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Contents

(Note: Page numbers are as in the whole book so that the index remains valid)

Acronyms …………………………………………………….……………………… iii


Preface ………………………………………………………………………………. iv

6 Chemical analysis in the electron microscope

6.1 The generation of X-rays within a specimen ……………... 170


6.2 Detection and counting of X-rays ………………………… 174
6.3 X-ray analysis of bulk specimens …………………………. 184
6.4 X-ray analysis of thin specimens in the TEM ……………... 193
6.5 Quantitative analysis in an electron microscope …………... 196
6.6 Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) ………………... 205
6.7 A brief comparison of techniques …………………………. 212
6.8 Questions …………………………………………………... 213

Further reading ……………………………………………………………..…………... 236


Answers …………………………………………………………………………………... 238
Index …………………………………………………………………………..…………... 243
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
__________________________________________________________
Electron Microscopy and Analysis,
Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland.
Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).