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Physics, Waves, Simple Harmonic Motion

Physics, Waves, Simple Harmonic Motion

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Periodic Motion

A motion which repeats itself over and over again after a regular interval of time is

called a periodic motion. The regular interval of time, after which the periodic

motion is called its time period and is denoted by T. For example,

i.

ii.

iii.

Motion of the blade of electric fan.

Motion of the mass attached to spring when displaced.

Oscillatory Motion

The motion of body is said to be oscillatory motion if it moves back and forth about

a fixed point after regular intervals of time. The fixed point about which the body

oscillates is called mean position or equilibrium position. For example,

a. Motion of the mass attached to spring when displaced.

b. Motion of bob of the simple pendulum.

A body is said to execute simple harmonic motion, if it moves under the action of a

force which is always directed towards the mean position and is proportional to the

displacement from the mean positon.

A harmonic motion on straight line with its acceleration always directed towards a

fixed point on the line and magnitude of acceleration proportional to the

displacement of the particle from the fixed point and direction of acceleration is

always opposite to the displacement from mean position. This fixed point is called

the Centre of oscillation or the equilibrium position. The SHM is possible only around

a point of stable equilibrium and the force which always tries to pull the object to its

equilibrium position is called the restoring force. The maximum displacement of the

particle from the equilibrium position is called the amplitude of oscillation, it is +A

or -A.

acceleration displaceme nt

a x

And, also, minus sign indicates that the direction of acceleration is opposite to that

of displacement.

a 2 x

The solution of above second order differential equation gives the equation of SHM

as,

x A sin( t )

The quantity, , is called the angular frequency and is equal to 2 times the

frequency of the particle executing SHM.

2f

i.e.

2

T

independent of amplitude.

The necessary and sufficient condition for a motion to be simple harmonic is

that the restoring force (or torque) must be linear.

F kx (linear SHM );

c (angular SHM )

Amplitude

The amplitude of a particle executing SHM is its maximum displacement on

either sie of the mean position.

x A sin( t )

Consider the equation of SHM,

Maximum value of sin = 1, so -A x A

the particle

A is the amplitude of

Frequency

The frequency of a particle executing SHM is equal to the number of

oscillations completed in one second. It is measured in cycles per second

(hertz = Hz).

Phase

The phase of a particle executing SHM at any instant is its state with regard

to its position and direction of motion at that instant. It is measured as

argument (angle) of sine in the equation of SHM.

phase (t )

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