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Dr.

Shahid Ali

PhD Hydraulic & Water Resource Engineering (Fluid Dynamics)


Technical University Delft, the Netherlands
MSc (Nuclear Engineering), PIEAS Nilore Islamabad , Pakistan
MSc (Hydraulic & Irrigation Engineering), UET Taxila, Pakistan
BSc ( Civil Engineering), UET Taxila, Pakistan

Course Outlines
INTRODUCTION
Introduction, Basic definitions
Flow Classification, Normal flow, Velocity Distribution in open channels
Pressure Distribution (Hydrostatic and Non hydrostatic),Froude number & Reynolds
number
BASIC PRINCIPLES
Reynolds transport theorem
Conservation of Mass, Momentum and Energy
UNIFORM FLOW
Flow in rectangular and Non-rectangular channels
Critical flow, Specific energy, Flow resistance
Computation of uniform flow, Normal depth in compound channel, Channel design

GRADUALLY-VARIED FLOW
The gradually-varied-flow equation, Finding the friction slope
Profile classification, Qualitative examples of open-channel-flow behavior
Numerical solution of the GVF equation
RAPIDLY-VARIED FLOW
Hydraulic jump and energy dissipation
Specific energy, Critical-flow devices, Rapidly varied flow computation
Visualization of hydraulic jump, Characteristic of flow over weirs
Flow over spillway, ogee weir, Flow around piers
Flow in converging and diverging channel section, Forces on objects

UNSTEADY FLOW

Definitions, Height and celerity of surge waves


Derivation St. Venant equations Shallow water wave
Kinematic wave theory, Diffusion wave theory
Hydraulic flood routing, Floodway and channel improvement
Introduction to Computational Hydraulics
softwares
RIC-Nays
SSIIM
HEC-RAS

Recommended Textbooks

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Chaudhry, M. H., 2008, Open-Channel Flow, 2nd Edition


Chanson, H., 2004, Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Introduction, 2nd Edition
Akan, A., O., 2006, Open Channel Hydraulics, 1st Edition
Chow, V.,T., 1959, Open Channel Hydraulics, 1st Edition
Chadwick, A.J., Morfett, J.C., and Borthwick, M., 2013, Hydraulics in Civil and
Environmental Engineering, 5th Edition
Hamill, L., 2011, Understanding Hydraulics, 3rd Edition

Open Channel Flow

Typical Open Channel Shapes

Classification Of Flow Type

Basic Principles

1.Mass Balance (Continuity Equation)


2.Momentum Balance (Force Balance)
3.Energy Balance

Physical Processes
1. Diffusion
2. Convection/Advection

Distributed Flow routing in channels


Distributed Routing
St. Venant equations
Continuity equation

Q A

0
x t
Momentum Equation

1 Q 1 Q 2
y

g g ( So S f ) 0

A t A x A
x

Assumptions for St. Venant Equations


Flow is one-dimensional
Hydrostatic pressure prevails and vertical accelerations are

negligible
Streamline curvature is small.
Bottom slope of the channel is small.
Mannings equation is used to describe resistance effects
The fluid is incompressible

Continuity Equation
Q = inflow to the control volume

q = lateral inflow
Q
x
Q

Rate of change of flow


with distance

Q
dx
x

Outflow from the C.V.


( Adx)
t

Elevation View

Reynolds transport theorem

Plan View

Change in mass

d
d V .dA

dt c.v.
c. s .

Continuity Equation
Q A

0
x t

(Vy) y

0
x
t

y
V y
y

0
x
x t

Conservation form

Non-conservation form (velocity is dependent


variable)

Momentum Equation
From Newtons 2nd Law:
Net force = time rate of change of momentum

d
F dt Vd VV .dA
c .v .
c.s .
Sum of forces on
the C.V.
Momentum stored
within the C.V

Momentum flow
across the C. S.

Forces acting on the C.V.


Fg = Gravity force due to

Elevation View

Plan View

weight of water in the C.V.


Ff = friction force due to
shear stress along the bottom
and sides of the C.V.
Fe = contraction/expansion
force due to abrupt changes
in the channel cross-section
Fw = wind shear force due to
frictional resistance of wind
at the water surface
Fp = unbalanced pressure
forces due to hydrostatic
forces on the left and right
hand side of the C.V. and
pressure force exerted by
banks

Momentum Equation
d
F dt Vd VV .dA
c .v .
c.s .
Sum of forces on
the C.V.
Momentum stored
within the C.V

Momentum flow
across the C. S.

1 Q 1 Q 2
y

g g ( So S f ) 0

A t A x A
x

Momentum Equation
2

1 Q 1 Q
y

g g ( So S f ) 0

A t A x A
x
Local
acceleration
term

Convective
acceleration
term

Pressure
force
term

Gravity
force
term

Friction
force
term

V
V
y
V
g
g (So S f ) 0
t
x
x
Kinematic Wave
Diffusion Wave
Dynamic Wave

Momentum Equation
1 V V V y

So S f
g t g x x
Steady, uniform flow
Steady, non-uniform flow

Unsteady, non-uniform flow

Thanks