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CURRENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE TRENDS IN TEXAS

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Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drugl Abuse


72O Brazos Street, Suite 403
Austin, Texas 78701

JULY, T997
Preface

The data in this report were derived from several Sate and Federal agency sources, and from
field reports of the Texas Epidemiology Work Group of persons with specialized knowledge of
drug problems or knowledge of drug abuse patterns in various parts of the state.

Agency sources were the Texas Dqrartment of Public Safety (DPS) data systems for motor
vehicle accidents, alcohol and dmg arrests, and drug seizures; Texas Deparrnent of Health for
deaths and AIDS incidence dat4 Texas State Board of Pharmacy daa for tiplicate prescription
tends; Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission data on alcoholic beverage consumption;
National Institute on Drug Abuse data on hospital emergency room episodes; Dnug
Enforcement Administration intelligence summaries; and the Texas Commission on Alcohol
and Drug Abuse database on clients admitted for treatnent of substance abuse.

In addition to participants listed on the following page, acknowledgement is given to Jill


Robinson and Jennifer Kavinsky of the Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse's
Planning and Evaluation Departnent forthe compilation of this reporl

Members of the epidemiology work group were selected on the basis of their expert knowledge
related to substance abuse problems, or on the basis of their direct sources of information
concerning drug use Pattems and mends "on ttle streel" Appendices to ttris repoft contain a
sampling of the excellent work performed by work group members in these areas. The drug
knowledge, professional experience, and varied disciplines of these work group members
geatly assisted the effort to combine several sources of indirect data direct measures, and
intelligence rcports and to develop an assessment of probable emerging trends as summarized
in this report.
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TEXAS DRUG EPIDEMIOLOGY WORK GROUP


PARTICIPANTS

Cheryl Beckworth Brace Mills


CADAC, Substance Abuse Counselor Captain
Deparffnent of Patient Services/Social Work Organized Crime Unit
Perinatal Intewention Program 1106 Clayton Lane
Parkland Memorial Hospital Suite 520 E
Dallas County Hoqpital District Austin, Texas78723
5201 Harry Hines Boulevard sta458-M22
Dallas, Texas 75235
2141590-6832 Tary Owens
Austin Travis County MHMR-CARE Unit
Jim Osti Outreach Supervisor
Assistant Direclor 1631-B East 2nd Sueet
El Paso County Alcohol & Austin, Texas 78702
Drug Abuse Treatrnent Services 5ru473-2n3
920 E. Paisano
El Paso, Texas 7901 Bobby Paiz
9151533-2975 Intelligence Division
Drug Enforcement Administration
Donald Cohn 1880 Regal Row
Captain Dallas, Texas 75235
Narcotics Service 214n67-7254
Texas Department of Public Safety
90CI IH-35 North J. B. Pennington
Austin, Texas 78753 Narcotics Division
st2l837-3100 Houston Police Deparfinent
402Pierce
\'.* James C. Ganiott, Ph.D. Houston, Texas 77002
{
Chief Toxicologist 713/651-9780
F
N\
Bexar County Medical Examiner
Regional Crime Laboratory Jamal Khulil
600 North Leona Street Houston Police Departrnent
l,i! San Antonio, Tevas 78207 Planning & Research Division
\(rl 5121225-2918 6l Reinser
V Houston, Texu 77002
Kirk Harlow, Dr. P.H. 7t3la7-8229
\- School of Business & Public Affairs
University of Houston - Clear Lake Stan Furce
tlffiBay AreaBlvd- Special Agent In Charge
Houston, Texas 77058-1098 Houston Field Division
7131488-7170 x3245 Dmg Enforcement Administration
333 West Loop North, Suit€ 300
Roger Hernandez Houston, Texas 770?t1.
Senior Compliance Officer 7r3/68r-t771
Texas State Board of Pharmacy
8505 Cross Creek Drive, Suite 110 Chair: Richaril Spence, Ph.D.
Austin, Texas 78754-4533 Director
512/832-066r Research and Development Division
Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Jane Maxwell 720Bnzos, Suite 403
Director Austin, TX 78701-2506
Planning and Evaluation Department 5121867-8t'14
Texas Commission on Alcohol & Drug Abuse
720 Brazos, Suite 403
Ausrin, TX 7870L-25M
512t867-8829

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

SIIBSTANCE ABUSE TRENDS IN TEXAS - 1990

Appendix A -- 1990 ARRESTS FOR DRUG AND ALCOHOL VIOLATIONS


....... ... " ' ' 7

Appendix B -- 1990 MOTOR VEItrCLE ACCIDENTS IN WHICH


ALCOHO'ON ONUCS WERE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS. 31.

43
Appendix C -- TREATMENT DATA

AppendixD--EMERGENCYROOMADMISSIONS,COCAINE-AND 57
I{EROIN-RELATED DEATHS: DALLASIFORT WORTH
63
Appendix E -- CONSIJMPTION DATA

67
Appendix F - LAW ENFORCEMENT SEIZURE DATA
69
F-1: DPS Seizures
89
F-2: DPS Ctimelabomtory Statistics
101
F-3: State Seizure Totals

. . . . . ... ... 109


Appendix G -- AIDS/HIV STATISTICS .

115
Lt7
tzl
t25
t33
147

151

Jt(u('.trN.r\Jx.LEM.EI\ I J1\JEr\\- r. rN lL:Llrulr\v! uvlu'!u t57


J-l: HoustonDivision 159
r67
I-2: DallasDvision ..........

rr
Appendix
- K -- SPECIAL REPORTS L75 r,,

K-l: ChemicalAbusehogram-ParklandMemorialHoqpitat 1990 L77


K-2: Patterns of Rates of lulornlityfromNarcotics andcocaine
Overdose inTexas, 1976-1987 by Kirk Harlow 183 ,
AppendixL--DEATHSDUETODRUGS/ALCOHOL '""""' L93
,,'

Appendix M -- DRUG-RELATED DEATHS IN BE)GR COUNTY..


203 ,
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I
SUBSTANCE ABUSE TRENDS IN TEXAS - 1990

SAMMARY
Cocaine continues to be a major problem, but emergency room episodes, overdose deattrs,
admissions to treatrnent, and seizures of cocaine are down, and prices are somewhat lower.
Heroin indicators remain stable, while marijuana and ampheamine numbers have declined- In
1990, seizures for most drugs except heroin were down; possible influences on this decline are a
DEA emphasis on the southwest Texas border, and precursor chemical laws.

During the decade of the 1980s, arrests of drug offenders increased by 60 percent, from M,957 in
1980 to 71,800 in 1989. Convictions fordrug offenses have increased by 185 percent from 8,103
to 23, 126 per year, and the annual number of incarcerations for drug offenses have increased by
487 percent during the decade. Annual deaths due to heroin have increased by over 500 percent
and deaths due to cocaine have increased by 2,000 percenl During the last five years of the
decade, treatrnent admissions for drug problems have increased over 300 percent. Admissions for
l\' cocaine problems increased by 1,,000 percent during this five-year period.
t^
txr OVERVIEW OF TEXAS
The population of Texas is distributed among 28 metropolitan statistical areas and 254 counties.
x"
iIr The etlrnic/racial composition is 67 percent White, 21 percent Hispanic, and L}percent Black. The
\ border with Mexico, which sterches 889 miles along the Rio Grande River, and the coastline of
the Gulf of Mexico, which runs 367 miles, provides a vast potential for clandestine transportation
Y
-l_
of illicit substances into Texas. The Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse estimates that
in 1991 there are 1,004,000 Texas adults and 138,000 Texas youth who are chemically dependent
and in need of treatment.

1. Cocaine
Emergency room mentions of cocaine in the Dallas area decreased during 1990 to about 256 per
quarter, from over 300 per quarter in the previous 12 month period- The 208 reported in the thAd
quarter of 1990 is the lowest quarterly rcport of cocaine mentions in three yea$. There werc I27
cocaine-related deaths reported in Texas in 1989. This is a small decrease from the 135 reported in
1988 but still much higher than previous years. In terms of race/ethnicity, Hispanics are the only
gloup to have experienced an increase in cocaine deaths (from 21 to 28 deaths) and now account
for 22 percent of all cocaine deaths. Blacks remain over-represented in cocaine deaths but have
declined from 35 percent to 32 percent of deaths in the last year.
abuse probrem for clients admitted to
cocaine continues to be the number one iliicit substance
The number of cocaine admissions declined
substance abuse treafinent programs in the state'
increased to their highest level yet during the
first
during the last two quarters of 1990, but they
non-alcohol admissions in the first har of the
quarter of 1991; cocaine accounted for 46 percent of
February Lggl)'but increasedto 49 percent during
state fucal year 1991 (September 1990 through
past three yean, the average age of cocaine
clients at
the first qua$ff of calendar 1991. Over the
increased
ttre time of admission and the avelage tengft
ottime between first use and admission has
for a primary problem with cocaine is almost
by one year. currently, the average client admitted
for six years' Some 59 percent'are Black' Tl
prcent are
30 years old and has been using cocaine
employed, and 69 percent live with their fainily.
only 7 percent are homeless' since 1987' an
smoking as the primary route of admission'
increasing pelcentage of cocaine admissions Ieport
indicating a major problem with crack'

authorities reported t:1T"t of l2Jl0 pounds


During calendar year L990, Texas law enforcement
ofcocaine.Thisisdownfromtheratesofseizuresinpreviousyears(16,000poundsin1988and -
are $700 - 1,400 an ounce' and $13'000
32,000 pounds in 1989). Recent prices for cocaine
per rock (.25 gram), $900 - 1,800 per ounce' and
2g,000 per kilogram. crack prices are $35 - 50
Drug Enforcement Administration believe that' in
$2,500 per kilograrn offrcials from the
rcsponse to increased enforcement efforts, cocaine
disributors are stockpiling their product and
waiting for a more relaxed selling environment'

seniors in the state has decreased from 4'2


school survey data indicat€ that cocaine use among
use by younger students is much less
percent tg 2.8 percent in the last two yeifs. cocaine
common.

2. Heroin
have remained remained around 80 per qualt€r
Heroin emergency room mentions in the Daltas area
slightly from 125 in 1988 to 121 in
through 1989 and 1990. opiate deaths in Texas decreased
reported since the advent of "Black Tar" heroin
19g9, thus continuing the elevated level of deaths
reports with the Hispanic pelcentage
in 193411985. Hispanics are greatly over-represented in these
percent in 1988 to 45 percent in
heroin deaths increasing from 31 percent in 1987 to 43
of total
1989.

to substance abuse freatrnent'


Heroin is the number trro illicit drug problem for clients admitted
state during the first half of FY91' The
accounting for z3percent of non-alcohol admissions in the
using heroin for 13 years' some 48
typical heroin client at admission is 35 years old and has been
perc-ent of heroin clients are Hispanic, 21 percent are employed'
?4 percent live with their families

and 5 percent are homeless.


In caiendar year 1990, there were 91 pounds of heroin and2l pounds of gum opium seized by
Texas law enforcement authorities, as compared to 50 pounds in 1989. Whereas most drug
seizures were down in 1990, heroin seizures were up. Recent prices for heroin are $200-$400 per
gram and $3,700-$7,500 per ounce.

3. Mariiuana
During the last two years, emergency room mentions of marijuana have decreased substantially,
from about 134 per quafier in 1989 to about 88 per quarter in 1990. Marijuana was the primary
problem for 16 percent of non-alcohol admissions to treaftnent progftuns during the first half of
Fy91. Marijuana clients are an average of almost 28 years old at the time of admission and have
been using for L L years. Eighty-one percent are male, 48 percent are employed, and72 percent are
referred to featnent through the criminal justice system.

During calendar year 1990 there were 1,754 arrests of adults for marijuana sales, and 19,543
arrests of adults for marijuana possession. During calendar year 1990, law enforcement authorities
seized 177,995 pounds of packaged marijuana and 1,841,432 marijuana plans in the state. In
addition to these seizure quantities, action was taken on 140 marijuana gardens, 31 wild fields of
natural marijuana growt}, 101 cultivated fields, and 18 greenhouses. Marijuana is currently selling
for approximately $25 - 30 per quarter ounce, $100 - I25 per ounce, $600 - 1,200 per pound for
imported, and $ 1 ,200 - 1,500 per pound for domestic, which tends to have a higher THC content.

According to the 1990 secondary school survey of the seventh through twelfth graders, crurent
marijuana use Qast 30 days) has decreased from 11.5 percent to 7.8 percent between 1988 and
1990. Current use by seniors dropped from 13.9 percent to 11.5 percent during the same period.
About 5 percent of sixth graders have at least nied marijuana.

4. Amphetamines
Emergency room mentions of ampheamines has decreased by over one-half over the last three
years and methamphetamine mentions have decreased by one-half over the past two years.
Amphetamines are the number four illicit drug problem for ffeatnent clients, accounting for 10
percent of non-alcohol admissions during the first half of FY91. The average client is 29 years
old, has been using for 10 years, and uses the drug intavenously. Some 92 percent are White and
59 percent are criminal justice referred

Law enforcement seizures of amphetamines in calendar year 1990 totaled 128 solid pounds, 2,847
liquid ounces, and 7,481 dose units. In addition, methamphetamine seizures were 446 solid
pounds, 17 255 liquid ounces, and 9,590 dose units. There were L73 clandestine labs seized
which were producing methamphetamine (78), amphetamine (63), and the precursor chemical P2P
(32). There werc 4,L47 solid pounds and 114,857 liquid ounces of precursor chemicals seized in
these seizures are generally down due to enforced
connection with these actions. officials say that
that manufactulers are making a comeback
precursor chemical laws; however, they also speculate
are around $800 - 1'200 per
by finding and using out-of-state sources. Prices for amphetamines
oon.", which is up slightly since 1989'
to
pharmacy rcports that methylphenidate (Ritalin) prescriptions continue
The Texas State Board of
most prescribed schedure tr stimulant drug
in Texas;
increase and are by a rarge maryin the
were prescribed in 1990' In contrast'
191,940 prescriptions totalling 17,434,980 dosage units
prescriptionsforotherprescriptionstimulantdrugs(otherthanDexedrine)havedecreasedsince
1983.

5. Alcohol
have remained essentially level, declining
Alcohol_in_combination emergency room mentions
the predominant problem that brings clients to
slightly over the last three years. Alcohol is 46
admissions in the first hatf of FYgL constituted
substance abuse treatment programs. Alcohol
rn" average alcohol crient is 34 vears old andhas been using heavilv for
;"ffi;;"il;io*.
Psrvv'r vr @ s."rgv*-^--^-.
^-^ z't percent
41
t ,^- percent
,re er.nployed,
namenf are emnloved 42 - ^--^-+ ^-^
are cr'''u
'nal itrctinc
^-i-;nol justice
iS y"urr. Some 25 percent are married,
-^j^,
referred and 7 percent are homeless'

prevalence of alcohol use is over 80 percent


The 1990 secondary school survey found that lifetime
largest prwalence increases befween 1988
Though more older students leport using alcohol, the
increased most dramatically among Black and
and 1990 were in the lower grades. Consumption
Hispanic groups now have approximately the
Hispanic groups to the point that White, Black and
time passes between their drinking occasions'
same level of lifetime use. Students report thatmore
The largest increase in heavy drinking was
but when they drink, they consume more alcohol.
percentage of students consuming five or more
reported in consumption of wine coolers, where the
17 percent in 1990' smaller increases were
drinks at a time went from L3 percent in 1988 to
studens in fourth through sixth grade in 1990
reported for wine and liquor. About 40 percent of
is readily available, it is not considered to be
reported that they had at least tied alcohol. Alcohol
parents are thought to be ambigUous about
as dangerous as other types of substances, and
according to the survey findings'
communicating attitudes about their children's drinking,

6. Other Drugs
it was found that drug use has decreased
In the Texas secondary school surveys in 1988 and 1990,
Although culrent prevalence
in all categories with two notable exceptions: alcohol and tobacco'
the curent prevalence of alcohol has
of illicit drugs decreased from 17.1" percent to 9.5 pefcent,
remained essentially unchanged and current prevalence
of obacco use has risen over a third' from
percent seniors have used ecstasy an{2.5
16.6 percen tto Z2.9porcent. The survey found that 9.1
(14'7 percent of White
percent are crurent users. This drug is primarily used by White students
seniors have used itand 4.1 percent are current users). Steroids have been used by only 2.2
percent seniors and most of these are male students (3.9 percent of male seniors have used steroids
but only 0.6 percent of female seniors).

The 1990 survey showed that although current use of inhalants decreased from 7 percent to 6
percent among students in grades seven through twelve, prevalence still remains highest for the
youngest students. About 8 percent of sixth grcders used inhalants during the past school year,
and 9 percent of seventh graders used inhalants during the past month. Eighth and ninth graders
still report cunent use at rates almost identical to 1988, suggesting the need for anti-inhalant abuse
intervention programs targeted to high-risk youth in these grades.

Intelligence reports indicate a mild resurgence of LSD, primarily used by the ecstasy crowd
flMhite, middte-to-upper class youth); pudty seems to be significantly lower than in the past, and
less "bad trips" are being experienced.

7. Human Immunodeftciency Virus


Through July 3 1991, there have been 13,L22 cases of AIDS diagnosed in the State. Of these, 7
percent have been infravenous drug users (IVDU) and an additional L0 percent have been involved
wittr male/rnale sex and intravenous drug use. The percentage of IVDU transmission cases has
increased each year from 4 percent in 1987 to 6 percent in 1988, and to 9 percent in 1989 and
1990. 1990 was the first year in which IVDU cases (9 percent) exceeded the percentage of
male/male sex and IVDU cases (8 percent). For the twelve months ending 3/3ll9l, the mode of
Eansmission for 39Vo of the females was fVDU and for 31,Vo, it was heterosexual contact. The
C.A.R.E. Program, a model oufieach progam in Austin, reported that in their program in 1990,
28 percent of African-American males tested for HIV were positive, 18 percent of African-
American females tested for HfV were positive, and 15 percent of Hispanic males tested for HfV
were positive. A major barrier for fVDU's staylng HfV-free is the continuing unavailability of
clean syringes, and the major barrier to helping addicts get into Eeatnent is the unavailability of
treatrnent beds.
Austin 1990 Narcotics Statistics

The following statistics were compiled from the 1990 narcotics statistics
from the narcotics section and special missions team (street narcotics unit).

Marihuana lb. +
377 $ 4,322,714.00
Heroin 3.7 oz. $ 10,388.00
Cocaine 4.6 lb. $ 204,736.00
Crack (Cocaine) 3.7 lb. + $ 165,760.00
Methamphetamine 1.6 lb. = $ 71,680.00
Meth. Labs 24 =
LSD 6998 D.U. $ 34,990.00
Ecstasy 524 D.U. $ 13,100.00
CashSeized + 91,490,537.00
Arrests 63 4

Less emphasis has been placed on the enforcement of the lower level
dealer and more on the larger dealers by the narcotics section. Crack
cocaine has continued to flourish and increase. Marihuana
distribution has increased. Tar heroin is on the increase. We have
' seen no white heroin. The precursor laws have caused persons
involved in the manufacture of methamphetamine to go out of state
to secure phenylacetic acid. Phenylacetic acid is the main precursor
in the manufacture of PzP.

Values of Narcotics - 1990

Retail Wholesale

Heroin $ 100/grm.
$1,500/oz. $20,000/lb.
Cocaine $ 100/grm.
$1,000/oz. $19,000/kilo
Crack $2O/rock
10 pak/$120
Marihuana $100io2. $800-$1,000/lb.
Methamphetamine $ 100/grm. $1,000/oz.
rsD $5/DU
Ecstasy $20-$25lDU

119
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
DRUG ENFORCEMENT AD}IINISTRATION
HOUSTON DIVISION

REPORT FOR THE TEXAS DRUG EPIDEMIOLOGY WORK


GROUP T99T

Trends in Drug Trafficking

A. AVAIIABILITYAND USE

1. HEROIN
HOUSTON

Brack tar heroin is. incr_easr_ngly


nationars and MexLcan-American dealer-s -ln avairable
arl
from Mexican
q""ntities.
tar i-s prlced between $4, 5oo to s6, ooo an o=,rr""-. BlackBlack
heroin pri.ces are reported.tg range-'from SZO.OOO-Io SI4O,OOO tar
kilogram, dependlng on proxlmity t5 border .rra source of suppry.a
Brown powder is avairable for purchase ln the pri"" range
S9oo ' oo to S1-, 2o-0. oo per ounce. lrthite heroin of
6c
origin is available in kllogram quantitles for SfOTOOO. Middle East

EL PASO

Previously, the Er Paso Dlstrict offlce reported that a


considerable portion of heroin imported into the u.s. from
lh"_
Mexico may be transported_ through the rower nio oranoe Vatrey.
T1 P^a_so reports the whore_sa-re -prtce for black ii, heroin at
to
S3,500 $4,500 an ounce (gOt p";iitt.
McALLEN
Black tar heroin ls prefe_r_red by the addict population in
the border area. The Brownsvirle off:ice reports
is at 18* purlty. --FY-YV that black tar
t::
:s:
3.
i: SAN ANTOMO
!:t,
Brack tar heroin is lncreasingly
nationals and Mexican-Ameri-can v:-otiiorsavairab1e
in
from Mexican
kilogram, pound,
=:t.
i.- ounce and gram quantj.ti-es-. speed barling (-Gioit
combinations are lncreasingly enctuntered in-street revel/cocaine )
:L
'I::
:i seizures. drug
'{:t':
s*lr '
i--
*-
{S: :'
2. COCAINE
Sr'
€r
.s:,
HOUSTON
#!.
Guatemara, panama, and Mexico for shlpment to the u.s.
through Mexlco. Cocaj.ne j-s currently being stoct<pifed within the
i'
+'
161
l

of the
shlpment to other areas cocaine
Houston, Texas , ateat awa'ltlng to transfer the
Shlpment routes that are used to the border of the
ii" C"i'ttt.f Amerlca and then
""""tiy. through Mexl-co
u. s.
Pricereductionsandsignificq''t.lncreaseinavaj-lability Single
within the Houston area' apiece'
have been recently encounterel to s2o,ooo
kirograms of cocaine "r" pr-i"La around s19,ooo
Urbanareasalongthgborderhavereportedapri-cerangefora
anJ S18,ObO. Recent developments
kilogram netw-e-eri Sfg,OOO- r"-tn" availability of cocaine at all
indicates a marked lncrease
the Division' lllo' a cocaine
Ievels withl-n was uncovered in February'
reprocessirrgZll;ishingin laboratory
tio-u-s-ton was being utirized to convert
1gg1. An .p.rt*"nt hyJiochloride usin! tne kitchen oven and
cocaine base to "o".ine setting'
acetone in a Primitive
ELPASO

Cocaine continues to be the major drug thrreat in the EI


In February of 19?1' 666 [i]ograms of cocaine
Paso/Juarez .i""' of the Northern Border
were seized in Chihuahua as a result
ResPonse Team.
MCALLEN

McAllenindl-catesthatasmuchcocaineentersviatractor-
trailersthroughthePortsofEntryasthetraditionalriver
Aircraft' smuggling large
crossing or aeiiaf smuggling rou-tes'.
leaving colombia and arriving at
quantitles of cocaine,Mexico'
"orrti-rrrr"
ioi.rt= in TamauliPas,
SAN ANTOMO
Cuban, Peruvian,
Cocalne is availab}e from Colombian,
Bolivian,Jamaican,anduexicanviolatorsinvolumesrangingfrom
The purity of cocaine seizures
grams to *.rrJi---iori, quantities. purity of cocaine
Last quarter tie purity
has falten dramatically.
'gtt This quarter the of cocaine
ranged from - 96i.
seizures ranges from 6Ot to 68*'
A cocaine trafficking group.. in the San Antonio area is
cocaine m:-ied witndrug methamphretamine' M5'Iitary
distributing in" same and irave determined that
agencies have encountered . According t6 military sources' f ire
users caII if ,,f ire,, lasts two to three hours'
;;;a;""; a nigh which
* Crack Cocaine
Theabusepatternsinpredominantlyblackpublichousing
Sectoraiereported_tobewidespreadandnumerousunderage
to distribute crack cocaine and powder
violators .."-irtrlized
cocaine.
,Localpricesof"crack"cocainecontl"nuetorangebetween
(
l-62
to sloo.oo (or hlgher) for
a hlt and s2o.oo between
s5.oo to sloo.ooLocal
powder cocarne. prlces range
-to sEoo'oo to sl'ooo'o0
an ounce. Crack cocalne contl-nues in be prevalent in the rninority
sections of the city, especiatly I-ower cost houslng areas'
Beaumont also reports widlspread crack/powder cocaine
availabiIitY.
san Antonio reports crack cocaine availability
is spreading
moregradually,althoughtheprimaryusergroupcontinuestobe
Crack- is a1so avaLtab1e in Austin and
the black community. th;-Crips and the Bloods have emerged as
Waco. In San arrtoiio, level crack sales'
*"j"t outlets for street

3. MARIJUANA

HOUSTON

The Houston Division remains the prime transit, storage ?''d


distribution center for rn"iij.r.rr. in att quantities. All grades
-are avairabl;;" Eo* domestic dLtchweed (wild) to
of marljuana Mexican based drug trafficking
fine sinsemllia and nasftfsn.
- otner primary groups
cartels ana crlminal factors are the transported lnto
of the marJ'Juana
responstble for the taloiity ottrer to
and through the Dlvislon. source co'-untrles contlnue be
Information further indicates that
colombia, Bellze and Jamaica. northern traffl-ckers to buy high
Houston, rexis rs a hub for
;;;e" mariJuana in abundant amounts'
MariJuanapricesintheDivisionvaryandaredependenton
location,qualityandq""tity'Currently'theMexicantrarvest
and is expected to lead to
will enhance the quantit' "t"'i,fable.
As antlcipated,. availability within
short-term price r6auctio'ns.wlth prtcej ranglng from ssoo'oo to
the Divislon ls prentlfui the bordLr are ipproximately
S1,1OO.OO per pound (areas ifot!
si5o.oo to s65o-oo Per Pound)'
TheHoustonDj-visioncontinuestomanageanactivemarijuana
eradicationprogram.PartictpatingintheprogramaretheTexas
- p.rb1i" Saieti, ttie U.S. rbreLtry Service' the
Department Ji
TexasNationalGuard,theTexasCivilAirPatrol'and
county/}ocallawenforcementagencies.Thecannabiscultivators
a larger surface
continue to grow in smaller plots spread over
area to avoid detection'
MCALLEN

McAllenreportsthatrnarlJuan-a,inbothuserandcommercial
'on tr-r" increaie due to the current harvesting
quantiti€s, r=
season. During this quarter tl" U'S' Border Patrol seized
g,ZOO pounds of marijuana'
"ppi"*i*ately

,W
163
,11
li
il
i1

ELPASO
ports of entry
selzures of marlJuana occur almost da1ly atrange
and at U.S. Border Pa{rol checkpoints. Seizures from a few
pounds to the largest of 194 pounds'
Commercial quantities of marijuana can be obtaj'ned in Ciudad
Juarez, Chlhuahuj, Mexico, for S4OO to S5OO per potr_n_d. The pri'ce
G; pound in the District is normally S1OO to S2OO higher
than
the Juarez Price.
SAN ANTONIO

MariJuana is available from Mexican nationals and Mexican-


American violators throughout the District in multi-hundred pound
quantities. Marijuana is the predominant drug smuggled through
Laredo.

4. DANGEROUS DRUGS
* lfiethamPhetamlne/Amphetam|ne :
Ttre maJority of the methamphetamine to manufactured and
distributed in tfre Houston areag9ngs. continues be controlled
piirnarffy by outlaw_ motorcycle In addition to labs
-known members and affill-ates, this organization also
lpEi"t"d by operators.wittt
frequently contracts lab operations to independent of the finished
no affiliation to the gan-g. An unknown amount
product is then distriuutea by gang controlled females through
topless bars.
euantities of Methamphetamine/Amphetamlne withln the Houston
availability
Division continue to exiJt, however,has seized four rnay be rising'
During this quarter, the Division clandestine
p2p/metnampneiamine laboratories. Pound quantities of
methamptretamine are selling for approximately S16,OOO-S18, OOO'

The recent selzures indicate that Houston continues as a


primary *.rr,ri-"turlng point for methamphetamine. Additionally,
the Houston FD lab gioup seized a quantity of precursor chemicals
in Houston which was destined for the Austin, Texas area.
The result of the closing or controlling of chemical supply
to
stores operating ln the HouJton Division area is expected
precursors
increase the sireet price of primary it is expected that mostused in the
manufacturlng of methairphetamine. Thus,
-organizations
trafficklng will become involved in the lllj-cit
sale of chemical Precursors.
McAllen

Dangerousdrugsareavailablebutarenotadrugofchoice
in McAllen. HOwever, Brownsville RO reports their area remains
a

Tn
if il
ii'l
it,l
:li

transLt polnt for dangerous drugs from- abroad' Methamphetamine


for S1,OO0 to S1,2OO an ounce'
ls sold in tfre lrcelfei Olstrlctorlginates
Most of thls methamphetamlne ln Houston' Austln' or
San Antonlo, Texas'
El Peso

Thereisverytittletrafficlndangerousd.rugsintheEl
paso area and ,ro arrests or selzures iere made during this
reporting period for such violations'
Sen Antonio

MethamphetamlneisavallablefromAngloviolatorsandSome
and "gram quantities'
Mexlcan-Amerlcan violators-l-n pound, in san Antonio, Austin, waco,
-ounce
It is most commonly "rr"o.rnt"rla Methamphetamj-ne is frequently
Belton, Temple, and KiIi;;;.
abusedbyteenagersandv"-"'gadultsintnesmallertownslnthe
District.ThisphenomenonisquitecommoninnorthcentralTexas
in and around Waco'
* PCP:
received
Durlng the lst quarter' Do lnformation has been
1l

il
PCP oPerators il
concerningthea}legea-ma-nufacture/distributlonof
Local counterparts have seized no PCP
,l
rl

in the Houston are;'


during thLs quarter'
tl
:l

* l,lDylA ( 3, 4-methglenedioxg-mettranphetamj,ne ) :
'1

MDA/MDI4Auseandavailabilityappearst?..b"growing.
predominattify by white males and
MDA/1'{DMAuse contlnues to U" ig-so. Both the Houston Police
females ranglng in age from Crime Unit report that
Department and jt" H"tli= C""ttty-Organized
MD}4Aisbecomingmoreprevalent-,however,MDAisalsofrequently
iEi"g dlstributea as "ecstasy"
Althoughrumorscontinuetocirculateregardin.glargescale
MDMAoperatlonsinMexlco,-rroLnformationhas-beendevelopedthis
primary center for
quarter rnaiciting that- Houstonin isthatthe country.
distribution "i-l,rofia manufactured
Ephedrlne is currently bellg sold as MDMA'users These
of
affiuent than typical
individuals appear to be *6t" occurs primarily. 1n. topless bars
methamphetamitie-. DistributionDivision' Informa{iott indicates that
and disco type clubs in -the Houston ut"t--tt" selling "sudafed"
some trafflckers Ln the a tablet
tablets as ,,ecstasy". The price ranges from S12 to S15 as white
described
or 56 to SZ per 1,OOO foisl- tne tabl1ets are
with brown sPecs'
Ga}vestonreportsthat"ecstasy',issti].lpopularamong
youngadultslnthelocal_"r.,u..InformatlonfromGalvestonarea
law enforcement has mentioned-.roax.the sporadic .use ofThe
-strychnine' 'acid" ' a
acid is
and
designer drug composed og
r65
popular among young
placed on PaPer blotters and ls predomlnantly
price.
i;;;;t"ts b,tl to lts economical
HALLT]CINOGENS:

ThisdangerousdrugissomewhatavallablelntheHFDarea.
crime unit seized approximately
The Harrls county olganizea - LSD which has been encountered by
1s,4oo aosage--;;itr o,:- lso.
variouslawenforcementagenciesinHoustonisnormatlycontained
onblotterpapersheets.*itnloosquaresordosaoeunitsper
ro seized !n;;" such Jr.""i= containiig 1oo D.U.'S
slreet. Housto.,, logo on each
per sheet wiin the cartoon figures .ld "Jetsons"
---iecettt information indicates that
sheet.LSDhasbeen"',""-""t"'3aintheLaredoandnortheastern
San Antonio ;;";;- scnoot!-'
themaJorityofLSDenco-unteredoriginatesinCaliforniaand
possiblY from Austin' Texas'

rI. Diversion of Legitinate Drugs


ThemajorllcitControlledSubstancesintheHouston Percodan, cocaine'
be: pitaudid, Preludin,
Divisio. "o.iirr,r" to anpnetamrrres, NX (with PBZ)' vocodin'
Demerol, Methadone, ialwin avenues of
ptrendl_metraztne, Tussione;;' ;;e'Hycoaan. rne maJor
to b;' Jni""o - ilregal and indiscriminate
diverslon .Jitir.r. preJcrlptions, and illegal
prescriblng,-'p-n..rn."V tnelt, i"l6:9
Wflnfn the Houston Division' one
dlstribution UV pharmaci";s: written are for Benzodiazepines'
out of every three pr"="ri!1ionsvicodin continues as a major drug of
Informatlon i-.rarlatls thJ
abuse,Dilaudidabusecontinuesatahighlevel'andTussionex
leve1s. brug runners' o! doctor
abuse conti;;;; ;a =igrriiititt
shoppers,.'"-obtainlngfewerprescriptiJnsfromanygiven
* iti=if hot" doctors to avoid
doctor, but are attempti; to
#4 - and V;atium are teing used
"come down"
detection. TyIenoI highs'
iio* crack cocaine
McAllen

Diverted}egltirnatedrugsarereportedlyavailable'butthe
drugs *bt be purchased over the
ease with which legitimate iareao 5r Uaiimorosl uexico lessens the
counter ln Reynosa, Nue.ro
regiiimai"rv produced drugs in the area'
market ro. Jri";i;a
El Peso

VerY litt1e diversj'on takes olace in the EI Paso area due


-"E available over the counter
to fegaf- drugs of al1- tyPes that
in Mexico.

r66
DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION
DALLAS DIVISION

169
F ORWARD

This publication is prepared by the InEelligence Unit of the Drug


EnforcemenE Administration's Da1las Field Division Office. It is
designed Eo present current developments and trends of int.eresE
to individuals and agencies wirh drug enforcement or drug
educaEion / treatment responsibilities.
The information is gleaned from quarterly reports submitted by
offices comprising the Dallas Field Division which includes the
Texas cities of Da11as, Fort Worth, Tyler, Lubbock, Midland, and
Amarillo as well as Oklahoma'City, Tulsa, and McAlester,
Oklahoma. tlowever, this reporE will deal with trends and
trafficking in the Texas offices of the Dal1as Division.
The staEislical data in this report was provided by the Drug
Enforcement Administration, Washington, DC. These statistics are
Eo be cons idered preliminary at t.he time of this publication.
The Drug Enforcemen! AdministraEion r.relcomes the opportunit.y to
share informat.ion and encourages the exchange and comparison of
inEefligence beEween organizations.

170
i

DALLAS FIELD DIVISION


( oa1 las, TYler, Ft' Worth' Lubbock)
I ST SIX_-I'1ONT11S ACCOI'1P L I SH}'18 NTS
OCTOBER TggO
_ MARCH ].99I

t09
ARRE ST S
(uofg: Arrests Eor 3 monthsl l0/0r-L213I/90)

Following figures are six month totalsl


t0/0r/so - 03l3rl9r)
l8
LABORATORY SE IZURES

DRUG SEIZURES:
0.4 1bs (O.Z kgs)
IIEROIN
61 .5 lbs (Zj.9 kgs)
CO CAI NE

I 446 lb s (zoz.o kgs)


CA}INAB S

DANGEROUS DRUGS
256,393
(dosage units)

ASSET SEIZURES $4,997,947.54

L7L
DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION
l DALLAS FIELD DIVISION
l
TRENDS IN TRAFFIC
l ocToBER 1990 MARCH 1991

HEROIN

Mexican black tar heroin remains the predominant cype of heroin


i encountered in the Da11as/Fort l.lort.h area and continues Eo be
l
l
readily available EhroughouE Northern Texas.
i

Retail distribuEion of black Ear heroin is controlled by Mexican-


American trafficking organizaEions who distribute to both the
BIack and Hispanic communities. Pound quantities and less are
Eransported from I'lexico and South Texas by couriers using land
routes and ground transportaEion. RecenE intelligence indicates
that. black tar heroin is being smuggled from Mexico to Arizona
and then Eo Texas, with t.he monetary proceeds reversely carried
south to the individuals conErolling the operations. cost for
the heroin ranges from $3,700 to $7r500 per ounce. The heroin
ranges from l1 Eo 79 percenE in puiity.
Da1las and Fort Worth continue as source ciuies for black tar
heroin Eraf ficked in Lubbock and ry ler, Texas. Heroin is
encounEered in modes! quantities in these areas and purities
usually range between l0 to 64 percent. Gram quancities are
available ranging in price from $300 ro $4OO per gram.
The availability of SourhwesE (SWA) or SouEheasr Asian (SEA)
heroin appears ro be limited in the Dallas Division.
Intelligence indicates that the Da11as/Fort Worth Inrernational
Airport may be a Eransshipment poinE for organizat.ions shipping
kilogram quancities of SWA/SEA heroin !o other areas of Ehe
United States.
COCAINE

The use and availability of cocaine remains sEeady, This drug is


by far t.he mosE abused subsEance in this area and E.he easiest to
obtain. It is distributed to and consumed by all known ethnic
and socio-economic groups. colombians, cubans, and Mexican
Nacionals conE.inue t.o dominate the cocaine trade in Dalras.
Investigative debriefings reflect that the rnajority of cocaine
being inEroduced into the Dallas area is coming from the E1 paso
and HousEon, Texas areas as well as from Mexico. Dallas still
remains a distribution hub for Eransshipments of cocaine !o oEher
cities in Ehe United States. Source cities for the panhandle
region appear to be Los Angeles, california and E1 paso, Texas.
some of the cocaine available in the Da1 1as area is brought in
from Miami, Florida. prices range from $22,000 Eo $2g,000 per
kilogram.
:li
\72
ril
iill
r
r

Crack

Crack cocaine remains available in Ehe Dallas area and is the


drug of choice in Northern Texas. The nationalit.y of the pr irnary
distributors seems to be shifting from Ehe Jama icans to the
"r".t
1oca1 Black violaEors. Gang members of Ehe cRIPS and BLO0DS have
surfaced in the Da1las/Fort Worth Metroplex, but have not yet
gained conErol over Ehe Erade in crack cocaine'
Prices within the Dallas Division range from $10 to $20 for 100
milligrams, $f 5 to $50 for a "rock" (ll4 gram), $900 Eo $1,800
per ounce and $25,000 per kilogram. Overa11, there aPpears to be
a rise in puri ty for the crack cocaine available.
}TABIJUANA

Marijuana smuggling in the Da1las/Fort Worth lletroplex fromjuana


Mexico and South Texas has increased. Consurnpt ion of mari
in this area is extensive and pervasive. The Dallas/Fort I'lorth
area has become a major transshiPment point for mari juana
traveling from Ehe Texas/ltexico border to other areas of the
United StaEes. l,texican-Americans and/or Mexican Nationals
control the disEribulion of marijuana in the Dallas area.
Smugglers use vehicles and aircraft Eo transPort lhe drug from
the i"*"s/Mexico border to the norEhern sec E ions of Texas, as
well as oEher areas of the Unite,d SEates'
Prices for marijuana of foreign origin throughout Nort.hern Texas
range from $25 io $30 for I /4 ounce, 9100 to $I25 per ounce and
$600 to $1 ,200 per pound. Domestically cultivaEed marijuana
ranges in price from $1r200 to $1'500 Per pound'
AUPEETAT{INE AND XETUA}TPEETAUINE

The DaIlas area is considered a source area for illicitly


manuf acEured amphetamine and methamphet.amine. iI istoricatly t

clandesEine fabtraLories have been associated with people in


lower soci o-economic SrouPs and with outlaw motorcyc 1e gangs ' are
This t.rend has changed over Ehe Past few years. These drugs
among Lhe mos t re ad i 1y ava i lab 1e aod cheaPe s t to buy. The
laboiatories are no looger one man oPerations, but are large
scale set-ups that often operate on a multi-state 1eve1.

Efforts Eo control precursor chemicals are aPParenlly impacting


Ehe average price of amphet.amine and methamphetamine causing it
co rise slightly over 1990 figures' The average price for an
ounce of amphetamine and methamphetamine purchased within with
Northern and Northeast Texas is $800 to $1 r 200 Per ounce' Liaison
pound quantities being approximately $I0,000 to $12'000.
between DEA offices and legitimaEe chemical companies is becoming
an effective means in moniioring the flow of Precursor chemicals
and developing invest igative leads '
173
LSD

The Dallas DEA has received information from 1oca1 police


departments and concerned ci!izens demonsErating a concern
relative to LSD abuse. LSD appears to be making a moderate
comeback, with a reEail price of $10 per dosage unit.
DIVERSION CONTROL PROGRA}IS

The mosE popular licit drugs of abuse in the Northern area of


Texas continue to be Dilaudid, Percodan, Preludin, Vicodin,
Tussionex, Xanex, Halcion, Ritalin, Phend imetrazine, PhenEermine,
Ta lwin NX, and Pyrobenzamine.

Since the recent passage of Ehe Anabolic Steroids Control Act,


(feUruary 1990) ttre Dallas Division has been gaEhering
int.elligence concerning the illicit diversion of anabolic
sEeroids. Based on intelligence information gathered, the vast
majority of sEeroids being sold within the Dal. las Division are
being smuggled in from Mexico. Tt is yet too premature Lo
determine if any suspicious or improper dispensing activity of
domestically manufacEured steroids exists in the Northern area of
Texas. Physical fiEness cenEers remain the primary distribution
poinEs for illegal steroids.

i
i

i
I.
l

i.,

:'
t'

174