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LEMBAGA JURUTERA MALAYSIA

BOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIA

KDN PP11720/01/2010(023647) ISSN 0128-4347 VOL.44 DEC 2009 - FEB 2010 RM10.00

Sustainable
Development
contents
Vol 44 Dec 2009 - Feb 2010

2 President’s Message
Editor’s Note

4 Announcement
Publication Calendar

Cover Feature
5 Going Green

8 Towards Sustainable Construction: Malaysian Construction


Industry Initiatives
5
16 Reduce, Reuse And Recycle – Alam Flora’s Initiatives
Towards Sustainable Solid Waste Management

Guidelines
21 National Green Technology Policy

Management
23 Assessing Organisational Performance Using Key
Performance Indicators And Human Capital Management 16
Feature
34 Indoor Air Quality In Malaysia

37 Mini Hydro Power Generation As A Renewable Energy


Under Malaysia’s Energy Policy

47 Mercury Rising

48 Overview of MS 2058: 2008 Code Of Practice For


35
Good Engineering Maintenance Management Of
Active Medical Devices

Engineering Nostalgia
54 Reflection Of An Engineer’s Unique Experience Working In
A ‘Black Area’ In The 1970s

56 The Changing Face Of Kota Kinabalu (Formerly Jesselton)


56
president’s message
KDN PP11720/01/2010(023647)
ISSN 0128-4347
Engineers have been credited for their contributions
in providing the necessary infrastructure that have
resulted in improving the quality of life for modern
society throughout the world. The integrated and
Vol. 44 Dec 2009 - Feb 2010 complex infrastructure systems which can be
MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIA
collectively referred to as the “built” environment
(BEM) 2009/2010 have been provided in most instances at the expense
President of the natural environment. We have now reached
YBhg. Dato’ Sri Prof. Ir. Dr Judin Abdul Karim a critical juncture in time where Engineers need to
Secretary review, change and adapt our practices so that the
Ir. Ruslan Abdul Aziz built environment will not be at the expense of, but in harmony with
Registrar the natural environment. This is the essence of sustainable development.
Ir. Hizamul-Din Ab. Rahman
Whatever interventions (that we refer to as designs) that Engineers
Members introduce in improving the built environment, he/she must not diminish
YBhg Tan Sri Prof. Ir. Dr Mohd Zulkifli bin Tan Sri Mohd Ghazali
YBhg Dato’ Ir. Hj. Ahmad Husaini bin Sulaiman or incapacitate the ability of the natural environment to recover and
YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Abdul Rashid Maidin maintain its function as a life supporting system of the Earth.
YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Dr Johari bin Basri
YBhg. Datuk (Dr) Ir. Abdul Rahim Hj. Hashim This issue of the Ingenieur calls upon Engineers not only to change
YBhg. Brig. Jen. Dato’ Pahlawan Ir. Abdul Nasser bin Ahmad
YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Prof. Dr Chuah Hean Teik their thinking but also to seriously consider and respond to calls for
YBhg. Datuk Ir. Anjin Hj Ajik adopting Green Technology and Sustainable Resources Management
YBhg. Datuk Ar. Dr Amer Hamzah Mohd Yunus
Ir. Wong Siu Hieng Systems in providing solutions to engineering problems. Our dependency
Ir. Mohd Rousdin bin Hassan on non-renewable resources and indiscriminate disposal of wastes cannot
Ir. Prof. Dr Ruslan bin Hassan
Ir. Tan Yean Chin be sustained indefinitely. The only way forward for us, as Engineers,
Ir. Vincent Chen Kim Kieong
Ir. Chong Pick Eng is to embrace and practise the principles of sustainable development
Mr Jaafar bin Shahidan during the design, construction/production/manufacturing, operation,
EDITORIAL BOARD maintenance and even during the decommissioning stages.
Advisor
The recently introduced National Green Technology Policy has set
YBhg. Dato’ Sri Prof. Ir. Dr Judin Abdul Karim targets in four sectors namely the Energy sector, Building sector, Water
Secretary and Waste Management sector and the Transportation sector in the 10th
Ir. Ruslan Abdul Aziz Malaysia Plan. Engineers should capitalise on these initiatives as the
Chairman opportunities in this new area can be wide and rewarding.
YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Abdul Rashid bin Maidin Sustainable development is after all the key to ensuring that the
Editor Earth continues to support and sustain life for us today and for future
Ir. Fong Tian Yong
generations.
Members
Prof. Sr. Ir. Dr Suhaimi bin Abdul Talib
Ir. Ishak bin Abdul Rahman Dato’ Sri Prof Ir. Dr. Judin bin Abdul Karim
Ir. Prof. Dr K.S. Kannan President
Ir. Prem Kumar
Ir. Mohd Rasid Osman BOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIA
Ir. Dr Zuhairi Abdul Hamid
Ir. Ali Askar bin Sher Mohamad
Ir. Rocky Wong

Executive Director
Ir. Ashari Mohd Yakub editor’s note
Publication Officer
Pn. Nik Kamaliah Nik Abdul Rahman

Assistant Publication Officer The recent conference on Sustainable Development


Pn. Che Asiah Mohamad Ali 2009 in Cyprus addressed the subject of regional
Design and Production development where planners, environmentalists,
Inforeach Communications Sdn Bhd
architects, engineers, policy makers and economists
Printer have to work together in an integrated way and in
Art Printing Works Sdn Bhd
29 Jalan Riong, 59100 Kuala Lumpur accordance with the principles of sustainability.
The Ingenieur is published by the Board of Engineers Malaysia The newly launched National Green Technology
(Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia) and is distributed free of charge to Policy as summarized in this issue reflects Malaysian
registered Professional Engineers.
Government’s aspiration to achieve some milestones in this direction.
The statements and opinions expressed in this
publication are those of the writers. The article on Going Green reminds the public and industry players to
BEM invites all registered engineers to contribute articles or
take this green issue and GBI seriously.
send their views and comments to CIDB in its article provides further deliberation on the local
the following address:
initiatives towards sustainable construction. With KPI as the new
Commnunication & IT Dept. buzzword in the public sector management, BATC of UTM explains 
Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia,
Tingkat 17, Ibu Pejabat JKR, the use of KPI on human capital modelling to enhance human capital
Jalan Sultan Salahuddin,
50580 Kuala Lumpur. management and improve organisational performance.
Tel: 03-2698 0590 Fax: 03-2692 5017 The Publication Committee takes this opportunity to wish all
E-mail: bem1@streamyx.com; publication@bem.org.my
Website: http://www.bem.org.my Christian readers Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to all.
Advertising
Subscription Form is on page 55 Ir Fong Tian Yong
Advertisement Form is on page 53
Editor
2 THE INGENIEUR
announcement

APOLOGY
Figures 1,2,3,4,5, in the cover feature entitled
9

The following list is the Publication ‘Occupational Safety And Health Forensics’
Calendar for the year 2010. While we in the Sept-Nov 2009 issue of Ingenieur were wrongly
normally seek contributions from experts inserted into the article. We apologise for the errors.
for each special theme, we are also
pleased to accept articles
relevant to themes listed.

Please contact the Editor or


the Publication Officer in
advance if you would like to
make such contributions or to
discuss details and deadlines.

March 2010:
FACILITY ASSET MANAGEMENT

June 2010:
WATER

Sept 2010:
HILL-SLOPE DEVELOPMENT

Dec 2010:
TRANSPORTATION & SAFETY
cover feature

By Ir. Chen Thiam Leong


Going Green
F
rom greenbacks to green It is real and tangible unlike A ’sustainable’ iceberg hotel
buildings to greenwash – it’s the fleeting and opportunistic … in Dubai. Is it just us, or is
our call really. That building Y2K fiasco not to mention the the Arctic really the only logical
green is here to stay is not the result imminent (and unfortunately place where an iceberg hotel
of some overnight development potentially ‘successful’) carbon can be considered sustainable?
but rather a progression that t ra d e r s . I t i s r e a l l y o u r c a l l From that perspective, sticking a
happens to end up with green to ensure Green Buildings do piece of frozen architecture under
as a de facto convenience. The not get abused, disgraced and the blazing sun of the Middle
built environment is awesomely worst still abandoned. Such a East seems the antithesis of
big (in terms of money as well possibility is already in motion ‘green,’ no matter how much solar
as in all other aspects) and it f a s t e r t h a n yo u m ay ch o o s e energy you harness. But that’s the
represents a prime driver for to realize and the following idea behind the Blue Crystal, a
development in any country. snapshots offer some possibilities ‘swimming world of ice offshore
Recall the era of the other Dubai’ that would feature luxury
around the globe.
fashionable terms of Intelligent restaurants, an underwater lounge
Buildings, then Smart Buildings, and a five-level ballroom, among
then Energy Efficient Buildings, Green Certified Homes sell faster, other amenities. Did we mention
then Green Buildings, then higher price – a media piece it would have a ‘self-sufficient
Eco Buildings, then Sustainable 17/4/08; energy system’?
Buildings, then back to Green The solar-powered car carrier
Buildings, then High Performance Green Building: Cheapest, quickest This ocean-going vessel designed
Buildings, then High Performance way to cut emissions – 17/3/08; to ship cars from port to port has
Green Buildings, and now finally enough solar panels to generate as
(albeit not forever) settling down Record greenwashing complaints much as 40 kilowatts of energy.
with the plain flavour of Green hit UK Ad 5/5/08 That’s obviously not enough to
Buildings. provide all the muscle the ship
So how serious are we about Green oxymorons: ‘Eco’ things needs to complete a journey
Green Buildings? Very serious. that make no sense 29/7/09 — just enough to offset some of

THE INGENIEUR 5
cover feature

the demand for fossil fuels and structural energy-saving features, certification. The label could
reduce emissions somewhat. The according to a study by the be rescinded if the data is not
real problem, however, lies with General Services Administration, produced, the officials said.
the vessel’s ultimate purpose:  which owns the building. The council’s own research
transporting hundreds, if not Builders covet LEED certification suggests that a quarter of the
thousands, of gas-guzzlers to — it stands for Leadership in new buildings that have been
car buyers around the world. Energy and Environmental Design certified do not save as much
Something tells us it’s not carrying — as a way to gain tax credits, energy as their designs predicted
100% electric cars. attract tenants, charge premium and that most do not track energy
‘Green’ McMansions Coming rents and project an image of consumption once in use. And
on the heels of the McMansion environmental responsibility. But the programme has been under
trend — itself now in its death the gap between design and attack from architects, engineers
throes — was the Green McMansion construction, which LEED certifies, and energy experts who argue
trend. And where better to view an and how some buildings actually that because building performance
example of this type of architecture perform led the programme last is not tracked, the certification
than in Las Vegas, home to the week to announce that it would may be falling short in reducing
‘New American Home 2009,’ with begin collecting information about emissions tied to global warming.
its 8.721 sq ft 3 (810 sq m 3) of energy use from all buildings it Some experts have contended that
space, swimming pool, wine cellar, certifies. Buildings would provide the seal should be withheld until
fountains, courtyard waterfall and the information voluntarily, said a building proves itself energy
10 high-definition televisions? Yes, officials with the United States efficient, which is the cornerstone
it’s chock-full of photovoltaics, Green Building Council, the non- of what makes a building green,
natural ventilation and Energy profit organisation that administers and that energy-use data from
Star-rated appliance. But it’s an the LEED programme, and the data every rated building should be
8.721-square-foot house - in the would be kept confidential. But made public.
desert. Really, how green can that starting this year, the programme is LEED energy standards have
ultimately be? also requiring all newly-constructed grown more stringent over the
Some Buildings Not Living Up buildings to provide energy and years, and construction like the
to Green Label (Mireya Navarro water bills for the first five years Youngstown Federal Building, built
August 30, 2009) The Federal of operation as a condition for in 2002, would not be certified
Building in downtown Youngstown,
Ohio, features an extensive use of
natural light to illuminate offices
and a white roof to reflect heat.
It has LEED certification, the
country’s most recognized seal of
approval for green buildings. But
the building is hardly a model of
energy efficiency. According to an
environmental assessment last year,
it did not score high enough to
qualify for the Energy Star label
granted by the Environmental
Protection Agency, which ranks
buildings after looking at a year’s
worth of utility bills. The building’s
cooling system, a major gas
guzzler, was one culprit. Another
was its design: to get its LEED
label, it racked up points for things
like native landscaping rather than LEED certification seal

6 THE INGENIEUR
cover feature

under the current version of the


programme, the G.S.A. study
noted. The LEED standard goes
through periodic revisions, and
this year, the minimum energy
requirements needed for the
basic LEED certification for new
buildings were raised.
So what lessons can we learn
from all these as we embark on
our own green adventure? How
about the other way round – what
experience can we gain from all
these happenings? Well, it is easy
to cut both ways isn’t it?

www.greenbuildingindex.
org – The Story Behind The 1st GBI rated building – PTM GEO building (GBI Certified) 24.7.09

The story began more than


a year before PAM and ACEM ACEM which the author teamed As more and more of the
took the proverbial ‘bull by the up with after consulting MSBC), decisions that were incorporated
horns’ approach to accelerate the and the rest is history. MSBC in the GBI criteria appear to
realization of the Green Building has now evolved legitimately become justified and collaborated
Index (GBI) in August 2008 and into the Malaysia Green Building by the latest versions of other
culminating in its launch on May Confederation, www.mgbc.org.my established tools (e.g. LEED)
21, 2009. But then even before and is registered with the World since our launch, verification,
that, various individuals and Green Building Council. measurement, validity period
groups have rightly claimed to Because we were behind in and weightage of points, the
have initiated their own perceived developing our own green rating real test can only be realized
green movement in Malaysia. system, we had the advantage through time. Nonetheless, we
However, without the desired of reviewing the success and are confident of meeting any
l e ve l o f p a s s i o n , l e a d e r s h i p , s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e va r i o u s challenges ahead. After all, we
direction and commitment, these rating systems already in place. had achieved what no other rating
early attempts merely drifted One of the initial deliberation systems have, in simultaneously
along aimlessly. The first serious included a short-cut conversion launching the rating systems
group (calling themselves, the to LEED-Malaysia (similar for both Non-Residential and
Malaysia Sustainable Building t o I n d i a ’s a p p r o a ch ) t o g a i n Residential buildings. Everyone
Council, MSBC) consisting of immediate market recognition else before us had launched
consultants, academia and and acceptance. This idea (and their Residential building tool at
building industry representatives many others) was eventually least three years after their Non-
emerged in May 2007. What set discarded along the way mainly Residential tool.
MSBC apart was their clarity due to the concurrence that Our next stop is GBI for
t o d e v e l o p M a l ay s i a n ’s o w n non-localized assessment criteria Existing Buildings which is very
green rating system as a means will not stand the test of time, pertinent to the Malaysia scenario
to move forward. The author and may instead lead to point as our stock of large buildings
was approached to chair the ch a s i n g . S u ch awa r e n e s s o n are now progressively reaching
development of this tool but the our part then has now been the 30-year old mark and due
process was painstakingly slow progressively justified with the for upgrading. Also unique to
without dedicated volunteers and preceding articles bordering on Malaysia is the Township tool
zero funding. Then came PAM (and Greenwashing. which is under development. BEM

THE INGENIEUR 7
cover feature

Towards Sustainable Construction:


Malaysian Construction
Industry Initiatives
By Tan Sri Dato’ Ir. Jamilus Hussein, Chairman, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia,
Ir. Dr. Zuhairi Abd. Hamid, Executive Director, Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM)-CIDB Malaysia,
Mohd Khairolden Ghani and Maria Zura Mohd Zain, Manager, Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM)-CIDB Malaysia

The recent Malaysian Government announcement on the creation of the Energy, Green Technology
and Water Ministry to spearhead the country’s sustainability agenda in the Cabinet line-up is timely
and serious in tackling all related green issues in the country that complement the global vision on
sustainable development. The construction industry and its related activities are responsible for a
substantial amount of global resource usage and waste emissions. As buildings and other structures
are planned to last 50 to 100 years, future climate changes derived from construction should be
given a high priority. Through anticipating future climatic developments, engineers can minimize
their negative effects and benefit from their positive impacts. The construction sector should not
be marginalized from the issues on environment. Creating a sustainable construction in Malaysia
requires a strategic approach that will benefit current and future issues related to economic, social,
environment and quality of life. Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia is
obliged to take this issue on board through its Construction Industry Master Plan initiatives under
Strategic Thrust 3: Strive for the highest standard of quality, occupational safety and health and
environmental practices.

T
he manifestation of responding to them. Switzerland effectively in a competitive and
sustainable and built a n d S w e d e n a r e t h e wo r l d ’s sustainable economy.
environment is generally green leaders while Malaysia is This paper discusses the role
associated with one another. Built positioned 26 th in the ranking played by CIDB Malaysia to set
Environment is a broad concept sharing with Denmark (Newsweek, out an agenda and a strategy
encompassing man-made artifacts July, 2008). This indicates that to attain current and future
and space at all levels from single we as Malaysians are concerned sustainability in construction. The
items to urban regions (Chalmers about the environment. policy set by the Government,
Architecture, 2008). The world is Th e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y R&D innovation, domestic skills
at a crossroads between the old generates impetus to the Malaysian development and construction
path of development at the price e c o n o my. Fo r m a ny ye a r s i t capability are all fundamental
of environmental degradation and has created important roles in to the infrastructure that will
a new one combining growth with improving the quality of life for consolidate and drive the nation’s
sustainability (Newsweek, July, Malaysians through multiplier economy forward.
2008). In the scale of maximum effects to other industries. In this
score of 100, the Environmental respect, physical development Issues And Challenges In
Performance Index (EPI) aims to be solely would not guarantee Malaysian Construction
a comprehensive assessment of the the quality of life for future
world’s environmental challenges generations. It must also be able In a developing country like
and how individual countries are to develop and utilize resources Malaysia, sustainable construction

8 THE INGENIEUR
cover feature

and implementation. In this


respect, usage and application of
information, communication and
technology (ICT) in leveraging
skills should be introduced to the
construction players (CIB, 2002),

(v) C o n s t r u c t i o n h a s t o
reduce usage of its resources
through material consumption,
construction costs and wastage
rates (CIB, 2002). It can be
done by way of education, site
planning, management and design
practices and adoption of new
technologies,

(vi) In global environmental


sustainability, there is need for
Construction in Sweden construction players to leverage
socio-economic equitability as
trend tends to focus on the construction in the following ways stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol
relationship between construction (CIB, 2002). wh i ch r e q u i r e s a s u b s t a n t i a l
and human development while reduction in greenhouse gas
marginalising environmental (i) Mobilization of resources emissions (CIB, 2002).
aspects. However, in light of the in order to support research,
severe environmental degradation technological changes and (vii) Improving the quality of
experienced by most developing feasibility studies. The sharing of the construction process and its
countries, construction industries research and educational activities products. A first step is to improve
cannot continue to ignore the must be taken on board from the quality of construction products
environment (Begum, 2005). the Government, universities and and the efficiency and safety of
Environment encompasses related private sector related the construction process.
physical and non physical medium industries (CIB, 2002),
such as air, water, solid waste/ Malaysian construction industry
land and also noise pollution. (ii) T h e pursuance of players need to take a holistic
Construction, with exploitation environmental protection must approach along the construction
of natural resources such as be in balance with the need value chain in performing their
forest for timber, housing and for economic development (CIB, duties. Within the construction
industry without proper control, 2002), fraternity itself, societies and
contributes to environmental wo r k e r s m u s t wo r k t o g e t h e r
problems (Ibarahim, 1999). Many (iii) The use of environmentally towards sustainable construction
of the environmental issues appropriate technologies with in future.
that occur in our country are energy efficiency and full There is a lot of room for
due to lack of environmental commitment to waste recycling improvement in the Malaysian
consideration in the exploitation, and pollution should be practiced environment scene at large. We
development and management of by construction players (CIB, could learn from the experience in
resources as well as lack of control 2002), Sweden that focuses on building
of the resulting pollution. These sustainable communities by
issues if not tackled strategically (iv) Emphasis must be given to looking at four strategic challenges
will further aggravate and exert the integration of environmental as follows (Ministry of Sustainable
challenges towards sustainable concerns in all project planning Development, 2006):

THE INGENIEUR 9
cover feature

1 Balancing various interests


in terms of physical
planning, regional development
issues, efforts must be taken to
restore between natural and built
environments (Tse, 2001, Shen and
(ACEM) and Pertubuhan Arkitek
Malaysia (PAM). Buildings will be
awarded the GBI Malaysia rating
and infrastructure, along with Tam, 2002). based on six key criteria below:
residential and city planning
consistent with sustainable urban The Way Forward On ● Energy Efficiency
development. An overall challenge, Malaysia’s Green Strategies ● Indoor Environmental
both nationally and globally, is Quality
posed by demographic change The Malaysian Government’s ● Sustainable Site Planning

as the result of migration, an announcement on the creation of and Management


ageing population, urbanisation the Energy, Green Technology and ● Materials and Resources

(particularly in the metropolitan Water Ministry to spearhead the ● Water Efficiency

areas) and depopulation trends in country’s sustainability agenda in ● Innovation

most Swedish municipalities. the recent Cabinet line-up is timely


in tackling all related green issues. Government policies have

2 Encouraging good health on


equal terms requires laying
the foundation for decent living
The emphasis on creating green or
environmentally-friendly buildings
was also highlighted during the
been recognised as important
instruments in driving the market
for sustainable buildings. In
conditions – access to gainful launch of Green Building Index Malaysia, there is currently
employment, decent workplaces, (GBI) by the Minister of Works no policy which mandates a
economic and social security, and shows the commitment from sustainable building; the closest
communities in which children can the construction industry especially we have is the MS 1525:2007
grow up safely, participation and from organisations like Association which is the ‘Code of Practice
codetermination. of Consulting Engineers Malaysia on Energy Efficiency and the

3 Prioritising broad-based
initiatives aimed at eliminating
health and mortality discrepancies
among various social and economic
groups. A clean environment and
healthy lifestyles are also vital
to improve public health that
facilitates both national economic
growth and more stable household
finances.

4 Encouraging sustainable growth


implying economic expansion
driven by dynamic markets, a
forward-looking welfare policy
and a progressive environmental
policy. The Government’s vision
is for Sweden to eventually obtain
its entire energy supply from
renewable sources.

Issues on 3R (reduce, reuse and


recycle) can be seen as a way
forward for the construction industry
to move towards sustainable
development. In addressing these

10 THE INGENIEUR
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Use of Renewable Energy and all aspects of policy making. effectiveness and co-ordination of
for Non­-Residential Buildings Environmental inputs shall be laws. Particular attention will be
(Ooi, S., 2007). incorporated into economic paid to effective enforcement.
Th e N a t i o n a l Po l i cy o n development planning, including
Environment seeks to integrate regional plans, master plans, Proactive Approach to Regional
environment considerations into structure and local plans (MOSTE, and Global Environmental Issues
development activities and in 2002). M a l ay s i a w i l l c o - o p e r a t e
all related decision-making with other countries, particularly
processes, to foster long-term Prevention and Control of the ASEAN nations, and with
economic growth and human Po l l u t i o n a n d E nv i r o n m e n t a l relevant regional and international
development and to protect and Degradation organisations, on global
enhance the environment. The Pollution and other adverse environmental concerns. In other
integrated considerations will environmental impact arising words, Malaysia will adopt a
drive Malaysia’s Green Strategies from development activities shall proactive approach in addressing
t owa r d s t h e f o l l ow i n g s e ve n be minimised. Environmental global environmental issues such
key areas (MOSTE, 2002; CIB, quality monitoring surveillance as the depletion of the ozone layer,
2002): programmes and environmental climate change, trans-boundary
auditing systems will be pollution, hazardous chemicals and
Education and awareness expanded and strengthened to toxic waste management, marine
In line with the support enforcement programmes, quality and resource conservation
recommendations of Agenda 21 planning and zoning and to and trade in endangered species.
(CIB, 2002), a deeper and better enable a comprehensive and
understanding of the concepts regular assessment of the state Formulation and Implementation
of environmentally sound and o f e n v i r o n m e n t . Wi t h i n t h i s of Action Plans
sustainable development and context, CIDB has embarked Action plans, with
caring attitude towards nature, on programmes related to ISO adequate resource support for
environmental education and 14001 certification focusing on their implementation, will be
awa r e n e s s w i l l b e p r o m o t e d construction companies involved formulated.
in comprehensive formal and in large projects which require The way forward has to be
informal education, training Environmental Impact Assessment a r e s p o n s ive o n e a m o n g a l l
and information dissemination (EIA) (CIDB, 2007a). CIDB has stakeholders to ensure the earth
programmes. also introduced the Environmental is safe and sustainable for future
Management System (EMS) D.I.Y. generation.
Effective Management of Natural Schemes. The aim of this CIDB
Resources and the Environment EMS D.I.Y. Scheme is to facilitate Industry Strategies
Effective management of contractors in upgrading their
natural resources and the environmental management Greater adoption and use of
environment protect and performance. environment-friendly planning
conserve the environment and techniques, designs and ‘green’
natural resources to meet the Strengthening Administrative and materials in property projects will
needs and aspirations of the Institutional Mechanisms go a long way towards promoting
country’s population, particularly Integrated and effective co- green practices in the country. It
with regards to land, forests, operation and co-ordination will be more effective if industry
biodiversity and water. among Government and other players voluntarily adopt green
sectors shall be enhanced in order and environment-friendly designs
Integrated Development Planning to achieve efficient environmental and concepts in their projects
and Implementation management and protection. rather than depend on legislation
Environmental considerations Environment-related legislation to make it mandatory for them
will be integrated into all stages and standards shall be reviewed to incorporate pro-environment
of development, programme r e g u l a r l y a n d r e v i s e d wh e r e design features in their projects
planning and implementation necessary to ensure the continued (Star 23rd May, 2009).

THE INGENIEUR 11
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Construction Industry Th e v i s i o n o f M a l a y s i a n Implementing Strategies On


Master Plan 2006-2015 Construction Industry Master Plan Sustainable Development:
(CIMP) Initiatives 2006-2015 (CIMP) is a progressive CIDB’s Initiatives
construction sector that relies on
Construction Industry Master sustainable development. Figure 1 Sustainable development
Plan 2006-2015 (CIMP) has shows the overall strategic thrusts requires a balance between
identified the future challenges on in CIMP, its critical success factor economic growth, social expansion
environmental aspects in Strategic (CSF) as well as its enabling and environmental protection.
Thrust 3: Towards highest standard recommendations. In order to pursue sustainable
of quality, occupational safety and The importance of standard development, the construction
health and environmental practices. of quality, occupational safety industry itself has to be sustainable
Environmental sustainability is and health and environmental and give emphasis to environmental
necessary to achieve and sustain practices to foster a quality and matter in addition to economic
economic growth and social environmental-friendly culture gains and social obligations.
development (CIDB, 2007a). A among construction industry players In 1999 CIDB established a
systematic effort is required to as outlined in the Strategic Thrust Technical Committee to look into
avoid undesirable environmental 3 is depicted in Table 1. The developing good environmental
impact and enhance ecosystem table summarises action plans and practices in the construction
management. Among the major programmes to promote quality industry. Technical Committee 9
impacts associated with the industry and environmental-friendly culture on Good Environmental Practices
are soil erosion and sedimentation, among construction stakeholders. in the Construction Industry (CIDB/
flash floods, destruction of CIMP envisaged that sustainability TC9) comprises environmental
vegetation, dust pollution, depletion on construction is vital to the experts from Government agencies,
of natural resources and the usage construction players to achieve and professional bodies, academia and
of building materials which are sustain economic growth and social construction related associations.
harmful to human health. development (CIDB, 2007a). The role of CIDB/TC9 is to
develop standards to improve
Table 1: Strategic Thrust 3 - Strive for the Highest Standard of Quality, Occupational e nv i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s i n t h e
Safety and Health and Environmental Practices (CIDB, 2007a) construction industry and advise
Action Plan Programme CIDB in the formulation of
programmes to promote good
Foster a quality and environment-friendly culture The need to increase customer environmental practices. The
demand in the global terms of reference of TC9 is to
environment in construction. identify, prepare and develop the
Necessary to achieve and sustain
Construction Industry Standard (CIS)
economic growth and social
and Good Environmental Practices
development.
in Construction Industry. CIDB/TC9
Encourage external accreditation in quality and CIDB will actively encourage executes its mandate through the
environmental management. local construction companies to establishment of Working Groups
● Incorporate ISO certification requirements as part of the attain ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 (WG). Figure 2 shows the strategic
contractors registration scheme (G7 and G8) certifications.
recommendation working groups
● Organise communication plan to promote ISO certification
under CIDB/TC9.
Promote environment-friendly practices. Initiatives of ‘Green Building
● Recommend to the Ministry of Housing and Material’ will be promoted to Research And Development
Local Government to develop guidelines on stage ensure impact activities can Initiatives
construction be provided in order to spur
● Propose to DOE to review conditional approval economy and social benefits at Currently there are six
provision for EIA reports. large. Urgent need for self-
research projects on Environment
● Enforce Tree Preservation Order (Act 1972). regulation within construction
and Sustainability managed by
● Encourage ‘Green Reporting’ by public listed companies industry to achieve performance
Construction Research Institute of
● Introduce tax incentives for the adoption of ISO 14001 required.
Malaysia (CREAM), a research arm

12 THE INGENIEUR
Figure 1: Construction Industry Master Plan 2006-2015 (CIMP) Initiatives (CIDB, 2007a)

THE INGENIEUR 13
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contractors to be ISO 14001


TC 9: Good Environmental Practices in the Construction Industry (CIDB/TC9) certified and look into proper
environment management systems
WG 1 Development of Strategies and Programmes for Good Environment Practices in the construction industry.
Research on Waste Minimization
a n d R e c y c l i n g Po t e n t i a l o f
Construction Materials was
WG 2 Prevention and Control of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation in Construction completed in 2005 and handed
over to the Technical Committee
(TC) 9 under CIDB. Some of the
WG 3 Good Environmental Practices in Storm water Management documents have been published
and disseminated to industry
players. TC9 is in the midst of
WG 4 Accreditation Scheme for Environment Management System for Contractor (DIY) consolidating the research output
and will assign Working Group
6 to assist CIDB to prepare
‘Guideline and Training Modules
WG 5 Guideline on Environmental Management System for Construction Industry
on Good Practices on Waste
Management at Construction
Sites.
WG 6 Guideline and Management of Construction Waste Material Three other researches are
still on going. Upon completion,
Figure 2: Strategic Recommendation Working Group under Technical stakeholders will be able to
Committee 9 (CIDB/TC9)
capture some of the local
of CIDB. The research topics are (vi) U t i l i s a t i o n o f W a s t e experiences as well as global
as follows: Materials for the Production practices on waste management
of Concrete Pedestrian Block and sustainable construction
(i) Construction Practices for (CPB). through lessons learned and
Storm Water Management and technology transfer of best
So il Er osi on Con tro l f or th e R e s e a r ch o n C o n s t r u c t i o n practices.
Construction Industry, P ra c t i c e s f o r S t o r m Wa t e r
Management and Soil Erosion Strategic Recommendations
(ii) A ch i e v i n g S u s t a i n a b i l i t y Control for the Construction
of the Construction Industry Industry focuses on developing The task to uphold sustainable
via International Environmental good practices in these areas. c o n s t r u c t i o n i n M a l ay s i a i s
Management Systems Standard, Data and output from this an enormous undertaking that
ISO 14001, project are used in the various requires plenty of innovation and
Wo r k i n g G r o u p s f o r f u r t h e r commitment from all concerned.
(iii) Waste Minimisation and development and some of the Through CIDB’s initiatives, R&D
Recycling Potential of Construction findings have been disseminated initiatives and others, action
Materials, to stakeholders via seminars and oriented industry strategies have
workshops. identified tasks for immediate
(iv) Materials Security And Waste Research on Achieving attention, as well as tasks for
Management for Industrialised Sustainability of the Construction medium and long term attention.
Building Systems (IBS): Towards Industry via International I t i s v i t a l t h a t t h e s t ra t e g i c
Sustainable Construction, Environmental Management implementation plan continues to
Systems Standard, ISO 14001, develop tools and technologies
(v) Environmental Management is aligned to prepare Guidelines and other enablers to lessen the
Plan in the Contract Tender on Environmental Management impact on the environment and
Document of Construction Projects System for Construction Industry lead the Malaysian construction
and (EMSCI). These guidelines assist to be sustainable.

14 THE INGENIEUR
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The commitment from Acknowledgements Research Institute of Malaysia


stakeholders, Government authorities (CREAM) for the reports and
and legislators can transform the Th e a u t h o r s wo u l d l i k e t o permission to prepare this paper.
Malaysian construction industry express their sincere gratitude Thanks also to CREAM’s R&D
into one that is not a threat to to Technology and Innovation Project Leaders: Prof. Ir. Dr. Omar
the environment, but meeting D e ve l o p m e n t S e c t o r o f C I D B Abd. Kadir (USM), Assoc. Prof. Dr.
with human need for development Malaysia, Technical Committee 9 Nik Norulaini Nik Ab. Rahman
in harmony with nature. The (TC9-CIDB) on Good Environmental (USM), Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mashitah
combination of CIDB’s initiatives Practices in the Construction Mat Don (USM), Prof. Ir. Dr. Ruslan
and strategies documented in Hassan (UiTM) and Prof. Dr. Joy
I n d u s t r y, a l l Wo r k i n g G r o u p
Strategic Recommendations for Jacqueline Pereira (UKM). BEM
Committees and also Construction
Improving Environmental Practices
in Construction Industry (CIDB,
2007b) are recommended as REFERENCES
the strategic way forward to
Abdullah, A.R. (2000). Environmental Management Seminar – The Putrajaya Experience.
be adopted by all players. The Keynote Address. 17th – 18th October 2000, Kuala Lumpur.
strategies identified are summarized Begum, R. A. (2005). Economic Analysis on the Potential of Construction Waste Minimisation
as follows: and Recycling in Malaysia. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM).
Bangi, Selangor.
Chalmers Architecture, (2008) Accessed from http://www.chalmers.se/arch/EN/ on July 15,
(i) S t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e 2008
Development Approval
CIB, (2002). Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries. The International
Process, Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB). UNEP-ITEC,
Discussion Document. South Africa.

(ii) E n h a n c i n g L a w a n d CIB, (1999). Agenda 21 on Sustainable Construction (CIB Report Publication 237). International
Council for Research and Innovation (CIB). Netherlands.
Enforcement,
CIDB, (2007a). Construction Industry Master Plan 2006-2015 (CIMP). Construction Industry
Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur.
(iii) Promoting Self-Regulation CIDB, (2007b). Strategic Recommendations for Improving Environmental Practices in
and reflecting the best Construction Industry. Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia. Kuala
Lumpur.
regulatory practices which are
CIDB. (1999). Terms of Reference. Technical Committee 9. Construction Industry Development
necessary to achieve sustainable Board (CIDB) Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur.
construction in future, Ibarahim, R. (1999). Environmental Management in Malaysia. The Ingeniur, Board of Engineers
Malaysia, Issue 1, January. Kuala Lumpur.
(iv) Increasing Capacity and Ministry of Environment, (2007). Implementation of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy,
Sweden’s Report to the European Commision, June 2007, Stockholm Sweden.
Public Awareness and
Ministry of Sustainable Development, (2006). Strategic Challenges: A Further Elaboration of
Swedish Strategy for Sustainable Development, Government Communication, March 2006,
(v) Addressing Knowledge Sweden.
Gaps. MOSTE (Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment), (2002). National Policy of the
Environment (2002). Malaysia.

The strategic direction, the Newsweek, July 7/July 14, 2008 Issue
implementation strategies and Ooi, S. (2007). Green Building: The Future of Buildings, Buletin Jurutera No.11, November
2007, The Institution of Engineers Malaysia, pp 8-13.
R&D participation have to be in
congruent to ensure continuity Shen, L.Y. and Tam, V.W.Y. (2002). Implementation of Environmental Management in the
Hong Kong Construction Industry. International Journal of Project Management. 20(7), pp
and focus. It is envisioned that 535-543.
all initiatives mentioned need to Starbizweek, The Star (23rd. May, 2009)
be taken forward simultaneously Starmetro, The Star (28th, May, 2009)
at both local and international Tse, Y.C.R. (2001). The Implementation of EMS in Construction Firms: Case Study in Hong
levels. Every stakeholder involved Kong. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management. 3(2), pp 177-194.
in the green initiatives must stand UNCED, (1992). Agenda 21 - 28: Local Authorities’ Initiatives in Support of Agenda 21,
Earth Summit. http://habitat.igc.org/agenda21/a21-28.htm - Online
together and react as a team not
as individual champions. Wikipedia (2009). Accessed on 29th. April, 2009 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_
change).

THE INGENIEUR 15
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Reduce, Reuse And Recycle


– Alam Flora’s Initiatives Towards
Sustainable Solid Waste Management
By Dato’ Ir. Zahri Abdul Ghani & Sarifah bt Yaacob,
Alam Flora Sdn Bhd
Prof Ir. Dr Suhaimi Abdul Talib,
Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Shah Alam

S
olid waste can be turned
into a resource. Therefore,
the sustainable Solid Waste
Management (SWM) Integrated
system shall limit the loss of this
resource as much as possible
in an environmentally efficient
and economic way. Hierarchy
of Solid Waste Management as
shown in Figure 1 is internationally
accepted (Yaacob 2008). It is
being adopted in many countries
throughout the world especially in
developed countries to promote
waste minimization by maximizing
waste diversion from landfills.
The ultimate goal shall be zero Figure 1 : Solid waste management Hierarchy
landfilling. The SWM hierarchy
places ‘Waste Reduction’ at the ‘Treatment’ and the least priority is order to maximize collection of
highest priority, followed with given to ‘Landfill’. Application of recyclable materials and minimise
‘Reuse’, ‘Recycle’, followed by the concept will ensure sustainable environmental degradation. In
SWM through the 3R concept 1 9 9 9 , A l a m F l o ra e x p a n d e d
of reduce, reuse and recycle. it’s operational areas to Federal
By adopting this concept, more Territory of Putrajaya. In year 2000,
solid waste could be turned into in response to the Ministry of
resources and less waste would be Housing and Local Government’s
disposed at landfills. declaration of November 11th as
In 1998, after taking over the National Recycling Day, more
the responsibility of solid waste programmes were planned and
management in local authorities implemented in subsequent years.
on interim basis, Alam Flora has In year 2004, Putrajaya was selected
initiated several 3Rs programmes by the ministry to be the model
in it’s entire operational areas city for recycling. These efforts
which include the states of Kuala were in line with Solid Waste
Recycle bins Lumpur, Selangor and Pahang in and Public Cleansing Management

16 THE INGENIEUR
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Act 2007 where separation at Table 1: Household solid waste composition by major categories
source is made mandatory for Area Organic Waste Recyclable Items Others
the waste generators. This paper
(% by weight) (% by weight) (% by weight)
outlines the economic potential
of recycling material from the Kota Kemuning 58 18 24
municipal solid waste stream Selayang 66 19 15
and highlights efforts made by
Putrajaya 63 32 5
Alam Flora in promoting and
implementing activities to the AVERAGE 62 23 15
improve the implementation of Source: Alam Flora Sdn Bhd, (2009a)
3R concept in Malaysia
Note:
Potential of Recycling in (i) Organic – vegetables, fruits, food waste from the kitchen, dried leaves
Domestic Solid Waste (ii) Recyclable item (based on market demand) – plastic containers, glass bottles, beverages
cartons, mineral water bottles, aluminium cans, paper (include newspaper, magazines,
Recycling potential in domestic envelopes, junk mails, cardboard)
solid waste could be determined (iii) Others – include polystyrene, plastic bags, disposable diapers, old clothes, rubber, leather,
through the waste composition batteries, etc.
at the point of waste generation.
A solid waste composition
study was conducted by the is done from both containers is by separating organic waste
R&D department of Alam Flora placed outside their house, i.e., which can be composted.
Sdn Bhd. on landed residential MGB and plastic bags. This paper will focus on the
(bungalow, semi-detached and Ta b l e 1 s h o w s t h e w a s t e recovery of recyclable items which
terrace houses) in Kota Kemuning, composition from domestic have market demand in Malaysia
Selayang and Putrajaya in year premises in the various locations such paper (including newspaper,
2009. It was observed that where the study was conducted. cardboards, magazine etc), metal,
Kota Kemuning residents had Low percentage of recyclable glass and plastic bottles.
been participating in recycling i t e m s i n Ko t a K e m u n i n g i s
programmes organised by NGO attributed to the presence of other Alam Flora’s Initiatives
and resident associations. In recycling programmes which was on 3Rs
some areas the material was not accounted for by the study
collected by private recyclers. conducted by Alam Flora Sdn. In promoting 3Rs, Alam Flora
Whilst in Selayang, and Putrajaya Bhd. The high percentage in had developed and implemented
the recycling programmes are Putrajaya is attributed to the several “separation at source”
mainly conducted by Alam Flora practice of separating at source modules for various target groups
Sdn Bhd, where residents are by the residents prior to being as follows:
provided with 120-liter Mobile collected by Alam Flora Sdn
Garbage Bin (MGB) for organic Bhd.. On average, organic waste a) School programmes called
wa s t e a n d 2 - c o l o r e d p l a s t i c is the major component of KitS (KItar Semula di sekolah). As
bags for recyclable items (Blue household waste which is 62%, of to date, a total of 200 schools
for paper and white for other followed by recyclables at 23% are actively participating in the
recyclable items). and other wastes at 15%. Other programme.
Th e wa s t e c o m p o s i t i o n a t wastes include polystyrene, b) C o m m u n i t y p r o g r a m m e s
Kota Kemuning and Selayang was disposable diapers, old clothes, involving kerbside collection,
determined from the discarded leather and rubber. It is clear m o b i l e a n d f i x e d r e cy c l i n g
waste inside the bins. Recyclable that a significant amount (23%) centers
items which were separated at of recyclable materials could be c) Institutional, Commercial and
home and not thrown inside the recovered from the waste stream Industrial (ICI) programmes called
bins are not accounted for in this if separation at source is fully Waste Wise
study. However, for Putrajaya, implemented. Another potential d) Tailgate recycling programme
the waste composition study of waste reduction to landfill by collection workers

THE INGENIEUR 17
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School Programmes (KitS) centre to cater to inquiries from scale and would be operated by
the public and for the distribution a team of 2 to 3 personnel. The
KitS which is designed for o f awa r e n e s s m a t e r i a l s . Th e MRB is operated on a scheduled
school children highlights the recycling centres are constructed basis that is a few hours weekly
i m p o r t a n c e o f r e cy c l i n g a n d at strategic locations such as or monthly. A total of 60 MRB
provides assistance in recycling hypermarkets where the public a r e o p e ra t i n g i n a l l s e r v i c e
activities. This programme is c a n d r ive t h r o u g h a n d d r o p areas.
implemented in all Alam Flora’s off their recyclable materials
o p e ra t i n g a r e a s a n d i n b o t h before doing their shopping. (3) Kerb side collection (KSC at
primary and secondary schools. Incentives in the form of cash selected areas only)
Incentives based on volume of are given to encourage more
recyclable materials collected recyclables brought from home Collection of recyclables from
are provided in the form of cash or office. The CRC can either be door to door or Kerb Side collection
and gifts. Talks on environmental a permanent or semi-permanent has been introduced in selected
awareness and recycling were also structure equipped with reception residential areas in Petaling Jaya,
given. Environmental exhibitions, set-up, weighing scale and storage Putrajaya and Shah Alam. A
colouring and drawing competitions containers for different types of collection truck is dedicated to
are held at schools to ensure that recyclable materials. Among the collect the commingled recyclables
they have regular recycling and main activities carried out at these weekly based on a pre determined
environmental events. centres are: schedule. The recyclables will be
sorted further prior to transporting
Community Programmes 1. Bringing of recyclables to the to recycling factories. Selected
CRC by the public; residential premises are given
Community programmes include 2. Exchanging of recyclables for containers such as recycling box,
fixed community recycling centres incentives; plastic bags or bins for their
(CRC), mobile recycling booth 3. Collection and delivery of convenience.
(MRB) and kerb side collection recyclables to the recyclers. Based on year 2009 record,
(for selected areas only) to cater the above community programmes
to the needs of the public and Currently, Alam Flora has 28 managed to collect an average
ensure a wider coverage of Alam CRC in it’s operational areas.. o f 3 2 5 t o n n e s o f r e cy c l a b l e
Flora’s 3Rs programmes. The Drop off centres are also placed materials.
programmes described above in strategic location where the
are linked to the “separation public can send their recyclables Industrial, Commercial
at source” concept where the anytime but no cash incentive and Institutional (ICI)
public is encouraged to separate is given. A total of 5 drop off Programmes “WasteWise”
recyclables prior to discarding Centres is available currently.
them as solid waste. Most of The WasteWise programme is
the activities are concentrated ( 2 ) M o b i l e R e cy c l i n g B o o t h developed for recycling activities
in Klang Valley including Kuala (MRB) and facilities in the industrial,
Lumpur, Petaling Jaya, Putrajaya, c o m m e rc i a l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l
Subang Jaya, Shah Alam dan The mobile recycling booth (ICI) sectors. Participants are
Klang. (MRB) is placed in a strategic encouraged to implement recycling
location where there is no fixed programmes within their premises.
(1) Fixed Community Recycling CRC. They are usually located in Alam Flora will assist in terms
Centre (CRC) suburban or rural residential areas of training and logistics support.
and operated similarly like CRC Major agencies participating in
CRC is designed for the to receive recyclables and provide the program include Carrefour
community where residents can incentives to the public. Hypermarkets, Jusco shopping
exchange recyclable materials for The MRB typically consists complexes, Shangri-La Hotel,
cash or coupons depending on the of a collection vehicle and a Malaysian Airport Berhad (MAB),
weight of the recyclables. The temporary reception set-up such Malaysian Airlines (MAS), Air Asia,
CRC also serves as an information as large umbrella, table, weighing Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

18 THE INGENIEUR
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(UKM) and all government offices in Tailgate recycling not messed up. Alam Flora will
Putrajaya. WasteWise programmes programme for collection determine the location of buy
contributes an average of 131 workers (TCW) back centers, a place for them
tonnes of recyclables per month. to stop and sell the recyclable
Alam Flora together with National Discarded recyclable materials materials. Cash incentives are
Solid Waste Department under into waste bins by the general given to motivate them to recover
Ministry of Housing and Local public are still very visible and more recyclables. Side and top
Government has jointly produced have a high percentage. In order container on the compactor
an educational CD for ICI premises to recover these recyclables, Alam truck has been designed to cater
in order to promote 3Rs, with Flora has encouraged collection for storage of recyclables during
the theme “Think Before You workers to sort the waste during transportation to the buyback
Throw”. The CDs were distributed collection activities with systematic center. The most active areas
to various industrial, commercial ways and safe conditions. They which generate more than 100
and institutional organisations have to ensure collection route tonnes per month are Petaling
beginning year 2009. is completed and the bin area is Jaya, Selayang and Kuala Lumpur.

Table 2: List of educational programmes participated by Alam Flora in August 2009


No Events Venue Date
1 Exhibition in conjunction with Kempen Kitar Semula SK Taman Tun Dr Ismail 2, 8 August 2009
Kuala Lumpur
2 Exhibition in conjunction with Penggunaan Plastik Dewan Hamzah, Klang 9 August 2009
Tanpa Kawalan Menjejaskan Persekitaran dan Kesihatan
programme
3 Exhibition in conjunction with Program Minggu Alam Dewan Angsana UiTM, 19 August 2009
Sekitar UiTM Sek 17 Shah Alam
4 Awareness programme with Zoo Negara and SM Kuen Zoo Negara, Hulu Kelang 24 August 2009
Cheng Jalan Syed Putra Kuala Lumpur

5 Exhibition in conjunction with Majlis Pelancaran Projek Lake Club, Putrajaya 29 August 2009
Perintis Pengasingan Sisa Pepejal Di Punca Di Putrajaya

Table 3: Total Recyclables collected by Alam Flora in year 2007 & 2008 (January to December) and 2009
(January to August only) by type of programmes
Type of programme
Year Community Wastewise Kits Landfill Total Avg/mth
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)
2007 2,777 551 480 1,792 5,600 467
(Jan-Dec)
2008 3,067 694 344 2,295 6,400 533
(Jan-Dec)
2009 3,558 941 243 1,258 6,000 750
(Jan –Aug)
Source: Alam Flora Sdn Bhd, (2008; 2009b; 2009c)

THE INGENIEUR 19
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The record shows an increasing


trend when compared to the
previous year.

Separation of recyclables
at landfill
In certain landfills managed
by Alam Flora, the activities of
sorting the commingled recyclables
will be carried out with serious
consideration on safety and health
aspects. Workers will get their
cash incentive for performing the
activities based on total weight of
recyclables.

Public Education and


3R Awareness Campaign
Fo r s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f 3 R s Recycling centre
programmes, continuous public
education and awareness are waste reaching landfills in Malaysia under the 3R programmes is on
important. To ensure constant is high. A good 62% of organic the rise. The amount of recyclables
participation by the target wa s t e c o u l d b e d ive r t e d f o r collected had increased by more
group, Alam Flora has actively composting and 23% can be than 60% in just over 18 months.
implemented awareness talks, economically reused or recycled. In order to make the 3R concept
distributed leaflets and brochures Various programmes and activities more effective, these efforts by
and conducted exhibitions. Some targeted at different groups of the Alam Flora must be fully supported
of the programmes that Alam Flora society had indicated that the not only by the regulators but by
participated in August 2009 are amount of material being collected the whole society. BEM
listed in Table 2.

Achievement SOURCE/REFERENCES
Alam Flora’s record shows Yaacob, S(2008), Professionalizing Solid Waste Management:
an increasing trend of recovery Progressing Towards Higher Industrial Standards, EU-Asia Solid
of recyclable materials from all Waste Management Conference, Impiana Casuarina Hotel, Ipoh,
activities, i.e. from an average 29-30 October 2008.
of 467 tonnes/month in 2007 to
750 tonnes/month in 2009, which Alam Flora Sdn. Bhd. (2009a). Report on Waste Composition. R&D
is about a 61% increase. Table Department, Alam Flora, Sdn Bhd., Shah Alam, Selangor.
3 shows the total recyclables
collected by Alam Flora in year Alam Flora Sdn. Bhd. (2008). 3R Annual Report 2007. 3R Department,
2007 & 2008 (from Jan to Dec) Alam Flora, Sdn Bhd., Shah Alam, Selangor.
and year 2009 (from Jan to August
only) by type of programmes. Alam Flora Sdn. Bhd. (2009b). 3R Annual Report 2008. 3R
Department, Alam Flora, Sdn Bhd., Shah Alam, Selangor.
Concluding Remarks
Alam Flora Sdn. Bhd. (2009c). 3R Monthly Report 2009. 3R
The potential of the 3R concept Department, Alam Flora, Sdn Bhd., Shah Alam, Selangor.
to reduce the final amount of

20 THE INGENIEUR
guidelines

National Green Technology Policy


Submitted by Chin Teck Yeow

Definition to continuously enjoy good quality living and a


healthy environment
Green Technology (GT) is the development and
application of products, equipment and system used (a) Short term goal (10 th Malaysia Plan)
to conserve the natural environment and resources ● Energy sector

which minimizes and reduces the negative impact - Application of GT in power generation and in
of human activities. the energy supply side management, including
co-generation by the industrial and commercial
Policy Statement sectors
- Application of GT in all energy utilization
Green Technology shall be a driver to accelerate the sectors and in demand side management
national economy and promote sustainable development. programme
Four pillars of National Green Technology Policy: ● Building sector:

● Energy: energy independence and efficient - Adoption of GT in the construction,


utilization management, maintenance and demolition of
● Environment: conserve and minimize impact on buildings
environment ● Water and Waste management sector

● Economy: enhance economy through use of - Technology in the management and utilization
technology of water resources, waste water treatment, solid
● Social: improve the quality of life for all waste and sanitary landfills.
● Transportation sector

Objectives - Incorporation of GT in the transportation


infrastructure and vehicles, in particular
● To minimize growth of energy consumption while biofuels and public road transport.
enhancing economic development
● To facilitate growth of green technology industry (b) Mid-term goals (11 th Malaysia Plan)
and enhance its contribution to the national ● GT becomes the preferred choice in procurement

economy of products and services


● To increase national capability and capacity for ● Has a larger local market share against other

innovation in green technology development and technologies, and contributes to the adoption
enhance Malaysia’s competitiveness in green of GT in regional market
technology in global arena ● Increased production of local GT products

● To ensure sustainable development and conserve ● Increased Research, Development and Innovation

the environment for future generations o f G T by l o c a l u n ive r s i t i e s a n d r e s e a rch


● To enhance public education and awareness on i n s t i t u t i o n s wh i ch a r e c o m m e rc i a l i z e d i n
green technology and encourage its widespread use collaboration with the local industry and multi-
national companies
National goals ● Expansion of local SMEs and SMIs on GT into

the global market


The national goals of the Green Technology Policy ● Expansion of GT applications to most economic

is to provide direction and motivation for Malaysians sectors

THE INGENIEUR 21
guidelines

(c) Long Term goals (12th Malaysia Plan and beyond) (d) Strategic Thrust 4: Intensify GT Research
● Inculcation of GT in Malaysian culture and Innovation
● Widespread adoption of GT reduces overall resource R e s e a r c h , D e v e l o p m e n t , I n n o va t i o n a n d
consumption while sustaining national economic Commercialization (RDIC) is crucial in creating new
growth technologies, technique and applications which would
● S i g n i f i c a n t reduction in national energy be able to reduce the cost of GT and promote its
consumption usage. Research, Development and Innovation (RDI)
● Improvement of Malaysia’s ranking in environment could be enhanced through:
ratings ● Providing financial grants or assistance to public

● Malaysia becomes a major producer of GT in the & private sectors in RDIC


global market ● Implementation of GT foresight

● Expansion of international collaboration between local ● Establish effective coordinating agency for RDI

universities and research institutions with GT industries and centre of excellence


● Smart partnership between Government, industries

Strategic Thrusts and research institutions


● Establish strong linkages between local research

(a) Strategic thrust 1: Strengthen the institutional institutions and regional and international centres
frameworks of excellence in GT RDI.
In nurturing the adoption and growth of GT, it is
critical to have strong institutional arrangements to (e) Strategic Thrust 5: Promotion and public awareness
promote GT applications through: Effective promotion and public awareness are two
● Formation of GT council main factors that would affect the success of GT
● Cabinet Committee on GT development. This is particularly significant as such
● Establishment of GT Agency adoption requires the change of mindset of the public
● Review and establish legal mechanism through various approaches including:
● Enhancement of institutional clarity ● Effective, continuous promotion, education and

information dissemination through comprehensive


(b) Strategic Thrust 2: Provide conducive roll-out programmes
environment for GT Development ● Effective involvement of media, NGO and

The growth of GT industry either in manufacturing individual stakeholders


or service sectors is critical towards fulfilling the ● Inculcation of a culture that appreciates GT among

objectives of the GT policy. This industry would supply students at all levels
the GT to the local and global markets, create jobs and ● Demonstration programme of effective GT

contribute towards the national economy through: application


● Introduction of economic instruments ● Adoption of GT in all Government facilities and

● Strengthening the understanding of local players in Government linked entities


GT industries and their value chain
● Promote FDI on GT National Key Indicators
● Establish GT hubs

● Establish GT funding mechanism The National Key Indicators are a set of criteria to
measure the success of GT Policy and its initiatives.
(c) Strategic Thrust 3: Intensify human capital This would provide the Government a feedback
development in GT mechanism and the opportunity to improve or
● Design and enhancement of training programme strengthen the initiatives as necessary. The National
● Provide financial and fiscal incentives for students Key Indicators for Environment, Economy and Social
to pursue GT disciplines sectors would be further refined into quantitative
● Retraining and apprenticeship scheme to enhance and qualitative key performance indicators (KPIs)
semi-skilled labour in GT for each Malaysia Plan, and annual plan for various
● Grading and certification mechanism for competent Government ministries and agencies.
personnel in GT
● Exploitation of brain gain programme to strengthen For further details.
local expertise in GT Please refer to: webmaster@kttha.gov.my

22 THE INGENIEUR
management

Assessing Organisational Performance


Using Key Performance Indicators And
Human Capital Management
By Ir. Ahmad Khir Bin Hj. Mohammad
Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

T
he planning and management and must be prioritized to ensure S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t C i rc u l a r
of human capital and survival. introduced the KPI work
resources is crucial and performance measurement
complex especially to a large Considerable research is methods aiming to improve
organisation. Its important and needed for investigating what overall Government departments’
essential to measure and manage type training delivery mechanism performance.
t h e u s e o f Ke y Pe r f o r m a n c e and competence requirements are Four steps were outlined as
Indicators (KPI) to improve more likely to impact in a cause- follows: 3
and enhance organisational effective way on performance
performance. improvement such as service 1. Create KPI and set the Target
Over the years, various excellence, given contingency Performance
m e t h o d s h ave b e e n u s e d t o and situation variation 1 . [F.M. 2. M e a s u r e a n d a p p r a i s e
improve the delivery systems of Horwitz, 1999] performance
organisations and service-oriented 3. M o n i t o r t h e l e v e l o f
businesses. To create healthy Emphasis on human capital is performance
economic environment and gain becoming increasingly important to 4. Improve performance
competitive advantages, various compete in global manufacturing
initiatives have been implemented industries. Restructuring efforts According to the Government
by companies and organisations should also include establishment c i r c u l a r, o r g a n i s a t i o n a l
such as Balanced Scorecard, of a corporate culture which performance can be monitored
Performance Driven Assessment fosters the development of employee and improved by using the
and Key Performance Indicators with skills and attitudes which following strategies: 4
(KPI). are requisite to success in global
KPI is one of the tools that have marketplace. A renewed emphasis 1. Set the policies regarding the
been used to gauge and improve on human capital is to encourage implementation of performance
performance. With emphasis on learning that requires an investment measurement
the need to develop human capital i n e m p l oye e d e ve l o p m e n t 2 . 2. Form a steering committee to
and performance, many research [M. A.Hitt, R.E. Hoskisson, J.S. monitor KPI and performance
and development programmes Harrison, T.P. Summers, 1994] 3. Get feedback from customers
have been conducted. through Customer Satisfaction
More organisations and Government Public Survey
companies realise that in today’s Service Circular 4. I n v e s t i g a t e , a n a l y z e a n d
competitive business environment, suggest improvement initiatives
the need to develop human In the year 2005, the 5. M o n i t o r a n d r e p o r t
capital performance is crucial Government through it’s Public performance improvement

THE INGENIEUR 23
management

Identification of Business Strategic and


Vision, Mission and Guiding
Goals, Initiatives, and Tactical Goals
+ Principles for Performance =
Challenges for Next Three to and Plans
Improvement Department
Five Years

Figure 1: Process of Forming a Strategic Plan

The overall process of forming This will be much needed by an performance is dependent on
a strategic plan for the department organisation to gauge realtime these parameters 10:
is similar to the one displayed in organisational performance.
Figure 1 5. Employees who have been ● Employees competencies
trained in a set of skills but who - dependent variable
A strategic plan identifies the work in an environment that ● Teamwork performance
hopes and visions for the function does not support those skills will - dependent variable
and integrate them into the business eventually stop using them. The ● Good leadership
requirements of the organisation. work environment governs whether - dependent variable
In this manner a “win-win” plan is or not they will utilize the skills ● Good policies
formulated 6. [D.G/J.C. Robinson, they have learnt during training. - dependent variable
1995] The skills and work environment ● Good organisational
relationship can be expressed in - behaviour and norms
The ove rall p ictu re of a n an equation in Figure 3 8: - dependent variable
organisational functions and The formulae shows that if ● Strong financial
constituents can be portrayed in people learn 100% of what is - independent variable standing
Figure 2 in terms of The Internal required but the work environment ● Enough facilities - independent
Evaluation perspective. SMART i s o n l y 2 5 % s u p p o r t ive , t h e variable and equipment
(Specific, Measurable, Accurate, improvement in on-the-job
Realistic, Time bound) and SWOT performance will be only 25% of These factors can be drawn into
(Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, what is possible 9 [D. G. Robinson, a table as shown in Table 1. From
Threat) analysis are used to better J.C. Robinson 1995]. Ishikawa this table the overall performance
analyse organisational performance. identified that organisational can be calibrated by gauging the

Individual Team Organisational Organisational


+ + + Behaviour
Performance Performance Leadership
And

= Total Divided By 4 The Level of Performance of the Organisation


From The Internal Evaluation
Figure 2: The Internal Evaluation 7

LEARNING x = PERFORMANCE
WORK ENVIRONMENT
EXPERIENCE RESULTS

Figure 3 : Skills And Work Environment Relationship

24 THE INGENIEUR
management

Table 1: Factors Influencing Organisational Performance

actual contribution to the level of Fr o m t h e e x a m p l e s h ow n Organisation Matrix Analysis


performance for each parameter. in Table 1, the Organisation’s
This is illustrated in the example Performance can be calculated as Organisation Matrix Analysis
shown in Table 111. follows: is used to gauge the performance
level of an organisation that
involves the calibration of four
main parameters. The results
from the calibration for each
p a r a m e t e r i s ch a r t e d i n t o a
matrix chart shown in Figure
4. The parameters involved are
Target, Enthusiasm, Quality, and
Performance. The top performers
are grouped into the top right
hand corner of the matrix chart.
The result of the organisation’s
performance is obtained by
averaging the interpolation of X
and Y as shown in Figure 4 12.

THE INGENIEUR 25
management

Figure 4: Organisation Matrix Analysis

Figure 5: Before And After Analysis13

Before And After Analysis


Before and after analysis is
used to gauge the success of
the organisation’s improvement
initiatives to see the outcome
of the improvement exercise.
The analysis will be benchmarked
Figure 5 and compared to a top
performing organisation.
This analysis will see results
of the improvement exercise and
any weakness can be addressed.
Reference is made to Ishikawa
Fishbone Diagram (Figure 6) to
identify which section caused the
Figure 6: Cause And Effect Analysis 14
problem.

26 THE INGENIEUR
management

External Evaluation For


Organisational Level Of
Performance
In order to have a fair and
consistent evaluation, an External
Evaluation can be carried out
regarding ‘What Is Said About The
Organisation’ (Figure 7). The result
is tabulated in Figure 8 so that the
overall average is obtained for a
sensible figure. Figure 7 : What Is Said About The Organisation 15

Averaging The
Performance Results
Results from various performance
analyses are obtained and averaged
to get the overall performance
of the organisation (Chart 1). As
shown in Chart 1, the overall
performance of Labuan Corporation
is calculated as 77.87 %.

Human Capital Modelling


Human capital can be modelled
and programmed and a strategic
plan is outlined to attain desired
organisational performance as
shown in Figure 9. Chart 1: Averaging The Organisational Performance (Labuan Corporation) 17

Figure 8: The External Evaluation 16

THE INGENIEUR 27
management

Figure 9: Organisational Performance Improvement Modelling

Modelling for human capital


should be based on Organisational
Pe r f o r m a n c e I m p r ove m e n t
Modelling (Figure 9) so that it’s
correlation and alignment is properly
established. Figure 10 demonstrates
Human Capital Modelling showing
the relationship between the
organisational performance
improvement parameters.
Now we can write the equation
in the following manner,

28 THE INGENIEUR
management

Organisational Performance performance criteria is evaluated From Table 3, the percentage


Assessment and performance scores are given of Labuan Corporation
as shown in this case study done performance can be calculated as
The American Quality Award has on Labuan Corporation (Table 3). below:
been devised to award outstanding
organisation and business entities.
A set of guidelines for performance
assessment criteria has been
formulated (see Baldridge Quality
And Performance Assessment
Criteria 2004)19.
Table 2 shows the performance
criteria that should be evaluated
in an organisation. Every

Based on F.M. Horwitz [1999] 20


Figure 10: Human Capital Modelling 21

THE INGENIEUR 29
management

Table 2: Baldrige Analysis For Organisational Performance Assessment 22

Table 3: Baldrige Analysis For Individual 23 Organisational (Labuan Corporation)

30 THE INGENIEUR
management

KPI Example Exhibit 1: KPI For Vehicle Maintenance


Exhibit 1 shows the KPI example
demonstrating the calculation of KPI
and performance targets at Labuan
Corporation’s vehicle maintenance
service at its workshop24.

KPI Success Rate


From the core businesses KPI
assessments, every department’s
success rate is calculated. Hence
overall organisational performance
is assessed as shown in the
following case studies at Labuan
Corporation (Exhibit 2)25.
The performance of Labuan
Corporation can be calculated as
shown below.

(i) seven main processes


(ii) six support process

Exhibit 2: Summary Of The Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Achievement At Labuan Corporation

THE INGENIEUR 31
management

Office workers

Hence, the overall performance


of Labuan Corporation can be
calculated by averaging all
departmental performances as
shown beside.

Realtime Organisational
Performance
KPI reflects realtime
organisational performance, hence
it can be used to strategize
innovative and corrective
improvement to enhance
performance.
Thus, from the various
measurements and analyses carried
out, a sensible and acceptable be achieved. Hence, strategic retention of capable employees,
level of achievement for the formulations can be implemented cultivation of corporate culture
performance can be derived. to improve performance in the which fosters creativity, quality,
If the realtime organisational short term and in the long term. lifelong learning and long-term
performance can be exactly Human Capital Modelling focus. In addition, a restructuring
ascertained and proper strategies (HCM) enables the programming, organisation should carefully
and planning can be implemented planning and modelling of plan its allocations for employee
for future programmes to sustain human capital for short and development to ensure that their
or improve performance. long term needs. Therefore an employees are developing skills
improvement strategy can be required for future organisational
CONCLUSION effectively formulated to achieve success. BEM
organisational targets.
By using the KPIs in integration Strategic human capital NOTE: The Author is the
with Human Capital Modelling planning will leverage current and Director of Development And
(HCM), a systematic way of future human capital needs of the
Engineering Department, Labuan
assessing and developing the organisation. This will re-emphasis
Corporation
organisational performance can development of human capital,

32 THE INGENIEUR
management

 REFERENCES
1 F.M. Horwitz, [1999], The Emergence Of Strategic Training And Development: 
The Current State Of Play, Journal Of European Industrial Training ; Volume: 23, Issue: 4/5 ; 1999 –
Conceptual Paper
2  M.A. Hitt, R.E. Hosskisson, J.S. Harrison , T.P. Summers, [1994], Human Capital and Strategic Competitiveness
in the 1990s, Journal of Management Development; Volume: 13 Issue : 1 1994 - Research Paper.
3 Government Public Service Circular [2005], Prime Minister Department, Malaysia, National Printer, p9
4 Government Public Service Circular [2005], Prime Minister Department, Malaysia,National Printer, p32-33
5 D. G. Robinson & J. C. Robinson, [1995], Performance Consulting – Moving Beyond Training,
Berret-Koehler Publisher, p298 
6  D. G. Robinson & J. C. Robinson, [1995], Performance Consulting – Moving Beyond Training,
Berret-Koehler Publisher, p298 
7  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving 
Organisational Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
8  D. G. Robinson & J. C. Robinson, [1995] , Performance Consulting – Moving Beyond Training, 
Berret-Koehler Publisher, p298 
9  D. G. Robinson & J. C. Robinson, [1995], Performance Consulting – Moving Beyond Training, 
Berret-Koehler  Publisher, p298 
10  Kaoru Ishikawa What is Quality Control? The Japanese Way [1984,1981], JUSE Press, Translated by David J.
Lu [ 1985 ], Prentice Hall Inc.
11  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving Organisational
Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 
12  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving Organisational
Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC),Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 
13  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving 
Organisational Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC),Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 
14  Kaoru Ishikawa What is Quality Control? The Japanese Way [1984, 1981], JUSE Press, 
Translated by David J.Lu [1985], Prentice Hall Inc.
15  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving Organisational
Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 
16  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving 
Organisational Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC),Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 
17  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving 
Organisational Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC),Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 
18  Government Public Service Circular [2005] , Prime Minister Department, Malaysia , National Printer, p32-33 
19 Baldrige Performance Assessment Criteria 2004, United States of America National Institute of
Standard and Technology 
20 F.M. Horwitz, [1999] , The Emergence Of Strategic Training And Development: The Current 
State Of Play, Journal Of European Industrial Training ; Volume: 23, Issue: 4/5 ; 1999 – Conceptual Paper
21  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving 
Organisational Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 
22  Baldrige Performance Assessment Criteria 2004, United States of America National Institute of
Standard and Technology 
23  M. A. Khir, Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, [2008] Modelling Human Capital For Improving Organisational
Performance, Business Advanced Technology Centre (BATC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 
24  Unpublished Labuan Corporation KPI Report 2007
25  Unpublished Labuan Corporation KPI Report 2007

THE INGENIEUR 33
feature

Indoor Air Quality In Malaysia


By Prof. Nor Mariah Adam
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia

I
n d o o r A i r Q u a l i t y ( I AQ ) to ‘Non-industrial place of work’. of buildings, furnishings and
refers to the quality of air Examples are equipment. Indoor air quality is
inside buildings that has no ● Offices, educational and one of the six factors that affect
known contaminants at harmful training facilities, commercial life of buildings.
concentrations and where 80% establishment, and health Figures 1 and 2 show occurrence
of building occupants do not care facilities of moulds on furniture of an office
express dissatisfaction with the ● Cafeterias and restaurants with poor IAQ. The staff there
air conditions as defined by ● Gaming establishment, pubs, has serious skin problems, are low
the ASHRAE (ASHRAE 1984). bar, karaoke lounges and in morale and cannot concentrate
It is related to the common discotheques on their work.
air conditioning/mechanical ● But does not include Fa c t o r s a f f e c t i n g I AQ
ve n t i l a t i o n s y s t e m s . I AQ i s premises used primarily as include:
associated with Sick Building manufacturing and production ● Emission from building
Syndrome (SBS), Building Related facilities and vehicles materials (new or refurbished
Illness (BRI), and Multiple facilities)
Chemical Sensitivity (Legionnaire’s IAQ is becoming a public ● Permeability of wall
disease). concern due to awareness and structures
H i g h I AQ e n v i r o n m e n t i s education. We spend 90% of our ● Ve n t i l a t i o n p ra c t i c e s a n d
desired in buildings to improve time indoors: home, car, office, ventilation rates
worker performance, reduce car, shopping mall, gymnasium, ● Building maintenance and
incidence of chronic diseases, car, swimming pool etc. Failure cleaning habits
lower medical bills, and create to respond to IAQ problems ● Emission of products/
a desirable working environment. increases health problems, reduces equipment
The Industry Code of Practice on productivity and morale of workers ● Body effluents
Indoor Air Quality is applicable and increases rapid deterioration ● Ambient air quality

Figure 1: Moulds on office furniture Figure 2: Poor IAQ

34 THE INGENIEUR
feature

Usually the culprit is the


location of fresh air supply, which
started, as the garden area then
later became the car park area
or worse, the food court area.
Indoor air quality is directly
related to HVAC systems. Poor
IAQ is the result of the following
factors:
● Insufficient air circulation
● Outside contaminant pathway
● Temperature and humidity Office environment

Some earlier work on category This Act, entails control of smoking Occupational Safety and
‘A’ discotheques in Peninsular at enclosed public places, and Health Act 1994
Malaysia showed a carbon separate smoking area. Exemptions
monoxide (CO) level of 35 ppm are at casino, pubs, discotheques The Occupational Safety and
(parts per million or one second and nightclubs. The detailed Health Act (OSHA) 1994 is
in 11.57 days) in some premises sections of the regulations are: enforced by the Department of
because the fresh air intake is from ● Part I: Interpretation Occupational Safety and Health
the car park (Zakaria Abdullah, ● Pa r t I I : P r o h i b i t i o n o f under the Ministry of Human
2002). Advertisement on Tobacco Resources. Under this Act, the
Common indoor air pollutants Products and Sponsorships etc general duty of the employer is
are: ● Part III: Control on the Sale of to ensure safety and health of
● Pa r t i c u l a t e s : d u s t a n d Tobacco Products employees and other persons
environmental tobacco smoke ● Pa r t I V: P r o h i b i t i o n o n at work. The employer must
● Biological agents: spores, Smoking formulate a written statement on
moulds, bacteria, parasite, and ● Part V: Provision Relating to his policy on occupational safety
bio-effluents from humans Minors and health (OSH) for his workers,
● Hazardous chemical substances: ● Pa r t V I : L a b e l l i n g a n d guests, contractors and passers-
formaldehyde, asbestos, volatile Packaging by within the boundary of his
organic compounds (VOCs), ● Part VII: Miscellaneous premises. This applies to places of
pesticide, lead, CO and CO2 work and the Minister may make
Uniform Building requirements pertaining to indoor
IAQ Legislative By-Laws 1984 air quality.
Requirements Objects of the Act are as
The Uniform Building By-Laws follows:
Th e r e l a t e d l e g i s l a t ive 1984 was enacted by the Ministry ● To secure the safety, health and
requirements for IAQ are as of Housing and Local Government welfare of persons at work
follows: but enforced by Local Authorities. ● To protect persons (guests,
● Food Act: Control of Tobacco Ventilation requirements during contractors, passers-by) at a
Product Regulations 2004 design and commissioning follow place of work against hazard
● Uniform Building the ASHRAE Standards 1984. ● To promote the occupational
By-Laws 1984 U n d e r t h e l aw, t h e r e i s n o environment adaptable to the
● Occupational Safety and Health requirement on the inspection person’s physiological and
Act 1994 and testing of ventilation systems. psychological needs
The major complaints of IAQ are ● To provide the means towards
The Control of Tobacco Product related to ventilation problems a legislative system based on
Regulations 2004 is a regulation (too hot, too cold, stuffy, poor air regulations and industry code
made under the Food Act, which is distribution, insufficient outdoor of practice in combination
enforced by the Ministry of Health. air etc.). with provisions of the Act.

THE INGENIEUR 35
feature

Under OSHA 1994, Code of Table 1: List of Indoor Air Contaminants and the Maximum Limits
Practice on IAQ 2005, Guidelines
Indoor Air Contaminants Eight –hour time-weighted average
on Occupational Safety and
airborne concentration
Health 1996 specifies standards
on humidity, temperature, airflow ppm mg/m3 cfu/m2
and ozone, which are applicable Chemical contaminants
only to offices. (a) Carbon dioxide C1000
General practicable duties of (b) Carbon monoxide 10
employers and self-employed (c) Formaldehyde 0.1
persons are as follows: (d) Ozone 0.05
● Provide and maintain plant (e) Respirable particulates 0.15
and system of work (f) Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) 3
● Make arrangements for the
Biological contaminants
safe use, operation, handling,
(a) Total bacterial counts 500
storage and transportation of
substances and plant
(b) Total fungal counts 500
Note: C is ceiling limit and not to be exceeded at all times
● Provide information,
instruction, training and Table 2: Acceptable Range for Specific Physical Parameters
supervision
Parameter Acceptable Range
● Provide and maintain place
of work and means of access Air temperature 22.5 – 25.5 ° C
to and egress from any place Relative Humidity 55-70%
of work Air Movement 0.15-0.50 m/s
● Provide and maintain
working environment that and the associated maximum in the industry. The present IAQ
is safe and without health limits while Table 2 shows the standard is at par with developed
risk and inadequate welfare acceptable range for specific countries and countries in the
facilities. physical parameters. region. BEM

Here practicable relates to Record Keeping REFERENCES


severity of the hazard or risk in
American Society of Heating,
question; the state of knowledge All records that are generated
Refrigerating and Air
about the hazard or risk and the under this Code of Practice should
Conditioning Engineers 1984
way of removing or mitigating be kept for a period of not less
the hazard or risk; availability than five years. Assessment report
Food Act: Control of Tobacco
and suitability of ways to remove shall be kept for a period of not
Product Regulations 2004
or mitigate the hazard or risk; less than 30 years.
and the cost of removing or Records to be kept include:
Notes Bengkel Pindaan Industry
mitigating the hazard or risk. ● Complaint records
Code of Practice on Indoor Air
A workshop on amendments ● Investigation reports
Quality, April 2009
to the Industry Code of Practice ● Assessment reports including
on Indoor Air Quality 2005 was the results of indoor air
Occupational Safety and Health
held in April 2009. The purpose contaminant measurement and
Act 1994
of the code is to promote training records.
healthy work environment and to
Uniform Building By-Laws 1984
ensure that employees and other Conclusion
occupants are protected from
Zakaria Abdullah, Indoor Air
indoor air quality that could Th e i n d o o r a i r q u a l i t y
Quality in Discotheques in
adversely affect health and well- requirements in this country are
Malaysia, Unpublished Master
being and consequently reduce being updated from time to time
Thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
productivity. Table 1 shows with cross-referencing to other
2002
the list of indoor contaminants countries and by notable people

36 THE INGENIEUR
feature

Mini Hydro Power Generation


As A Renewable Energy Source
Under Malaysia’s Energy Policy
By Luqman Chuah A. and Fakhru’l-Razi A.
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Tropical Forest and Forestry Products (INTROP), Universiti
Putra Malaysia
Nor Mariah A.
The Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology Universiti Putra Malaysia

In the Eighth Malaysian Plan, renewable energy (RE) was announced as the fifth fuel in the energy
supply mix. Efforts are being undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources, such
as biomass, biogas, solar and mini-hydro for energy generation. Mini hydro plants were developed
mainly in 1980s and early 1990s. Installed capacity is about 42.7 MW in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3
MW in Sarawak and 5.0 MW in Sabah in year 2001. Mini hydro stations are situated in rural and
remote areas of the country. Involvement of private sector in the ownership and operation of mini
hydro schemes is encouraged by the Government. This paper aims to provide an overview on the
development of mini hydro as RE in Malaysia. Government policies and barriers to development
will also be discussed.

E nergy has contributed


significantly towards
the rapid growth of the
Malaysian economy. As Malaysia
progresses towards becoming
Malaysia’s energy policy is
to ensure secure, diversed and
sustainable supplies of energy at
competitive prices. Oil and gas
continue to provide the energy
e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l y. Wi t h t h i s
objective in mind, greater effort
is being undertaken to encourage
t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e n e wa b l e
resources, such as biomass, biogas,
a developed country, energy needed to steer the nation towards solar and mini-hydro, for energy
consumption will correspondingly higher socio-economic growth and generation. The Ninth Malaysia
increase. Electricity demand in prosperity. Malaysia’s National Plan (2006-2010) strengthens the
the country has remained strong Energy Diversification Policy makes initiatives for energy efficiency
and resilient with revenue growth it incumbent to diversify its energy and renewable energy put forth
averaging 15% over the past five resources to avoid over dependence in the Eighth Malaysia Plan that
years and even remained positive on any one fuel. This resulted in focused on better utilisation of
after the 1997 slowdown. Peak an expansion of the previous Four- energy resources. An emphasis
electricity demand in Malaysia Fuel Diversification Policy of gas, to further reduce the dependency
grew at a rate of 5.8% per year hydro, coal and oil, to incorporate on petroleum provides for more
and reached 12,637MW in 2003 renewable energy, as in the Fifth efforts to integrate alternative
and is growing at a rate of 7.2% Fuel under the Eighth Malaysia Plan fuels.
annually, from 12,637 megawatts (2001-2005). Renewable energy is Malaysia’s technical feasible
(MW) to reach 14,531MW in being targeted to be a significant p o t e n t i a l o f hy d r o p o w e r i s
2005. contributor to the country’s total estimated to be around 123,000

THE INGENIEUR 37
feature

G W h / ye a r ( N a t h a n i e l e t a l . , Table 1. Classification of Hydro Plants (Harvey and Brown, 1993)


2002). This has made hydro Large All installations with an installed capacity of more than 1000kW
power an attractive option as
a renewable energy source in Small All installation in the range between 500 to 1000kW
Malaysia. Conventional hydro Mini Capacity between 100 to 500kW
power plants convert potential
Micro Hydro power installations with a power output less than 100kW
energy which is contained in
falling water into electricity.
They are currently the world’s Mini Hydro Sites and Installed in Sabah by Sabah Electricity
l a r g e s t r e n e wa b l e s o u r c e o f Capacity in Malaysia Supply Berhad (SESB). Mini hydro
electricity, accounting for 6% stations development intensified in
o f wo r l dw i d e e n e r g y s u p p l y Mini hydro plants developed 1980s to promote electrification
or about 15% of the world’s mainly in 1980s and early 1990s. in the rural area and to promote
electricity (Mohibullah et al, Th e s e s t a t i o n s i n Pe n i n s u l a r economic development (Wallace
2004). However, the majority of Malaysia are owned by Tenaga and Williams, 1997).
these power plants involve large Nasional (TNB) apart from a few There are 46 SHP stations which
dams which flood big areas of independent power generators. are under TNB with total installed
land to provide water storage In East Malaysia, the stations are capacity of 42.7 MW (Figure 1).
and therefore a constant supply operated by Sarawak Electricity About 56% of the mini hydro
of electricity. In recent years, the Supply Company (SESCO), and stations are in the range of 100
environmental impact of such
large hydro projects are being
identified as a cause for concern.
It is becoming increasingly
difficult for developers to build
new dams because of opposition
from environmentalists and
people living on the land to
be flooded. Therefore, the need
has arisen for small scale hydro
electric power plants in the
range of mini and micro hydro
power plants. There are no Micro
Hydro power plants in Malaysia
and the smallest category of
hydro power plants in Malaysia
is small and mini hydro with a
capacity less than 1000 kW. The
classification of the hydro plant
is shown in Table 1.
This paper aims to provide
an overview of the development
of mini hydro as a renewable
energy source in Malaysia.
Information on installed capacity
and power generation will
b e g ive n . Th e G ove r n m e n t a l
e f f o r t t o p r o m o t e r e n e wa b l e
energy and the barriers to its
development in Malaysia will Figure 1. Location of mini hydro stations in Peninsular Malaysia
also be discussed. (Source: TNB Hidro, 2002)

38 THE INGENIEUR
feature

MW to 500 MW. There are also


three independent power producers
(IPPs) of mini hydropower stations
in Peninsular Malaysia with total
installed capacity of 22500 kW.
There are five mini hydro stations in
Sabah (Figure 2), and total installed
capacity is 4.99 MW. In Sarawak,
there are seven mini hydro stations
with a total installed capacity of
7.297 MW (Figure 2).
As of year 2002, total
installed capacity in Malaysia was
9,323.8MW. Installed capacity in
Peninsular Malaysia under TNB
was 8,301MW, Sarawak under
SESCO was 544.4 MW and Sabah Figure 2. Location of mini hydro stations in Sarawak and Sabah
under SESB was 478.4MW. Power (Source: TNB Hidro, 2002)
generation in Peninsular Malaysia
was 33,241 GWH, Sarawak was
2,781 GWH and Sabah was 1,426 Table 2. Installed Power Generation Capacity In Malaysia, 2002
GWH. In Peninsular Malaysia,
TNB SESCO SESB
hydropower ranked second at 1,911
MW (23.02%) after gas 3,002 MW MW % MW % MW %
(36.16%) in installed capacity. Out Hydro 1911 23.02 88.3 16.22 72.3 15.11
of 23.02%, mini hydro stations
Gas 3002 36.16 288.1 52.92 60 12.54
installed capacity is 11.9 MW
(0.14%). However, the power Coal 1600 19.27 0 0 0 0
generation by hydropower is lower. Oil 1720 20.72 0 0 44 9.20
Hydropower ranked third at 11.4%
Diesel 68 0.82 168 30.86 302.1 63.15
after gas (48.3%) and oil (28.9%)
in power generation. Out of 11.4%, TOTAL 8301 100% 544.4 100% 478.4 100%
mini hydro stations contributed less (Source: Energy Commission, 2002)
than 0.2 % (Ministry of Energy,
Communications and Multimedia,
Malaysia, 2003). Table 3. Power Generation In Malaysia, 2002
In Sarawak, main installed
TNB SESCO SESB
capacity was by gas with 288.1
MW (52.92%), second was diesel GWH % GWH % GWH %
with 168 MW (30.86%) while Hydro 3806 11.4 454 16.3 159 11.2
hydropower ranked third at 88.3
Gas 16064 48.3 1408 50.6 557 39.1
MW (16.22%). Out of 16.22%,
mini hydro stations installed Coal 3655 11.0 480 17.3 0 0.0
capacity was 7.3 MW (1.34%). Oil 9603 28.9 291 10.5 0 0.0
Hydropower ranked third at 16.3%
Distillate 113 0.3 0 0.0 0 0.0
after gas (50.6%) and coal (17.3%)
in power generation. The scenario Diesel 0 0.0 148 5.3 710 49.8
in Sabah is quite different. Main Others 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
installed capacity was by diesel
powered generation with 302.1MW TOTAL 33241 100% 2781 100% 1426 100%
( 6 3 . 1 5 % ) , wh i l e hy d r o p ow e r (Source: Energy Commission, 2002)

THE INGENIEUR 39
feature

ranked the second at 72.3MW As a rule of thumb, plant factor Government Support and
(15.11%). Out of 15.11%, mini of 50 to 60% is acceptable for Renewable Energy Agencies
hydro stations installed capacity a mini hydro station. The main
was 5 MW (1.32%). Hydropower factor that affects the generation Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3)
ranked third at 11.2% after diesel factor in mini hydro is water flow The Third Outline Perspective
(49.8%) and gas (39.1%) in power of the river. Other factors are Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia
generation (Ministry of Energy, status of equipment, machines and Plan (2001-2005) are the two main
Communications and Multimedia, distribution grid. policy references for promoting
Malaysia, 2002). The details are The plant factors for mini and developing renewable energy
shown in Tables 2 and 3. hydro stations in Malaysia range in Malaysia. OPP3 is Malaysia’s
between 0% and 96.4%. For 10-year development plan (2001
Types of Generator and TNB’s mini hydro stations, there to 2010). Both policies have
Turbine and Performance are 11 stations with plant factor forecasted that Malaysia may
of Mini Hydro in Malaysia above 50%, this includes eight be net oil importer before 2015
outstanding stations with plant (see Figure 5). Under OPP3, the
In Peninsular Malaysia, the factor above 60 %. The highest Government will continue to
generators used by TNB on mini plant factor (96.4%) was recorded manage both non-renewable and
hydro are synchronous type (34 by Robinson Falls station followed renewable energy resources to
units), others are induction types by Ku a l a Te r l a s t a t i o n w i t h meet the demands of the rapidly
(10 units). Types of turbine consist 95.6%. There are some stations growing economy. The main thrusts
of Francis, Pelton Impulse, Turgo not generating power due to of OPP3 are as follows:
Impulse, Cross-flows and Reversible breakdown of mechanical and
Pump, as shown in Figure 3 and electrical components, lack of (a) to ensure an adequate, secure,
Table 4. water due to silt of mud, clogging quality and cost-effective supply of
Performance of a mini hydro of intakes, logging activities energy.
station is measured by plant factor in water catchment area and (b) to promote efficient energy
as illustrated in equation (1): others. utilisation and to minimise negative
impact on the environment.
(c) to supplement the conventional
supply of energy by encouraging
Plant Factor = Power Generation *100 (1) new sources of energy such as
renewable energy.
Installed Capacity * 8760
The Fifth Fuel Policy and Eighth
Malaysia Plan
In the year 2000, the Government
introduced the Fifth Fuel Policy,
which identifies renewable energy
as Malaysia’s ‘fifth’ major fuel
resource. This includes renewable
such as biomass, solar, mini
hydro and wind. Significant effort
is assigned to encourage the
utilisation of renewable resources
under the Eighth Malaysia Plan
(2001–2005) to supplement the
supply of energy from conventional
energy sources. The Government
set a target of 5% of the nation’s
Figure 3. Types of turbines used in TNB’s Mini Hydro electricity production (about 600
(Source: TNB Hidro, 2002) MW) to come from renewable

40 THE INGENIEUR
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Table 4. Mini hydro site in Peninsular Malaysia


No Site Nearest Town Type of Type of Installed Capacity (kW) Year of
Turbine Generator Construction
1 Sg. Kongkoi KL Francis Synchronous 84 1982
2 Sg. Ulu Langat KL Pelton Synchronous 2200 N.A.
3 Sg. Benus Bentong Cross-flows Induction 300 N.A.
4 Sg. Perdak Bentong Turgo Synchronous 364 1990
5 Sg. Keshar Bentong Turgo Synchronous 322 N.A.
6 Sg. Sempam(1) Raub Francis Synchronous 800 N.A.
Sg. Sempam(2) Raub Pelton Synchronous 450 N.A.
7 Sg. Sia Raub Cross-flows Synchronous 548 N.A.
8 Sg. Pertang Raub Turgo Synchronous 492 1986
9 Sg. Ulu Dong Raub Francis Synchronous 550 N.A.
10 Sg. Keneroh Gua Musang Turgo Synchronous 245 N.A.
11 Sg. Rek K. Krai Cross-flows Synchronous 270 N.A.
12 Sg. Sok K. Krai Cross-flows Synchronous 588 N.A.
13 Sg. Lata Tunggil K. Krai Turgo Synchronous 700 1987
14 Sg. Renyok Jeli Turgo Synchronous 1600 1984
15 Sg. La Jerteh Cross-flows Synchronous 225 1986
16 Sg. Kemia Jerteh Turgo Synchronous 526 1990
17 Sg. Berang Kuala Berang Cross-flows Synchronous 422 1984
18 Sg. Tersat Kuala Berang Cross-flows Synchronous 488 1982
19 Sg. Cheralak Dungun Cross-flows Synchronous 500 1986
20 Sg. Kerling Tg. Malim Francis Induction 1180 1987
21 Sg. Bil Tapah Cross-flows Induction 258 1986
22 Sg. Kinjang K. Kangsar Turgo Induction 349 1986
23 Sg. Kenas K. Kangsar Turgo Induction 713 1986
24 Sg. Asap K. Kangsar Pelton Synchronous 124 1983
25 Sg. Guar K. Kangsar Turgo Induction 220 N.A.
26 Sg. Gebul K. Kangsar Pelton Synchronous 120 1980
27 Sg. Chempias K. Kangsar Cross-flows Synchronous 120 N.A.
28 Sg. Lawin Lenggong Cross-flows Synchronous 291 1986
29 Sg. Temelong Lenggong Francis Synchronous 872 1986
30 Sg. Tebing Tinggi Lenggong Turgo Synchronous 178 1986
31 Sg. Tapah Kanan Selama Cross-flows Synchronous 48 N.A.
32 Sg. Bintang Selama Turgo Induction 704 1984
33 Sg. Mahang Selama Turgo Synchronous 483 1986
34 Sg. Lau Baling Turgo Synchronous 223 N.A.
35 Sg. Kupang Baling Cross-flows Synchronous 216 1982
36 Sg. Mempelam Baling Turgo Synchronous 397 1986
37 Sg. Chepir Baling Cross-flows Synchronous 104 1980
38 Sg. Pegang Baling Reversible pump Synchronous 50 N.A.
39 Sg. Tawar Besar Baling Pelton Synchronous 580 1987
40 Sg. Dandang Beruas Cross-flows Synchronous 98 1982
41 Sg Piah Sg Siput Pelton Synchronous 2 x 7300 1987
42 Habu C. Highland Francis N.A. 2 x 2750 1964
43 Odak C. Highland Francis Induction 3 x 1400 1963
44 Kg Raja C. Highland Francis Induction 800 1963
45 Kuala Terla C. Highland Francis Induction 500 1963
46 Robinson Falls C. Highland Pelton N.A. 3 x 300 1959
N.A.: Data not available
THE INGENIEUR 41
feature

energy by 2005 and 10% in Table 5. List of IPP mini hydro sites in Peninsular Malaysia
year 2010. Fuel mix in 2010 is Site State IPP Installed Capacity kW
targeted to 40% gas, 40% coal,
and the rest are hydro and other 1 Sg. Ahning Kedah Imexa (M) Sdn Bhd 1300
renewable sources of energy 2 Gopeng Perak Syarikat Gopeng Perak 1200
(Australian Business Council for
3 Sg. Kenerong Kelantan Interhydro Corp Sdn Bhd 20000
Sustainable Energy, 2005).
Th e s t ra t e g i e s a d o p t e d t o TOTAL 22500
intensify the development (Source: Energy Commission, 2002)
of renewable energy have
included: Table 6. Existing mini hydro sites in Sarawak
No. Site Region Installed Capacity (kW)
(a) promotion of various renewable
1 Sg. Pasir Kuching 760
energy sources
(b) renewable energy demonstration 2 Lundu Kuching 352
projects 3 Penindin Kuching 352
(c) research commercialisation
(d) extension of financial and
4 Sebako Kuching 333
fiscal incentives to potential 5 Sg Kota Limbang 4000
developers. 6 Sg Keijin Miri 500
Mini hydro is one of the 7 Kalamaku Limbang 1000
renewable energy (RE) sources TOTAL 7297
identified by the Government (Source: Energy Commission, 2002)
under The 8 th Malaysian Plan
(2001-2005) and the Third Outline Table 7. Existing mini hydro sites in Sabah
Perspective Plan (2001-2010).
Other RE sources are biomass,
No. Site Area Installed Capacity (kW)
biogas, solar and wind. Unlike 1 Sayap Kota Belud 1000
huge hydro station, mini hydro has 2 Melakap Kota Belud 1000
minimal environmental impact. The
Government is also encouraging 3 Kiau Kota Belud 350
more independent power producers 4 Bombalai Tawau 1300
(IPPs) participation in RE generation 5 Merotai Tawau 1340
including mini hydro generation
under Small Renewable Energy TOTAL 4990
(SREP). The status of SREP projects (Source: Energy Commission, Malaysia, 2002)
approved by score as of September
2004 by Malaysia Government is
shown in Table 8.

Renewable Energy Power Purchase


Agreement (REPPA)
REPPA is a legislation issued
by the Malaysian Government
dealing with the power purchase
agreement between power utility
TNB and private investors for
renewable energy projects.
Under REPPA, renewable energy
electricity producers are given a Figure 4: Plant Factor of TNB’s Mni Hydro in Year 2001

42 THE INGENIEUR
feature

license for a period of 21 years, Recently, REPPA became a tariff for the concession period do
which is effective from the date hindrance to their initiative due to not provide the confidence for the
of commissioning of the plant. the difficulty in getting financing, financial institutions nor encourage
REPPA allows independent power as it does not provide a robust them to make a needed investment.
producers to sell electricity to cash flow for local bankers to be The long negotiation period needed
the grids. The selling price for comfortable with. Furthermore, before the sign-up of the agreement
electricity is capped at a ceiling some of the conditions imposed, is also a major drawback for this
of RM17 cent/kWh or 4.5 cent such as ‘take and pay’ payment programme. Many developers of the
US/kWh. structure and the non-inflatory fixed RE projects in Malaysia are generally

Figure 5. Fluid fossil fuel demand and production (Wan Ramli, 2006)

Table 8. Status of SREP Projects Approved by Score as of September 2004 (Ludin et al, 2004)
No. Type Energy Resources Approved Application Grid Connected Capacity (MW) %
1 Biomass Empty fruit Bunches 25 165.9 52.8
    Wood Residue 1 6.6 2.1
    Rice Husk 2 12 3.8
    Municipal Solid Waste 1 5 1.6
    Mix Fuel 3 19.2 6.1
2 Landfill Gas   5 10 3.2
3 Mini-hydro   25 95.4 30.4
4 Wind and Solar   0 0 0
  Total   62 314.1 100

THE INGENIEUR 43
feature

from small companies with limited ● Pioneer status with tax (EC) is responsible for creating
resources. Unlike Independent exemption of 70% will be increased and enforcing a regulatory
Power Plant (IPP) projects, these to 100% of statutory income and framework for the achievement
developers rely on the capability to the incentive period is extended of a reliable, efficient and safe
fund the development at minimal from five years to 10 years. energy supply industry to enhance
cost. Therefore, the longer the ● Investment tax allowance of economic growth and sustainable
transaction takes place the more 60% is to be increased to 100% development. It protects consumers’
cost the development will incur. on qualifying capital expenditures interests and ensures a competitive
Many companies do not have the incurred within a five-year period, and efficient marketplace. Besides
staying power and will simply with the allowance to be set off advising on energy matters, the EC
abandon their initiative. against 100% of statutory income also promotes the use of renewable
To date, more than 60 project for each year of assessment. energy and the conservation of
proposals have been approved by the ● The incentive package of pioneer fossil fuels. EC’s commitment
Special Committee on Renewable status, investment tax allowance, is vital to ensure that all energy
Energy (SCORE) chaired by the and import duty and sales tax forms and options are viable in
Ministry of Energy, Communications exemptions will be extended until the market.
and Multimedia. However, only December 31, 2010. The rationale behind PTM’s
three of these proposals have establishment is to fulfill the need
been awarded power generation Small Renewable Energy Power for a national energy research centre
licenses. Programme (SREP) to co-ordinate activities related to
The Small Renewable Energy energy planning and research,
Tax and Duty Policies Power Program (SREP) was launched energy efficiency, technological
Since the National Budget in May 11, 2001 to enhance the research and development within
in 2000, renewable energy use of renewable energy resources the energy sector. It has three
technologies have been given in the power sector. The objective divisions to assist in energy
additional incentives in the form is to facilitate the implementation projects, research and policies:
of tax relief and waivers of import of small grid-connected renewable Corporate Affairs and Business
duties. The incentives are part power plants. The SREP target is Development; Energy Industry
of the package of Government to connect 500 MW of renewable and Sustainable Development;
measures designed to encourage power plants to the national and Policy Analysis and Research
the implementation of renewable grid within the framework of the Management. PTM has taken the
energy projects as part of the Fifth Renewable Energy Power Purchase lead role in assisting the industry
Fuel Policy. Renewable energy fiscal Agreement (REPPA). The SREP a n d G ove r n m e n t t o d e ve l o p
incentives covers the following allows renewable energy projects renewable energy in line with
areas: up to 10 MW in capacity to sell national objectives.
their electricity output to the state-
(a) tax allowances owned electricity utility, Tenaga Centre for Education and Training
(b) capital allowance Nasional Bhd under 21-year license in Renewable Energy and Energy
(c) import duties waivers agreements. Fifty applications for Efficiency (CETREE)
(d) import tax waivers. the programme have been received. The Centre for Education and
A total of 18 mini-hydroelectric Training in Renewable Energy
In line with Malaysia’s objective projects had been approved offering and Energy Efficiency (CETREE),
to diversify energy resources 69.9 MW of total capacity. together with PTM, are carrying
and develop alternatives, the out public awareness activities that
Government continues to assess Energy Commission (EC) and enhance communication of the
and revise incentives for renewable Malaysian Energy Centre (PTM) benefits of renewable energy and
energy projects. To encourage The main institutions in the energy efficiency measures.
energy generation using biomass, M a l ay s i a n e n e r g y s e c t o r a r e CETREE’s main objective is to
hydropower and solar power, the the Energy Commission (EC) enhance awareness on RE and
Government offers several incentives and the Malaysia Energy Centre energy efficiency (EE) in Malaysia
to those that qualify: (PTM). The Energy Commission by improving and increasing

44 THE INGENIEUR
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energy curriculum in primary and organisations and this might RE projects implementation
secondary schools, universities prevent further development and through non-recourse financing
and among energy professionals investment on hydro power. is inadequate. This has further
as well as information for the Reduction of river water limited financing opportunities
general public. Activities are flow rate also affects the power for RE projects.
designed and structured in such a generation capability of mini
way to address each target group stations. Major cause of this Subsidy for Conventional
since there is an obvious need phenomenon are prolonged Energy System
to increase awareness amongst draught season due to global E ve r y t y p e o f e n e r g y h a s
the public, private sector and warming, logging activities at benefited from assistance in its
G ove r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s o n t h e water catchment area, upstream start-up phase, and renewable
applications and benefits of RE irrigation activities, competing use energy should be no exception.
and EE. of water resources for domestic There is still massive support
usage as well as uncontrolled t owa r d s c o nve n t i o n a l e n e r g y
Barrier to Mini Hydro tourism activities. sources, such as oil and gas in
Development in Malaysia Malaysia which is in the form
Financial barriers of subsidies and export credits.
Environmental perspective RE development in Malaysia If renewable energy, including
Fr o m t h e e nv i r o n m e n t a l is still in its very initial state mini hydro, is to be competent
perspective, Department of and has not fully realised the economically in Malaysia, it is
Environment (DOE), Malaysia economies of scale with short important that it receives the
focuses on the minimisation of payback periods for developers same treatment as fossil fuels.
the negative impact of energy to be interested in participating. Otherwise, such subsidies for
production, transportation, Whether a proposed RE project fossil fuel have to be removed
conversion, utilisation and is small or big, the initial cost or made transparent in order to
consumption on the environment. of the project arising from the create a level playing field.
It is obviously seen that till now, engagement of consultants can be
the demand-side management quite substantial. RE projects are Lack of local equipment
initiatives, particularly tariffs, usually capital-intensive, hence suppliers
have produced very little positive financing is often considered the Malaysia, in general, still relies
impact on the utilisation of main barrier to their development on foreign equipment suppliers
renewable energies. The energy and implementation. As for mini especially from Europe. Existing
efficiency regulation is being hydro, the high initial capital local equipment suppliers are still
formulated, focusing on large cost is one impediment to its unable to fulfill the needs of the
consumers, appointment of energy development. Capital expenditure RE industry. Most local companies
managers and equipment labelling. ( CA P E X ) c a n r a n g e b e t w e e n dealing with power projects have
On the other hand, all major RM5,000 and RM8,000 per joint venture arrangements with
e n e r g y d e ve l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s kW. Few banks are interested their foreign counterparts. Due to
are subject to the mandatory to finance RE projects, as there the low exchange rate to foreign
EIA. There is strong pressure are no records of experience of currency, developers are forced
on this environment-related RE to rely upon. In Malaysia, to purchase costly imported spare
o b j e c t ive f r o m ra p i d e n e r g y only Bank of Development is parts or prolong the service of the
demand growth in the country. willing to finance RE projects components.
RE is associated with strong other than Governmental loan.
environmental impacts at every More often, bank loan officers Lack of Technical Support
level, namely, exploitation of typically lack the experience Malaysia still relies on technical
energy resources, energy supply necessary to evaluate loans for support from oversea. Although
and energy demand. Environmental RE projects even when backed Malaysia has capabilities in pre-
consequences of hydro station by performance guarantees. The investment studies, construction
toward the ecosystem are always ability of financing institutions and operation; engineering
raised by the non-Governmental to evaluate risk associated with design and components including

THE INGENIEUR 45
feature

turbines and generators have sustainable energy too. Power the Malaysian Government since
to be outsourced from abroad. utility companies should invest in the mini hydro development and
Importing expertise, components the rehabilitation of the existing resources potentials are high. Power
and equipment add cost to the mini hydro stations and establish utilities such as TNB, SESCO and
project and further impede the fast effective monitoring mechanism SESB are the crucial links in mini
development of mini hydro projects. to ensure each station is properly hydro development since they are
Generally, foreign consultants are maintained. Well maintained mini managing the distribution system
considered expensive and they are hydro station is vital to ensure and are the purchasers of the
only affordable when the project better generation factor. Water electricity generated. They should
is sufficiently large to be able to resources are also crucial for provide technical assistance, advice
accommodate the costs. the development of mini hydro. and better tariff offers. Training
Depleted water source will bring and technology transfer must be
Lack of Periodic Maintenance problems into the development emphasised by the Government to
Lacking of periodic maintenance of mini hydro. Private sector help Malaysia’s power generators
is a major problem faced by the should be encouraged to take develop and advance in mini hydro
existing mini hydro plants in up the opportunity offered by technologies. BEM
Malaysia. The failure to adhere
to equipment manufacturers’ REFERENCES
maintenance instruction and
maintenance schedule are the 1. Australian Business Council for Sustainable Energy. 2005. Promotion
main culprits. Remoteness of the of Renewable Energy Sources in South East Asia. Malaysia- Country
station location impedes effective Profile: Renewable Energy Sources. http://www.bcse.org.au/docs/
monitoring of the maintenance International/BCSE%20Malaysia%20Final%20V2.pdf Assessed on 24th
activities done by maintenance Sept 2007.
personnel. 2. Energy Commission. 2002. Statistics of Electricity Supply Industry in
In a study on mini hydro Malaysia for the Year 2002. Internal Report.
station in 2001 it was revealed 3. Harvey A. and Brown A. 1993. Priyantha Hemsfachi and Allen
that 40% of the stations were lnversin.”Micro Hydro Design Manual” Intermediate Technology
with major electro-mechanical Publications, United Kingdom.
components defect. A few were 4. Ludin N. A., Bakri M.A.M., Hashim M., Sawilla B., Menon N. R.,
in satisfactory condition. Electro- Mokhtar, H. 2004. Palm oil biomass electricity generation in Malaysia.
mechanical components such as Jurutera 11,16-20.
turbines, generators, transformers 5. Ministry of Energy, Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia, 2003.
and switchboard with technical National Energy Balance Malaysia 2002.
failure were found in various 6. Mohibullah, Mohd. Amran Mohd. Radzi and Mohd Iqbal Abdul
stations. Civil works damages were Hakim.2004. Basic Design Aspects of Micro Hydro Power Plant and
also found on the power station Its Potential Development in Malaysia. Nationai Power & Energy
buildings and the access road. Conference (PECon) Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Some mini hydro stations were 7. Nathaniel C. D., Fidelpio V. F., Rowaldo R. D. M. 2002. Small
facing delay in repairing damages. hydropower in Southeast Asia. EC-ASEAN Green Independent Power
The delay was caused by among Producers Networks. http://www.ec-asean-greenippnetwork.net/
other things, unavailability of Assessed on 19 September 2007.
spare parts. Some equipment of 8. TNB Hidro. 2002. Internal Report on Hydroelectric. TNB Hidro Sdn
abandoned stations has been used Bhd., Tingkat 1, No. 1-5 , Jalan Dato’ Maharaja Lela, 30000 IPOH,
as parts for other stations. Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia.
9. Wallace, A.R. and Williams, D.A. 1997. Hydro Electric Development
Conclusion in Malaysia. Proceedings of the Universities Power Engineering
Conference, Volume 1, 1997, 411-414
Mini hydro has a bright prospect 10. Wan Ramli W. D. 2006. Hydrogen Economy: Perspective from Malaysia.
in Malaysia. It is not only a RE International Seminar on the Hydrogen Economy for Sustainable
source but is also a clean and Development.28 -29 September 2006, Reykjavik, Iceland.

46 THE INGENIEUR
feature

Mercury Rising
By Ir. Chen Thiam Leong
This article was published in New Straits Times on August 21, 2009.

T
he new millennium has been growing at a rate of 2.8% awareness among all stakeholders
certainly made us aware that from 23 million in 2000 to 27 – developers, architects, engineers,
we have been witnessing million today. This, coupled with planners, designers, contractors
the melting of the glaciers with lifestyle changes that come with and the public.
average global temperature rising socio-economic improvements, It is a benchmarking
by one degree Celsius. National has accelerated the demand for rating system that provides a
Geographic’s article, Six degrees energy. c o m p r e h e n s ive f ra m e wo r k t o
could change the world, further This is where green buildings evaluate the environmental impact
predicts that when the average will have a big role to play. A and performance of a building
global temperature rises by another quick fact: Worldwide, buildings based on six key criteria: energy
degree – which we, unfortunately, consume 40% of our planet’s efficiency; indoor environmental
are on course to reach – will result materials and 30% of its energy. quality; sustainable site planning
in destruction of coral reefs. Construction uses up to three and management; materials and
Up one more degree, to three, million tonnes of raw materials resources; water efficiency; and
the oldest rainforest in the world a year and generates 20% of the innovation.
– the Amazon – will start to dry solid waste stream. Malaysia’s To quote architecture lecturer
up. Coastal cities will be flooded 2008 electricity use statistics and author Peter Graham, ‘The
with a four-degree rise. Up one show commercial and residential skill and vision of those who shape
more notch, and the world will buildings accounting for over 50% our cities and homes is vital to
have to deal with an increase of electricity use. achieving sustainable solutions to
in climate refugees. And most Therefore, building green is the many environmental, economic
alarmingly, a six-degree rise will no longer an option but a and social problems we face on a
equate to a global wipeout. necessity. local, national and global scale.’
Climate change is not only What is a green building? In And it isn’t only the building
impacting the world financially a nutshell, it is designed to save industry that can play a role.
but socially as well. Millions energy and resources, recycle Individuals, too, can be pivotal in
are starving and with the world’s materials and minimise emission combating climate change. First,
population steadily expanding, of toxic substances throughout its by reducing energy consumption
the situation will only deteriorate life cycle. Such buildings also exist by simply using less electricity.
further. It will take years, if not in harmony with the local climate, It is amazing to know that about
decades, to put an end to the traditions, culture and surrounding 11% of electricity is consumed
emission of greenhouse gases and environment. A green building is by phantom loads – avoidable
this can only be achieved through able to sustain and improve the electricity consumed by appliances
a gradual transition to cleaner quality of its inhabitants while left on standby mode merely to
energy. maintaining ecosystems at local satisfy our convenience.
These are not polemics but and global levels. We’re still capable of preventing
irrefutable scientific facts. The M a l ay s i a ’s G r e e n B u i l d i n g a global catastrophe. Let’s chip in
good news is, we are in a position Index initiative, therefore, is a tool and take care of the only home
to prevent this from happening. for promoting sustainability in the we’ve got in the universe, before
Malaysia’s population alone has building environment and raising it is too late. BEM

THE INGENIEUR 47
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Overview of MS 2058:2008
Code Of Practice For Good Engineering
Maintenance Management Of
Active Medical Devices
By Ir. Dr Syed Mustafa Kamal Bin Syed Aman
Senior Biomedical Engineer, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya

This Malaysian Standard was developed by the Working Group on


Code of Practice of Active Medical Devices under the authority
of the Medical Devices and Facilities for Healthcare Industry
Standards Committee.

M
edical devices include accordance with the existing
instruments, medical infrastructure and services and
equipment, implants, have a budget for operation
disposables, and software, used and maintenance, in order to
mainly for the purpose of diagnosis, prevent misdiagnosis or delays in
monitoring or treatment of diseases, treatment.
e ve n r e p l a c i n g p hy s i o l o g i c a l
functions. New medical devices Maintenance of
are developed continuously, so Active Medical Device
through assessment of needs,
verification of safety and A Medical Device is defined Th i s M a l a y s i a n S t a n d a r d
efficacy, rational procurement, as any instrument, apparatus, applies only to all active medical
proper installation, preventive appliance, material or other equipment placed for use in any
maintenance, rational use and article whether used alone or healthcare facility which requires
quality assurance, a better use of in combination, intended by maintenance. It is also intended
resources is accomplished. the manufacturer to be used for to help them set up systems that
Biomedical engineers and human beings for the purpose of will minimise risks associated
related professionals play an control of conception, diagnosis, with their use. “Active medical
important role in the proper prevention, monitoring, treatment device” means any medical device
design, development, selection, or alleviation of disease; diagnosis, (medical equipment) relying on a
management, maintenance and monitoring, treatment, alleviation source of electrical energy or any
user training of medical devices. of or compensation for an injury source of power other than that
Effective engineering management or handicap; investigation, directly generated by the human
prevents a disproportionate rise replacement or modification of body or gravity to function.
in the maintenance costs, and the anatomy or physiological A c c o r d i n g t o W H O, i t i s
improves the quality and safety of process. Surgical instruments are estimated that around 50% of
health-care delivery. The selection also medical devices. Medical medical equipment in developing
and use of medical devices has Devices play an important role countries are not functioning, not
to meet priority needs, be in in supporting patient care. used correctly, and invariably

48 THE INGENIEUR
feature

not maintained, with serious


consequences for patient care. This
may be because the equipment
was not needed or not appropriate,
and left idle for want of a spare
part. It is critical that a medical
device management policy exists
that includes a financial provision
for maintenance, spare parts and
training in the initial cost of the
equipment.
The main topics covered under
MS 2058:2008 are:

Responsibilities CT Scan machine

Biomedical Engineering services in the Registration Of Engineers ensure that medical equipment is
(Section 5); implement and manage A c t ; a t t e n d r e l e va n t t ra i n i n g maintained in the highest possible
the organisation’s equipment and/or continuing professional state of operation throughout its
maintenance programme; obtain development (CPD) training life cycle.
required facilities and equipment with recognised and authorised
for the organisation’s maintenance professional bodies; manage and U n s ch e d u l e d m a i n t e n a n c e
programme; ensure equipment administer Biomedical Engineering (Section 7); Unscheduled
is maintained in a serviceable Services. maintenance involves those actions
condition at all times; plan necessary to restore normal
for equipment support in the Medical device user related function, safety, performance,
conceptual phase of each new to maintenance (Section 5); and reliability to malfunctioning
equipment system; develop an equipment is used only for equipment.
equipment management plan; its intended purpose, operate
develop and publish local policies equipment in accordance with Acceptance tests for newly
and operating instructions (OI) as user’s manuals and appropriate delivered devices (Section 8);
required; develop references from user maintenance is performed. Acceptance testing shall be carried
the maintenance management report Home users shall ensure that out for all newly introduced
to evaluate the effective­ness of the o n l y c o m p e t e n t i n d iv i d u a l s / equipment before it is placed into
maintenance programmes; establish organisations carry out maintenance clinical service and shall include
a work control and priority system on their equipment. visual inspection, electrical safety
to ensure uninterrupted service test and performance test.
to supported activities; establish Maintenance
a periodic maintenance and Management
inspection schedule and ensure Schedule maintenance included
maintenance personnel perform planned preventive maintenance Mechanisms to avoid failure or
scheduled maintenance; manage PPM, calibration, user maintenance breakdown during use (Section 9);
the appropriate use and supply of (Section 6); Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Services
spare parts; outsource maintenance Services shall ensure an optimum shall provide mechanisms to
service of those systems when p e r f o r m a n c e , s a f e o p e ra t i o n , av o i d f a i l u r e o r b r e a k d o w n
there are no adequate training, minimum downtime, and of equipment during patient
tools, test equipment, and staff. maximum useful life from each treatment, diagnosis and therapy.
equipment system. The scheduled It includes reviewing health alerts,
Biomedical Engineer/technician maintenance programme consists equipment failures, incidence
(Section 5); comply with competency of a series of planned maintenance reports, use errors, component
requirements; register with the requirements and inspections. failures and carry out corrective
Board of Engineers as per specified The programme is designed to action.

THE INGENIEUR 49
feature

Uptime (Section 10); Biomedical other modules, work order module, beryllium, mercury or other heavy
Engineering Services shall identify planned preventive maintenance metals, polychlorinated biphenyls
applicable uptime and achieving module, maintenance history and asbestos, shall be carried
uptime target for all equipment module and supplier-client register out according to established
in service including calculation module. Healthcare facilities procedures as laid out in relevant
method on uptime. without Biomedical Engineering national/international standards or
Services shall maintain a manual national regulations.
Quality assurance program maintenance management
(QAP) (Section 11) for continuous system. Processes for handling
improvement; Biomedical hazardous/contaminated
Engineering Services shall provide Management of warranties equipment (Section 15);
healthcare facility authority the (Section 13); to ensure that all Decontamination is the process of
agreed information and maintain faults occurring within the warranty handling hazardous/contaminated
accurate records, procedures and period are detected, reported and e q u i p m e n t t h a t m ay i nvo l ve
other documents in the QAP. The repaired under warranty provisions cleaning, disinfecting and
data collected shall be analysed where applicable as well as to sterilisation and may vary according
for further improvement of the ensure that all planned preventive to the equipment. Failure to
structure and processes. maintenance covered under the decontaminate equipment properly
warranty provision is carried out m ay l e a d t o p o s t - o p e r a t i v e
Maintenance management within the warranty period as per infection and the spread of
information system - MMIS agreed schedule. diseases. Failure to maintain
(Section 12); Maintenance equipment decontamination and
management information system Decommissioned equipment sustain proper working practices
is used to manage all aspects (Section 14); The disposal of can raise health and safety issues
of the Biomedical Engineering potentially hazardous equipment, for staff and patients.
maintenance services. The MMIS material or components such as
should consist, but not be limited batteries, X-ray tubes, vacuum Incidents and hazards (Section
to, the following modules and be tubes, pressure vessels, radioactive 16); Procedures shall be followed
accessible to authorised users: materials and devices that contain in order to carry out investigation
asset register module with links to toxic materials such as lead, and corrective action on incidents
and notified hazards. Biomedical
Engineering Services shall manage
equipment hazard alerts and recall
notices provided by equipment
suppliers and/or established
organisations. In the event of
an incident that involve the
same model of equipment in
any country or location, the
manufacturer or supplier shall
inform the healthcare facility
authority, user and Biomedical
Engineering Services and take
corrective action to ensure the
equipment is safe for use.

User training (Section 17);


Users shall be trained on the
proper and correct usage and
o p e ra t i o n o f t h e e q u i p m e n t .
When procuring new equipment,
X-Ray machine healthcare facility authority shall

50 THE INGENIEUR
feature

Operating theatre

include a requirement in the safe storage for equipment under Biomedical Engineering
contract that the manufacturer maintenance and efficient space
or its representative shall provide utilisation. Biomedical Engineering is one
training for both Biomedical of several professional disciplines
Engineering Services and users. A dv i s o r y s e r v i c e ( S e c t i o n contributing to safe, effective
21); Advice on the following and economical health care. The
Stock of genuine spares maintenance provisions shall be role and primary responsibility of
p a r t s ( S e c t i o n 1 8 ) ; Th i s i s obtained from the Biomedical a biomedical engineering service
t o g u a ra n t e e t h e ava i l a b i l i t y Engineering Services: selection of is management of medical
of genuine spare parts from equipment, equipment installation; device technologies, including
the equipment manufacturer discontinuation of use of equipment; adherence to recognised safety,
to meet uptime target and replacement of equipment; any q u a l i t y, c o s t , a n d e f f i c i e n cy
availability of equipment for adverse events; and condition standards.
minimal interruption of clinical appraisal of equipment. Biomedical Engineering is a
services. learned profession that combines
Procurement of equipment expertise and responsibilities in
On site library (Section 19); (Section 22); Healthcare facility engineering, science, technology,
The library should consist of authority shall ensure local policies and medicine. Since public
documents such as: operation and for procurement of medical health and welfare are paramount
maintenance manuals, electronic equipment addressing safety, quality, considerations in each of these
schematic/circuit drawings, backup and performance are observed. areas, Biomedical Engineers shall
software, relevant standards and Policies should include the need to uphold an appropriate level of
regulations, training materials; and establish advisory groups to ensure competencies embodied in its
other related documents. the procurement requirements professional practice, research,
take into account the needs of patient care, and training. The
Workshop setup (Section 20); all parties involved in the use, level of competencies shall reflect
Setting-up of an adequately commissioning, decontamination, the standards of professional and
equipped workshop facility for maintenance and decommissioning personal practice for Biomedical
maintenance of medical equipment, of medical equipment. Engineers.

THE INGENIEUR 51
feature

Table H1. Competency levels and device specialisation classification matrix


(for more details please refer to MS 2058:2008)
Biomedical maintenance competency levels
Medical device maintenance Level 1 Level 2 Level 3b Level 4c Mgmtd
specialisation classification
Junior BMET Senior BMET Junior Specialist
specialist
1 General / Basic level medical X X X Optional X
device (refer to Tables H2-H5)
2 Intermediate level medical - X X Optional Optional
device (refer to Tables H2-H5)

3 High level medical device (refer to - - Optional Xa Optional


Tables H2-H5)
NOTES:
1. Area of specialisation to be declared based on specific model of medical devices.
2. For Level 3 competency, the Junior Specialist are be given an option to expand their specialisation level based on their training
advancement and experiences.
3. For Level 4 competency, the Specialist at vendor and manufacturer are be given an option to exclude the lower specialisation
level.
4. For management level, the manager is required to obtain a minimum competency on general/basic level medical device
specialisation.
5. The sample of medical device specialisation are given in Tables H2 – H5 and subject to changes based on its complexity and
cost of the equipment.

Competency levels of Malaysia except for equipment that by assurance of device quality,
Biomedical Engineering uses ionizing radiation which is safety and performance through
Engineer and Technician governed under the Atomic Energy compliance with international
Licensing Act 1984. In February quality and safety standards
The Biomedical Engineering 2005, the Ministry of Health, throughout its lifespan. The
maintenance competency levels Malaysia was given the task to regulations shall also invigorate
are categorised into four technical develop the Medical Devices the medical devices industry by
l e ve l s a n d o n e m a n a g e m e n t Regulatory System. providing conducive environment
level. To determine the individual In developing the regulation, for manufacturing, trade and
competency levels, the guidelines Malaysia will be guided by the promotion.
are cross referred to the medical international best practices and The scope of the proposed
device maintenance specialisation international standards as building regulation is based on the World
classification, competency skills, blocks for harmonised regulatory Health Organisation’s (WHO)
breakdown maintenance level control of medical devices. The model. The scope encompasses
and management skills level development of the Malaysian the process from design and
of the Biomedical Engineer or Medical Devices Regulatory System d e ve l o p m e n t , m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,
technician. The details of the is also guided and harmonised packaging, labelling, advertisement,
competency levels are as per the with the recommendations and sale, usage, maintenance and
relevant matrix in Table H1. guidelines established by the disposal of the device. These
Global Harmonization Task Force processes are divided into three
Development of (GHTF). phases; pre-market, placement-on-
Medical Devices Regulation The aims of the proposed market and post market.
Medical Device Regulations are to The Medical Device Bill 2008
At present there are no statutory ensure public health and safety and has been finalized and is now with
requirements for the registration, to invigorate the medical device the Attorney General’s Chamber
control and managing issues industry in Malaysia. Public to be approved by Parliament
associated with medical devices in health and safety are achieved hopefully by end of this year. BEM

52 THE INGENIEUR
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engineering nostalgia

Reflection of An Engineer’s
Unique Experience Working
in A ‘Black Area’ In The 1970s By Ir. Liaw Yew Peng

C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Te m e n g o r m a i n d a m i n  Transporting part of the Penstock from Butterworth


progress. Work was carried out day and night. The t o Te m e n g o r P o w e r S t a t i o n f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n . 
surrounding area of the dam site was guarded by Note the tight escort provided by using
a battalion of infantry 24 hours a day. heavy armoured vehicles moving in front and behind the
transporter.

Transporting Transformer weighing more than 50 tons from Visit to the Project Site by KSU, Ministry of Home Affairs All VIPs
Butterworth to the power station for installation. The item came to the project were ferried by Nuri Helicopters. Traveling by
was escorted by the armoured vehicles travelling in front road in any vehicles was extremely dangerous from 1972
and behind the transporter at all time until it had safely to1978.
arrived.

I
n 1972 the town of Grik was a village and the in Grik  Hence the name ‘Black Area’ was given
name is synonym to ‘Terrorist Nest’ according to such place for more than two decades from
to my doctor then in Young & Newton in PJ.  1948. Grik was like a ghost town after 10pm in
When my wife saw him for an anti-cholera jab, he those days!
quietly told her that the place was infested with We arrived with five small kids in February
terrorists. Yes, it was at that time but not now. 1972 and settled down in a small village called
Inside the jungle fringe and outside the villages, Kuala Rui. I assumed the post of Resident Engineer
curfew was inforced during day and night. No one of this mega project and begun the construction
was permitted to enter the site without a security of the access road to the dam site, about 30 km
permit jointly signed by the R.E. and the OCPD away from that small township.

54 THE INGENIEUR
From 1972 till its completion in 1978 the mega site. In those days we worked till late night in the
project was attacked by terrorists three times. At the office or at the site and it was the norm rather
height of their anti-development activity, we were than an exception! On retrospect I felt sorry for
protected day and night by three battalions and I some of my staff who had to work with me day
was co-opted into both the District and the State and night and during odd hours without a cent
Security Council. of reward. Imagine my frustration when my panel
As a result of terrorists’ threat to stop the project doctor prescribed me a tin of Glucerna SA recently.
and our security problem and the consequences of The TNB instructed the pharmacy not to provide
three serious attacks and loss of lives, the project it unless the patient wanted to pay for it. This is
had attracted not only the high ranking Government the shabby treatment or reward an 80 year old
officials but also local and foreign press. The project retiree gets from the government after sacrificing
also attracted a chain of international visitors led by the best part of his life working in a ‘Black Area’
security bosses or accompanied by ministerial VIPs. for more than 10 years!
From 1974 until its completion, the project had been It was a big relief and a great joy to these
visited by many DYMMs, almost all the ministers of workers and all the technical and administrative 
the day and their deputies including both the Deputy staff responsible for the construction and completion
PM and Prime Minister, Datuk Hussien Onn. of Temengor Project when the completion target
Their visits were by Nuri helicopters as the access date was achieved in 1978 without a day of
road was unsafe. This indicated the degree of danger delay.
under which we worked and the determination of One consolation of living in the rural area was that
the government to complete the project. We, the site we often met people who were extremely kind and
engineers, assistants and workers were like ‘a mouse helpful in time of need. They were not so mercenary
deer’ caught between two fighting elephants. or greedy. Even the politicians seemed to be
I found a great deal of my time was spent on meetings, exceptionally friendly. Our friendship, with the
briefings and showing visitors to the construction exception of some politicians, lasts until today!

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engineering nostalgia

The Changing Face of Old photo by: Paul Wang


New photo by: Ir. Simon Goh Say Keong

Kota Kinabalu (formerly Jesselton)


Jalan Pantai, KK (Beach Road)

Kota Kinabalu in 1978

Kota Kinabalu in 2009

56 THE INGENIEUR
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