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Performance Test Strategies


Status - Draft
A Reference Guide for Load / Performance Testing -------------------------------------------

Document Version History:

Version Date Author Comments

1.0 21.11.2002 Mahantesh Draft

Status Definition:

Draft Initial status. Document is a work-in-progress.

For Review The document is ready for review by a chosen few before a formal inspection.
For Inspection The document is ready to go to inspection.
Inspected The document has been inspected and defects have been corrected.
Verified The document has officially passed verification, and a copy will be placed in the
library. All subsequent changes to the document must be approved and may require a
change control.
Revised The document has been modified after verification. Changes must be documented in
the Revisions section above, and must be approved.

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A Reference Guide for Load / Performance Testing -------------------------------------------

1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................3
1.1 Scope..............................................................................................................................3
2 Load / Performance Test Planning....................................................................................4
3 Load / Performance Tool Evaluation & Selection............................................................5
4 Test Process / Methodology and Test Strategy.................................................................6
5 Load / Performance Test Start/Stop Criteria...................................................................10
6 Test Environmental Setup and Pre-Requisites................................................................11
7 Test Scenarios.................................................................................................................12
8 Analysis and Report Generation.....................................................................................12
9 Pass / Fail / Exit Criteria................................................................................................13
1 Introduction

The basic purpose of this document is to give a high level introduction to

Software Load and Performance testing methodologies and strategies. This
document is intended to facilitate Software test Managers, Project Managers,
Software Engineers, Test Leads, Test engineers, and QA leads — anyone who is
responsible for planning and/or implementation of a successful and cost effective
performance testing program.

1.1 Scope

The scope of all the conceptualization mentioned in this document is only in

the Test Execution in Automation Context.
In this context the attributes of Load & Performance testing covered are as
 Load / Performance Test Planning
 Load / Performance Tool Evaluation / Selection
 Load Test Process / Methodology and Test Strategy
 Load / Performance Test Start/Stop Criteria
 Test Environmental Setup and Pre-Requisites
 Test Scenarios Definition including Load Scenario, Data Volume,
Virtual Users Ramp Rates and Scripting Guidelines etc.
 Pass / Fail / Exit Criteria
 Analysis and Report Generation

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2 Load / Performance Test Planning

To make any operation/mission successive planning plays the most vital role and
according to the 80-20 theory, 80% of the time should be spent in planning and 20%
in real time plan execution/implementation. In the similar fashion, Software
performance test planning is very crucial as well.

Any Software Performance Test Plan should have the minimal contents such as,

• Performance Test Strategy and Scope Definitions.

• Test Process and Methodologies to follow in different test
• Test Tool Details (Tool Evaluation, Selection, Configuration,
Addins, Third Party Utilities Integration, Os Configurations
• Test Cases Details including Scripting, Library Development
and Script Maintenance Mechanisms to be used in Every
Performance Test Phases.
• Resource Allocations and Responsibilities for Test
• Test Life Cycle Tasks Management and Communication
• Risk Management Definitions.
• Test Start /Stop Criteria along with Pass/Fail Criteria
• Test Environment Setup Requirements. (Hardware Setup,
Software Setup, Os Configurations, Third Party Utilities Setup
• Multi-Platform Performance Test Strategies.
• Application Deployment Setup Requirements for Load Test.
• Virtual Users, Load (Iterations Vs Users), Volume Load
Definitions for Different Load/Performance Test Phases.
• Results Analysis Algorithms and Reporting Format

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A Reference Guide for Load / Performance Testing -------------------------------------------

3 Load / Performance Tool Evaluation & Selection

Tool Evaluation is yet another important task in Performance Test Automation

wherein there are several things to be considered. In cases wherein the tool evaluation
and selection is completely done by the Client then readers may skip this Topic and
proceed to next.

While selecting any tool for Load or/and Performance testing the following things
should be analyzed such as,

• Test Budget Vs Available Load/Performance tools in the market mapping

to the Budget.
• Protocols, Development & Deployment Technologies, Platforms, Middle-
Ware tools / Servers, Third-Party Integrations of the Application Under
test Vs Support for these factors in the available tools with prioritization of
the availability in the tool for the Scope of expected test.
• Complexity of the Tool Usage Vs Availability of the tool experts along
with the timeline requirements for the tool scripting / load scenario
creation / tool configuration with respect to Man-hours and Other
Resource Requirements.
• Tools Limitations and Work-Around factor mapping with the current
scope of testing.
• Tool’s Integration / Portability Factors with Other Tools used to
Monitoring, Analyzing and Test Management.
• On Evaluation and Selection of Base tool, third party monitors / tools to be
used in Integration with Main Load Testing Tool should be defined.
(Third Party Monitors / Tools like ‘Optimize IT’, ‘Weblogic’, ‘Oracle
Tools’, ‘Spotlight On Oracle’, ‘Fog-Light’ and Test Management Tools
like Mercury-Test Director, Segue-Silk Plan Pro, Compuare-QA Center

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4 Test Process / Methodology and Test Strategy

Test Process, Methodology and Strategy for any Load / Performance testing will
definitely vary for every project based on the Client Requirements / Company Process
Implementations but still here we are going to put some light on the common generic
performance test process, methodologies and strategies followed in the industry.
By using a methodology a project can make sure that resources are applied to the
problem effectively and that the people involved approach the work in a structured
way. In Performance testing Process there are couple of classifications as mentioned

Benchmark Testing

This task tests the newly coded performance features to assert that they do
actually improve the performance of the application. There is always a danger
that a new performance feature decreases the performance of the application
instead of increasing it. Tests should be constructed so that they executed a
standard benchmark style test with the feature switched on and with the
feature switched off.
The first time this particular task is performed the task becomes
developing the benchmark tests. When this task is performed in later iterations
it becomes re-running the benchmark tests with the new version of the code in
order to track whether or not the code is improving.

Analysis Testing

Benchmark tests are good for a basic understanding of what is

happening and are very useful for tracking improvements over time but they
are not so good at isolating the reasons of the next major performance
problem. Analysis Testing refers to designing tests that attempt to isolate the
next major performance problem. These kinds of tests may do something
completely different to the benchmark tests in order to explore what is
happening in the target application. The tests are designed to explore theories
as to where the next performance problem may be.
This is also where supplementary tools are used most often. Additional
tools such as method-level profilers and operating system performance
monitors can be useful in working out where a problem might be occurring.

Long Running Tests

It is important to include some tests that run for long periods of time.
There are a number of problems that may occur only after the target
application has been running for more than a day or even after a week.
Memory leaks in particular may take many hours before they become
measurable. The length of these tests should be related to how often you plan
to run the target application before restarting. If you plan to restart the target

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application every day then the test length should simulate one day’s worth of
work but if you plan to restart the target application only once a week then the
test length should simulate a week’s worth of work.
This type of testing involves long periods of time and this causes
problems such as,
1. Since the tests take so long you are not typically able to perform as
many of them.
2. These tests take so long that they tie up resources for long periods of
One thing that you can do to is compact the work performed
over one day into a short period time by making use of how normally a server
machine is not run at one hundred percent of CPU for the whole day. By
creating a sustained workload for a shorter period of time you can usually
simulate on days worth of work in a shorter period. For problems like memory
leaks it doesn’t normally matter how long the test takes what is important is
how much work the test does. A quick half-hour test may not exercise the
application for long enough but a sustained high-workload test that simulates
one days worth of work in six hours should hopefully identify any problems.
For example a typical interactive application that services internal
users might look like the following chart with peaks at around 11am in the
morning and 2pm in the afternoon.

100% CPU

One Day of work in one day of time

By making the CPU do more work in less time you can compact the overall
length of the test into a shorter period and so perform long running tests more

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100% CPU

One Day of work in 1/3 of day of time

Due to the hassle and restrictions involved in this kind of testing it should be
done after the application is behaving reasonably well with shorter testing
periods. But also it shouldn’t be left too late either since it takes so long to run
these tests it is a good idea to get started with them before the end of the time
allocated to performance testing.

Distributed Testing

Another issue that often comes up is where the clients are located to do
their testing. If the clients are located near where the server is running then the
test may not adequately simulate the eventual production configuration. If the
eventual production configuration is to have the client processes distributed
nation-wide over a company’s private network then some testing should be
done to simulate this otherwise if there is a problem with the network then
testing with the client processes near to the server may not uncover this.
There are generally practical problems with doing this kind of testing.
There may be many different sites from where the clients may be executed
and managing the load testing clients out on all of these sites can be a hassle.
Due to these sorts of problems not all of the performance testing has to be
done in a distributed way but some of it should be. Also like the long running
tests this sort of testing should be done after the application is behaving
reasonably well in a non-distributed way. This way the methodologies can be
implemented based on the scope of testing requirements at a particular phase
of performance testing.
If we talk about the Test Process in general practice, once the
Benchmark attributes like Load Scenario with load (Iterations / Scenario /
Script), Virtual users with ramp-up rates, Business Transactions Definitions,
Finalization of Tools for testing, Hardware Environment, SW-Environment
like OS configuration, DB, Data Dependencies, Tool configurations,
Application under test deployment details are finalized and documented the
initial base benchmark test can be conducted in a normal circumstances to
make sure that the application is in a stable state to go through the heavy load
test. If any issues found during this test, then release cycles may be repeated
till application reaches enough stability to start heavy Load / Performance test.

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The next task at the end of Baseline Performance test can be to start
the Load Test. Load testing is an important task accomplished through Stress
and Data Volume testing. This methodology of testing is used to establish an
initial sound structure upon which the product is developed. A load test is
meant to exercise the design of the application and reveal weaknesses in the
targeted product before “General Availability”. By revealing problems during
the development we do not only prepare for a successful deployment, but also
a long prosperous product life cycle.
Load testing comprises of Individual Module testing run on Iterative
basis. Load tests are conducted against the Application Under Test using a
varying number of virtual users whose results are used for
developers/architects to validate/tune the code / design /configurations for
optimising the product performance. The metrics established from the load
test will be compared against the baseline to identify performance
The cycles of such load tests and tuning can be repeated till the
product stability reaches enough to go to production OR stability as defined
by the client.
Along with load testing, Stress testing is implemented as a sub-set of
load testing. The stress is nothing but applying the load in the ramp-up of
virtual users in the groups at the pre-defined rates. (I.e. Group1 – Users will
ramp at rate of 5 users/scenario – 5,10,15,20). There are cases when Client
expects to benchmark the bottlenecks for specific application functionalities
commonly used/accessed by all users the most and that too at a time. For such
cases, we can put rendezvous points at appropriate transaction actions wherein
all the users will ramp up at the pre-defined rate but when it comes the time to
execute the action of rendezvous action, users will wait till all Virtual Users
reach till that point and perform that action at a time. So in such a scenario
bottlenecks can be easily located. Basically Stress test are intended to be
modular in design so each functional script can be run independently.
In the performance testing process, there are cases in which some part
of application is data volume dependant like Search Screens wherein the
Queries / Stored Procedures Performance based on amount of data volume
existing in the database, then for such cases before starting the test, the dump
of some huge amount of data should be inserted in the database through some
SQL Scripts or Automation Scripts etc. so that the results of such screens can
help in database tuning / optimisation.
At the end of all such tests, the results from the load testing tool,
monitoring tools give a bright idea about the tuning requirements in the
system like CPU, Memory, OS, HW, SW, Code, Application Configuration,
Middle-tier servers etc. and such Load Test and Results Analysis Vs tuning
cycles can be repeated till the application reaches stability as expected by the

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5 Load / Performance Test Start/Stop Criteria

In case of any performance testing there should be a defined / documented Start

and End Criteria to avoid the adhoc process resulting in weird outputs. This start / end
criteria should be well defined in the Performance Test Plan along with all the risk
management factors.
The start of any Performance or load testing should be done for any application or
any module of the application only when the Design, Database Structure and
Application Development platform is finalized and there will be no major changes at
any layers of the application, which affect Directly or Indirectly to the Performance
Factor. It really again depends on the scope of testing such that the test is going to be
conducted for a specific Module or the whole System.
Once the Load or Performance Test is conducted, results are collected and
analyzed the cycles of tuning will carry on but yes definitely the end criteria should
be well defined to Stop this Performance Testing and Tuning Cycles based on various
factors like product GA release timelines (Project Deadlines) and Client
Requirements in terms of System Stability, Scalability and reliability under load and
Performance Tolerance Criterions.
In some projects the end criteria is defined based on the Client Performance
Measures Requirements defined for each section of the application so if product
reaches to that expected level then that might be considered as the end criteria for
Performance Testing.

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6 Test Environmental Setup and Pre-Requisites

In the performance testing, by the term test environment here, it’s composed of
hardware environment (Machine, Memory, Virtual Memory, Number of CPU’s etc),
Software environment like Os, Os configuration, Files System Settings, Free Space
for logs, Application Configuration along with Middle Tier Server and associated
Configurations, Database, Network etc.
Among all of the above environmental variables defined few or all might be used
for setup based on the Deployment Setup Client / Customer expects to have in
This setup also involves the Automation Tools installation, configurations, Agent
Installations and setup in Load Clients, Third Party Monitors on Clients / Servers etc.
There may or may not be any pre-requisites if all of the above variables setup
is all set before starting the test but some pre-requisites like Reference Data, Test
Input Data in the database Insertion etc.
Also System Settings at Os Level, Tier-Level, Server Level etc. should be listed in
a document as Checklists and should be verified before starting any Performance

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7 Test Scenarios

Test Scenarios Definition includes various tasks like Business Scenarios

Definitions, Writing Automation Scripts for Test Cases Corresponding to defined
Business / Functional Scenarios, expected Data Volume for Test mapping to Virtual
Users Ramp Rates and Scripting Guidelines etc.
In the test scenario development, the scripts written can be made data driven to
facilitate Iterative testing in Load Test Scenarios. Once these details are well defined in
Test Automation Plan, then Virtual User Test Scripts can be written to simulate User
Client Actions / Client - Server Request-Response Hits etc. On completion of baseline
scripting, based on data-drive requirements the test scripts can be parameterized to make
them compatible to execute the same functionality / User Actions for different set of Test
Data on Iterative basis.
In some typical cases in few scenarios wherein the performance of some sections of
the application is based on the volume of the data residing in the database then Data
Volume Based Performance Test is a must. In such cases, the data insertion SQL Scripts
can be written and executed before the execution of Load Test and Data-Volume based
Test Scripts should be mapped to this data.
Also along with these factors definitely the number of Virtual Users, amount of load
(i.e. Preset Number of Iterations/script) should be predefined from the Customer
Production load Volume in peak and non-peak hours. Also in the Stress test which is a
part of load test itself, the Virtual Users need to be set in Ramp Up by the pre-defined
rates like 5,10,15,20,25 Users etc. Along with the Stress Ramping Rate setting of the
Virtual Users in the load scenario, there are cases wherein if the requirement is to perform
a particular Action/Operation by all the virtual users at a time for finding out the bottle
neck points, Test Scripts should have rendezvous points for such actions so that whenever
all the virtual users are performing different operations for different test cases, they will
wait till all Virtual Users get to the rendezvous points and execute that action at a time
and at the end of that action then again the Ramp-up of Virtual Users is re-started.

8 Analysis and Report Generation

Once the results are ready, analysis is the most important job in the whole
performance test if the requirements of load or performance test are not defined.
In the analysis, the main criteria for analysis should be to find out the bottle neck points
wherein we should be able to track out the transactions / users / hits creating the highest
level of performance reduction. The main factors to be consideration are,

• Request / Response Timings to-fro from Client to Server

• Transaction Timings Vs Users
• Transaction Timings Vs Load
• Transaction Timings Vs CPU Utilization
• Server Memory Utilization
• Database Server Performance using DB Server Monitors
• Web / Application Server Performance

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• Paging Rate Ratios

• Open Cursor Factors in Database
• Load Balancer Factors
• Network Delays
• Bean Performance Factors using Monitors like Optimize IT for Java Based
• Other Monitors like Application Server (e.g. Web-logic) Monitors etc.

Thus now after consolidating all the results for the above points, the statistical
analysis should be done and the Performance Test Report should be created such that
the Development, Design-Architecture, Database / IT, PMG group can get a clear idea
about the Application Performance and all the factors affecting it.
After Analysis then based on the scope the corresponding tuning like Os tuning,
Database Tuning, Memory Up-gradations, CPU counts in Multi-CPU machine, Code-
Tuning, Application Server Cache tuning or any other tuning as per the scope can be
done and same tests executed earlier should be repeated in the tuned environment to
make out the differences in the results before and after tuning. These tuning cycles
can be repeated until the pre-defined required Performance is achieved. In the next
version of this document we will be placing the examples for each type of
Performance Analysis with the corresponding graph with all the algorithms used for

9 Pass / Fail / Exit Criteria

At the end of the Load / Performance Test execution, we can find the number of
failed users, failed transactions or failed scripts but the Pass / Fail Criteria for a particular
test should be well defined before execution of the test as basically this criteria entirely
depends on the scope of testing and the environment. For e.g. in some cases few
transaction steps failed which has some workarounds or the reasons for failing the
transactions or virtual users are due to unusual attributes behavior which is not related to
the application then the results, or few times the tests / scripts / virtual users / transactions
failure might happen due to Load Tool Configuration or Load Tool Defects also so its
very important to analyze and make a precise differentiation of the Defect occurred in the
test and then finalize whether the test was pass or fail.
Also based on the failed Items due to any of the performance test parameters the
Failed Item Details should be included in the Applications Limitations List. By doing so,
the limitations list can give a clear picture about the Applications Scalability / Load or
Performance Limitations with respect to corresponding Load Parameters which in turn
will give inputs for the tuning / enhancements for the Application.
Based on the Test Results tuning cycles will be driven and test phases will as well be
repeated but the exit criteria should be pre-defined to avoid hazardous tuning life cycle.

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