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HR DOWNSIZING :LITERATURE REVIEW

One of the first exercise as a part of undertaking this module was to do a learning style exercise(adapted
from Kolb and McCarthy in Kolb ,1984) the score during the assessment detected the researcher as an
assimilator .This indicated the researcher has a qualitative preference, which involves the studied use and
collection of a variety of empirical materials-case study , personal experience, interview, observational,
interactional and visual text –that describe routine and problematic moments and meaning in individuals
lives(Denzin and Lincon , 1998).Studying in the natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or
interpret, phenomena in terms of meanings people bring to them are the main key distinguishing points of
qualitative approach which matches with the philosophical approach which the researcher wants to apply
for her study (Denzin and Lincon , 1998).Miller and Dingwall (1997)suggest that the quality research
provides a researcher with the different possibilities for “knowing” the social setting that they describe
and analyse. As the researcher topic is related closely to the human aspect and organization qualitative
research will support the topic as it is used to investigate issues involving the operations of institutions
and organizations in society and its effect on the people (Miller and Dingwall, 1997).As the purpose of
the study is to examine “Why” the company is going through restructuring and subsequently downsizing
and “How” it is going to impact on employees as well as the organization the researcher chose to use a
case study approach rather than a survey .

Methodological implication helps the researcher to avoid the highly structured deductive approach, which
is believed to prevent and ignore the penetration of subjectivity (Gill &Johnes, 2004). Gratton and Jones
(2004) believed that methodology implication provides an unstructured approach to allow the researcher
to get an access in people’s life without creating distortion which suits the case for research.

This study looks at the particular aspects of both the point of view of downsizing from the employee’s as
well as the management point of view .telephonic interview along with questionnaires will be conducted
as they can provide perceived casual inference from the actor’s point of view. The telephonic interview
along with questionnaires will be very helpful in investigating and exploring ITC Grand Central in India.

Nelson et al.,(1992) found that qualitative research can provide important insights and knowledge as it
utilizes the methods .approaches and techniques of ethno methodology, phenomenology, interviews,
psychoanalysis, cultural studies, survey research and participant observation, among others. Qualitative
research practice embraces two tensions at the same time on one side it is drawn to a brad ,interpretive ,
postmodern, feminist and critical sensibility and on the flip side it draws narrowly defined positivists ,
post positivist , humanistic and naturalistic concept of human experience ((Denzin and Lincon,1994).

Interview method is selected as it provides with a casual inference from the actor’s point of view which is
very desirable for the research. “interviewing is undoubtedly the most widely applied technique for
conducting systematic social inquiry as sociologists , psychologists ,administrators, politician and
pollsters treat interview as their ‘windows on the world’”(Hyman et al.,1975).sociolinguist Charles
Briggs(1986) argues that the social circumstanced off interview are more than obstacles to respondents’
articulation of their particular truths. He also state that like all other speech events, interviews
fundamentally, not incidentally, shape the form and content of what s said. As the research demands for a
in-depth replies about each question asked an active interview pattern has been chosen .active interview
pattern helps the interviewer to activate the respondent’s of knowledge and bring it to bear on the
discussion at hand in the ways that are appropriate to the research agenda (Schutz, 1967).Kvale (2006) in
his discussion highlights the importance of reflecting about the relationship that exist between the
interviewer and the interviewee. He extends his discussion saying that the interview as being “ruled” by
the interviewer, enacting one way dialogue. Taking in to consideration all the limitations telephonic
interviews is one of the methods chosen for the research.

Many research questions and research settings are there which cannot be investigated adequately without
reference to the production and the use of textual materials (Silverman, 1997).hence the other tool used
by the researcher is document analysis. The research document shouldn’t be considered as transparent
representations of organizations routine. Gathering the relevant documents helps in knowing how a
source came into being may be directly relevant both for understanding that was responsible for the
resulted situation and for assessing its reliability (Sapsford &Jupp, 1996).Telephonic interview and
document analysis are the data collection methods which are suited for the case study .The
researcher has taken an inductive qualitative approach as it provides the most insight into the
practiced organisation.