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Shahid Ali

Technical University Delft, the Netherlands

MSc (Nuclear Engineering), PIEAS Nilore Islamabad , Pakistan

MSc (Hydraulic & Irrigation Engineering), UET Taxila, Pakistan

BSc ( Civil Engineering), UET Taxila, Pakistan

Course Outlines

INTRODUCTION

Introduction, Basic definitions

Flow Classification, Normal flow, Velocity Distribution in open channels

Pressure Distribution (Hydrostatic and Non hydrostatic),Froude number & Reynolds

number

BASIC PRINCIPLES

Reynolds transport theorem

Conservation of Mass, Momentum and Energy

UNIFORM FLOW

Flow in rectangular and Non-rectangular channels

Critical flow, Specific energy, Flow resistance

Computation of uniform flow, Normal depth in compound channel, Channel design

GRADUALLY-VARIED FLOW

The gradually-varied-flow equation, Finding the friction slope

Profile classification, Qualitative examples of open-channel-flow behavior

Numerical solution of the GVF equation

RAPIDLY-VARIED FLOW

Hydraulic jump and energy dissipation

Specific energy, Critical-flow devices, Rapidly varied flow computation

Visualization of hydraulic jump, Characteristic of flow over weirs

Flow over spillway, ogee weir, Flow around piers

Flow in converging and diverging channel section, Forces on objects

UNSTEADY FLOW

Derivation St. Venant equations Shallow water wave

Kinematic wave theory, Diffusion wave theory

Hydraulic flood routing, Floodway and channel improvement

Introduction to Computational Hydraulics

softwares

RIC-Nays

SSIIM

HEC-RAS

Recommended Textbooks

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Chanson, H., 2004, Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction, 2nd Edition

Akan, A., O., 2006, Open Channel Hydraulics, 1st Edition

Chow, V.,T., 1959, Open Channel Hydraulics, 1st Edition

Chadwick, A.J., Morfett, J.C., and Borthwick, M., 2013, Hydraulics in Civil and

Environmental Engineering, 5th Edition

Hamill, L., 2011, Understanding Hydraulics, 3rd Edition

Basic Principles

2.Momentum Balance (Force Balance)

3.Energy Balance

Physical Processes

1. Diffusion

2. Convection/Advection

Distributed Routing

St. Venant equations

Continuity equation

Q A

0

x t

Momentum Equation

1 Q 1 Q 2

y

g g ( So S f ) 0

A t A x A

x

Flow is one-dimensional

Hydrostatic pressure prevails and vertical accelerations are

negligible

Streamline curvature is small.

Bottom slope of the channel is small.

Mannings equation is used to describe resistance effects

The fluid is incompressible

Continuity Equation

Q = inflow to the control volume

q = lateral inflow

Q

x

Q

with distance

Q

dx

x

( Adx)

t

Elevation View

Plan View

Change in mass

d

d V .dA

dt c.v.

c. s .

Continuity Equation

Q A

0

x t

(Vy) y

0

x

t

y

V y

y

0

x

x t

Conservation form

variable)

Momentum Equation

From Newtons 2nd Law:

Net force = time rate of change of momentum

d

F dt Vd VV .dA

c .v .

c.s .

Sum of forces on

the C.V.

Momentum stored

within the C.V

Momentum flow

across the C. S.

Fg = Gravity force due to

Elevation View

Plan View

Ff = friction force due to

shear stress along the bottom

and sides of the C.V.

Fe = contraction/expansion

force due to abrupt changes

in the channel cross-section

Fw = wind shear force due to

frictional resistance of wind

at the water surface

Fp = unbalanced pressure

forces due to hydrostatic

forces on the left and right

hand side of the C.V. and

pressure force exerted by

banks

Momentum Equation

d

F dt Vd VV .dA

c .v .

c.s .

Sum of forces on

the C.V.

Momentum stored

within the C.V

Momentum flow

across the C. S.

1 Q 1 Q 2

y

g g ( So S f ) 0

A t A x A

x

Momentum Equation

2

1 Q 1 Q

y

g g ( So S f ) 0

A t A x A

x

Local

acceleration

term

Convective

acceleration

term

Pressure

force

term

Gravity

force

term

Friction

force

term

V

V

y

V

g

g (So S f ) 0

t

x

x

Kinematic Wave

Diffusion Wave

Dynamic Wave

Momentum Equation

1 V V V y

So S f

g t g x x

Steady, uniform flow

Steady, non-uniform flow

Thanks

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