You are on page 1of 37

Contents

(Note: Page numbers are as in the whole book so that the index remains valid)

Acronyms …………………………………………………….……………………… iii


Preface ………………………………………………………………………………. iv

2 Electrons and their interaction with the specimen

2.1 Introduction ………………………………………..… 20


2.2 Electrons ………………………………...…………… 20
2.3 Generating a beam of electrons ……………………… 24
2.4 Deflection of electrons – magnetic lenses …………… 27
2.5 The scattering of electrons by atoms .…………..……. 29
2.6 Elastic scattering ...…………………………………… 30
2.7 Inelastic scattering ……………...………………….… 31
2.8 Secondary effects …………….………………………. 34
2.9 The family of electron microscopes ……………..…... 37
2.10 Questions …………………………………………….. 38

Further reading ……………………………………………………………..……. 236


Answers ……………………………………………………………………………. 238
Index …………………………………………………………………………..……. 243
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).