ all drug arrests
From 1968 until 7987, anywhere from 54
had dropped to 40 percent' In
were for marijuana; by 1gg2, t o*"o.r, the proportion 25,526 arrests for marijuana
.1gg;,there *.t. iraOb urr"ttt fo.*utilttana sales and
possessio^. Th" t;;;;J"; or tt. .*niuits analyzed by the D^epartment of Public
#r"r,, LH"^iuldru,iries that ** mariiuana increased from 30 percent in 1991 to
50 percentin1992.
with large quantities
Most of the street level marijuana comes from Mexico
trafficking,grouPs and"off
transshipped through the- state. Mexican-based. d'rug the border using various
shoof, criminal organizatior,, ,^rrggle the dt1.g utiss
and aircraft' Stash houses are
methods from p".fl u"i*a1s to cars]"tractor trailirs,
usedinElPasotostoreandrepackagemarijuanaforfurtherdistribution. of the new hybrid
Domestically grown mariiuana is JommJn and ih. pot"ttcy to reappear in some
sinsemilla plants is up to 20 percent THC. Hashish is beginning
In Dallas, ER mentions of mariiuana/hashish moved from an average of 88 per
first three quarters
quarter in 1990 to 64per quart.t io tggt to 92 per quarter for the
of 1992.

5. Stimulants

Texas continues to be a major source for the illicit manufacture

of amphetamine
of clandestine
and methamphetamin", ,urrtpog second to. California in the seizures
increasing in the
methamphetaml'JT;il: Mtth?mphetamine use seems to be There has been an
Houston San Antonio, Austin, Wato, and Corpus Christi areas'
operations located
increase in tne numUer of sophisticaied, high-buQut laboratory acid
in remote rural areas. Labs are r*it.r,ittg to" ephedrine instead of ptrenylacetic acid'
because the ephedrine does not have tfrJstrong chemical
odor of phenylacetic.
Lab operator, often reported to be well armld security conscious, and capable
"r" and iideo lountersurveillance. Methylphenidate (Ritalin),
conducting audio most likely to
phenmetrazine ipreludin), and phentermine are the licit stimulants
be abused. to DEA reports, the price ,Tq" of methamphetamine $14'000-$15'000

p., po*i and g875-gb,,000_per o^unci:,'widr a Pqity of 29;9 percent' AmPhetamines
;;;ilp"r than methamptietamines, selling it $fi,OOO-$L5,000 Per Pound and $700-
$950 per ounce-

Stimulants are the number-four illicit drug problem for adult treatment
u..o,rr,tirg fo, n per."t t of nonalcohot adhissions in 1992. The average age-of
clients admitted f6r a primary problem with amphetanlne i1g9!t{S ligtttt '
. lag between
average .g" *r, ZG ;gr-iggS, ig1!r-lgg0, and 31 :Ir.1992. Since 1985, the
first heavy use and admission to treahent has j" P.g^lt-om I to L2 years'
propo*ioi of white clients has risen from 80 percent in 1985 to 91 percent in !992'

while the proportion of Hispanics has dropped from 1.1. percent to 5 percent, and the
proportion of blacks has dropped from 9 percent to 3 percent. About 72 percent inject
lmphetamine, but there is a shift from injecting to inhaling "crystal."
The Uniform Crime Reporting system does not show amphetamine arrests separate
from most other drug bffensis. F{owever, the proportion of the evidence analyzed
by the DPS crime labs that was positive for amphetamine and methamphetamine
his dropped from 13 percent in 1988 to 5 percent in 199L and 1992, respectively.
In all three cities, females were more likely to test positive for amphetamine than
were males in the DLIF program during 1991 and 1992, with the percent of male
arrestees never exceeding 1. percent, while the percent of female arrestees never
exceeded 3 percent.

Chemicals are now harder to get in Texas, and they are now beipg smuggled in from
Mexico or obtained through mail order houses elsewhere in the county and through
Iegitimate companies. In some instances, the labs have moved to Oklahoma. Labs in
Mexico are now producing for consumption in Texas.

Stimulant users in Texas are mostly working-class whites and. members of

motorcycle gangs. There is an increase of methamphetamine along the Gulf Coast
associated with the Bandido Outlaw Motorcycle Gang which is currently based in
Corpus Christi. In addition, 'T,ed Phosphorus," a smokable methamphetamine
which is cooked into rocks resembling dirty crack cocaine is supplied by the Hells
Angels and is distributed through the affiliated Scorpions of northeast Texas.

In Dallas, ER mentions of methamphetamine and amphetaminel have dropped

over the past few years, averaging 53 per quarter in 1990, 39 per quafter in L991, and
29 for first three quarters of 1992. The San Antonio Medical Examiner reports
amphetamines and methamphetamines have been detected only incidentally and
have not caused any deaths in the past five years.

Methylene diorymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy) is used by white teenagers

and young white adults in the Rave Scene. It is increasing in popularify and is
available in increasing amounts. Sources of supply are San Diego and San Francisco
along with Houston and Baytown. Prices range from $5 to $30. Observers of the
Rave scme in Houston report that the Ecstasy being marketed in Houston is often a
combination of ingredients such as caffeine, vitamin r-.72, ephedrine, and speed.
Ephedrine (ephedrine sulfate) ('Minithins") has suddenly become popular with
white youth.
The 1992 Texas Secondary School Survey found 3 percent of secondary students had
used Ecstasy at least once in their lifetime-down from 4 percent in 1990. ln L992,
over 1 percent used it in the past month. Ma1es were more likely to have ever used
Ecstasy and white students reported more use than any other racial/ethnic group.
5. Barbiturates, Antidepressants, and Sedatives/Hypnotics

This "downer" category includes four groups of drugs: barbiturates, such as

phenobarbital and seCobarbital; tranquilizers, such as the benzodiazepines,
d.iur"pu*, and chlordiazepoxide; nonbarbiturate sedatives, such as methaqualone,
fluraiepam, over-the-counter sleeping aids, and chloral hydrate; ?"9
antidepiessants, such as amitriptyline, doxepin, and desipramine. Downers had
traditionally been d favorite drug of females, but use of a benzodiazepine with
cocaine and heroin is a new pattern of use.

OnIy 1.2 percent of the nonalcohol clients entering treatment during 1'992 had, a
primary problem with barbiturates, antidepressants, or sedatives/hypnotics. This
-clients of abuse
gro,tp haa a pattern quite different from other drug abusers.-They were the
6taesi of the (average age of 35), white (76 percent), and female (61 percent).
The percentage of females has decreased from 1.99'1., indicating a pattern of use of
downers by males who also abuse cocaine or heroin. Only 9 percent of this grouP
injected dfugs. Clients in this gro.up showed their preference for nonstimulating
drugs, since alcohol or another downer was their preferred second drug of abuse.

While arrest data for this category are not available, DPS crime labs report the
proportion of evidence positive for this drug group i\creased to 4 percent for 1992.
Benzodiazepines were the drugs in this category most often identified by DUF, and
the percent positive tended to increase between 1991 and 1.992. In Houston/ an
averige of 10 percent of male arrestees and 9 percent of females were positive for
tlds class of drugs; in Dallas, 3 percent of males and 6 percent of females were
positive. In San Antonio, 5 percent of males and 6 percent of females tested positive
for diazepam. For barbiturates, no males in Dallas or Houston tested positive, and
the average for San Antonio males and Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio females
was about 1 percenl

In Austin, methaqualone (Mandrax), which is imported from Mexico, has recenfly

becolrre a problem. And in Austin, the benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice to
mix with cocaine. In Lubbock, there has been an upswing in benzodiazepine use;
alprazolam (Xanax) sells for $1-$3 per pill, and it is widely abused by opiate addicts to
tide them over until they can get heroin. It is also used by methadone clients to
potentiate the effects of the methadone. In Dallas, alprazolam and diazepam are the
downers of droice, and 1. out of every 3 prescriptions written in the Dallas area is for
benzodiazepines, according to the DEA.

DAWN emergency room mentions in Dallas of diazepam averaged 51 per quarter in
1990,45 per quarter in L991, and 42 per quarter for the first three quarters of.1992.

"Chuy fong," or "black pearls," is still reported to be available.

!l ,i
7. Hallucinogerui

This group of drugs includes lysergic acid diethylamide (LS-D)^and phenryclidine

@CP): Local colresPondents continue to report increased use of LSD.

LSD is manufactured in California and Houston. It is available in multi-thousand

dosage units. It is available in high schools, colleges, and night clubs frequented b-y
yono-ger white middle- and uppei-class males. LSD; with a- purlty, of 30-50 mg, sells
ho^Bf to 97 a hit, g150 a sheet, $750-$1200 per book, and $1,800-$2,000 per gram- In
Austin, although quantities of LSD seized have not risen, intelligence indicates its
use is on the iise-and it is popular at Rave parties. It usually comes to Austin
through the mail or by comm-ercial carrier. In Houston the market is reported to be
flooded by LSD.

Among adolescent treafrrent programs, 6 percent of the nonalcohol admissions are

for hallucinogens. The proportion of males has dropped from 79 percent in 1988 to
52 percent in 1992, and average age has dropped from 15.9 years to 15.3 years.
Hallucinogen abusers are primarily white, although the proportion of whites has
dropped from 90 percent in 1988 to 80 percent in 1.992, while the Hispanic
admissions have increased from L0 percent to 18 percent and the black admissions
have gone from 0 percent to 1. percent. These youth come from more affluent
families; only 14 percent receive some form of public assistance, comptlred with 26
percent for all youft admissions; and 83 percent had an employed parent compared
with 78 percent for all youth admissions.
Virtually no positive tests for PCP were reported by DUF in Houston and San
Antonio, although 3 percent of the male arrestees in Dallas tested positive for PCP .

Dallas ERs report 21 LSD mentionspq quarter in 1990, 15 per quarter in1991,, and L2
mentions per quarter for the first t\o". quarters of. 1992. There have been no
mentions of PCP.

Special Studies

An ethnographic study of the Rave Scene in Houston is currently underway. A

preliminary report finds dtrg use to be common, with LSD or acid being the most
prevalmt d*g. Respondents like acid because its psychedelic effects complement
the high technology of the rave scene (virtual reality, brain machines and laser
lighting). Ecstasy is preferred because of its euphoric effects, compatibility with rave
music, its enhancement of sociability, and its power as an "aphrodisiac." Marijuana
use is increasing at the rave parties, along with hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Respondents dislike the 'tnrd drugs" such as cocaine and heroin. Although "smart
drinks" or fruit juice, glucose, and vitamins are sold, most participants preferred
alcoho| both beer and hard liquor are commonty sold at these parties, which are
held in vacant warehouses and without the knowledge of Alcoholic Beverage
Commission agents.

Rave parties in Houston, which ticket, often emulate a day and
ss51 $12-$L5 per
rooms' hot
night ar a them" ;;ik;;th.laser ligry9, moonwalks, rides, P-rojection
rave scene to be
and cold food, and'friendly securitf. The researcher has found
insidious with
nurnerous self-d.estructive activities masked by a subculture
many other attractive, if not Positive,- elements. For example, rave
ucco*par,iea ly the ideologiei of world Peace and environmentalism'
It is also accomianied by thE aura of toys and play. Smartdrinks are not
merely a subititute io, alcohol; they are popular because they
.o^pf"*"r,t ttt. euphoric effects of bcstasy. Ravetom.ay r-nark the
the Nintendo
emergence of recre-ational d.rug scenes specific
Users (IDUs)
Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome 6IDS) Among Injecting Drug

As of April 30,1gg3,21.,'],O4AIDS cases were officially-reported in Texas since

have been
Cumufahvely, 9 terc"nt have been IDUs, and an additional L0 percent 'l'992,
involved in both male-to-male sex'and injecting drugs. From May, through
April, 1gg3, L3 percent of the cases were IDUs, ana plrcent *t1u- in both the IDUs,
g male-
il; to-male sex and IDU categories. About 35 percent of females with AIDS are
i'r compared with lt plrcent"of males (10 percent IDUs and 9 percent in
both the male-
lrl; tt
to-mlle sex and IDU categories).

'I In Dal1as, focus groups have shown that woiks are not regularly-being cleaned and
the CDC guideliies fbr the proper use of bleach are not being followed. In
lii addition,
,j ,,1
i use of crack and. the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is strongly correlated.
Crack addicts who are also prostitutes are using short stem crack pipeswhich cause
Iesions on the lips and iqthe mouth-which further increases the risk of AIDS.




l;oseph A. Kotarba, 'An Ethnographic Study of the Rave Scene in Houston' Prepaled for presentation
t Jr*"r Epidemiology Wor[ Gioup, Texas Commission on Alcohol and Dmg Abuse, Austin, Texas,
May 18,1993.

lustrll REPORII

presented to
The Texas Drug Epideniology [{ork
Texas Comrnission on Alcohol and
Drug Abuse
Uay 18; t993



Sgt. Iloward Willians rlir

organized Crine Division li
Austin police Department ilr

715 E. gth Street I'


Austin, Texas T|ZOL lll

(s12) 48O_s0oo t,


lll rlr

Drug llruse Treadg Ln luetia, Terag
f,ay, 1993


Austin is a racially and culturally diverse community. As the

capital of Texas government, the home of the University of. Texas,
Coircordia College, St. Edward's University, and Huston Tillotson
College, plus a- nide variety of hlgh technology industries, Austin
attracts a variety of people of all ages and from all ethnic and
racial groups. tfris
-ggality diversity, wtrich greatly contributes to the
culture Lnd of life in Austin, also contributes to the demand
for a rride valiety of consumable narcotics.
Austin lies- on the Interstate Highway 35 corridor and is,
conseqfuently, convenient to the international inport and distribution
centers of San Antonio and Dallas. Interstate 35 is a rnajor
narcotics trafiicking artery from the border of Texas to points in
the nid-west United States. Austin is also convenient to Houston
along US Highway 2gO. Robert I'tueller Airport also serves as a
bound to all areas of the United States.
=nipf,""t poirit f6r narcotics

Data for this report is derived from statistics conpiled by the

Austin Police Departrn6nt and intelligence information obtained by
Austin Police Departrnent.


1, Cocaiae
Cocaine continues to be readily available in Austin, and the
' of cocaine seized in Austin continues to be high
bistribution and use patterns vary based on the form of the
cocaine. Cocaine HCl, or: powder cocaine, is among and
middle to upper income abusers. Cocaine base, or crack cocaine, is
popular anorig blacks, Hispanics, and low incone abusers. Most
Lolaine coning into Austin comes through San Antonio or Houston.
Numerous problems have arisen fron the abuse of crack cocaine'
Open air drug narkets have sprung up over east and south Austin.
w["i" tr"ighbolhoods have been aisnrptea by c-ocaine. dealers and their
customers. Numerous violent episodes, including shootings and
murders, are directly attributable to bad cocaine dealings or
disputes over a dealer's territory-
' prices for cocaine range frou 91OO to S12o for a gram of powder
cocaine. Wholesa1e prices range fron approximately SfSOO an ounee to
approximately S22,OOO for a kilogran. A rock of crack cocaine sells
f;; S2O.0O, but the sizes of the rocks vary from O.1 gram to O.2

2, Earoln
Heroin abuse in Austin is on the inerease nostly because of
increased use by younger abusers. Heroin has becone a major source
of revenue for Hispanic gangs, particularly among the Latin Kings.
Most all the heroin in Austin is Mexican Brown. There is some Black
Tar and Glass available, but only in tinited amounts. Asian heroin
is virtually nonexistant in Austin.
lllost heroin distributors and abusers continue to be Hispanic,
although blacks and young whites are beginning to use more heroin.
One balloon of heroin, aproximately 0.1 to O.2 grams, range in price
from $2o.oo to $25.oo.
3 ) ldaribuaaa and Eashish

Marihuana continues to be the most abused of the i]licit

substances in Austin. Much of the marihuana in Austin comes frorn
Mexico and is shipped up the I-35 corridor. There are instances of
domestic production, however, both in fields and greenhouse tyPe
operations-. Because of its location, Austin has become a popular
distribution point for marihuana being shipped to points in !h" mid-
west. The i'arihuana is being stored in Austin to be shipped by
private vehicle, airlines, bus, the US rnails, or commercial carrier.
Marihuana is popular among all racial groups, ald abuse of
marihuana is of sefious concern in elementary schools, high,
and high schools.
Mirihuana is readilY available in \ustin. Prices range from
approxinately $5o to $60 for an ounce- *trolesale prices range from
S600 to $9oo a pound, depending on the quantity and quality of the
product purchased.
Has[istr, trtrictr had aI] but disappeared from Austin in the past
several years, is starting to make a linited return. There have been
no large seizures of trasnisn recently, but intelligence indicates
that it nay becone more available in the near future.
l) Stiuulaats
The Austin area continues to be a major source for the
manufacture of methamphetamine. Numerous clandestine labs have been
discovered operating in the area. Little finished product, however,
is available on the street. Most of the rnethamphetanine produced
around Austin is destined for other markets.
Uethanphetamine abuse appears to be on the decline in the Austin
area. Uethanphetarnine conCinues to relatively ine:<pensive, but is
not in great demand.
5) Depressalte ald Sedatlves
The abuse of methaqualone has recently become a problem in the
Austin area. The nethaqualone comes to Austin from llexico and is L

known co rnercially as Uandrax. The i_ncidents of methaqualone lr

seizures are oJ the rise, and intelligence indicates that

methaqualone will be more readily available in the near future.

A5use af diazepan and Xanax is common. DiazePan and Xanax are
nor{ co rnonLy used in conjunction with cocaine.
6) EallucLDogong
MDUA/UDA, commonly known as Ecstacy,. _ _has virtually disappeared
form austin.- Although distributors still purport to be selling
ncstacy, laboratory analysis usual^ly equivalent, the substance to be
fpfrearine. Ecstacyr or its groups. is popular among
[ign school and coiiege. age Tablets of ecstacy are expensive
and selI for S2O.OO to $3O.O0 each
Although the quantities of ISD seized have not risen
suUstintialiy, intelligence indicates asthat the use of LSD is on the
;G;-i"a is ibputar at parties known LsD is inexpensive,
and it Austi-n fron California, mostly via theper mails or
carrier. I^SD often sells for 93.00 to $S'OO dosage

tfarcotl.cs Statl'stl'cs for lustLa, Teras

Januarl, 1991 to APril , L993

1991 L992 1993

(L/oL to 4/3O'.)

!larihuana 2 1372.5 Ib. 932.5 Ib. 375.8 Ib.

Cocaine HCl 14. o rb. 15. 5 lb. 5.8 tb.

Cocaine base \ 10.5 lb. 7.9 rb. 3.1 Ib.

Heroin 9.5 oz. 8.1 oz. 1O.9 oz.
Irlethamphetamine ' 2.6 rb. 0. 9 Ib. o.1 lb.
I.teth Labs 10 5 5

LSD 704.O 297.4 L44.O

other 4r065 30,151 18 1987

Arrests 4 r354 4,369 1r 3O6

Appendix }{-2





911 N. Raynor
JOHN E. SCAGI{O El Paso, Texas 799
Chief of Police 915-56+rc00

Drug Trends in El Paso County as noted by the El Paso Police Department Narcotics

As evidcnt in the auached three year report" El Paso has experienced a substantial increase
in drug seizures particularly am6ng the ttnee major dnrg types of Marijuana, Cocaine and


The amount of Marijuana being seized has continued to increase. Marijuana seizures for
1993 through April tiave totale,f,approximately ?,108 pounds and it appeirs that Marijuana
seiztnes for 1993 will surpass the 8,575 pounds seized n L992.
The price for a pound of Marijuana has remained steady at about $4o0.00 to $450.00 a
poun-d. An ounce is selling for about $60.00 and a quartq ounce (the usual street am9g3t)
is going for about $20.00: The majority of Marijuana sbized are from cases involving^
"SlaShj[OUSCS" which are houses used for concealing, packing, and the distribution out of
El Paso.


Cocaine seizures also have shown a srcady increase. A kilogram of cocaine is priced at
about $14,000.00 to $16O00.00 wittt a purity in the %JVo range
An ounce of Cocaine is selling for aboui $6OO.OO to $700.00.with a purity range ftom30%o
to &%.
An "Eight-Ball" (approximarcly 3 grarns) is selling for $120.00 to $160.00, depending on
the area of town and the dealer. i

A gram of Cocaine is selling for about $70.00 to $80.00 and is about l87o to 2OVo i

Cocaine. The gram unount appears to becoming less popular among Cocaine users. I

A quartcr gram or "Paper" is selling for $20.00 and has a purity range of t5Vo to 20Vo.

TtrC quarter gram amount is the mostpopular among sreet level Cocaine users. Prices and
pndty ranges differ, depending on the area of El Paso where it is being sold.

William S. Tilney

Gene Finke
Jesus Terrazas, Jr.
Tony Ponce
Stan Roberls
Joe C. Picketl

Over the last few years, El Paso had not experienced the "Crack" problem that other cities,
the same size of Iil Paso had. Unfornrnately, this appears to be changing. Crack seizures
are increasing and at this time the crack activity appea{ to be concengated qthe northeast
arca of El Paio. The majority of Crack dealers arrested have been black, an4moved to El
Paso from another city. A rebent case involved the seizure of 56 "Rocks" of Crack from a
black male in norttre-ast El Paso. The subject was not originally from El Paso but had
remained in El Paso after completing servicb in the army at Ft. B1iss Army base located in
El Paso.
The average weight on each of these rocks was .27 gam._It appears that-thg avgrage
"rock" sod'in El Faso weighs about a quarter gram and sells for $20.00. Crack Cocaine is
usually referred to on the streot as "Ready Rock".

Heroin is usually found in the "Black Tar" form, although the Mexican Brown Powder can
still be found. An ounce of Heroin sells for about $3,500.00 to $5,000.00 and its purity is
20Vo to 30Vo.
A grarn of Heroin is selling for about $250.00 to $300.00 a "Hit" or "Medio" usually sold
in a small balloon sells for about $20.00 and the pudty is between 8Vo ts tU%o. The weight
of the $20.00 arnount is around .10 gram. We are noticing a new trend where Heroin is
being sold at the street level in a smaller amount at about .05 gram and sells for $10.00.
This amount is packaged in ttre same nunner as the $20.00 amount.
The Heroin addict continues to play an important role in EI Paso's crime problern
Recently the Narcotics Section Street Unit targeted different areas of El Paso and
concentrated its efforts on thc stneet lgvel Heroin dealer and user. At the conclusion of the
operation, 135 Heroin dealers and users were arrested- At ttre time that these subjects were
arrested and remaind i" therc was a2l7o reduction in the burglary rate in the targeted
areas of the operation, in a one inonth period following the arrests.

kr the past El Paso had not e*pXpnced aprobtem with Methamphetamine and the seizures
wcre infrequent andof very small amounts.
We had atributed this to ttre availability and less expense of the other drugs mentioned in
this report.
However, recently the El Paso Police Departnent along with DEA were involved in a
surveillance reference 200 lbs. of the Methamphetamine. The 200 pounds of
Methamphetamine were seized by the U.S. Border Patrol checkpoint leaving El Paso.
Intelligence indicates that Mexico is becoming involved in the manufacture of
Methamphetaminc as the cheriricals used in the process are rapidly available and less
cxpensive in Mexico. We will be closely monitoring any Methamphetamine seizures in our


The El Paso Police De,parfinent is finding that more weapons are being used in narcotics
nafficking. On a recent case involving the undercover purchase of 50 lbs. of Marijuana,
one of the subjects was armed with a 9 millimeter semi-automatic. The drug
dealer appears to favor the scmi-automatic weapon, although we are still encountering
revolvcrs and shotguns.

Report was prepared by Sgr Robert Almonte of the El Paso Police Deparftnenl

Narcotics Section activitY
1990 L992

is a 3-year report.which compares each period'

The following information
-i"ait"ting It
1990 , 1,gg:-, iercent^age increase or decrease'
also includes"rli"igg-t,
the over"Il ;;;;"itig" incr6ase or decrease from 1990 to

Amount Va1ue
Marijuana: 3,136 Ibs, 5oz $ 3r136,3L2.50
L3,287 grams t,328,700.00
Cocaine: 47,550.00
Heroin: 5
237 .7 grams
Vehicles: 52 seized, NOD
U.S. CurrencY: $l,o?L,041.oo
Arrests: 455 subjects
Search Warrant: 44

19 91
,) !,933, 16O. OO
Marijuana: I,gg4 lbs, 24.55 grms
L,626, L75. OO
Cocaine: 16,?61.50 grams L49 ,7 40. O1
Heroin: 814 grams 2, 810.00
LSD: 562 doses
Vehicles: L9 seized
U.S. CurrencY: $620,233.00
Arrests: 535 subjects
Search Warrants: ]-24

,5'75 lbs, 7 oz t L9.75 grams
8 ,575,480.00
Marijuana: 8
2 ,LA'l,130.00
Cocaine: 2L,471.30 grams 184 r 540. O0
Heroin: 922 .7 O grams 250.00
LSD: 50 doses
Vehicles: 22
U.S. Currency: $rrz,604
Arrests: 480 subjects
Search Warrants: 98

aDd 1990-1992
Percentage ComParisons: 1990-91' 1991-92,
1ee0/e1 LeeL I e2 Leeo le2

1991: 222 L9922 62t + L9922 464 +

Marijuana: L9922 L4z + L9922 242 +
Cocaine: 1991: 10? + L992: 59? +
1991: 552 + 19922 6*
Heroin: L992'. 84* : 1990: no record
LSD: 1990: no record L992: 3* +
r-991 8z+ L9922 s8
Arrests: 482 + r.9922 L2z L992: 38t +
Search Warrants: r"991
r_991 462 L9922 7z ; L9922 422
Vehicles: 80? L9922 782 ]-992: 95?
CurrencY: 1991
x I
o (g l
0, (g

(g L
U er E
*+ I
t: l
+ I
l I











Appendix H-3



Source: Houston Police Department

L992 General SummarY
of Narcotics Use
in Houston

Houston Pelice Department
MaY 1993

Presenter: Jamal I. Khalil


t roup
i:;\15;ff-i# :3iffTi,' "T"I;;I
Repo r


The availability of southeast Asian (sEA) heroin has remained

constant ouiinq w. g2
n"-roi" "i"-t'ntt[- in" Division. The Nigerian
distribution ii' a* the countries' and
heroi;- i; Southeast Asian heroin
organizations "ntii" through
util,i zLng rnutJJ U"ituO St"t"t.- O"e'of-smuggle .th".
th6-tlpical routes has been
Europe into t-n" Uexi66 City, and then back
Bangkok, ansteid;; ller V_o-rX,-Houston,-A'sian heroin is available in
to Housto. tr-"-.'"f,icle' Sou{nwestern quantities'
the Houston metroporitan area in very rimited
has become more a'*'ailable throughout FY-gz' and
Colornbian heroin
- -Coio*liut
shown a marked increase '
seizures of --..; have
activery incorporating heroin
colombian organizatj-onsestablished routes" The lbw are price and high
trafficklng into thej-r colombians willing to
puriry of corl*niin neroti-;;;g;rt.the
-iti"'market' Colombian heroin has been
tompete for their portiot of ih"-Dittitiot" from Houston to EI
encbuntered virtualfy tnrorigh;"r
p""o and Brownsville to.San Antonio'
Black Tar and Brown heroin remained readily avaiLable throughout
the Houston Fi"iO Oi.,ri."ion. her6j-n smuggling networks
from Mexico i;-S;" ettottio- and other areas in the Division have
years, fJtg"fy a,," to- extensive farnily ties and
existed for many prodirci'ng areas of M"x.I"o_:. These close
contacts in the - succesif,tl ia* enforcement operations very
farnily ties make
difficult -
Overall , the availability ,hqtgil seems to be increas'ing
- 9f -Division' More people are using
throughout tne-Houstonwiln Field most conmon nethod
heroin in conjunction -trt" UnitedThe
States has been the use
util j.zed to smugg).e netlin- i"to over two
of swalLow.rll-'30*" -"i of tnus"-i.trai.riduals have swallowed to
pounds of n"-roir, a tG;-.- other *Eirroas utirized srnuggle
-;J inJuae hiding heroin in false sides
heroin into the Unitea staiel hidden compirtments in vehicles '
or bottoms of tlpes luggage
been increasini. amount of heroin
sej.zures of all nave Th" wil] i'ncrease'
produced i" Ce"tiii ana Souih-American

The following is prov-ided f or -inff ice

"^?""-"irr"i- ormational purPoses only '
ti.* th; of
-iipouble of Forensic sciences
rnf ormatlon
the seizure--ot
documented pa-"t"". Dutch" fentanyl in the
pittsburgh, tni" seizure consisted oftw9 85 double
single knotted
balloon "ottllittit,g-powder'
black balloons, with each.ont"itting one plastic
plastic n"g-"oin"tJ """n i-white

bag corner contained the expected cocaine,
contained fenranyl. The tolar ;"1;;;"or the other one, however
was 1' 97 grams ano the total wei.!nI' iorJJr-"oJt-ining coca'n!
was 2-44 grams. The "doub]e d;t;il; or p6"o"i-"Jii"ining fentanyl
iaclets-h"iJ"uu"n seen in the
Pittsburgh area for sevet"l- v"ii"l" lt5r*ally
contains one intravenous (fVi one prastic bag corner
dose oi-."o"_ine, irrT tf," other,
rv dose of heroin. users sometimes one
forrowed by the dose of cocaine. aitake ih;-;;"l"lr heroin first,
and inject them together. This is otn", ti*;; iney *i* the two
the fi;;; -ii*" raborarory
personner- have encountered fent"tryr
no seizures of fentanyl have been'mad"l-n tr,i" ;;*bj";tion. To date,
i,r, th;-i;;;ion Division.

using DEA' s formula of purity. versus cost

availability, cocaine was crreap-"io
to determine
which indiiates it was rga.Otf y -""iif p.u_rity high in Fy_g2
investigations initlated within' th; ini".,
-Houston related
invoLvement of oiriilion show the
These cases arsd-major colonbian "r,o dt"tnzc;;r;"iA*;;ican
-i;- cartet s.
transshipment points and .|ri
show -"j9;-;iti", iil division
rinanCiir-""'nt"rs foi tnu-carters. Drug are
traf f ickinc .gioups headguartered in uexiJo, l; ,:.ti".,"e witli
colombian ind-so"iit cdntrar arnerlcan o_rganizations, are active
ln cocaine trafficking.
"no cocaine-i.s -smuggr€ia
multi-kilooram guantilies,uti].izin! the border in
hidden comiartm6nts in vehicres, --iiJo"r,
a"'.rariety of
"-"-io-JJmeans includino
human "mules". in nu1l"-"tr ships, and

"crack" cocaj-ne remains readiry available throughout

The McAllen, sa'' Antonio, and Er the Division.
piso -oirtr'i""1'J''rX'port
usage amonq the Hispanic .o*rnrr'lti"". rn
distributiori of "c;a-d-k-';-' is "o*e areas the
"B100ds" "crips", r'L"tiL "o;i;;iieo_ pv gangs such as rhe
Kil;;;,-.-- rt,; alsiiiuution and use
3ff"i;:il":i]tril"ln:.:l3er citv, htwever, "crack;-;
spreadins ro

Marijuana continues to be available throughout the Houston
Fleld Division. The.. types lgaoi-Iy
or *"ii-i-,r".ra encountered within the
Division range from dit6f,weea t*ilot, ti si.nserniii;-.- Most
street Leve]-nariju"tra *rn"" frorn lt!*i*. of rhe
The'metroporitan areas
within the Divisi-on continue ti ;.f-*" operating bases for the
transshipment of marijuana !t in raiqe guantities from Mexico.
Mexican based drug ttirri.rirg gilir;,! and,,oilrshoot,, crlminar.
organizations are the primary g70ups responsible
majority of the marijuanl Lranspolted into and for the vast
Division' A11 rnetn-oas it"-io us6d throuq-h tn" Houston
to "*"!-9$'"tri"'#il across rhe
border, from pack animirs inaGia,r;; .
Although large guantities
.of marijuana
across the international borOJr, ,in"I" are stilr-irr"*asing
being snuggled
toward the use of the domesticail] g;;;; product. is trend
grown plant is now considereo an'orij "r, The domesricar_rv
il;' best in tne- worra due to
t46 {


the use of modern culti-vation techniques ' TheupPotency of !19 r:I
confirmed at
hybrid sinsemiif tttttt has beengrowing to almost 20e THc
content compared io 1t for wild plants

Dangerous drug trafficking continues to besecond a significant problem in

the Houston rield Divisioi.--Texas ranks onry to california
j.n the seizures of clandestin- rngtnamphetamine la6oratories' and
-is tXe
the San entonio labs. District foial- Point
.for, the highest
l,aiqe -numbers of have been
concentration oi nlff country north of San Antonio and
seized in the remote Texasrural areas are choice l0cations for
west of Austin.-l"bot"tories,
methamphetamin" required isolation to
91ovi$1ng. thechaiacteristics
avoid detection of the """i1V identifiiUt-e of the
A total 0f i2'crandestine raboratories were seized
laboratories.preinampnEamine use seems to be increasJ'ng in t!"In
in Fy-gz, Corpus-Christi areas'
Houston, San arrtorrfo, Austin, Waco' and reporls that metharnphetamine
Corpus Christi, in" eo_li.ce. Departm-ent problem, and rhat a "meth
use in rhe ;-;1-"1i1y Jignificanrcity'
users' sub-culfure" has evol-ved in the
Although federal and state Iaws have beenneeded enacted to contro] the
-chernicais lna equipment to produce these
sare of to obtain
iJ:."'a j-ndividuaLs these chenj-cals
drugs, indivi.duals have -
through legitirnate-a "o*p"t "1i-if
iJ.. severa] were arrested
and prosecuteJ-as resutt-o1 "r, undercover operation conducted
an office of the Houston District as they attempted
eJsential chemicals and/or equipment'

usage of LSD throughout the Houston Field is increasing'

-i1 rrlgn
LSD is a.rairal-re scttoots, colleges,. .3Dd universities as
well as nighf-cluUi tre[uented by'youngei, white middle and upper
class males . Duri-ng E-I-g2, Se.terai investigations involving
individuals traf riJxin,i in LSD were initiated' Ttre primary source
of supply toi-iip contittru" to U" individuals in California'
LsDusewithintheDivisionisexpectedtoconti.nuetoincrease. action more
The users wilI be younger,-wnicn *irr make enforcement

As a result Of a seizure -"-nii9r..PCP sierra Blanca

that occurred at the supply
Checkpoint near Et paso, source of in the
Jrested. inij-individual supplled PCP to members
Houston - than this one
cornmunity in the Houston
of the Black area' other
j-nstance, Do other reports of PcP were recei"ved in the Houston
Field Division in FY-92 '


The diversion of legitimate drugs within the Division continues

with Dj-aIaudid, Preludin, Percodan, Denoral, Methadone, Vicodin,
Talwin NX, Valuim, etc. being the most comrnonly divert drugs.
Indiscriminate prescribing, doctor shopping, and pharmacy th.eft are
the main methods utilized to obtain these drugs. Due to the ease
with which controlled drugs may be obtained in Mexico, these drugs
are often encountered at the Ports of Entry and Checkpoints.
In March and ApriL 1992, two methadone clinics were closed in the
Houston rnetroiiolitan area for f ailure to compl_y with various
the dispensing of methadone - In
federal and stite laws concerning-access
one j-nstance, a known addict had to the area where methadone
was stored.
Also during F\-92, a "new" drug appeared in the Austinfor and San
Antonio ar6a. This drqg, dfthough used by the Chinese many
new to this is called Pearl-s" or
years, afea and "Black "Chuy
smalI black pilIs arg considered by many oriental
peofte to be a miracle herbal cure for various affl-ictions such as
irt'hritis, bursitis, and other problems. These -pills, fact. iD fact'
contain Valiun, although many people are unaware of this The
source of supply for these pills was located in California.

The Houston Division has targeted asset removal as an effective

means of combating the drug trafficking problem. - Reducing- or
removing the traifickers access to funds needed for drug
trafficii-rrg ventures results in disruption of thewhere
it hurts
Seizing th5 drug dealer's properties and money hits
the rnojt - profits. lo furthei thi-s goal, the Houston Division has
a very active Asset Renoval Group _ryho-se sole purPose is to target
and facilitate the seizing of trafficker's assets.


s200,000-s600,000 s4,200-$9.000 $1 50-$300 40%-92%
s5,000-s8,500 $1 80-S300 9596
swA $80,000-s200,000
$130,000-$150,000 $3,900-$4,100 s 140-$145 80%-95%
$50,000-100,000 $900-s4,000 $40-9200 4%-30%
$50,ooo-s140,oo-o $2,300-$7,000 $1 40-S275 17%-85%

$12,000-s24,000 $400-s1,300 97s-$90 60%-90%

911,O00-925,000 s500-s1,400 ROCK 30%-90%

s350-91,200 $40-$75 N/A 4%-11%

s650-$5,000 $1 00-s450 N/A 7%-14.5%

METHAMPHTTAMINE s so-$70 20%-40%
$15,000 s 1,500-$2,ooo

91,000-s1,200 $20 N/A 80%

N/A $30-$40 N/A N/A

N/A s1 -92 N/A N/A
N/A s3-$4 N/A N/A
LSD 30-50
$1,800-92,000 $750-$1,200 $3-97 MG

coRPUS CHRI S',l)4 TEXAS 78403

By: Kenna RoberEs

Corpu'sChrj.stiDrugAbuseCourrcil,Inc.isanon-profitagency who felt

established in Lg69 by concerned community individuats problems
rhar rhe citizens of c:orp;;--cnii"ti ""p"ii"lt-iis^-::"n
a"-ii"t"l"p talents and hope to
those wanting to change =Xlij6,
life fu11 of freedom"'drug
move fron a drug-dependent rire to a
'i;iaiative P.ogt^*, DATAR Research Pro ject ' LAAI'I
care , women' " €- and
Research pro ject and p.I . R . e. t-. r. pro jecf Grv eaucation ' Ff ices in
post-test "ounlllinq) ' our agency - a-1-s9 haslle satellite of f
Falf serve a f ive countv
Kinssvilr", nou"io*t'-'Nueces, ";ti'";t{ig-{tf"'
san Patricio, Aransas' Jin l'lellS and
area which includes
Kteberg Counties '
our area r ole
In order to better understand the drug problemsor-ofcorpus christi '
must first consider the s;;;;";hicar -i";;;i;n
the Mexico border makes it
-iot ro . a
The proximir;'^;-i"c;r;;; .tr,ii=tl dissenination of the drugs 1n
convenient and easy pointlo travel further north' Hishways 7? '
preparati.on f;; sfriiment"^ to De
rz--aie alt tn"i6i-highways ' known
zBL , 59 and rnt"r"i.t" through the
transshipment-iJ.ri"". Eactr J tn""" highways travels
rn "aaiiior,, d;;;i; christi is easj-1v
heart of the city.
provides basy access to clrug
tt Gulf or ll.xi.o anamake
directly irrtov;se1s. Corpus Christi vulnerable
transporting " these-iictors activities'
and susceptible to arug use u"a related
actjvities is the
Another contributing factor to the drug related
tii* a-'at blac[ and '4r' other'
breakdown is z 52.2% hisp.niJ, S2g 't77 but over 20*. ofThere
at"nite'- the
The nedian income is estimateAri.,ritrg"* poverty level '
; be
populati.on il considere_d1]6-. -jop"lation
is approxrnately L8t of on publi'c assistance'
asency deals, in the- to."i- f"-ii-
*itt' iiii-" below
wtren ihe-;;;pioynent rate is high'
to earn a li,rlng on the
The declj-ne of the oi1 inausiry has had a devastating effect
f v aia emotionallv
community, I'tany i-nai.viaial-J ""it t:'nanliif drugs deal with the
destroyed as a result and turned to using -todistribution
-ana of
pain of having their lives torn apart '--;i"I"=

drugs becarne necessary to continue the use of the
Presently. we have 70L individuals admitted roi trEtment to drugs.
program. The majority are unempl0yed. The median our
age of our
clients is 33. (we ref er anyone under the ugt ;f-- 1e- to--otir"i
il agencies designed to meet the needs of these individuals.
) More
than 50% of our total admissions are male. accold-inq to'rCeoa
,j first quarter reporting for r-993, the ethnic breakdown of total
admissions is as follows: 58.1% hlspanic. 4,8* rrack -tplrc-eni;;;;
j'li for other etlinicities were not inctuOeO).

The primary drugs of choice we see most often in our area are


heroin, cocaine, alcohol and marijuana, This does not intend to

say that there are no other drugs being abused in our area, but
these are the drugs we find available most often.
rti )

ii The heroin in our area is from Mexico. The heroin is brown

"regular" heroin- Black tar heroin is available only 1n smarl
il quantities because it is generally transported to areis fuittrei
north than corpus christi. china white heroin is al-so scarcely
found in our area. one of the reasons for it's seldom use treie-i3
fear- According to a former heroin user, the heroin ls ,,respected,,
aifx-er -in
with regards to color. when cooking the heroin,
color - the more potent. rf uslng the china whlte tte

is no distlnction in color therefore the heroin useiheroin,

an assessment as to the potency of the heroin they are going to
use. Overdose is a common resuft.

The trrice of heroin purchased 1n corpus

paper (a paper is an estimated 1_/4 gram). christi
is $10 - $20 a
estimitea s40 ;-a;e;
is available which is approximatet{ t/z gram. The ethnic groups
we see nost often with heroin use and addiction is the lrisp;ni;-;fi;
white populations. There are less than 5t of blacks 1n treatment
for heorin addiction in our area. The black p"-J"iitf"n-[en-dd'-tJ
use more cocaine and crack than heroin.

The_supply of heroin is from a major Mexican organization by way

of Mexico. I,lithin our area, there are two main organlzations
involved with the sales and dj.strlbution of the drugJ when ah;t
reach the united states. Thg supply
located 15 minutes from the city-oriimitsis ofuroughl i;--'u smar-r_
- w[;;
a shi-prnent arrives, the price the heroln in thls partlcurar
location reduces to SS for the same arnount avallable -in
christi for sz0. This marketing technique has proven to be a;;;;;
successful. They contj.nue with the price war unlif tfre aemina-ii very
greater and addiction stronge.r. The price is then lncreased
$20. (This is marketing ploy 1s with both treroin ina cotaine.l to --
One ounce of heroin currently seIIs for S1,000 to
Most heroin use 1s by injection with l-ittle snortlng or smoking.


The quality of the heroin is not conducive to use in this manner'
on" probably 5 - 6 times when
The heroin is reported to be "siepped distributed - The cycle of
it arrives an-d--bef ore it has been
qualitY is Iow.

have found that the older population of heroin userg co-ntinue

to use strictly heroin. The younger generation or second and third
generatlon u=.-rs tend to spe6dUaif (heroin
-a1so with cocaine) ' Alcohol
is a very common' According
used in conjunctj-on with irertin prim.ary hospitals. the cornyS
to hospital admissions from two -in-
as alcohol related and
1,gg2. of these 4O7 , LB9 were reported
(Although hospital officials
were reported as opiate r:elated.
-not adequately
these numbers m1y .represent the total drug-r-elated
admissions. In addition'countv there are several- other hospitals not
;!p;;t;a- *itr,ltt the f ive area')

in our area due to the large

Cocaine usage is also substantial
the united states via Mexico. Cocaine
;;;;1t-bein6 smusqrled into paper which is
is available tor S20 ' gram' This is ca11ed a
upp."xi*ute1y l/4 of a A grqm se1ls for S80 and an
,,eiglhtball,' for $1-20. An ounce of cocaine costs anywhere between
sl;6d0-;"d 5t,zoo- The price per kilo ranses from S20,000 to
s22 , 000.

The cocaine is being used in various fashions: smoking' injecting'

visible in usage among
and snorting. There has ueen no difference crack and cocaine
the hispanic u"a white populatign.-trtacX _Allhough,
cJrnnunity' We have also
usalte is much more prevalLn-t-i; ifre
seen an increu"i- "t-"".g. in the younger drug is using ,populatign' f's
using cocaine to
stated previously, tneV*"g; i.i"i" .User-
speedball. es ii-tn neioi-n marketing technique, cocaine is
ilt price is cut
marketed the same way. Vinen ltre shipment. irrives'
cycle begins' -!{re. price
to attract the users. Once the addiction
also appeari to be- in addition to
is raised. The use of cocaine - Cocaine related health
the use of other drugs such as alcohol admissions in
problems *"r"'-th" seclond leading cause of troipitaf years' (see
1991 and Lggz. cocaine i-s second to alcohol in both
attachments )

Marijuana usage is very heavy in the area. In the cor-Irus Qfrisli

of mariiuana seized worth over
area alone thJre has beLn aia-pounds
possession of marijuana is the
$300,000. .fuvenile arrests for
cause. of arrest L992 with 410'
narijuana ou" .lso the leading -"L"junctifi *itft heroin' cocaine and
Marijuana is used generallysuppf' obtainable'
alcohol. -rnari:uani'i3 1s-
The lnarijuana O:eat and easily
available in srnall
The cost of L oz. of SAO'bO'- It is
bags which are approxinatei' t/2 of 1/4 ounce which se11s



S20.00. The cost per pound varies fron $1000 to S1200 depending
ll on quality and supply. As is comnon in other areas, a marijuana
cigarette is avai-rabre raced with or heroin.

i when discusslng drug use ald abuse, it would be imprudent to omit
; the deaths related to their usage. by direct- oi-'i-"airect means..

According to data coll-ected by coaiition

L Education Networking Asency (C.A.D.E.N.A. ), of Alcohof and Druo
tfreie ;;; 3:^"d.;ifiX
in 1'992 that were related to alcohol o. ar,rq;-:-';";.nteen

33 deaths were directly related to alcoho-i, 15-*e.e -inalrjli of the

t: results of alcohol and l was reported as drug rel-ated. rn
lil t9.!h9s9 reported deaths, there were 29 reported homiciOes-in'i662additi-on
with 24% of the deceased under the influence
I both. In 1991, there were 32 homicides with of alcohor, drugs or
So*-of'tne deceased
under the intluence of alcohoI, drugs or both. (See

classification requirements of diiect and indirect ciit.iiili for
suicides reported in 1992 were 55. of these 55 suicides,
under the influence of alcoho}, drugs or both. 54% were
This itir"iliail"i

indicates that the impact of

!h. orug
person.using and abusing the drugs abuse not only effects the
nut al-so trrej-i--iirnilv-;;A iil;

li Another traumatic result of the vast use of drugs,

ir incidence of ArDs and Hrv infection aue to tigfi- ri"x has been the

il associated wlth the drug using rrfestvrl- behaviors

There were 26
ArDs deaths 1n t9_92. They were a1I males witli -Sg* -iiJp""i[]-reported
dld not have any data to in-oicate ttre a."q related cases.

prior, there were l-6 ArDs deaths with 10ot male. The The year
breakdown being 50* hispanic and so* wtrite. ethnic
rt is inpossible
place a number to the cases of HrV i.n our area at thi;-ti;;.- to
currently conduct Hrv testing at severar jail sites and n;
throughout the coastar Bend area. our ficiliw-h;" locations
positive test results frorn september of lgg2 to May reported 12
75* of those positive results r.rere rela-ted to ai"g-rr.. At least
as many total cases as we had the previous year. unfortunately, This is
we have found that nuch of the IDU population continues to share
needles- The most common excuse giv& is that of being
the intimacy involved in sharing works is similar to thatsick. Also
intercourse' Races tend to conlinue sharing within their of sexual
but refuse to share with other races. This lndicates there own race
still a tremendous need for further testing and education is a
IDU and dru.g uslng community. to the

rt has been our goal to provide comprehensive but brief

of drug related activities of_a our area and the observable
consequences ' we contacted several other agencies within our
community to provide the most adequate aia data
available' The information provided *u" collected from several
sources within our community.