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Case Study –Intelligent Building 1

Removing barriers to energy efficiency and


evolving green energy norms for green
intelligent buildings

Prelude
Global Warming open before us a vast and uncertain expanse as a crepuscular horizon on plain
at dusk of rapid industrialization look increasingly threatening like never before. Unfortunately
the major pie of its cause is related to energy that we can’t live without. Looking at the
inevitable our engineering design practices are bound to take material shift. It no longer can
restrict in merely doing the job but also need to do it in an energy efficient way. And sooner is
better.

Abstract

This case study is culmination of several hundred TPM (Total Power Management) and Process
Optimization projects carried-out through decades through a motley intelligent-building (IB)
across length & breadth of India and world-wide. The long experience bring to bear sustainable
“ways & means” those remove barriers to energy efficiency.

Green building revolution is spurting across globe. The crown tag itself is no Rosetta-stone of
green energy norms. Those are in nascent stage. This study propounds a direction towards
possible development of one universal norm on global scale, a pulse-count that would
delineate the degree of greenness for any intelligent building.

“The Mean” dose not justify “The End”. For example an inefficient building if powered by 100%
green solar energy can’t be tagged as efficient or for that matter green building. It must be
stated and understood like in a quality system greenness can’t be achieved at delivery point or
by trumpeting the purported altruism. Initial project design and equipment specification are
critical more so for delivery equipment. Any load end deficiency must come from source and
that happen with huge energy losses. In-addition many intrinsic barriers remain so long such
equipment remain in operation.

Do not “limit your design” rather “challenge your limit”. Unfortunately most IB world-wide
designed conservatively and operate even below 40% Load Factor (LF) to keep Power Quality
(PQ) & harmonic distortion problems below the carpet within its latent stage. LF in an electrical
system is actual-running-load in MW/MVA divided by sum-total MVA-rating of all downstream
Transformers (TRF). Root cause of such problems is the rise in Voltage Harmonic Distortion

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 2

(THDv) which is proportional to LF. That explains why de-rating helps in skirting the problem
albeit with guzzling infrastructure. Compacting succinctly from several hundred projects this
study also narrates 15-case-studies with ballpark description that constitute near 100% of all
problems and challenges IB engineers & technologists alike encounter during project design,
start-up and maintenance phases, their root-cause & a guide for trouble-shoot methods.

There is no wonder in world that is not build through simple wonders. And simple fact of life is
“smaller are the knots better is the carpet”. Modern world churn out sheaf of sophistication for
modern building. Those are intertwined by yet more sophisticated chain of commands. And
simple fact of efficiency is “a chain is as strong as the weakest link”. The long past experience
through two contrasting economic phases, recession period of 1996 -2002 and economic surge
period of 2003 -2008 bring-forth a reflection. Riding high on economic prosperity our buildings
have travelled far too a distance to be efficient again. Such barriers consistently and repeatedly
come up primarily because of our incapacity to think simple. This simple fact delineates
solution to global warming lies not with our money but with our energy.

Classifying intelligent building (IB)

Large buildings of yesteryears or for that matter heritage buildings were build at the opulence
of nature that modern building with today’s stakeholders believe to be effetely snob and no-
longer feasible. Economic prosperity couple with technological advancement mandate comfort
conditions for building occupants. Those bring in matching sophistication and create intelligent
buildings. Increasingly more buildings are coming under this classification and broadly following
business segments those employ enough sophistication would be tagged as IB.

Hotel
Hospital
Shopping Mall
District Cooling
Corporate House
Military Base Station
Tele-Communications
Newspaper, Printing Press
IT-facility, Data centre, R&D House
Commercial Complex, multi-tenanted
Refrigeration, large Cold Storage building

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 3

Evolving green building norm

Every bird needs a nest. Every human activity needs a building. And the struggle between man
and nature create global warming. Work with nature is only sustainable way for embracing
green energy. “Green buildings” are spurting up across globe in believe it preserve our holistic
ecology. Such green Tag is surely no Rosetta-stone for achieving green energy norms. The fact is
those norms are at nascent stage evolving and till miles to look forward to.

Much like in a quality system green energy also can not be achieved at delivery point. It is all
about thrift. This green institution need to be nourished at every process sub-system, those
seamlessly intertwined and scaled up leading to final delivery. Those when we build with
candour nature fructify them for us to harness green energy.

Finally the buck or for that matter proof of greenness has to stop somewhere within building’s
pulse-count. One way is to look at its Specific Energy Consumption (SEC). It is kWh consumption
per annum per square meter of total built-up space. A SEC line below 200 for 24/7 operation is
indeed an efficient building. It is very much achievable and includes process loads like kitchen &
laundry for hotel; data center, workstation & communication hubs for IT & other companies.

While going through a process for evolving solution with abstractly myriad subjects constraints
would not be guiding the solution or least it become a simplistic solution. Nevertheless when
constraints are built into the solution it could churn out to be truly one universal solution on
global scale. SEC line is a good way to look forward to the greenness of an IB; it is unique of a
building and simple. SEC line however needs adjustment and in particularly so when process
demand is much on divergent scale like few noted below.

A non 24/7 building would have much lesser SEC. And need suitable adjustment.

Large concentrated Data centre load Like in a) R&D house b) POP internet center c)
Telecommunication switching center etc, those use lesser space that pack with very high
intensity energy usage.

District cooling facility that export large BTU energy and conversely IB those import such
BTU energy. Exports and/or imports as may be applicable for any IB are to be accounted.

While figuring SEC for IB that use multiple forms of input energy like thermal etc those to be
converted into a common kWh equation.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 4

Barriers to Energy efficiency

Why, Total Power Management –TPM

IB use major pie of its energy on HVAC, lighting and business communication. Its primary
objective is to achieve optimum comfort conditions for building occupants and guests. It
necessitates employing matching control system degree of which varies from building to
building. Those could start from localized loop-in-control for individual space-zones and may
reach up to the ultimate in today’s technology, Building Automation System (BAS). Control
system requires equipment output to be variable in sync with its need for the desired comfort
levels. These introduce Non-Linear-Load (NLL) mostly in the forms of Variable Frequency Drives
(VFD) in HVAC equipments like in Chiller, Pump, Cooling Tower and AHU. Today’s Lighting use
NLL in the form of Electronic Ballast in discharge luminaire. In-addition business communication
needs large digital processing power equipment for connectivity with world which further
brings in NLL in the forms of UPS, Computer, Internet POP and Exchange. These NLL alter
sinusoidal characteristics of current & voltage waveforms & create bad Power Quality (PQ) that
are increasingly becoming apparent is harmonic distortion of fundamental wave shape. In its
latent or dormant stage, it injects energy losses.

LF in an electrical system is actual running-load in MW/MVA divided by sum-total MVA-rating of


all downstream transformers. World-wide most facilities with NLL profile designed
conservatively and operate even below 40% LF, so as to keep PQ & harmonic distortion
problems below the carpet within its latent stage. Root cause of such problems is the rise in
Voltage Harmonic Distortion (THDv). THDv with NLL is proportional to LF that explains why de-
rating helps in skirting the problem albeit with a guzzling infrastructure and lesser product
quality.

Fortunately there exist an alternative that can effectively bring down THDv. This is the domain
and usefulness of Tuned Filter that when designed properly reap rewards one can count on. It
reconstructs distorted waveform back into sine-wave that acts like injecting ageless potion into
plant & machinery transforming them instantly into impossible is nothing like performances.
Removing barriers employing TPM method for IB based on TRF/DG end solution, wherein one
tune variable filter caters to full TRF/DG load profile that maintains PQ & harmonic distortion
within norm & automatically maintains near Unity PF.

In-addition this case study that delineate numerous solutions for a motley IB, encompass most
TRF sizes IB use namely, from as low as 25kva up to 2500kva. Tune filters thus used in this case
study shall also fit within broad working range of any IB. In most cases variable filters have been
used, however load condition permitting fixed filters are also used for some projects on cost
consideration.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 5

Why, Process Optimization

IB use sophisticated equipment for maintaining comfort condition or for process cooling. Those
necessitate employing matching control both for high side & low-side of air-conditioning or
refrigeration process. And to facilitate process management it further sub-divide into primary &
secondary system for air-conditioning process and cold-well & hot-well system for refrigeration
process. In-addition district cooling process that is used for metropolitan city further sub-divide
its chain of commands into another tertiary zone.

At Level–1 and looking into isolation and within ideal test conditions, efficiency or for that
matter energy consumption of equipment is determined by its design or intrinsic efficiency,
wherein working parameters are controlled within their design limits.

At Level–2 and when we look into sub-system of a larger process, its working parameters are
determined by much larger forces which are beyond its controllable limits that bring-in barriers
to energy efficiency extent of which depend on extent of deviations from their design limits.

At Level–3 and looking into entire process the associated sub-systems are intertwined with
appropriate chain of commands to ensure final delivery. The chain is as strong as the weakest
link in the process. An un-optimised process has higher energy losses. Process optimisation
removes those barriers to energy efficiency and improves SEC within green building norms. In-
addition it brings-out early maintenance needs for critical process equipment, a wake-up call if
attended early could prevent future failure and costly break-down maintenance. Summarily
these measures improve MTBF, equipment uptime and help to enhance service quality and
guest satisfaction level.

Removing barriers – the possibilities

1. TPM: The extent of Energy saving through TPM measure depends upon number of factors
scilicet, extent of sophistication employed, operating LF, Power System’s transient
impedance stability that have bearing in determining THDv as well as the way total power is
managed. For example DG has higher fault level or transient impedance and thus provides
greater opportunity for saving. Overall we have achieved from 3% to as high as 15%. And
typically with a payback period on investment from as low as 6-months up to 36-months.

2. Process Optimization: It opens vast expanse of opportunities on greener pasture that yield
large energy savings up to 15% of air-conditioning and refrigeration consumption. It is a no-
cost measure or for that matter achieved through negligible investment cost. It can
substantially reduce operation cost and increase profit. An optimised process helps to
achieve green building norms.

3. Load Optimization: At final delivery point chilled or brine water is dispersed in a way that
meets with comfort conditions or process needs. Optimising it re-adjusts load end sub-

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 6

systems & associated equipment like Air Handling Unit (AHU) and PAC. It must be stated
here and understood that initial project design and equipment specification is very critical
since any deficiency at load end equipment must come from source and that happen with
great energy losses. In-addition many such intrinsic barriers remain so long such equipment
remain in operation. Nevertheless some barriers could be removed. Overall up to 3%
energy savings is possible with moderate or minimum investment cost.

4. Other measures: Technical and/or aesthetic considerations primarily determine design


basis for measures like in lighting, UPS, thermal/boiler, water, laundry etc. Those can’t be
viewed from the prism of energy consumption alone. However there always exist scopes for
energy savings as well as initiating corrective measures and those are done best on a case to
case basis.

Objectives vis-à-vis problems faced and lessons learnt


All projects undertaken & presented in this case-study carried-out during two contrasting
economic situations that greatly determined purpose of those projects themselves. While
greater attentions were given to energy saving measures during recession period of 1996 –
2002, on economic surge period of 2003 -2008, greater attentions were on trouble-shooting
measures. These several hundred projects undertaken through two contrasting economic
phases bring-forth a reflection of our corporate society. And efficiency or for that matter
greenness of a building is inversely proportional to our economic prosperity.

Nonetheless summarizing and looking from hind-side followings should be the objectives for
any TPM/Optimization measures for green building. End results may vary on quantitative terms
but the objectives should firmly be on those directions.

1. To achieve highest Profitability

The secret to highest profitability is simple reduce cost & increase profit. Implementing
TPM and with better PQ, IB can operate near 80 to 100% LF. This considerably reduces
initial “Project Cost” and continued financial holding cost. Adhering to green building
norms reduce “Running Cost”.

2. To achieve highest Energy Efficiency & to promote Green Energy

Firstly bad PQ & harmonic distortion are less efficient in utilization of electrical energy.
Extent of losses depends on complexity of harmonic distortion. In-addition equipment
de-rating cause further energy losses. Implementing TPM saves between 3 to 15% of
building’s total kWh consumption. Secondly un-optimized system has higher energy
losses. Process Optimization removes barriers to energy efficiency and saves up to 15%
of total air-conditioning and refrigeration energy and it’s a no-cost measure or for that
matter done with negligible investment cost. These energy savings are based on actual
data from large number of projects undertaken through decades. And under scope of
this case-study few are narrated under s/no 3 below.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 7

3. To Trouble-shoot all operational issues that are attributable to none among conventional
causes and thus falls under the category of PQ & harmonic distortion issue.

Lower LF limits THDv that cause fewer problems for most IB. Occasionally problems do
show-up and every problem merit its own detailed case study. Compacting succinctly
these 15-case-studies presented below are with ballpark description.

a. A large data center within a R&D facility powered by 2x2500kva, 11/0.433kV TRF
and 3x1500kva backup DG on sync. DG was unable to power the facility due to high
THDv arising out of data center harmonic. Option-1 was to install 4th DG that would
reduce LF & thus THDv but initial project cost was high and so was running cost with
lower LF operation. Option-2 was decided and we installed 2x1000A tune filter
variable type considering only data center harmonic that solved all issues and in-
addition saved 2.5% energy from monthly total kWh consumption that included all
loads including data center, work-stations, lighting and air-conditioning.

b. Large number of audits carried-out; in particular during massive economic surge


period of 2003 -2008 for renowned IT/BPO, Hotel, & other IB facilities, revealed very
high energy consumption and SEC those are even 50% to 100% higher than
achievable green building norms. Many discovered during “design audit”. It
revealed too many barriers were brought-in during initial project design and
equipment specification stage.

c. A Telephone Exchange powered by 1x725kva backup DG was facing electronic card


failure problem at chiller control panel due to high THDv. Further it planned load
addition and a 2nd 725kva DG. We recommended downsizing 2nd DG to 500kva &
installed 1x500A tune filter variable type that solved all problems and in-addition
saved 4% energy from monthly total kWh consumption.

d. A renowned newspaper printing press was facing high incidence of electronic card
failures across its printing presses in three major cities, those were powered by
2000kva, 11/0.433kV TRF; 1no, 2nos, & 3nos in various cities. The problem was due
to high THDv arising out of printing press harmonic. We installed 1x850A, 2x1340A &
3x1340A tune filters variable type that solved all problems across all three presses.

e. A refrigeration bottling plant was facing electronic failure problem. We installed


1x700A tune filter as TPM measure & carried-out process optimization as cost saving
measure. Those solved all problems and saved 11% energy from monthly total kWh
consumption.

f. In an IT company and while power by its backup DG, chillers did not switch on due to
high THDv. We installed tune filter that substantially reduced THDv and solved the
problem.

g. A renowned 5-star hotel group carried out both TPM & process optimization as cost
saving measure. Those saved 7.5% energy from monthly total kWh consumption. In-
addition solution repeated across its other hotels across India & many abroad.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 8

h. Many renowned IT-companies carried out process optimization as cost saving


measure across their facility locations. Those saved between 7% to 14% energy from
monthly total kWh consumption for various facilities.

In-addition many problems were found attributable to OEM. Many were grounding
related issues and few were EMI related. And some were unusually strange and rarely
encountered or even ever imagined to be a possibility by engineers and technologists.

a. A large POP Internet data center and routing exchange was powered by 2x2000kva
and 1x2500kva, 11/0.433kV TRF with matching sized backup DG. It use large
numbers of UPS 10x400KVA each with input harmonic filter from OEM in believe
that those limit harmonic distortion. It reported high incidence of nuisance tripping
and electronic card failure. Detailed audit revealed very high, 10% THDv when UPS
input filters were in ON condition. Once those input filters switched OFF, THDv came
down to below 5% level. The solution to this problem was simple; switch-off all UPS
input filters. In-addition, the switching-off measure saved considerable kWh energy
cost. This is just one among numerous barriers to energy efficiency that corporate
worldwide love to embrace. Those are omnipresent and increasing being justified
under the purported altruism of “Best Practices”. Numerous such barriers those
came-up in particular during the economic surge period of 2003 -2008, resulted 50
-100% higher energy consumption than green building norm and greatly helped in
generating carbon emissions by truck-loads.

b. Many IT/BPO companies and corporate buildings regularly report server tripping or
reset or failure problem. Many such problems we traced to grounding related issues.

c. An IT/BPO company reported server tripping & UPS component failure problem. UPS
installed without output transformer & was running in parallel mode. Detailed PQ
audit revealed during intervening short period between grid power failure and DG
taking over harmonic distortion zoom, which was root cause of this problem. Once
root-cause pinpointed OEM solved it by developing a compatible paralleling
firmware for its UPS.

d. An IT/BPO company reported server tripping that we found non-generic and across
the data center racks. We checked all grounding issues and found them good but the
problem persisted and remained elusive. Detailed PQ audit revealed that
occasionally UPS MALFUNCTION for about millisecond and then readjust itself to its
normal state. However that was enough to trip many servers. Once root-cause
pinpointed OEM solved it by replacing relevant faulty UPS components.

e. A 5-star hotel reported component failure mostly with its computer monitor and
SMPS power supply. We found loose connections in the UPS output supply to be the
root-cause of this problem.

f. A large multi-tenanted IT-park (& also few IT companies) reported monitor flickering
problem beyond comfort level for human eye. Those were solved after installing
appropriate space EMI shields.

g. And we attended one VERY UNUSUAL PROBLEM from a Data Center of a R&D
company. It reported infrequent but out-of-blue black-out of entire data center
itself. Problem was elusive at first and studied for a considerable length of time.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 9

Finally root-cause emerged which was equally unusual, ATS MALFUNCTION. Its
rating was 2000A, 415V.

4. To achieve highest Productivity

Implementing TPM solve PQ related issues and enhance equipment life. Process
Optimization brings out early maintenance need for critical process equipment those
are heart for any intelligent building. Such measures considerably improve Mean Time
between Failures (MTBF) and enhance productivity.

5. To achieve highest Quality

For IT, telecom, R&D house and POP Internet Data Center; implementing TPM
considerably enhance service quality or for that matter least possible down-time. For
Hotels and similar facilities, TPM helps to achieve greater customer satisfaction.

6. To achieve & steadily maintain near UNITY PF

IB employs variable loads those also vary with ambient conditions, seasons, occupancy
rate etc. In-addition considerable loads are of NLL nature due to which PF-capacitors
degrade. In the Post solution scenario, wherein we implemented TPM, PF steadily
maintained near UNITY level. Furthermore life expectancy of our tune filters are in
decades that ensure sustainability of all benefits that accrue with it.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 10

Power distribution vis-à-vis solutions provided

Incoming power supply for most IB is at direct grid supply at medium voltage level. And
generally it does not install separate Grid Transformer (TRF). Given below is a typical SLD that is
representative for most IB power systems except that nos. & sizes of TRF/DG vary depending
upon business needs and complexity that comes with it. Each TRF has its backup DG in island
mode. Also in many cases DG are synchronised. And from such SYN PCC power get distributed
to respective TRF loads. In the SLD below TRF/DG end solution implemented, wherein one tune
variable filter caters to full TR/DG load profile, maintains PQ & Harmonic distortion (both THDv
& THDi) within norms & automatically maintains near UNITY PF.

In this facility under SLD client was facing high incidence of a) nuisance tripping, b) equipment
failure mostly in electronics PLC & control system cards and c) VFD-AC Motor failures. Harmonic
distortions were high, THDv about 7% and THDi about 24% that resulted in bad PQ. Once on-
site audit and root cause analysis completed, it was evident that such PQ projects are indeed a
“Profitable Business Model”.

Figure 01: SLD for typical Intelligent Building (IB)

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 11

Technical Performance vis-à-vis deliverables

In this case study totally 2nos Tune Filters, each 1340A, variable type used. Given below are
before and after filter scenario those are achieved for both the filter loads individually. Typical
graphs/charts are for only one 1340A filter shown herewith.

THDv – a TPM measure

The Problem with THDv is it permeates through entire power system and thus affects all facility
equipment everywhere connected within the same transformer supply. Statistically most PQ &
Harmonic failures are caused by THDv. In-addition as waveform get distorted control & protection
mechanism mistake them as a fault condition once they exceed threshold value and initiate
tripping. For example it could trip annunciating over-voltage or over-current or under-voltage
condition even though nothing like seem to have happened.

THDv rise on three factors, firstly NLL, secondly LF and thirdly SYSTEM IMPEDANCE. Unfortunately
today’s world can’t live without NLL. Historically consultants & system designers are somehow
sweeping THDv under the carpet by lowering LF even though it escalate project cost and create a
guzzling infrastructure. Higher the sophistication higher the NLL used and thus higher the carbon
generation. THDv create serious PQ issue that in-turn cause lesser service & uptime performance.

Technically and fortunately we also have the third alternative that can effectively bring down THDv.
However in order to tinker with SYSTEM IMPEDANCE great degree of engineering effort is needed
and such solutions can’t be mass produced without specific system knowledge. This is the domain
and utility for tune filter, that when designed perfectly reap great rewards. It reconstructs distorted
waveform into sine wave.

Referring to Figure 02 and before 1340A filter scenario, its evident that 5th is highest VHAR, followed
by 7th and those RMS-SUM to around 7% THDv resulting into the distorted waveform.

Referring to Figure 03 and after 1340A filter scenario, it’s evident that both 5th & 7th harmonics are
substantially reduced and those RMS-SUMS to around 2% THDv resulting reconstruct of waveform
back into its sinusoidal form.

The Tune Filters solved all issues management was facing, nuisance tripping; electronic failure and
VFD-AC motor failure. In this way of optimizing system impedance and bringing down THDv, also
bring numerous other benefits for any IB facility. For example it enables power system flowing at
its optimum efficiency. A LF that looks effortless at its 100% level. It’s like driving the same car with
its hand-break removed. Energy saving depends on the extent of higher THDv and lower LF, those
prevail before installing tune filter.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 12

Figure 02: Voltage Harmonic Distortions (VHAR) – before 1340A Tune Filter

Figure 03: Voltage Harmonic Distortions (VHAR) – after 1340A Tune Filter

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 13

Figure 04: Current Harmonic Distortions (IHAR) – before 1340A Tune Filter

Figure 05: Current Harmonic Distortions (IHAR) – after 1340A Tune Filter

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 14

THDi – a TPM measure

THDi acts like a current source. Gets generated by NLL at downstream and flows upstream as it
offers least impedance path. All alone its flow, THDi causes excessive heating to cable, switchgear,
capacitor, transformer that eventually age them. If THDi level is high, it may burn cable
terminations, cable insulation, blast capacitor, switchgear and burn transformer winding. THDi
mostly cause heating and ageing issues and on rare occasion mechanical damage. Unlike THDv, it
can’t easily pervade through all downstream equipment unless through series resonance thus its
damage is limited towards the direction of its flow path.

Referring to Figure 04 and before 1340A filter scenario, its evident that 5th is highest IHAR, followed
by 7th and those RMS-SUM to around 24% THDi that result into distorted waveform.

Referring to Figure 05 and after 1340A filter scenario, it’s evident that both 5th & 7th harmonics are
substantially reduced those RMS-SUMS to around 5% THDi reconstructing waveform back into its
sinusoidal form. It solved most overheating issues with switchgear, cable and terminations.

Waveform Reconstructing:

Referring to figure 2 to 5 and before filter scenario it is observed waveforms are distorted with lots
of peaks/spikes in every direction up or down. These are often mistaken as over current or over or
under voltage by protection mechanism of the relevant drive-electronic or control system and are
reasons for most nuisance tripping. Post solution scenario most such peaks are eliminated that
solved nuisance trip issue. In-addition pure sinusoidal waveform is most efficient in utilization of
energy than distorted waveform wherein lots of energy is wasted away as heat, noise & vibration.
They further cause lesser service quality. Waveform restructuring measure saves great energy &
improves service quality.

Process Optimisation

Every IB has its own reasons and ways of installing HVAC, air-conditioning and refrigeration system.
Those in-additions need adjustment for site & seasonal ambient condition. Pros & cons of those
themselves merit large space for separate case-study. In this case study our primary focus is on the
approach towards removing barriers to energy efficiency. Given below is an air-conditioning
system in its primary form used by any IB except that system size and complexity varies, wherein
large sub-systems are intertwined appropriately.

Air-Conditioning System under this case study

Chiller

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 15

Capacity 2x 200TR, R -123, water-cooled


Type Centrifugal with 110kW motor with VFD
Operation Conditions 2R+0SB in Summer/peak load & 1R+1SB otherwise

Chiller Auxiliaries

Chilled Water Pump 3x CHWP, 1R+2SB, 18.5kW each for each chiller
Condenser Water Pump 3x CDWP, 1R+2SB, 15.0kW each for each chiller
Cooling Tower 2x CT, 2R+0SB, 7.5kW, 200TR each

Energy Efficiency – opportunities to remove barriers

Air-conditioning Design value Measure value Summary of Audit


equipment –high side findings

A) Centrifugal Chiller TR IkW/TR TR IkW/TR Efficiency Loss

1. 200TR Chiller -1 200 0.55 194 0.67 22%

2. 200TR Chiller -2 200 0.55 167 0.69 25%

B) Chiller Pumps m3/hr Efficiency m3/hr Efficiency


(at BEP) (at BEF) (Actual) (Actual)

3. CHWP -1 109 77% 193 49% 28%

4. CDWP -3 136 78% 218 57% 21%

Analysing data it reveal that loss of efficiency is due to system efficiency losses because of un-
optimized process condition. In this case study realistic energy saving potential is above 20%.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 16

Detecting early maintenance needs – opportunities to enhance MTBF

Fortunately critical IB process equipment gives out early signals those if attended prevent future
failures and costly break-down maintenance. Process Optimization helps detecting signals those act
as wake up call, diagnosing those for trouble-shooting merit space for separate case-study which is
beyond this report. In summary those enhance MTBF; UPTIME for critical equipment, quality of
service and guest satisfaction levels. Listed below summary of such early maintenance needs found
for the above case study.

Occasional hunting.
High pressure drops
Purge pumps found ineffective
Oil pump found running at boundary conditions
Due to lower efficiency chiller delivering lower output at higher current, stressing its
motor and switchgear components.
Pump running near cavitations stressing mechanical component and in-addition due to
higher current stressing motor and switchgear.

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Case Study –Intelligent Building 17

About the Author & the Company


Author Mr. Kanai Banerjee
Company Chief Executive, Encon Engineers, Bangalore, India

Kanai Banerjee is a Bachelor of Engineering (electrical) 1983, an energy auditor and energy
manager certified by BEE, under ministry of power, Government of India. He is a Member and
Chartered Professional Engineer with “The Institution of Engineers (India)”, Senior Member (in
1996) at "The Association of Energy Engineers, (AEE) Georgia" and Member at “Indian Society
of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ISHRAE)”.

With long past experience of 12 years in BHEL, the leading power equipment manufacturer, he
took over as Chief Executive of Encon Engineers in 1995. He has been instrumental in building up
company’s impressive growth and reputation as a knowledge-based technology solution provider
on power quality, energy efficiency, process optimization and TPM.

Encon serves large number of corporate many worldwide. Encon specializations and product range
cater from small to large loads; sensitive ones like in intelligent buildings (i.e. IT-parks/ shopping
complexes/ hotels/ hospitals) to mega projects like in steel/ metal/ power industries. Be it a brown-
field or a green-field project.

Encon offers consultancy services and on-site audit under gamut of its “Specializations” scilicet,
Power Quality, Harmonic, Total Power Management, Process Optimization, 3rd part test etc. It
supplies tune filter for long term reliable performance on a turnkey principle, through the entire
gamut of conceptualization, design, engineering, manufacturing, and performance delivery.

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Contact details
Encon Engineers
1A, Thomas Manor, 88 Richmond Road,
Bangalore -560 025, INDIA
Phone: +91-80-22249220, Fax: +91-80-22918047,
E-Mail: enconengineers@gmail.com

Place: Bangalore, India


Date: 15th April 2009

Encon Engineers, India enconengineers@gmail.com