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Contents

(Note: Page numbers are as in the whole book so that the index remains valid)

Acronyms …………………………………………………….……………………… iii


Preface ………………………………………………………………………………. iv

1 Microscopy with light and electrons

1.1 Introduction ………………………………………..… 1


1.2 Methods of image formation ………………………… 2
1.3 Pixels ………………………………………………… 3
1.4 The light-optical microscope …………….……….…. 4
1.5 Magnification …………………………………..……. 7
1.6 Resolution …………………………………………… 8
1.7 Depth of field and depth of focus ………………….… 12
1.8 Aberrations in optical systems ………………………. 14
1.9 Electrons versus light ………………………………... 16
1.10 Questions …………………………………………….. 19

Further reading ……………………………………………………………..……. 236


Answers ……………………………………………………………………………. 238
Index …………………………………………………………………………..……. 243

__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).