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GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN

NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY

RTSPCCIFICRTIONS
G€NCR
(DECEMBER- 1998)

Prepared& PresentedBy:

5F|':T1 FFIF<
INTERNATIONAL (PVT) LTD.
Engineering Design, Supervisionand ManagementConsultants

G-568,JoharTown,
Lahore,Pakistan.

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M. We have carried out amendments in the current General Specifications looking to the causes of disputes and reasons of failure of certain roads constructed in various parts of the country. A seminar was also arranged to discuss various maters. consultants and contractors of highway industry in Pakistan. however special attention of Contracts and SpecificationsSection of NationalHighwayAuthority under the guidanceof GhairmanNHA.A. which attracted representatives of various clients. We hope that this document will iontribute effectively in improvingthe workmanshipand qualityof highwayconstructionin Pakistan. besides getting the opinions of major contractors in Highway Industry.Shirazi) . (S. We also consulted different Directoratesof the Authority to know the problems felt by them during execution of highway projects. Addition of new items has also been made in the existing specifications to cater for future needs of NationalHighway Authority.FOREWORD Review and updating of General Specificationsof National Highway Authority (1991) became essential in light of new responsibilities entrusted by the Honorable Prime Ministerof Pakistanon this Agency to Construct Motorways and other important highways on internationalstandards. In order to assess the new requirementsof General Specifications we arranged series of meetings with other consultants of the Authority.. For SAMPAK International(Pvt) Ltd. which contributed in compilation of this important document. helped us to complete the assignment successfully. Our sincere thanks are due to several agencies.

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G-39 General EARTITVYORKAND ALLIED ACTIVITIES 101 Clearingand Grubbing.114-2 1 1 5 .1054 106-1.201-5 202-1.-1 1 1 5 .109. .100-4 101-1. 204 SoilCementStabilizedSubbaseand Base 205 Crack-ReliefLayer 203-1.108-7 109-1. .204-6 205-1.3 SUBBASEANp B. AI]THOnITY GEi\TERAI SPECII{CAIIONS Table of Contents Description Item No.101-2 102 Removalof Trees 102-1 103 Stripping 103-1 104 Compactionof NaturalGround 105 Roadway and Borrow Excavation 106 Excavationof Unsuitableor SurplusMaterial 104-1 105-1. .3 114-1..107-7 108-1.205-3 206 Water Bound MacadamBase .206-4 207 Deep Patching 207-'l . .2024 201 GranularSubbase 202 AggregateBase Course 203 AsphalticBase CoursePlant Mix .HIGEWAY NAIIONAI. 107 General 107-1. 206-1. 114 Dressingand Compactionof Berms 115 Reinstatementof Shouldersfrom Brick Kiln Material -'t12-4 112-1 1 1 3 .203-13 204-1. . .t104 .4 StructuralExcavationand Backfill 108 Formationof Embankment 109 SubgradePreparation 110 lmprovedsubgrade 111 Soil Cement StabilizedSubgrade 112 Lime StabilizedSubgrade '113 BitumenStabilizedSubgrade 110-1-'.106-2 Item-100 . 100-1.{SE Item -200 General 200-1.111-5 111-1 . Page G-1.200-3 201-1.-1 1 1 3 .

1.2 1 4 .211-4 212-1..2 1 7 .1..307-5 308-1.4 0 5 .305-6 .215-5 zt5 ColdRecycling of RoadPavementStructure / SoilStabilization .1.402-4 403 Form work 403-1.:.4 2 1 2 BitumenStabilizedSub-Baseor Base 215-1..Item No.213-4 2 1 4 AsphalticConcreteBinderCourse 2 1 4 .3 11 ..304-7 305-1.3 1 0 ..1. 309-1.403_4 404 SteelReinforcement 404-1..2Og-2 208 Reinstatementof Road Surface 209 Scarification of ExistingRoad/ Breakingof RoadPavement Structure 210 Page PavementWidening 211 LimeStabilizedAggregateBaseCourse 209-1 210-1.8 ProofRolling 312-1 STRUCTURES Item -400 General 400(4)Bridgesand Cutverts 4OO-1.309-2 3 1 0 .Mac 308 Hot Recyclingof AsphaltConcrete 309 ColdMilling ?1n ConcretePavements ? 11 AsphaltConcreteWearingCourse(PlantMix)with 312 303-1.104-5 105 PrestressedConcreteStructures 4 0 5 .3 0 1 . Description 208-1.303-2 304-1.2 6 CelluloseFibre 3 ' t1 .1 0 .1.210-2 211-1.302-4 301 AsphalticMaterials 302 BituminousPrimeCoat .401_33 402 Falsework and Centeringfor Bridges 402.215-6 216-1'216-2 215 Geotextiles 216 SolingStone . 2 1 7 Interlocking ConcretePavingBlocks 2 1 7 .3 d 302-1.303 BituminousTack Coat 304 BituminousSurfaceTreatmentand Seal Coat 305 AsphalticConcreteWearingCoursePlantMix 306-1.306-3 307-1..308-2 306 ShoulderTreatment 307 Bit .4OO_2 400(z\)_1-400(A)_3 401 Concrete 401_j. 213-1.1.5 SURFACECOURSESAND PAVEIVIENT Item-300 General 300-1 3 0 1 .1.

.504-3 505-1.5 11 . 411 Randomand DressedUncoursedStone Masonry 412 DressedCoursedStone Masonry 413 SteelStructures . 503-1. . WingWalls.411-3 412-1.507-g 508-1.GuttersandChannels.Item No.502-2 503 UnderDrain .Parapets.3 5 11 .Aprons andSiphonInlets/ Ouflets 505 Manholes s06 DroplnletsandCatchBasins 507 Gabions 508 BrickPaving 509 RipRapandReinforced ConcreteSlopeprotection 5 1 0 Dismantling of Structures andStonepitching 5 1 1 StonePitching 512 DitchLiningandWashChecks 504-'1.605-2 606 BridgeRailing 607 TrafficRoadSignsandSafetyDevices 606-1.506-3 507-1.5054 506-1.607-10 . 409 Well Foundation 410 BrickMasonry. ApproachSlabs. 408 Sheet Piling .410-3 411-1.604-3 605-1.509-5 5 1 0 .7 502-1.602-4 603 BrickEdging 603-1 604 MetalBeamGuardRail 605 ConcreteBeamGuardRail .5 1 0 . Page 406-1.503-2 504 Headwalls.1.5 0 1 .1.606-2 607-1. .413-21 DRAINAGEANDEROSIONWORKS Item-500 General 500-1 501 ReinforcedConcretePipe Culverts 502 Beddingor Encasement of ConcretepipeCulverts 5 0 1 .1. I Description 406 JointsandBearingDevicesfor concreteStructures 407 Piling . 604-1.3 512-1.512-3 ANCILLARY WORKS Item-600 General 600-1 601 ConcreteKerbs.4A8-3 409-1.508-2 509-1.407-23 408-1. 602 AsphaltConcrete andCementConcrete SideWalk 601-1.412-6 413-1.601-6 602-1.406-8 407-1..409-6 410-1.

Equipand MaintainLaboratory 704 Maintenanceof Works for one year after Completion 703-1 '703-2 704-1 (Periodof Maintenance). .4 MISCELLANEOUS Item -701 702 Provrsionof SurveyTeams and Instruments 701-1 Provide. .608-13 608 PavementMarking 609 Reflectorized Pavement Studs 610 PrecastConcretePosts and Markers 611 Fencing 612 Furnishingand PlantingTrees.Equipand MaintainOfficeFacilityand Residence for the Engineer(BaseCamp Facility) 703 for the Project Provide.2 612-1 . Removal/Relocation Equipments MajorConstruction Recommended 705-1'705-2 706-1' 706-2 707-1 M-1.1.''' 706 of Traffic Controland Protection 707 of Utilities. .6 1 3 .612-9 6 1 3 .610-2 6 1 1 .1' 6 1 1 .M-4 .Shrubsand GroundCover 613 Spriggingand Sodding. DescriPtion Page 608-1.609-4 610-1. 609-1 .' Item No. ' 705 T e m p o r a r y R o a d W o r k s 702-1 .702-2 .

4 Equipment Nunrberand kind of Equipmentrequiredfor differentitems of work shall be planned by the contractor keeping in view the workmanshiprequired by a particularitem and the quantityof finrsheditem requiredto be carried out in eighthoursshift. Subsequent in General have been covered these probable of with indication their give of work an would a list of such items of works. GeneralSpecifications keepingin consideration that followingtypes of activitiesare being carried out in this organization: i) Construction of Motorways. G-1 .S.Bridgesand alliedworks.However this procedure shall not relieve the Contractor of his contractualobligationspertainingto performanceand maintenanceof project.GENERAL l. 1.1 Introduction Preamble have been producedfor NationalHighwayAuthority.The materialsto be used shall conform to specificationsand testing procedures as per AmericanAssociationof State Highwayand Transpo:'tationOfficials (AASHTO). 1. and maintenance All the abovethree aspectsof construction.Samples of materialsfor laboratorytests and their subsequentapprovalshall be utilized accordingto these references. and lmprovementof existingroad network. in case of the above three categories t.new Highways.rehabilitation chapters Specifications.) as indicatedin their latest editions. ii) Rehabilitation iii) Maintenance of existingroadsand structures.The Engineershall approvesuch planningor any cnanges shall be proposedfor guidance of the Contractor.who can perform executionwith quality and workmanshipcontrol in accordance with the requirementsof the work item. 1.2 Standards These Specifications describe the requirements and procedures for executionof work items to achieve requiredworkmanshipand quality. the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) or British Standard(B.3 ManDower Contractorshall also provideskilled manpowerin adequatenumber. use.

are equalto. Nothingin this clause shall relievethe contractor of his responsibility for furnishingmaterialsor producingfinishedwork of the qualityspecifiedin thesespecifications.6 Storageof Materials Articles or materialsto be incorporatedin the work shall be stored in such a manner as to ensure the preservationof their quality and fitness for the work.in the opinionof the Engineer. 1.it shall be understoodthat such permissionis grantedfor the purposeof testing the qualityof work actually produced by such equipment and is subject to continuous attainmentof resultswhich. unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer.permissionfrom the Engineerto use equipmentof a differentsize or type in place of the equipmentspecifiedor recommendedin thesechapters. or betterthan. lf such permissionis grantedby the Engineer. that which can be obtainedwith the equipmentspecified.evidenceto satisfythe Engineerthat the equipmentproposedfor use by the contractoris capableof producing work equal to or betterin qualitythan.in writing.removeand dispose off or othena/seremedy. The contractormay request. that which can be producedby the equipmentspecified.to that which can be produced by the equipment specified. No rejected material. Neitherthe Employernor the contractorshall have any claim againstthe other for either the withholdingor the granting of permissionto use alternativeequipment.5 AlternativeEquipment while few of these specifications may providethat equipmentof a particular size and type is to be used to perform portionsof the work.at his expense.may requirethe contractorto furnish. it is to be understoodthat the deploymentand use of new or improvedequipmentis to be encouraged. t.the defects of which have been subsequenilycorrected.and to facilitateinspection.beforeconsideringor grantingsuch request. They shall be removedimmediatelyfrom the site of the work.at his expense.shall be used in the v-z .1. The Engineer. the contractor will be requiredto use the equipmentoriginallyspecifiedand shall.7 DefectiveMaterials All materialswhich the Engineerhas determinedas not conformingto the requirementsof the drawingsand specifications will be rejectedwhetherin placeor not.or for the withdrawalof such permission. The Engineershall have the rightto withdrawsuch permissionat any time when he determinesthat the alternativeequipmentis not producingwork of equal quality in all respects. Upon withdrawalof such permission by the Engineer.in accordancewith the directionsof the Engineer.any defectiveor unsatisfactorywork producedwith the alternative equipment.

the Contractor shall furnish materialfrom such designatedmandatorysources. marble powder etc. The Engineershall be the sole judge as to the of alternativearticlesor materialsand his decisionshall qualityand suitability be final. The furnishing of quarry materialsfrom any source is subject to the and item of Work". under be designated may work in the incorporated be articlesor materialsto information.and for doing all the work involved in conformingto the provisionsin this clause. Full compensationfor furnishingall labour. provisionsof "Examination Unlessapprovedin writing by the Engineer.the Engineershallhaveauthorityto cause the removalof rejectedmaterialand to deductthe cost thereoffrom any paymentsdue or to becomedue to the Contractor.work. 1.obtainedon the project.make any arrangementsnecessaryfor haulingover localpublicand privateroadsfrom any source.equipment.Upon failureof the Contractorto complypromptlywith any order of the Engineer made underthe provisionsin this clause.8 Ouarry Materials Quarrymaterialts rock. The Contractorshall.9 TradeNamesand Alternatives certain For conveniencein designationon the plansor in the specifications.for furnishingand producingmaterialsfrom any sourceshallbe consideredas includedin the pricepaid for the contractitem of work involvingsuch materialand no additionalcompensationwill be allowedtherefor.materials. Quarry materialdoes not includematerialssuch as cement. G-3 . sand gravel. 1.subjectto requiredcharacteristics the followingrequirements: of proofas to qualityand suitabilityof alternativesshallbe The responsibility uoon the Contractorand he shall furnrsh all informationnecessaryas requiredby the Engineer.tools.exceptthat when mandatorylocal sourcesof certainmaterials are designatedin the Special Provisions. lime.materialSourcesshall not be excavatedat locationswhere the resultingscars will presentan unsightly appearancefrom any highway.other than local borrow or selected material. obtainedfrom establishedcommercialsources.and incidentals.or other mineralmaterial.Specifications. catalogue the and manufacturer of a a trade name or the name The use of an alternativearticleor materialthat is of equalqualityand of the for the purposeintendedwill be permitted.earth. of drawings.at his expense. unless approvalin writing has been given by the Engineer. No payment will be made for material obtainedin violationof this provision. QuarryMaterialsshall be furnishedby the Contractorfrom any source he may select.

all pointsof intersection and of tangentsand basic benchmarks.or a test designationeitherof the AmericanSocietyFor Testingand Materials. l.Wheneverthe specifications permitthe substitution of a similaror equivalent material or article. hardware. and the numberor otheridentification representing the year of adoptionor latestrevisionis omitted.when materialthat cannot be identifiedwith specifictest reportsis proposedfor use.withoutcharge. samplesof all materialsenteringintothe work and no materialshallbe used prior to approvalby the Engineer. no tests or action relating to the approvalof such substitutematerialwill be made untilthe requestfor the substitution is made in writingby the contractoraccompaniedby completedata as to the equality of the materialor articleproposed.whenever said specification manualor test designation provides for test reports (such as certified mill test reports) from the manufacturer. Unidentifiedmetal products such as sheet plate.the contractorshall furnish. 1.L2 ConstructionStakes.it shall mean the specificaiion.together with rates of superelevationwhere required.shall be furnishedto the Engineer.Linesand Grades The Engineer will furnish design survey data and joinfly locate with contractor.includingthose requiredfor retest.copiesof such reports.10 Frequencyof Tests& TestDesisnation Frequency of tests for the items of constructionhas been given in subsequentchapters. The plans indicatethe propertiesof horizontaland vertical curves.samples of materialfrom local sources shall be taken by or in the presenceof the Engineer.Test designationand procedurewill be used ls given in the latestversionof relativepublication. The contractor shall set G-4 .all tests shall be performedin accordancewith the methodsused by AASHTO/ASTMand shall be made by the contractor underthe supervisionof the Engineeror his designatedrepresentative. manual or test designation in effect on the day 30 days prior to the date for submissionof bids. whenever a reference is made in the specificationsto a specification manual.shall be preparedin accordance with the referenced specification and furnished by the contractorat his expense.identifiedas to the lot of material. t.1l Testing Unlessotheruvise specified.such requestshall be made well in time to permitapprovalwithoutdelayingthe work.Test specimensfrom the random samples.or any othei recognizednational organization. FederalHighwayspecification.etc.the AmericanAssociationof state Highwayand rransportation officials. when desiredby the Engineer. select random samplesfrom the lot for testing.The numberof such samplesand test specimens shall be entirely at the discretionof the Engineer. the Engineerwill determinethe test to be used. at his discretion.the Engineermay. shall be subject to the test requirements prescribedby the Engineer.otherurrise the samples will not be consideredfor testing. whenever the specificationsprovidean option between two or more tests.

proceedings.approvedbefore the commencementof the works.These stakes and marks shall constitutethe field control by and in accordancewith which the contractorshallestablishothernecessarycontrolsand performthe work. L. The profilesand cross sectionson the plansindicatethe elevationof the top of road surface or as otherwisenoted on the plans. G-5 .Any deviation from the provisionof contractdrawings. The Engineer shall check and approve or return the same to the Contractor for correction/modification. The contractorshall be responsiblefor the preservationof all stakes and marks.the Contractorshall keep an accurate record of all deviationsof work as actuallyinstalledfrom that shown or indicatedon the ContractDrawingsor revisedduring construction. slopes.costs. protectiveand accessorystructuresand appurtenancesand will furnish the Engineerwith the originalcopy of the field notestogetherwith all necessary informationrelatingto lines.13 As-Built Drawinss/ShonDrawinss During construction. demands. in the opinion of the Engineer.constructionstakes establishinglines. culvertwork. before or after stakeout.t4 Utilitv Lines The Contractorshallconducthis operations.No change in bid unit pricewill be madefor such modifications. take suitableprecautionsand performall requiredworks incidentalto the protection of and avoidance of interference with power transmission. lf. and centerlineand benchmarksfor bridgework. the Contractorwill replacethem at his own expense. the Engineer will issue detailed instructionsto the Contractorfor such modificationand the Contractorwill revisethe stakeoutfor furtherapproval.slopes.and continuousprofile-grade in roadwork. and if any of the constructionstakes or marks has been destroyed or disturbed. All shop drawings/fabrication drawingsshall be prepared by the Contractor and submittedto the Engineerbeforethe start of the work. slopes and grades. 1. All works are to be executed in accordancewith shop drawings.the Contractorshalldeliverall "As Built"drawingsto the Engineer. grades.Upon completionof the Works.telephoneand naturalgas lines.make necessaryarrangements. charges and expenses whatsoever arising out of or in relation to any such interference.and othersurveywork. telegraph.modificationof the line or grade is advisable. Shop drawingsshouldtruly reflectthe provisionsof typicaldrawings.Shallnot be allowedunlesswritten approvalis issuedby the Engineer. The Contractorshall be responsiblefor the accuracyof all lines. oil lines water and sewerage mainsand otherutilitieswithinthe areasof his operationsin connectionwith his contract and the Contractorshall save harrnlessand indemnifythe Employerin respect of all claims.

materials and equipmentfor the purposeof or in connectionwith the Contract.15 SafetrPrecautions. or replacedat the Contractor's expenses.replacement. Upon orderof the Engineer. Lr-O . which have been rejected.and the plans/drawings. l.All works done and all maierials furnishedshall be subjectto inspectionby Engineer.shall be remedied.unauthorized work shall be remedied.it is understood that the Employerdoes not guarantee that everysuch methodof construction or type of equipmentcan be used successfullythroughoutall or any part of any project. The inspectionof the work or materialsshall not relievethe Contractorof any of his obligations to fulfillhis contractas prescribed. have safe access to the work during its construction.and shall be furnished with every reasonablefacility for ascertainingthat the materialsand the workmanshipare in accordancewith the requirementsand intentions of these specifications.l8 AlternativeMethodsof Construction wheneverthe plansor specifications providethat more than one specified methods of constructionor more than one specifiedtype of construction equrpmentmay be use to perform portions of the work and leave the selectionof the methodof construction or the type of equipmentto be used up to the contractor.or any extrawork done withoutwrittenauthority will be consideredas unauthorized work and will not be paidfor. Upon failure of the contractorto comply prompflywith any order of the Engineer made under this ltem.not withstanding that such work or materialshave been previouslyinspectedby the Engineeror that paymenttherefor has been includedin a progressestimate.the special Provisions.l6 Inspection The Engineershall.or removedand replacedby the contractorin an acceptablemanner and no compensation will be allowedto him for such removal.or replacedand to deductthe costsfrom any paymentdue or to becomedue to the contractor. at all times.Work and materials not meetingsuch requirements shall be made good and unsuitablework or materialsmay be rejected.healthand welfareof persons and for the preventionof damage to works.t7 Removal of Reiected and Unauthorized Work All works.lt shall be the Contractor'sresponsibility to select and use the alternativeor alternatives. l. The contractorshalladequatelyprovidefor the safety. the Emproyermay cause rejected or unauthorized work tq be remedied. whichwill satisfactorily performthe work underthe conditionsencountered.1. t. Any work done beyond the lines and grades shown on the plans or establishedby the Engineer.removed.removed.or remedialwork.

Trial sections shall be prepared for each type of road pavement layer. SupplementarY SpecialProvisions.ardSpecificationsis a part of contractdocumentswhich shall be read in conjunctionwith the followingcontractdocumentswhich are mutually explanatoryto one another and mentionedhereunder. grades. to bidders. Contractorwill provide in the methodology. r. Conditionsof ContractPart. minimumof followinginformations i) Equipmentto be used.shown on the plans or indicatedin the specifications. contractorshall be responsiblefor the qualityof work.sampling and testingmay be consideredevidenceas to such conformity. Scope The Stand.Althoughmeasurement.l.20 Trial Section Contractorshall submit completemethodologyof trial sectionfor approvalof the Engineer.ll. Drawings. rr. 2. Conditionsof ContractPart. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) ContractAgreement. 1. Letterof accePtance.the followingabbreviations as follows: intentand meaningshallbe interpreted G-7 . iv) Resultsof tests. GeneralSpecifications. Work and materialsshall conform to the lines.the Engineer shallbe the solejudge as to whetherthe work or materialsdeviatefrom the plans and specifications.includingtolerances. conditions.are not feasibleor it is necessaryto use ln the eventsome of the alternatives on more than one of the alternatives any project.1LayerthrcknessadoPted iii) Per day production.full compensationfor any additionalcost involvedshall be consideredas includedin the contractprice paid for the item of work involved and no additionalcompensationwill be allowedthereof. cross sections. The bid and Appendices"A to L" 3.19 Conformitvrn'ithContractDocumentsand AllowableDeviations.with the order of precedenceas givenin the Conditionof Contract.and his decision relating to any allowable deviationstherefromshallbe final. Instruction Addenda. Abbreviationsand Definitions Wherever in these specificationsor in other contract documents the and termsor pronounsin placeof them are used. Inspite of the approval of Engineer for trial section. dimensionsand materialrequirements.

Litre mm Millimeter cm. Weight Lb. ASTM AmericanSocietyfor Testingand Material AWG AmericanWire Gauge AWPA AmericanWood PreserversAssociation BS BritishStandardCode of Practice ACr AmericanConcreteInstitute FHWA U. Pound AWS AmericanWeldingSociety Gallon U.Gallon In.3.S. Centimeter M Meter Km Kilometer SM SquareMeter degree Sq.S. Yard Ltr. SquareCentimeter CM CubicMeter ha Hectare Kg Kilogram Ton MetricTon (1000Kg) oc DegreeCentigrade oF DegreeFahrenheit G-8 . Foot Yd. cm.FederalHighwayAdministration PCA PortlandCementAssociation wt. Inch Ft.1 Abbreviations AASHTO AmericanAssociationof State Highwayand TransportationOfficials.

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usuallyroundedby weathering or abrasion. facility. or railroad highway. pedestrian.structural member. BaseCourse The layerof specifiedmaterialand thicknessplacedimmediatelybelow the surfacing. Blindins Layer A layerof concreteor othermaterial(Generally thin)coveringthe surface groundor fill. Boulder A rock fragment.or other traffic over a water course. Beldar Unskilledlabour employed on maintenance gangs for canals or roads. under or around any obstructionand with a clear span of more than6. Boundary Limitof right-of-wayor other zones. over. Bridse Any structure other than a culveft. Bill of Ouantities and Iist of Prices A listshowing workquantities and specifying unitpriceand/orlumpsum for specificitemsof work. Bid/Tender Price The sum of the products of the quantities of work with the quoted prices in the Tender by the Contractor. Batten Beam.with an average dimension of 10centimeters or more.Barrage A low dam or weir across a river equippedwith a series of gates to regulatethe water surface level above the weir.50M. which carries a utility. G-10 .forminga stablesurfaceon whichfurtherwork of excavated maybe constructed.

A volumeequivalent Cuboid Crushedstoneparticleswith eachface fracturedand in roughlycuboid shape. G-11 . proposesand with a clearspanof 6'5 roadwayfor drainageor irrigation M or less. Catchment The watershed or area which contributes runoff to a drain or other channel.0M x 1. Construction Limit limitof a projectis area betweenleft & rightside of catch Construction thislimit whereas in caseof Structures pointsof roadunderconstruction.for example. dike or levee (generally associated with training or containing the flow of rivers). Cusec A rateof flowof onecubicfootpersecond.Bund - A continuous embankment.0M. Contractor for withthe Employer/Client contracting firm or corporation The individual work. ry 'Railroad-cum-road' bridge. performance of the prescribed Contract Price The sum of the productsof the quantitieswith the agreed prices appearing in the 'agreement'between the Contractor and the Engineer/Employer. With or associated with . Culvert otherthan a bridgewhichprovidesan openingundera Any structure. permanent structure of willextendto areawhichis requiredfor execution Cubic Meter to 1.0M x 1.

which leavesthe main.subbase.for the uninterrupted flow of traffic.typical cross-sections. producedby the physicaland chemicaldisintegration of rock. G-12 .dimensionsand detailsof the work.material. Formsor Formvvork - Shutteringincludingsupportsand falsework.revised drawings and supplementaldrawings.character.togetherwiththe necessarysuppliesfor up keep and maintenanceand also tools and apparatusnecessaryfor the properconstruction and acceptablecompletionof the work. whichshowthe location. Engineer The duly authorizedrepresentative of the client/Employerfor controlling the project site. Detour(Diversion) A temporaryroadway. acting directly or through his duly authorized representatives. who is responsiblefor engineeringsupervisionof the work. and which may or may not containorganicmatter. profiles.Forceaccount. Earth sediments or other unconsolidatedaccumulationsof solid particles. FlexitrlePavementStructure Any combinationof improved subgrade. Ettuipment All machineryand equipment. Fir Any item of construction which requiresspecialplacementin the works. Drarvings The approvedplans(drawings).and plantused . base and asphalt surfacingplacedon the subgradeto supportthe trafficload and reduce its intensityat the subgradesurface.routeand rejoinit later.Daywork Work to be paidfor on the basisof actuallabour.or exact reproductionthereof.

Highway A general term denotingpublic way for purposes of vehiculartravel. Godown Warehouse.Frustrationof a Contract Rendered impossibleof performanceby external cause beyond the of the Parties.storeroomor storageshed' Grade the top surfaceof the proposed The trace of a verttcalplaneintersecting center-lineof the roadbed. Gravel small sized stone. Kilometer A distanceequalto1000meters. gradient of such trace according or either elevation Profilegrade means to the context. includingthe entirearea withinthe right-of-way. longitudinal the along usually wearingsurface.petrol.shingleor rock fragmentsusuallyroundedin shape formedfrom rocksor bouldersby glacialor weatheringaction GuideBank (for Bund) A protectiveand trainingembankmentor leveefor directingriverflow.in ruralareas-highway in urbanareas-highway Install To place in special position any hardware. contemplation Gang Header Experiencedworkmanor labourinchargeof small groupsof workmenor labour. G-13 .(RecommendedUsage: or road)' or street. equipmentor fixture for completinga job. Gasoline Motorspirit.

Materials Any substancespecifiedfor use in the constructionof the project and its appurtenances. which maybe designated bythe Engineer. Levelins Course The layer of specifiedmaterialof variablethickness placed generallyon an existingroad surface to compensatefor depressionsand undulations in order to conect grades and cross falls accordingto design. Pe$od of Mqintenance Periodof maintenanceshall mean the periodof contractor. paved (roadway).Laboratory A testinglaboratoryapprovedby NHA or any testihglaboratory.smaintenance named in the contract.280feet. dry or in cement mortaras specified. Metalled(roadwav) Surfaced.610M) Monsoon The rainy season associated with the south-west monsoon. brickworkor other materialsplaced usuallyon side slopes of Embankmentsfor protectionof the earth surface. G-14 . Pitchins or Rin-Ran Brokenstone.calculatedfrom the date of completionof the work as certified by the Hand-over committee. (1. Mile Distanceof 5. Motor Spirit Octroi - A municipalfeefor municipalservices.

Prime Cost A net sum enteredin the Bill of Quantitiesby the employeras the sum providedto coverthe cost of or to be paid by the Contractorto merchants or others for specificarticles or materialsto be suppliedafter deducting all trade discountsand any discountfor cash' Provide To make availablean item for a certainperiod/timeor indefinitetime as the case maYbe.usuallyequippedwith gates.of flow in the canalor an off takingchannel.usuallyin a strip.This sum may or may not be utilisedin full or partially throughthe contractor' Regulator A canal structure. acquiredfor or devotedto transportationpurposes' Roadside A general term denoting the area adjoining the outer edge of the roadway. ProvisionalSum Any sum of money fixed by the Employerand includedin the Bill of Quantitiesto provide for work not otherwise included thereln. Rieht-of-wav (ROW) A general-termdenotingland.or interesttherein.eitherwhollyor in part underthe or the Enginee/s directionin accordance Lmployer'sRepresentatives with Contract. for control. Return Report Revetment(Material) - Rock.or checking. property. A provisionalsum is onlyto be expended. Extensiveareas between the roadwaysof a divided highway may also be consideredroadside' Roadwav The portionof a highwaywithin limitsof construction' G-15 .

railroadties. levels and gradesto whichthe construction worksare to be carriedout.culverts. SoilBinder Portionof Soil passing0.The layer of specifiedmaterialand thicknessplaced betweenthe base courseand subgrade. G-16 . Shinsle See Aggregates. Settingout Layingout or staking out-establishing on the site the lines.drop inlets retainingwalls. coveringconditionsparticularto an individual contract. manholes. SleeDers Crossties. Spoil-Banb Disposalareafor excessexcavation.catch basins. headwalls. and for lateral supportof baseand surfacecourses.for emergencyuse. Subbase .425mm (# 40) sieve. Structures Bridges. spoiltip or wastedump. Shoulders The portion of the roadway contiguous with the traveled way for accommodation of stoppedvehicles.Scaffoldine Arrangementof struts/columns/pipes to support shuttering or other platforms.service pipes causewayslrish bridges and other"features whichmay be encounteredin the work and not otherwiseclassedherein. SpecialProvisions Additions and revisionsto the standard specificationsand General conditions of contract. Sidewalk That portion of the roadway primarily constructedfor the use of pedestrians.

plB lesodo.qnS .t6 I-Iildn$ 'IUOtUAAeO 'aslnoc acepns ala:cuoo alaJcuoc Jo lleqdse 1o (6utssalp oce1.td isFEeI 'slseq luaueulad uo uteltIue lonllepo16ulueau A.Lt-9 'salclLlaA Aennpa.itdnS 'sauer] pt6t.to aulocul uo xe] luelsl)ed V IEt.ueutt.t 's.d .eslnoo6uttea14.ettaleLu trlelu-rea'iJ.quS 'paceldaq ol seq 'Lo) uo (]ueuu>lueqLua peqpeolaq] lo la^alleql lprlaleuipeol laqlo LlctL.enn to 'sueds 6unn'sllemIceq 6ulpn..t.q-flS palcnllsuooale sqlnc 6ulpnlcutsloplnoqs puE soJnlcnJls]uouja^Bdeq1qcrqnn uodn peqpeoi e Jo acepns dol aq1 tF-Br5.lM i5^fl€lTiE.eAel ssau)ctlll lsoLueddn eq1 alarcuoo lleqdse ue lo 1o Ssrno-5@nS ']uoro ro ourocutJo lanol utepaoe anoqe..lnsJo sad^f lsotueddn aqf ro {ennpalaneJlaq} uo paceldletJa}eupetltcads1o rer(e1 .enerle Jo uoluodleql Jo ourl al6urse Jo luouanoul aLl]Duhnolle ffiTffirrr'repuel e butptuuqns lo tuJUV lenplnlpul rSlmue.cut snonurluocpue alduts .umrn-S '.o s6utleaqelll Molaqornlcnrlse jo ued lelll ]o llv SrIuinilsqES 'uorlezrltqels paqpeolJo uollec4lpoy\1 Aq .pP'J. pallecosle :]uauaned palilcads ..lns 'raplnoLls 1oq) luauleaJl ocelns Jo lstsuoc Ieu Outce.o.

e.o. or any other supplementaryplansor similardata which the contractoris required to submitto the Engineerfor approval. Variation Order A documentcompiledto includechanges.unpaved(roadway)/dirt road. G-18 . Written Undertakins A written promise. Work The work shall mean the furnishingof all labour.form work plans. materials.equipment and other incidentals necessary.Unmetalled(Roadwav) Unsurfaced. Wason (railway) A railroadfreightcar. for the sanctionof the competent Authorityand shall includeincreaseor decreasein quantitiesor rates also. Wavleave Permissionto cross land. . cofferdam plans.erectionplans.substitutionsand additional work items not coveredin the B.rightof entryas definedin the land acquisition act of the Governmentof Pakistan. Well A concreteor masonrycaissonincorporated in foundations. Working Drawings Stress sheets. or convenient to the successful completionof the projectand carryingout of all the dutiesand obligations imposedby the contract.shop drawings. bending diagrams for reinforcingsteel.falseworkplans.

TABLE FOR SAMPLING ANI) TESTING FREQUENCY .

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SC]HEDL]LEFOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF EIVIBANKMEN'TAND SUBGRADE fiTEtVINO. 109. AASHTOT-191 1/200M. AASHTOM-.2. . 108TO 113) Test Material Soil Designation Sam. 2a n d 1 1 0 . 2e t c .2. ASTM D-4254-83 ' t 1 1 .2etc. CBR AASHTOT-193 M. 2( c ) MoistureDensity (Lab) or RelativeDensity.193 1 / 2 .llingand Testing Frequencv Reference Classification. AASHTOT-180 1t2.000 As per ltem 1 0 8 .2etc ref. 110. 0 0c0M . As per ltem 1 0 8 . Swelling AASHTOT.2. Density FieldDensity. 109.2.I45 1/2. 0 0M0.5.000 cM As per ltem 108. As per ltem '108. 109. As per ltem 1 0 83 .000 M. 1/2.3.2etc.

2 .2 Abrasion AASHTO T-96 3/Sourceplus 1/500CM -do- Moisture Density. AASHTO T-89 and T-90 3/Source plus as required baseon visualobservation.2 0 1 . 201) Test Material Aggregate Designation Sampling and Testing Frequency Reference Gradation AASHTO T.SCHEDULE F'OR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF'GRANULAR SUBBASE (rTEM NO. 4 . 3 . Sand Equivalent AASHTO T-176 3/source plus as required As per ltem basedon visualobservation. 2 0 1 . -do- MSHTO T-193 3/Source plus as required based on variation in gradationor 1/'1000 CM -do- CBR As per ltem No. N o . 400 M laid. AASHTO T-180 1 / 1 0 0 0c M -do- FieldDensity AASHTO T-191. 3 As per ltem Minimum/layerif less than N o .201.27 plus1/1000CM 3/Source PlasticityIndex. T-238 and f -239 4llayerl400 M laid.

As peritem 202.2(a) Gradation AASHTO T-27 3/Sourceplus 1/'1000M PlasticityIndex.2(f) .2(c) Sodium Sulphate Soundness AASHTO T-104 plus1/5. Visual plusas required As per ltem 3/Source basedon visualobservation.2(b) MoistureDensity. FieldDensity.2(d) Fracturedfaces. AASHTO T-89 and T-90 3/Sourceplus as required As perltem basedon visualobservatron. M laid3 4llayerl400 minimum/layer if lessthan 400M laid.2(e) G-21 As perltem 202.202) Test Material Aggregate Designation Sampling and Testing Frequencv Reference As perltem 202.202.3.202.3. 202.3.SCHEDULEFOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF AGGREGATE BASE COURSE (rTEM NO. Abrasion AASHTO T-96 3/Sourceplus 1/5. Sand Equivalent AASHTO T-176 As per ltem 3/sourceplusas required basedon visualobservation.3.000 3/Source CM As per ltem 202. AASHTO T-191or T-238 and T-239. AASHTO T-180 1 / 1 0 0 c0M As perltem 203.2(e) CBR AASHTO T-193 pileplusas 3/Source/stock requiredbase on variationin gradation.000CM As perltem 202.

AASHTO T-228 2/Shipment. As per ltem 203.2.1 6 4 T-30 AASHTO T .SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE PLANT NIIX (ITEM NO. tank at staggered intervals. I i 2lday'sproduction. 1( d ) SpecificGravity.1 Flatand Elongated Visual Particle. For use in preparation ofJMF. AASHTO T-84 4/Source. 3iSourceplusas required As per ltem basedon visualobservation. FriableParticles AASHTO T .1 7 6 AASHTO T-89 andT-90. 1( b ) Stripping AASHTO T_-I82 3/Sourceplus2/5000CM Fracturedfaces Visual 3/Sourceplusas required As per ltem basedon visualobservation 203. Penetration AASHTO T-49 3/Weekof plantoperation As per ltem Samplestakenfromheating 203. AASHTO T .2.2. .2. 2 . AASHTO T . As per ltem 243.1(e) SpecificGravity.1 1 2 2/5000cM SpecificGravity. Extraction Gradation B u l kS p G r .2. 203) ilIaterial Coarse Aggregate Fine Aggregate Asphalt Cement Mixture Designatiou Sampling and Testing Reference Gradation AASHTO T-27 1 1 1 0 0c0M Abrasion AASHTO T_96 pileplus 3/Source/stock 1/5000cM As per ltem 2 0 3 . 1( a ) SodiumSulphate Soundness AASHTO T-104 3/Sourceplus'l15000 CM As per ltem 2 0 3 .3.2.1(c) 2/1000cM As per ltem 2 0 3 . 2 . and Absorption AASHTO T-85 4/Sourcefor each size in Hot binsof AsphaltPlant Sand Equivalent or Plasticity Index. 2 .1 6 6 l/lethodB M a x r m u mS p Air Voids (Jr AASHTO T-209 AASHTO T-269 v-tz For use in preparation of Jl\4F For use in preparation ofJMF. 203.

9 Designation Notes: Test locationswill be selectedat random G-23 .3.11. Reference AASHTO T-230 lllayer @ 100 M interval per lane. 203) PLANT MIX Material Test Thickness Mixture Compacted in place. AASHTOT-230 ASTMD2950 lllayer @ 100 M interval per lane.3. Compaction Sampling and Testing Frequency. As per item 203. As per item 203.SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE (ITEM NO.

Density Pulverization.5. AASHTOT-.SCHEDULB FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF SOIL-CEMENT BASE COURSE (ITEM NO. Compressive Strength ASTM D-1633 1/SoilClass As per ltem 204. 3/Borrow Sourceplus 1 / 1 0 0c0M SoilClass must be A-3 orA-4.I91 T-238& T-205. As per ltem 204. G-24 For mix design. Reference Soil Classification. AASHTOT-134 1/SoilClass.2.4for ref.4 sievespriorto mixingwith cement.4 Wetting& Drying AASHTOT-135 '1lSoil Class Note: a) Screening of Soilthroughone inchand No. 1/300m strip 1/300m strip As per ltem 204. Note(a) 1/300m strip FieldDensity.3. AASHTO T-27 and T-89.3. 204) Vlaterial Test Designation Sampling and Testing Freguencv. . Mixture Moisture-Densitv.

2 .SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF CRACK-RELIEF LAYER (ITEM NO. As per ltem 203. .2. As per ltem 205.2. 2 0 5 .1. 1 . AASHTO '195 1/day'sproduction or as requiredbasedon visual observation. 205) Material Test Designation Sampling and Testing Frequency Reference Gradation AASHTO T-27 Same as for ftem2A2. Aggregate Gradation (Asphaltic open-graded plantmix) AASHTO T-27 Same as for coarse As per item aggregateunderitem203.2. Aggregate (Crushed) Asphalt Cement Mixture Sameas for ltem203 AsphaltCoating.

305. For use in preparation of JMF. AASHTO T-84 2/Source FriableParticles AASHTO T-112 1/5000cM SpecificGravity. Premix Asphalt Reference -do- As per ltem 305. AASHTO T-49 3iweekof plantoperation.SCHBDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF WEARING COURSE PLANT MIX (ITBM NO.2. 305) Material Test Designation Coarse Aggregate Gradation AASHTO T-27 1 i 1 0 0 0c M Abrasion. 1( a ) SodiumSulphate Soundness AASHTO T-104 3/Sourceplus 1/5000CM As per ltem 305.2. As per Samplestakenfrom heating clause tank at staggeredintervals. As per Clause 305.1 Flatand Elongated Particle.2. SandEquivalent or PlasticityIndex.21 (b) AASHTO I-182 3/Source plus '115000 CM Stripping Fracturedfaces Visual Sampling and Testing Frequency 3iSource plus as required As per ltem baseon visualobservation. AASHTO T-176 plusas required 3/Source As per ltem baseon visualobservation. For use in preparation of JMF. AASHTO T-96 3/Sourceplus 1/5000CM As per ltem 3 0 5 . AASHTO T-85 4/Sourcefor each size in Hot binsof AsphaltPlant. Visual Fine Aggregate Asphalt Cement. . AASHTO T-228 2/shipment.1(c) 1 / 1 0 0 c0M As per ltem AASHTO T-89 & T-90.2.2 Extraction Gradation AASHTO T-164 AASHTO T-30 Flow AASHTO T-245 Stability AASHTO T-245 BulkSp. 305. 2 . Penetration.2. 305.21 (d) SpecificGravity.1(e) SpecificGravity and Absorption. 305. Gravity AASHTO T-166 LossStability AASHTO T-245 2lday'sproduction. For use in preparation of JMF.3.

As per ltem 305. Compaction AASHTO T.3.3. As per item 305. 30s) Material Mixture compactedin prace.SCTIEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF WEARING COURSE PLANT MrX (ITBM NO. Notes Test locationswill be selectedat random. Test Designation Sampling and Testing Frequency Rel'erence Thickness AASHTO T-230 lllayer @ 100 M intervalPer lane.2. .230 ASTM D2950 lllayer @ 100 M intervalPer lane.2.

AASHTO T-85 2/Source plus1 / 1 0 0c0M -do- AASHTO T-85 1/Source plus1/500cM _oo_ AASHTO T-96 1/Source plus1/5000cM As perltem 401.2 Fine Aggregate 1/Source plus1/5000CM G-28 As perltem 4 0 1 .2 AASHTO M-6 1/Source plus1/5000CM As perltem 401.27 2/Stockpile plus 1/1000CM As perltem 401.3 2/Source plus1/1000CM As perltem 401.2 4/Source plus1/800CM Forusein preparation of mixdesign.3 AASHTO M-BO 1/Sourceplus 1/5000CM As perltem 401.3 AASHTO T-19 1/Sourceplus1/1000CM Forusein preparation of mixdesign. AASHTO T-84 4/Source plus1/1000 CM -do- AASHTO T-84 '1lSource plus1/1000 CM -do- AASHTO T-21 1/Source plus'l/1000 CM AASHTOT-104 1/Source plus1/5000CM AASHTO M-6 1/Source plus1/1000 CM As perltem 401.2.2 . 401) Sampling and Testing Coarse Aggregate AASHTO T.2.2.2.a9n d 401.2.2.SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF'CONCRETE (rTEM NO.2.2.3 AASHTO r-104 1/Sourceplus 1/5000CM As perltem 401. 3 .

3.7 AASHTO T-22 Compression (Cubeor Cylinder) 6/Shiftor 50 CM (2 setsof 3 each) As per ltem 4 0 1 .t1a b l e 401-1 Slump 2/shiftor 50 CM AASHTO T-119 G-29 -do- .2.1 ChemicalTests AASHTO T-26 1/Source As per ltem 401. Acceptance Limit.2. YieldTest for CementContent AASHTO T-121 1/Lotor 1000Bags As per ltem 310.3 SettingTime AASHTO T-131 1/Lotor 1000Bags As per ltem 401.2.132 1/Lotor 1000Bags As per ltem 401. 1 .SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF CONCRETE (rrEM NO.1 MortarStrength AASHTO T. 401) Material Cement Water Concrete mix Test Designation Sampling and Testing Freouencv.

5 fu.1 +< !0.10 or Stabilized) +5 -10 o + 0.1 BaseCourse(Granular + 5 .2 10. G-30 . Accumulative toleranceshallnot be morethanthat as specifiedagainst the finallaver. +3 Concretefor Pavements.TABLE FOR ALLOWABLE TOLERANCES (EARTTTWORKS.lime or bitumen. Subbase(Granular or Stabilized) +10 -20 +0 -25 20 t 0. +? -10 AsphalticWearing Course.2 10. +10 -5 Concrete for structures + 5 Note: 4n l 110 1 Materialfor stabilization of soil may be cement.1 o !0.. PAVBMENT COURSES AND CONCRETE) Thickness Level (mm) (mm) Description 5M Straightedge (mm) Cross-fall (%) LongitudinalGrade in30M f/"\ Sub-grade +zv +0 -40 2n + 0.3 + 0. 2.1 AsphalticBase Course.2 + 0.1 +'1n + 0.2 + 0.

individual Notei bars are evaluatedon the basis of nominalweights.5% 6% The term"Lot"meansall barsof the samenominalweightper linearmetercontainedin an shippingreleaseor shippingorder. u-J I .ALLOWABLE TOLERANCE FROM THEORETICAL WEIGHTS (REINFORCEMENT) AS PER AASHTO M-31 Diarneterof Bars Atl Lot under Individual Bar under 3.ln no case shall the Reinforcing overweightof any bar or lot of barsbe causeof rejection.

if the three-edgebearingstrengthand minimumsteelcoverrequirements are met.5 -5mmor .0 -5mmor .5 percent Whicheveris less + 10 percentof wallthickness or + 12 mm.TABLE FOR ALLOWABLE TOLERANCE (REINFORCED CONCRETE pIpES OF. CLASS _ II AND Iv) AS PER AASHTO M-170 Internal diameter variation ("h\ Description Wall Thickness PermissibleVariation in the Position of Reinforcement Pipesof internal diameterof 300 mm to 6 1 0m m + 1. whicheveris less Notes: 1. whicheveris less Pipesof internal diameterof 690 mm to 2750mm t 1. Pipes having variationsin the positionof the reinforcementexceeding thosespecifiedaboveshallbe acceptedif the three-edgebearingstrength requirements on a representative sampleare met.5 percent Whichever is less + 10 percentof wall thickness or + 12 mm. . Pipe having localized variations in wall thickness exceeding those specifiedabove shall be accepted. 2.

1'15 Reinstatement of shouldersfrom BrickKilnmaterial. Formation o 109 SubgradePreparation. 108 of Embankment.SECTION-I EARTH WORK AND ALLIE Descriotion Item No Nelr. o 104 Compactionof NaturalGround. o 110 ImprovedSubgrade. 114 Dressingand Compactionof Berms. o 111 Soil CementStabilizedSubgrade. Rehabilitation o o Maintenance . 10'l Clearingand Grubbing. o 112 Lime StabilizedSubgrade. o 105 Roadwayand BorrowExcavation.Construction '100 General. o 103 Stripping. o 102 Removalof Trees. 113 BitumenStabilizedSubgrade.EarthWork. o 106 Excavationof Unsuitablesurplus material. o 107 StructuralExcavationand Backfill.

o 203 Aspiraltic BaseCoursePlantMix.SECTION-II SUBBASEAND BASE. o o 210 PavementWideningand Grooving of existingsurface. 205 CrackRelieflayer. ltem No Descriotion Nerv Construction Rehabilitation Maintenance 200 General. o o 209 Scarification of ExistingRoad/ Breakingof RoadPavement Structure. o 208 Reinstatement of RoadSurface. 206 WaterBoundMacadamBase. 212 BitumenStabilized Subbaseor Base. zt3 ColdRecycling of RoadPavement Structure/Soil Stabilisation. 214 AsphalticBase/ BinderCourse ztc Geotextiles U o o o o . o o 201 GranularSubbase. o o 202 AggregateBaseCourse. 211 Lime Stabilized AggregateBase Course. 207 DeepPatching. 204 SoilCementStabilized Subbase and Base.

SECTION-III SURFACE COURSES AN Item \o Nelv Construction DescriPtion I Rehabilitation Maintenance 300 General. o 306 ShoulderTreatment. o 307 Bit-Mac. o o o 302 PrimeCoat. o o o 301 AsphalticMaterials. 308 Hot Recyclingof AsPhaltConcrete o 309 C o l dM i l l i n g o 310 ConcretePavements. 305 AsphalticConcreteWearingCourse. Bituminous o o 303 TackCoat. o o o o o o G-35 . PlantMix. Bituminous 304 and SurfaceTreatment Bituminous SealCoat.

409 Well Foundation 410 BrickMasonry 411 Randomand. 400A Bridgesand Culverts. .SECTION-TV STRUqTURTS Nerv Construction 400 General .Structures. 412 DressedCoursedStoneMasonry. 404 SteelReinforcement. 413 SteelStructures. 402 Falsework& Centringfor Bridges 403 Formwork.DressedUncoursed StoneMasonry. 408 SheetPiling. 406 Joints& BearingDevicesfor Concrete 407 Piling. 401 Concrete. 405 PrestressedConcreteStructures.

o 61n Dismantlingof Structuresand Obstructions.SECTION-V DRAINAGE AND EROSIO TTEMNO DESCRIPTION New Construction Rehabilitation Maintenance o o 500 General-Drainage& ErosionWorks. o o 503 Underdrain. o o 512 DitchLiningand Wash Checks.Apronsand siphon inlets/ outlets. ApproachSlabs. o o o 506 DropInletsand CatchBasins. o o o 505 Manholes. o o o o o . o o Gabions o o o 508 BrickPaving. 501 ReinforcedConcretePipeCulverts U o 502 Bed to ConcretePipeCulverts. 511 StonePitching. o o o 509 Riprapand ReinforcedConcrete SlopeProtection. Wingwalls. o n 504 Headwalls. Parapets.

o 604 MetalBeamGuard-rail. 6'10 PrecastConcretePosts& Markers. o 609 Reflectorized PavementStuds. Shrubsand Groundcover. o 601 ConcreteKerbs. o 602 AsphaltConcreteand Cement ConcreteSideWalk. n 603 BrickEdging. 607 TrafficSignsand SafetyDevices. Item No Description New Construction I Rehabilitation Maintenance 600 General. 606 BridgeRailing. o 6'11 Fencing.SECTION-VI ANCILLARY WORKS. 605 ConcreteBeamGuard-rail. o 608 PavementMarking.Ancillary Works.Guttersand Channels. 613 o o n o o o n o U o o o o o o o U o . Sprigging and Sodding. o otz Furnishing and PlantingTrees.

I Office | Provide.SECTION-VII NIISCETLANSQIIS Item No 701 - 7O2 - 703 - 704 - DescriPtion I | Provisionof SurveyTeams and I lnstruments. I Facility I (ease CAmPFacilitY) I | Provide.Equipand Maintain to the Engineer. New Construction Rehabilitation Maintenance . I LaboratorY I of Works for One Year | Vtaintenance (Periodof I aftercomPletion I Maintenance ) I RoadWorks for Traffic | f"tporary I Diversion. I 705 - 7OG - I I Controland Protectionof Traffic.EquiPand Maintain for the Project.

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EARTHWORK ANI) ALLIED ACTIVITIES .

.

or tolncrease the stabilityof the slopes.the formationof laybyes. The contractor his own assessmentof site conditionsprevailing. 100-1 . of soil information 100.clearingand grubbing. locationsand suitabilityto meet the specifiedrequirements.all doors or accesses thereto shall be constructedof materialsas directedby the Engineerand providedwith secure locks and all necessarymeans for preventingaccess by unauthorizedpersons. its quantity.in accordance and in conformitywith the lines.and in conformitywith the statutorYregulations.and he shall base his bid estimatessolelyon his own soil investigation. to the satisfactionof the Engineer.2 SOIL INFORMATION Any informationconcerningthe propertiesof the soil or sub Soiland other geotechnicalinformationshown on the drawingor otherdocumentsforming is obligedto make [art of the contractis for informationonly.grades.They shall be properlymarked.the removal of unsuitadlesubgradematerial. The handlingof explosivesshall be entrusted only to experiencedand responsiblemen.EARTHWORK TTEM 1OO G E N E R A L 100.Such storageplacesshallbe accessibleonly to authorizedpersonnel. includingthe excavationof side and interceptionditches.which shall be stored in the mannerand quantityapprovedby the Engineeror as per relativelaws of government. 100. No claim for extra cost or time extensionwill be entertainedbasedon the informationprovided.The Contractorshall be responsiblefor the pieventionof any unauthorizedissue or improperuse of any explosives.sections' with these specifications and dimensionsshownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. The Contractorshall be deemedto have visitedthe site priorto makinghis bid and shall ascertainthe nature of the earth and rock. the selective removal of trees.1 DESCRIPTION Earthworkwill consistof all necessarywork for the excavationand placingin embankmentor backfillor disposal by dumping of earth. rock or other materialfrom or to the roadwayor adjacenttheretoor from borrowareas.the wideningof cuts and the flatteningof cut slopeswhetherto obtain materialfor embankments or backfill.3 EXPLOSIVES Where explosivesare usedthe Contractorshall providOsuitablebuildingsor warehousesin approvedpositionsfor the storageof explosives. stripping and the removal of existing obstructionswithinthe approvedcross sectionfor excavation.Aftef the award of the contractno claimfor a revisionof bid pricesdependingon the sources will be entertained.

rrnba.rya roi lueurr{ed ol urep ou oneqllBrlsoq/v\JolcerluoSeql Jo {lrlqrsuodseJ pue rsrJ sJrlua oq1le paulo.egr'l0l sulall repun suay Ied eq1 t'00I 'onoqesJaqpequcsop se sluotueOuele qcns roJ olqrssil'upeaq lleLlsluau{ed eixa oN 'lr peurp}qoserl eq 1eq1.0 pue uorpnJlsuoc6uunp rJo/vllo uorpal0. JolceJluoC aqr ^q 1de>1 eq ileL{s'slunoruBpue suorl'3orbuinnoqs'pesn'senrsoldxlle Jo plocarV 'aloq qceo ut pesn eq llerls eDleqcaleJepoue A..leeur0u3eq} Aq pjparlp aJaLlM 'teeur6u3aql AqBurlcaqc lo.rdJoJsleuec Jo sal{cltp eoeujerp 'papedxa gcns sr urpJ oJoreqeoeurerp :ado.t.reeurbu3 eq1 ilsnes lleqs pue sanuorlne ledo.1"*"p .riagurqcns roJ olnpoqossrq .prcj pue 6r..saJnlcnJls luecefpero suosrado1snoreouepoq plno/v\1r'uorurdostq ui li .pa$rule1u1eq ol spq pPoJaLlluo ctgeJlll 'louueui ssel)peJe ut lno petJJec6ureqsr Jo ..qpue Ouilgup .6uuaaqs or{l ur pepnlcuroq 1.oelaql s.rd pe#e ol .roqs 'suolletedo Jo lsoc aql IJoMqUealeue Jo 6uunp Jalem Jo lenoual Jo Jo lorluocJoJepeu oq lln^ lueuded epredas ou 'JoJpaprnordoJaqM1decx3 s'00r 'solnleal qcns Jol slstxa ualt aleledes e ssalun .AlalBledasptpd eq lou lleqs lro/vl eql 6uunp o !pa#s Alsnonuquocueql ereu or buu'arc pue'ecueualureuJror.uatuoe4Jo sJaplnoqpor 'A.y .eqsoururerppue ourdund 'suepregoc .r.rnprolcelluoCaLll Iq ualel aq lleqs eJBcgsaleajOeq1 'suotsueulpJosuoDces-ssoJc penorddeeLll eprsno eoelearq {q pauorsecco rJo/v\e.ro1 fuessaceu uaq/v\ses.lordIeur'.uotlenecxa eq1 6upnp peJolunocualeualetrtleqlo due Jo slfe/v\bururelai.rd rol'ieu oriisBiq 1o qsatui{neaqaprnotdlleqstolceJ}uoC orll .-OOL 'IJo/r^ sulolt laLllo Jo ul pepnpul aq ol peulaep eq lleqs lnq .rd aLlt ulo4 uo4dn.ressaceueq reu se sreu'c io sorrclrplegno e6eureJpqcns eprnord-ileqsJolcBrruooaqr 'raaur6u3 eql Aq perrnbaraJaq/'A Jo rJol lce4uoc eql Jo uollcol0.uopue 'peddec pue papeolApedo.rdaql.nocJele^ Ourpenrp.sleuunl'seloLllltJplo sueeu {q Durlselg 'ece1dur ual aq ol leuoleueq1elqrssodsi driiirsB qrnlsrp o] pue 'suotlsasssoJcpeJtnbelaql 01 elqrssodse esolc sp uorlBnecxs aq16uuqol se reuueure qcns ut auopaq llpLls6urlse.tedeq lleqspoqleu .901 .rd aq lleqsslorls 'rrompoLlsruu oql ol ro rueo'ord o1 aOeuepro suosredor auop aq rfunfurou reqr eJnsuoo1 suoileredo Ourlselq.raq1o {ue Jo . fuesseceu apnoJd lleqs Jolce4uoCaql .o lenoldde urelqo ller{sjolceJluoCaq} .o1 sonrloe.e 6ur.9Ol .ro 6urure.fuessacau 'suos:ed uo[ceioJd jrrro^r\ otrlpueApado.7.suear! Jeqlo Aq pelenecxaaq ol IcoJ eql JopJopue Durlselqttqlr.reaur6uf eqf :eaul6u3 pequcsa:d aLllIq aultl ol polctJlseJoq llerls Ourlsegq '.led lo seoprjq 'sua^lnc 'slueuened pp 's.ruoseu ro aleJcuoo'auols '1cuq ounsxa .lesodsrp pue le^oujar aq1 ourpnpur 'uotcas-ssoJcpano..rddeaql Jo silurl aql urrllr/v\ paJalunocuo'ornlBu sil lo ssolpreoer leueleuj lle Jo le^olleJ JO lsoc aql apnlcurlleqsB01 pue ZgL .Uo/rru{Uea tol secud p1q .o 'laaurouf eql fq pa.6ur.r se .

n p.and in Contractorshall take cross-seciions them with detailsof the excavation mark with the Engineer. time. is work before operative is drainage the that so outlet ano ditcn scr'eourlng trim and or pavement. *"i". prices at contract be shall work sucti all of Payment Raleningof the slope.shallbe c-ariedoi.vr"nt willbe madeunderitem105or 106whichever where indicatedon the drawingsor wlren requiredby the Engineer.the of existingstreamchannels.and inlet The Contractorshallconstructside ditches. rr.6 DITCIIES ditches.except the of obligation subsidiary a as . .orderedby the In orderto keep permanent drainage.The contractorshallalsoprovide..7 EXCAVATIONFORCULVERTS and Exceptwhereotherwisespecifiedexcavationand backfillfor culvert paid for not be will drains.t "ft"r.work shallnot proceed stream the of requireofor the relocation by the Engineer. or E"gin""r. acceptance' and approval for final andshallbe a condition specifiedno separatepaymentwill be . to under granular backfill drainagepipes.interception where or Drawings and outlet ditchesas shown on the . inrouglnout and finaltrimming. collaboration channel. maintainand operatesuchengines. directed 100."t"ty.He shallclean subgrade statedon the embankment.8 The Engineermay orderthe removalof materialresultingfrom landslides' tne conitructionoi benchesin or abovethe cut slopeor in the embankment the rtop" or where in his opinionthe .*"v from the embankment. whetherfor temporary pavement during and/or subgrade.made for the Unlessothenrvise ditches. hoses.' nui snatt 5e considered coveredunderthe contractpricefor the variousclassesof pipe Contractor in ltem501' culvertas Provided 100. by drainage adequate ensure times all at shall the contractor construction.slopeshows signs of instability."frr.fix.9 SURVEYANDLEVELINGPRIORTO OF EARTr{woRK COMMENCEMENT in The contractorshall be responsiblefor the settingout of the work Contract' of Conditions General the accordancewith Clause 17 of that projectdrawingshavebeenissuedto the contractor' Notwithstanding 100-3 . pu*p. in ltem106or 108as thecasemaYbe' r00.including to approvedcross-sections.chutesand otherappliancesas are necessaryto keepthe waterat a level requiredfor the safetyof the structuresas accumulated by theEngineer. trimmedaccording duringthe construction done been have.Ditchesshallfirst be oi *rt".so thattheremay be a freeflow to from time ditches drainage sucn aiL the wholeperiodof the Contract. in" r"p"ii of anyl"m"bb that may work construction other the of completion the work. withoutwrittenapprovalof the markedcross-sections 100.interception excavation applicable.inletand outletditchesbut of sideOitcnes.

However if the levels so taken differappreciablyfrom designlevelsthe matershall be referredto the client. 107 and 10g respectivelvshall be the number of cubic metersof materialmeasuredby the averageendarea method.10 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT The quantitiesof the variousclassesof excavationor embankmentto be measuredfor paymentunder the contractshall be limitedto the lines and level as taken under clause 100. The quantities of excavation. Excavationand filling beyondthe lines and level shown on the drawings. if correct.once they have been submittedand approved. 106.excess of fill may be either left in place or removedas required by the Engineer. as directedby the Engineer.with subbasematerialswithoutextra payment to the contractor. approvedprofilesand cross-sections will not be paid for.The actual lines of the cuts and fills as made will be duly measuredand recordedby the contractor. The Engineerwill decidethe angle of the slope of cuts and fills as the work proceedson the basis of evaluationof the soil characteristics.the contractorshallalso be responsiblefor takingjoint cross-sections on the proposedalignmentof the road.as a basis of payment. Quantitiesmeasuredon the averageend-areabasis.shall not be subjectto review for the purposeof applyinga more accuratemethod.the contractor shall requestsuch authoritybeforehe submits his quantitiesfor approval.backfill and earthworkto be paid for in ltems 103.submittingthreecopiesof the plottedcrosssectionsand longitudinalprofileto the Engineerand obtainingthe approval of the Engineerto such cross-sectionand longitudinalprofitebefore any work in connectionwith Earthworkis commenced. However.9 above. Excessof excavationshall be backfilled. 100-4 . These cross-sections and longitudinalprofileshall be in the form and manner as instructedin writingby the Engineer. r00.exceptwherethe errormay exceedplus or minusfive bercent as comparedwith the prismoidalformula in which case the Engineerwill authorizethe use of the more accuratemethod. The Engineerwill checkthese recordsand will approvethe measurements.

The excavationand removal of trees.wires.same shall be carriedout to the depth of 30 Cm belownaturalsurfacelevel as described above.or official datum points shall be damaged or removed until the has witnessedor otherwisereferencedtheir locations Employer/Engineer 101-1 . 101. The trees. Afterclearingand grubbing. All trees having girth less than 150 mm measured at (600) mm above groundand fallingwithinthe constructionlimitsshall be felled& removedby the contractor.2 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREi\{ENTS 101. Paymentof these items will be made separatelyunder the relative items used for such purpose.bushesand trees with less than 150 mm girth.logs.all surfaceobjectsor any objectto the depthof 30 Cm below subgradelevel such as stumps.In roadwayfill areaswhere clearingand grubbingis required.propertymarkers.if the original compactionis less than the requiredfor respectivezone.contractorwill grub up and removewithout extra payment.ITEM 101 101. rubbish and other objectionablematerial except such objectsas are designatedto remainor are to be removed in accordance with othersectionof specification.2. rubbishshall be clearedand/orgrubbedas directedby the Engineer.logs. grubbingand disposalof all sudace objects. Before bottom layer of embankmentis placed. vegetation.stumps.the compactionof the area will be restoredto its originalvalue withoutany extra payment.HoweverEngineermay directin writingto the Contractorfor stripping(if so required)under item 103 or for compactionunderitem 104.roots.roots. vegetation.any vegetationthat may. in the meantime havegrownon surfacepreviouslyclearedand grubbed.No land monuments.2.2 Protectionand Restoration The Contractorshall preventdamageto all pipes. Compactionof NaturalGround. r0r. stumps & roots remains the propefty of the Employer.conduits. roots and stumps includingbackfillingand compactingof holes and restoringthe natural of the contractorfor groundto the originalconditionshall be responsibility which no extra paymentshall be made to him.1 Clearins/Grubbing in roadwaycut areas.bushes. which shall be delivered at designatedplaceas directedby the Engineer.1 CLEARING AND GRUBBING DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof removalto the specifieddepth. Operationof clearingand grubbingshall in no way be deemedto effectany levelor volumechangeof the area. as and where directed in writing by the Engineer.cablesor structureaboveor belowground.

2 Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas providedabovewill be paid for at the contract unit price for the pay item mentionedbelow and shown in the Bill of Quantities.Any damageas a resultof contractor'soperationshall immediatelybe rectifiedby him at his own expense.EMENT AND PAYMENT 10r.3 M EASUR.1 Measurement clearing and grubbingwill be measuredfor payment only on areas so designatedin writing by the Engineeror shown on the drawings.Any tree havinggirth of less than 150 mm (measured 600 mm abovegroundlevel)shall be measuredto be underthis item. to prevent damage from machineoperations. 101 Description Clearingand Grubbing 101-2 Unitof Measurement SM . Pay ltem No. Engineershall ensure that a minimumof 500 sM area is designatedfor clearing and grubbing in any stretch of roadway for the sake of ease to construction activities.3.which are to be preserved. 101. clearing and grubbingcarriedout by the contractorin roadwaycut areas and borrowpitsshallnot be measuredfor payment 101.3.The contractorshall so controlhis operations as to preventdamageto shrubs.and approvedtheir removal.protectionmay include fences and boards latched to shrubs.which priceand paymentshall be full compensation for clearing and grubbingand restoration of area. The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of square meters satisfactorily clearedand grubbed.to its originalcondition.

All othertrees to be removedshall be countedand an inventorypreparedshowinggirthof the tree stem. 102.Anytree havinga girth of lessthan 150 mm measuredsix hundred(600)mm abovegroundlevel shall not be measured under this item.1 REMOVAL OF TREES DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof the removalof trees and stumps alongwiththeir rootsto a depth. 102.150-300mm girth Each of vees.4.2 Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the contractunit pricefor the pay item mentionedbelowand shownin the Bill of Quantitieswhich price shall be deemed to include all cost of labour equipmentand incidentalrelatedto the item. 102.such as pipes cablesor conduitsetc.4. Any under-groundor over-ground property damaged by the contractorshall be immediatelyrepaired by the contractor at his own expense.to ensurecompleteremovalof roots and stumpsand their disposalas providedin SpecialProvisionor as directedin writing by the Engineer.3 GENERAL REOUIREMENTS Contractorshall preventdamageto all under-groundutilities.301-600mm girth 102b Removal girth Each mm or over of 601 102c Removal trees. For this purposeif so required. as the same shall be removed under item "Clearingand Grubbing".4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 102. Description Unitof Measurement Each 102a Removalof trees.ITEM 102 102. 102-1 .2 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Such individualtrees as the Engineermay designateand mark in white paintshall be left standinguninjured. Pay ltem No.1 Measurement Engineerand Contractorshalljointlymeasurethe girth and numberof trees to be removedunderthis item. When necessaryto preventinjuryto other trees or structuresor to minimise dangerto traffic. Any extra materialrequiredfor such purposeshallnot be measuredfor payment.removalof trees shall be carried out manually.trees shall be cut in sectionsfrom top downwards. Hole or loose earth resultingfrom the removalof trees shall be filled and recompacted to a degree of compaction of -adjoining area. rcz.

Engineer shall. Descnption 103 Stripping.3.Engineershall give instructionin writing. The removed topsoilshall be transported. 103. 103. transportingand depositingin stockpilesor spreadingwhere indicatedon the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. 103.2 CONSTRUCTIONREQUI REMENTs The areasfrom whichstrippingof topsoilis requiredshallbe as indicatedon the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. Engineer shall.beforesuch a decision.3. 103-1 Unitof Measurement CM .breadthand depth of layer approvedby the Engineerin cubic meter of materialremoved and disposedas directedby the Engineer. in depth.Howeverspacethus createdshall be filledby the materialas directedby the Engineerand paid separatelyunder relativeitem.1 STRIPPING DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of removing unsuitabletopsoil. for removalof materialto a depth approvedby the Engineerincludingits disposaiat designatedplace and in the manneras directedby the Engineer.3 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 103.TTEM 103 103.1 Measurement Measurementshall be made by multiplyingthe length.stating area and depthto be stripped. however identify the soil as unsuitablethroughlaboratorytests The top soil shall be placedseparatelyfrom other excavatedmaterialsand be completelyremovedto the requireddepth from the area prior to the beginningof regular excavationor embankmentwork in that area.2 Payment The paymentunderthis item shallbe made for at the contractunit price per cubic meter of strippingmeasuredas above.Strippingof topsoil in any case shall be not less than 10 cm. however identify the soil as unsuitablethroughlaboratorytests. No payment will be made for topsoil removed from places other than that directed by the Engineer.The Contractorshall remove topsoil from these areas to depth as directed by Engineer.depositedin stock pilesat locationsdesignated by the Engineerand/or spread where indicatedon the drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Pay ltem No.

The measurementshall be made by multiplyingthe length and breadthof the area approvedin writingby the Engineerto be paid underthis item. Pay ltem No.mixing. all sods and vegetablemattersshallbe removedand clear surfaceshall be brokenup by ploughingand scarifyingto compactto the degreeas definedbelow:For heightof Embankment below sub qrade level. The naturalgroundor surfacereadyfor constructionpurposesafter clearing and grubbing or stripping. DESCRIPTION.3.See ltems 108.2.1 COMPACTION OF NATURAL GROUND.3 MEASUREMENTAI.1 Measurement. under Formation of Embankmentfor constructionrequirementsunder these conditions. etc.equipment. to completethis necessary and incidentals tools.labour.IDPAYMENT. 104.2 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS.leveling..1 q6 YJ on 95 Compaction of original ground surface in areas of high water levels and salinity.ITEM 104 104. Compaction of the natural ground surface in such areas will be difficult if not impossible. shall be deemedto includecost of scarification.The measurementof the item shall be in Squaremeter.the contractoris expectedto take care of suchfactorswhilebidding. 0to30cm 30 to 75 cm Over 75 cm Belowthe foundationof structures t04. 104.(if required) will be consideredas (natural) Groundfor the purposeof this item. item. The paymentunderthis item shall be made for at the contractunit pricefor Square meter of compactionof (natural)ground measuredas above and watering. rolling. Any subsidenceof levelsof NaturalGround due to compactionunder this item shall not be measuredfor payment. rc43. 104 Description of Natural Compaction Ground 104-1 Unitof Measurement SM .where compactionof NaturalGroundshallnot be carriedout.The compactionof naturalgroundshall be carriedout througha writtenorder by the Engineer. 104.2 Payment. Percentof MaximumDry Density as determinedbv AASHTOT-180. Up to a depth of twenty (20) cm below the naturalground.

loess. Roadway Excavationshall further.2.2 CLASSIFICATIONOF EXCAVATION 105.2of GeneralSpecifications. 105-1 . t05. Eolian and alluvialmaterialsconsistof $ravel.1 RoadWav Excavation RoadwayExcavationshall compriseall excavationthat is not classifiedas structural excavation carried out within the limits of roadway including permanentdrainageditchesand side slopesin cut. preparation of all embankment. of Hard. dunes and.which are not firm or rigidenoughto possessall the characteristics '"Rock Excavation". Bouldersof less than one quarter (1/4) cubic meter volume shall also be classifiedas "Common Excavation".shaping and sloping for the construction. volcanicash.Mediumor Soft Rock shall be same as described The classification underitem 106. subgrade. intersections grade.shale. also Suchexcavationas is necessaryfor inlet and outlet ditchesof structuresand shall include all excavation.sands and clays or any combinationof these materials.1 ROADWAY AND BORROW EXCAVATION FOR EMBANKMENT DESCRIPTION The work shall consist of excavatingthe roadway and borrowpits.removal and satisfactorydisposalof all materialstaken from withinthe limitsof the work.metamorphicand sedimentaryrocks.ITEM 105 105.and termed as CommonExcavation. continuousbed and constitutemore than 50% by volume as comparedto othertype of materialsin the totalmass.alluvialandresidualmaterials. loams. shoulders. (commonexcavationshall includeall the materialsof or "Rock Excavation". Boulders larger than quarter (1/4) cubic meter in volume will also be providedtheseare firm and stablelyingin consideredas "Rock Excavation". be classifiedas "Common Excavation". b) Rock Excavation This inbludesfirm and rigid igneous. a) CommonExcavation Commonexcavationshallconsistof the removaland satisfactorydisposalof all eolian. level and cross-sections shown on the plans or establishedby the Engineer. whatevernaiure encounteredbut not includingrock excavation). and approachesas directedand in conformityto the alignment.inplaceunalteredand unweathered of strata.

the Contractorshall inspectthe site and prepare his estimateof the haulagecost on the basisof his own surveyof the possible natureand locationsof the borrow pits.Their distancefrom the work sites shall not be groundsfor extra paymentor revisionof the contractprice.if required. shoulders.it shall be so placedthat it will present a neat appearanceand not offer any danger to abutting property. Permission to use material from borrowpit shall first be obtained in writing from the Engineer. Material from borrow pits shall normally be used for the constructionof embankmentor for the backfillwhen there is no materialavailablefrom roadway excavaiion or structural excavation.and when such materialis to be wasted. In blastingrock slopes.2 Borrow Excavation Borrow Excavationshall comprise all excavationtaken from borrow pits. unless it is declared unsuitableand ordered to waste by the Engineer.and at such other places as directed. The materialshall be declaredunsuitableif the soaked CBR (96 hours) is less than five (5) percent or if falls under .subgrade.2. All slopes.4-6 or A-7 of AASHTO soil classification. The consentof the landowneror tenantfor excavatingthe borrow material and'haulingalong privateaccessroads shall be securedby the Contractor who shall.and care must be exercisedthat no materialshall be loosenedbeyondthe requiredslopes. No excavated material shall be wasted without written permission from the Engineer. regardlessof whether or not the excavation is carried beyond the specified side slope.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS All material removed from excavation shall be used in the formation of embankment. In m6king his bid.a reasonably uniform face shall be left.exceptin solid rock or other materialshall be trimmed precisely as per cross-sections. 105. 105-2 .3 Structural Excavation The descriptionmethodof measurementand paymentof this sectionshall conformto as specifiedin item 107.2.the road bed shall be maintainedin such a conditionthat it will be well drainedat alltimes. 105.pay for such concession.Borrowpits shall be left in a conditionacceptableto the landownerand/ortenantand the Engineer.shall be consideredavailablefor use in the work and any material used from borrow pits for formation of embankment shall not be measuredfor payment. All breakage and slides shall be removedby the contractorand disposedof as directedby the Engineer.ro5. During constructionof the roadway. Neverthelessthe total quantity of material from roadway excavation and structuralexcavationafter deductionof the materialdeclared unsuitableby the Engineer.

"Rock Excavation"and "BorrowExcavation'! the quantitiesof the differentclasses of excavationshallbe computedas follows: 1nq_? .Any overbreakagebelowthe depth shown on the plans will not be paid for.Rock. to the satisfaction All drillingand blastingshallbe done in such a manneras will most nearly completethe excavationto the requiredgrade line.boulders. lt is responsibiiityof the contractor to submit a requestfor test at least fifteen (15) working days prior to the day the contractorintendsto begin takingmaterialfrom the borrowarea. In no case shall borrow material be obtained from downstreamof any hydraulicstructure. obtained in writing from the Engineer before execution of work.the excavationwill be consideredwhollyas rock.in sizes largerthan a one quarter(114)of a cubic meter. shall be Permissionto use any borrow material.the rightof way. The side slopes of the pits or channelsshall be constructedas shown on the plans or directedby the Engineer.Care shall be taken to ensurethat no injury responsibility be done to personsor propertiesor to the finishedwork. Blastingby means of drill holes or any other methods shall be performedat the entire risk and of the contractor.the contractorshall. Blastingshall be restrictedto the hoursprescribedby the localauthoritiesor the Engineer.1 : 5( V : H ) . Borrowpitsshall be locatedso that the nearestedge of the pit is at least thirty (30) metersfrom the roadwaytoe of slope unless otherwisedirected by the Engineer.to earthis morethan 50%. and producethe least disturbanceof the materialto be left in place. Upon abandonmentof borrowpit or quarryarea.at his own expense. Rock materialabove groundlevel such as stones.cleanand trim the borrowpit or quarryarea.4 MBASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 105. and adjoiningpropertieswhich were occupiedduringexecutionof work. and dry stoneswallingwhose individualsizes are greaterthan one quarter of a cubic meter shall be removedand disposedof if directedin writingby the Engineerand shall be paid under relevantitem of work in the Bill of Quantities.In no casethe side slopesof borrowpit be steeper t h a na s l o p e . shale and other unsuitableroad bed materialencounteredin cuts shall be excavatedto requiredwidth and depth indicatedon the plansor as otherwisedirected..the propertiesof Where betweentwo successivecross-sections rock boulders. However the borrowpitmay be establishedat five hundred(500) metersupstreamof the hydraulicstructure. all of the Engineer. of the road. Backfillof the overcut shall be of approved earth as specifiedon the materialand shallhavethe same densityrequirements olansand shall be at the expenseof contractor.1 Measurement When the Bill of Quantitiesspecifiesfor "Common Excavation".1.pilesof stone.includingits suitability. 105.

4 .2 Payment No paymentfor Roadwayor Borrow Excavationshall be made under this item as the same is deemedto be includedunder relativeitem of Formation of Embankment.4. r05. The excavated material approvedfor fill under any item of the Bill of Quantitiesshallbe used in the manneras describedunderthe relevantitem of haulagedistance. 1 0 5 . Any over breakagebeyond the lines shown on the plansand outsideof the tolerancesset for subgradein cuts shall not be paid for.howeverthis materialif used in any of the Bill items. 105-4 . of work.a) CommonExcqvation The unit of measurementfor common excavationshall be in cubic meter and be computedby average end area method based on cross-sections duly approvedby the Engineerprior to commencementand completionof requiredexcavation. Any area over excavated in the subgradeshall be reinstatedat the cost of contractoras directedby the Engineer. For disposalof excavatedrock material. The pay quantityfor "Rock Excavation"shall be computed by means of averageend area methodfrom approvedcross-sectionsbased on original groundelevationsafter the authorizedremovalof unsuitableor overburden materials.(1a ) .if required. The Engineershall define the beginningand ending points of areas classified as "Rock Excavation".same procedureshall be followed as describedabove for the "Common Excavation"specifiedin sub item N o . shall be measuredand paid as providedunderthe relativeitemsof work. irrespective b) Rock Excavation Authorized"Rock Excavation"to be measuredin cubic metersshall consist of area that is necessaryto providethe design section and grade or as directedby the Engineer. c) Borrow Excavjltion No measurementshall be made for any Borrow Excavation.

c) Soft Rock Any rock whichcan be removedwith the bladeof a 200 H. 106-1 .p.1.This item will be termed as soft Rock.ITEM 106 106.p. irrespective of the fact that it is removedby blasting.I EXCAVATION OF UNSUITABLE OR SURPLUS MATERIAL DESCRIPTION The work shall consistof excavationand disposalof unsuitableor surplus materialarisingfrom roadwayexcavation. Rock excavationshallbe classifiedas under: a) Hard Rock Any rock whichcan not be removedwith Ripperof a2oo H. When excavationof unsuitablematerialrequiresspecialattention for a known conditionon a specificproject. Payment for such compactionshall be includedin the contractpricesfor the excavationmaterials.the soil left in place shall be compactedto a depth of twenty (20) cm to the density prescribedunder ltem 108.will be termed as Medium Rock. Any materialsurplusto these requirementor any materialdeclaredin writing by the Engineerto be unsuitableshall be disposedof and leveledin thin layers by the contractor outsidethe right of way within 7 Km of excavation.or for otherwork included in the contract. b) Medium Rock Any rock which can not be removedwith the blade of 200 H.is below standingwater level and the replacementmaterial is gravel or a similar self-draining material of at least thirty (30) cm in depth. Bulldozer.3.which is declaredin writingby the Engineerto be unsuitablefor use or surplus to the requirementsof the project. 106.for wideningof roadway. Bulldozerand constitutesa firm and continuousbed of rock onlv.for backfill.which is to be removed. irrespectiveof the fact that it is removed by blasting. Buldozerbut can be removedby the ripper.p.constructionrequirementsand paymentshallbe coveredunderrelevantprovisions. lf the unsuitablematerial. The Engineershall decide regardingthe unsuitabilityof the material by conductingappropriatelaboratorytests. when unsuitablematerialsare orderedto be removedand replaced. the compaction may be dispensedwith if approvedby the Engineer.2 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS All suitablematerialexcavatedwithin the limits and scope of the project shall be used in the most effective manner for the formation of the embankment.

The cost of excavationof materialwhich is used anywherein the project shall be deemed to be includedin the pay ltem relatingto the part of the work wherethe materialis used.3. i.1 Measurement When the contractoris directedto excavateunsuitablematerialbelow the surfaceof originalgroundin fill areas. 1 0 6b . The undermentionedPay ltem Nos. HardRock ii.2 Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the contractunit price respectivelyfor each of the particularpay ltems listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich prices and paymentshall for all costsinvolvedin the propercompletionof constitutefull compensation the work prescribedin this item.3. and 106 d shall includethe cost of obtainingthe consentof the owner or tenantof the land wherethe disposalof surplusor unsuitablematerialis made. 106a 106b 106c 106d Description Unitof Measurement ExcavateUnsuitableCommon Material CM ExcavateUnsuitableRock Material. Pay ltem No. Soft Rock lvo-z CM CM . MediumRock iii. 106 b. 106 c.The contractorshall schedulehis work in a such a way that authorizedcross sectionscan be taken beforeand afterthe materialhas been removed. Soft Rock CM CM CM ExcavateSurplusCommon Material CM ExcavateSurplusRockMaterial i. HardRock ii. Unsuitableor surplusmaterialshall be measuredin its originalpositionand its volumeshallbe calculatedin cubicmetersusingend area method. 1 0 6a .Only materialwhich is surplusto the requirementsof the projector is declaredin writingby the Engineerto be unsuitablewill qualifyfor paymentsunder pay I t e mN o . 106.106.the depth to which these unsuitable materialsare to be removed will be determinedby the Engineer.3 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 106. 1 0 6c . a n d 1 0 6d a s t h e c a s em a y b e . 106 a. MediumRock iii.

common backfill shall be carried out from excavated material or any other borrow materialapprovedby the Engineer.which is not requiredfor backfill.ITEM 107 r07. cofferdams.1 STRUCTURAL EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL DESCRIPTION structural excavationshall include the removal of all material of whatever nature.inlets and other structures not otherwise provided for in these specificationsand in accordancewith the plans or as directedby the Engineer.2.manholes.4 N o .r Backfill aroundstructure Backfillaround structureshall be made with the followingmaterial.sheeting.1 0 NO. Granularbackfillof selectedmaterialas specifiedhere under b. lt shall also include the disposing of eicavated material. t07.caissons. which may be necessaryfor the executionof the work.shoring etc. catch basins. 1" 314" No.ckfill Granularbackfillmaterialshall meet the followingrequirements.4 0..proved material.2. 107-1 .40 No. a) GradinsRequirement mm 25 19 4.075 Inch. c) The materialshall-have a Plasticity Indexof not morethansize (6) as determined by AASHTOT-89andT-90.dewatering. headwalls. lt shall include the furnishingof all riecessaryequipmentand constructionof all cribs.2 to7.425 0. retainingwalls.coarsesandis utilisedfor granular fill it shallbe ensuredthat the sameis confinedproperlywith af. culverts. necessaryfor the constructionof foundationsof bridges.In case. 107.in a mannerand in locationsso as not to affectthe carryingcapacityof any channeland not to be unsighfly. a. lt shallalso includethe subsequent removalof cofferdamsand cribs and the placementof all necessarybackfill as hereinafterspecified.75 2.200 100 60-100 50-85 40-70 2545 0-15 100 75-100 55-100 40-100 20-50 5-15 b) Materialsatisfyingthe requirements of coarsesand fallingurider soil classification A-3 (AASHTo).wing walls.2 Granular ba.

Materialdepositedwithin the stream area from foundation or other excavationor from filling of cofferdamsshall be removed and the stream bed freed from obstructionthereby.3. 107. Medium or Soft Rock shall be same as described under item 106.piling. in writing.2.2.braced. cribs or cofferdams are in place. without extra charge.shall be consideredas approximateonly and the Engineer may order. cofferdams.4 Rock backlill Rock materialof smallsize shall be permittedin the backfillingof structures or wallssubjectto the approvalof methodologyby the Engineer.and the entire excavationfilled with lean concreteto the requiredelevationof the top of the footing. or sheeting.the excavationshall be shored.the contractorshall at his own expense backfillthe volume with approvedmaterialas directedby Engineer.3 Commonbackfill Use of excavatedmaterialas backfillmay be allowedunderthis item.3 CONSTRUCTIONR-E.OUIREMENTS 107. b) Preservationof channel Unless otherwise soecified. The classificationof Hard. such changesin dimensionsor elevationof footingsas may be necessaryto securea satisfactoryfoundation. 107.t07. the Contractor shall.as shown on the drawings. In case the contractor has excavated additional volumes than specified thereunder. after the foundationbase is in place. dpjefF. no excavation shall be made outside of caissons.cribs.otllg: The elevationof the bottomsof footings. where necessary. When footings can be placed in the dry without the use of cribs or cofferdams. or protected by cofferdamsin accordancewith approved methods.and the natural stream bed adjacentto the structureshall not be disturbedwithout permissionfrom the Engineer. backformsmay be omittedwith the approvalof the Engineer. Use of borrow materialfor common backfillshall be allowed subjectto approvalof borrow materialby the Engineer.lf any excavationor dredging is made at the site of the structure before caissons.1 Structuralexcavation a) General All substructures.The additionalconcreteshall be at the expenseof the Contractor. shall be constructed in open excavationand.where practicable. backfill all such excavationto the originalground surfaceor river bed with nraterialapproved by the Engineer. 107-2 .2of GeneralSpecifications.

ii) when masonryis to rest on an excavatedsurfaceother than rock special. The foundation watershallthen be pumpedout and the balanceof the masonryplacedin the dry.stepped. 107-3 . the contractorshall submit.shallbe righted. iii) when conditions are encountered which. as maybe directed by the Engineer. upon request.specialanchoragesuch as dowelsor keys shall be providedto transferthe entireweightof the crib intothe foundation seal.cofferdamsor cribs.the elevation of thewaterinside the cofferdamshall be controlledto preventany flow throughthe seal.d) Preparation of Foundations of Footings i) All rock or otherhardfoundation materialshallbe freedfrom all loose material.The contractorshall not start work until the Engineerhas approved suchdrawings. e)Cofferdams andCribs i) For substructure work. v) Unlessothenviseprovided.cofferdams of cribswith all sheetingand bracingshall be removedafterthe completionof the substructure. and if the cofferdamis to remainin place.or roughened. iv) cofferdamsor cribsshallbe constructed so as to protectgreenconcrete againstdamagefrom a suddenrisingof the streamor river and to preventdamageto thefoundation by erosion.cleanedand cut to a firm surface. or enlargedso as to providethe necessary clearanceandthis shallbe solelyat the expenseof the Contractor.No timberor bracingshall be left in cofferdamsor cribs in such a way as to extend inio the substructure masonry withoutwrittenpermission fromthe Engineer.reset. ii) cofferdamsand cribs for foundationconstructionshall be carriedto adequatedepthsand heights.careshallbe takennotto disturbthe bottomof the excavation. the interior dimensions of cofferdamsand cribsshallbe suchas to give sufficientclearancefor the construction of formsand the inspection'of their exteriors. care beingtakennotto disturbor otherwiseinjurethe finishedmasonry.In general. \Men weightedcribs are employedand the weight is utilizedto partially overcomethe hydrostaticpressureacting againstthe bottomof the foundation seal.it shallbe ventedor portedat lowwaterlevel.eitherleveled. andthe finalleveling of the gradeshallnot be madeuntiljust beforethe masonryis to be placed. renderit impracticable to dewaterthe foundationbeforeplacingmasonry.in the opinionof the Engineer. drawingsshowinghis proposedmethodof cofferdamsconstruction and otherdetailsleftopento his choiceor notfullyshownon the Enginee/s drawings. Duringthe placingof a foundation seal.whichare tilted or movedlaterally duringthe processof sinking. he may requirethe construction of a concretefoundationseal of suih dimensions as may be necessary. and be madeas watertightas is necessary for the properperformance of the workwhichmustbe doneinsidethem.be safelydesignedand constructed. and to permitpumpingoutsidethe forms.

107-4 .g.t. Any space remaining after the by the such structures or culverts s[all be fiiteC witfr material approved Engineerand comPactedas follows: placed and Layers of not more than 20 cm in loose thickness shall be or plate. culverts. durin! the placing of concreteor for a period of at least twenty pit separated sump suitable a from done is it hours thereafter.and placing of emban-kmenthas been placed.llbe made to ensure eiirting and n6w materialwithoutany extra payment' purposes The excavationin embankmentand the placing of backfillfor the sand or if payment.f) Pumpine sha|| be done in i) Pumpingfrom the interiorof any foundationenc|osure of water movement the of possibility such a manneras to precludethe ttrrougrranyfreshconcrete.compactors tampers. Moisturecontentshall be adjustedas directed specin"eO bonding of ni.Nopumpingofwaterwil|bepermitted four (24). for his granular backflll is used by the contractor paymentwill be made. h) Classificationof Excavation of excavationshall be made as describedunder items 106'2 Classification of this SPecification. compacteo in succession. tn" Engineer. also for describedabove shall not constituteany claim extra no convenience.the contractor may choose with the pipe culvertsafier the the Engineerto excavatefor structures.structure 510 item paid under shall be quantitiesfor dismJntlingthe structure excavation required shall be {bismanttingof structure-s)and additional carriedout underthis item.2 Excavationin Embankments approvalof unless otherwisespecified. unless from the concretework by a watertightwall or other effectivemeans' i i ) P u m'fraJ pingtounwaterasea|edcofferdamsha||notcommenceunti|the set sufficientlyto with standthe hydrostaticpressure' seal g) Inspection the Engineer. proper benching sha. 107.with mechanical densities the to rgldway' the to hand guided rollers operaied transversely in the item tb3. After each excavationis completedthe Contractorshall notify has approved and no concreteor masonryshallbe placeduntilthe Engineer material' the depthof the excavationand the characterof the foundation the In case if an existing structure is to be replaced with a new.3.

The depth of the layer in any case shail not exceed sixty (60) centimeters. Rock backfill will not be placed within two meters from concreteface of any structure. b) common backfillshall consistof earth free from large lumps.wood and other organic materialsand of a quality acceptableto the Engineer. with a sufficientallowancefor setflement.the thicknessmay be increasedas directedby the Engineer.3.lt shall be placedin the positionand to the requireddepthsshown on the Drawingsand/or as requiredin writing by the Engineerand it shall be well compactedin layers not to exceed twenty (20) cms in depth to the density. piers or other permanentwork shall be refilledwith earth or granularfill as approvedby the Engineer up to the surface of the surroundingground.107. 107-5 . special precautions shallbe takento preventany wedgingactionagainst the masonry. In case of water ioggedareasttrethicrnesi 9f th. in general.shown on the drawingsor where and as required in writing by the Engineerand it shall be well compactedin rayersnot exceedingtwenty(20)cm in thicknessto 100 perceniof Max. dry density as per AASHTO r-180 (D).horizontallayers not to exceed twenty (20) cm.The compactingefforts shall be made so as to achieve the desiredcompactionapprovedvisuallyby the Engineer.elayer shall not exceed fifty (50) centimeteis or as directed by the Engineer. in thickness.3 Backfill a) Granularbackfillwhere-everdirectedshall be placedin the positionand to the requireddepth. c) The rock backfillmaterialwhose individualsizes are not more than 30 cm shall be placedin the positionto the requireddepthas specified and the voids shail be fiiled in layer of fine material apprwed by the Engineer.as per AASHTOr-180 (D).However in water loggedareas. whereas the horizontallimitsshallbe those as specifiedon drawings.The common backfillin front of such units shall be placedfirst to preventthe possibilityof fon.Jettingof the fill behindabutmentsand wingwallswill not be permitted.All such backfill shall be thoroughly compactedand.Volume of granularfi'llaround structuresshall be calculated within the verticallimits of approved-excavation for such a structure. e) The fill behindabutmentsand wing wails of ail bridgestructures shail be depositedin well-compacted. d) All spaces excavated and not occupied by abutments.95 percentof maximumdry density.and the slope boundingthe excavationfor abutments and wingwails shail be destroyed by stepping or roughening to prevent wedge action.uardmovement.its top surface shall be neaflygraded.

1 Measurement a) Structural Excavation to be paidfor shallbe the numberof excavation of structural The quantities in its originalpositioncomputedby the cubicmetersof materialmeasured average end-area method. MaterialBelow Water whether to according rock or and in is eadh excavation the to whether according is aboveor belowthe waterlevelwhichis the constantlevelto the excavation pit.the upper or ditchexcavation withinroadwayexcavation limitshallbe the planesof the bottomand sideslopesof said areas. 2) shallbe the excavation The upperlimitfor paymentof structural groundsurfaceas it existedprior to the start of construction operations. thecompleted 107-6 . where the Contractordoes not have proper equipmentsto ensure compactionin restricted areas.4. StructuralExcavationwill be classifiedfor measurementand paymentas in CommOn "struCtural Excavation in CommonMaterial". footings. structures foundations.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 107. and excavatedto the satisfactionof the Engineer. risesin a foundation whichthewaternaturally shall excavation for structural The volumeof earthor rockto be measured planes:by thefollowing bounded consistof a prismoid 1) will be vertical The verticallimitsfor computingpay quantities outsideof the neat linesof footingsor planes50 centimeters as shownon the Drawingsor as directedby the foundations Engineer. h ) No backfillshall be placedagainstconcreteor masonrystructurebefore fourteen(14) days of placementand backfillingshall be carriedout on both sidesof the structuresimultaneously.at no extracostto the Client.except where structuralexcavationis performed areas. excavated 3) The lower limits for computingpay quantitiesof structural or structurebackfillshallbe a planeat the bottomof excavation or leanconcrete. "structuralExcavation and Material" Rock in "structural Excavation Level". Frenchdrainsshallbe placedas weep holes. t07.Fill placedaroundculvertsand piersshall be depositedon both sidesto approximatelythe same elevatron at the same time. g ) Adequateprovisionshall be madefor the throughdrainageof all backfill. Engineer may allow backfill with sand saturation method.

whether due to the action of the elements or to carelessnessof the contractor. c) CommonBackfill The quantitiesof common Backfillto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters of materiallaid and compacted.2 Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the contractunit price respectivelyfor each of the particularpay item listed belowthat is shown in the Bill of euantities.placed within the lines of structureand limits definedin ltem 107.1(a)above and acceptedby the Engineer.Measurementfor structuralexcavationshall not includematerialremoved below the footing grade and beyond specific limits to compensatefor anticipatedswell or as a result of effectiveswell during pile driving.siiting or fillings.4. Hard Rock MediumRock Soft Rock CM CM CM 107d GranularBackfitttype-- CM 107e CommonBackfill CM 107-7 . 1O7a 107b 107c Unitof Measurement StructuralExcavationin CommonMaterial CM StructuralExcavationin CommonMaterialBelow Water Level CM StructuralExcavationin RockMaterial i. The depths of the footings shown on the drawings are approximate only and any variation found to be necessary during construction shall be paid for at the contractunit price. ii. cave-ins. 107. or additionalmaterialresultingfrom slides. b) GranularBack{ill The quantitiesof GranularBackfillto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters of materiallaid and compactedin place within the line of structureand limits defined in ltem 107.4.4.which priceand pLymentshall be full compensationfor all the costs involvedin the proper completionof the work prescribedin this item. Description Pay ltem No.1 (a) above.slips. iii. iomputed and acceptedby the Engineer.

piis anO other depressionswithin the roadwayarea grades.3. 108. determinedin accordancewith AASHTOT-193.FORMATTONoF EMBAr{4IvrpNr ITEM 108 108. Borrowmaterialwill be used roadwayorstructura|excavationisnotsuitab|eorisdeficientfor embankmentformationand shallincludeall leadand lift' The materialunderthis item shallconformto the followingspecification' a)ContractorshalluseAASHTOClassA-1.while establishingthe swell value.othersoilsmaybeusedon|ywiththe writtenconsentof Engineer. thickness lines.such as at bridge sites.a." hallbeproperlyconfinedatnoextrapaymentwith. Material with Oe ptaceOin horizontallayers of uniformthicknessandin conformity 108-1 .shallbeAASHTOClassAl(a)'A1 (b)andA-z.mpaction in accordance holes. the and in conformitywith *itn 11.A-2'A-3'A-4orA-5 soil as specifiedin AASHTO M-145 or other materialapproved by the Engineer.1 DESCRIPTION preparationof This work shallconsistof formationof embankment.1 as providedabove.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS from Materialfor embankmentshall consistof suitablematerialexcavated all include shall and excavation borrow.unlessrock.ispecifications andtypica|cross-sectionshownontheplansorestab|ishedbythe Engineer. i t s"a. the material used in embankment. b) 108.soils.5) percent.CBR value shall beobtainedatadensitycorrespondingtothedegreeof layer' compactionrequiredfor the corresponding c) swell value of the materialfor embankmentformation shall not exceedfive tenth (0. a materiil and to the exteni as approved by the Engineer and sandymateria|shalInotbeusedons|opesofembankment.including of embankmentmaterialin layers and in area for placingand co. surchargeweights representingthe overburdenwill sandy-material is used for embankment be used. d) In areas subject to flood and prolonged inundation of the embankment. CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 108.roadwayexcavationor structural from obtained material when only lead and lift.shall obtainedand approved for embankment. in f o r m a t i o n . However.3 cBR of the material shall not be less than five (5) percent.

suchas clay and chalk or sand.in" oryingof wet materialmay be expeditedby scarification.Material containing morethanihe optimum moisturemay not. or corresponding Relative Densityin caseof sandfill. Embankment materialthat doesnot containsufficientmoistureto obtainthe requiredcompactionshail be given additionarmoistur" 6y means of approved sprinklers and mixing. by the Engineer. 108-2 .For all soils. Materialfor embankment at locationsinaccessible to normalcompacting equipment shallbe placedin horizontal layersof loosematerialnot more than15centimeters thickandcompacted to thedensities speciRed aboveby theuseof mechanical tempers.the lines. when materialsof wide_ly divergentcharacteristics. containing morethan 10%oversize particles(retainedon 3r4 inch/ 19 mm sieve).The layersof loose materialother than rock shall be not more than 20 cm.be incorporated in the embankment untitit has beensufflcienfly driedout. 95 93 90 * Method'B' or 'D' whicheveris appricabre. thick.are to be used in the emoankment theyshallbe depositedin alternatelayersof the samematerialoverthe full widthof theembankment to depthsapproved by the EngineerRock. The compaction of the embankment shallbe carriedout at the designated moisture contentconsistent withtheavailable compacting equipment. or otherappropriate equipment.sectionsand dimensionsshown on the Drawingsor as requiredby the Engineer. unlessotherwiseallowed by the Engineer aftera trialsectionis preparedand approved. In-placedensitydeterminations of the compacted layersshallbe madein accordance withAASHTOr-191 or otherapprovedmethods.withoutwrittenapprovalof the dngineer.andno accumulation 6f tumpsor boulders in theembankment willbe permitted. withthe exception of rockfill materials. The materialplacedin layersand that scarifiedto the designated depthfor formation of embankmentshall be compactedto the d?nsity specified below: Depthin centimeters belowsubqradeLevel 0to30 30 to 75 Over75 Percentof MaximumDry Density.drawnfrom differentsources. grades. diskingor other approved methods. No surplusmaterial snaitbe permitted to be leftat thetoeof embankment or at thetopof cutsections.1hein-placedensity thus obtainedshall be adjustedto aecountfor suChoversizeparticlesor as directed. subsequentrayersshail not be pracedand compacted unlessthe previouslayerhas been properlycompactedand accepted by the Engineer.crayor othermaterial shallbe brokenup.

Embankments. Massper metrewidth of Vibiatinqroll(Kq/M) Depth of fill layer (mm) 2300.500 >5000 400 500 600 700 800 Numberof passesof the ioller on eachlaver 6 5 5 A A The materialshall be carefullyplacedin layers. 108. Contractor will supply and place borrow materialforformingsmoothgradewithoutextrapayment. ln evaluation of settlement. No rock largerthan eight (8) centimetersin any dimensionshall be placed in the top fifteen (15) centimetersof embankment unless otherwiseallowed by the Engineer.3.materialshall be reservedfrom roadwayexcavationby the Contractor. Such fine.shall be placedand compactedin the mannerprescribed aboveand to the pointwhensettlementis withinabove mentionedrequirement. Materialfor each layer should be consolidatedwith heavy weight vibratory roller until settlernentas checked betweentwo consecutivepasses of roller is less that one (1) percent of the layer thickness. gravel.surface shall be covered with a layer of fine material having thicknessless than twenty (20) centimeters.so that all largerstoneswill be well distributedand voids completelyfilled with smaller stones. such materialmay be placed in layersnot exceedingin thicknessthan the approximateaverage size of the rocks except that no layer shall exceed eighty(80)centimetersof loose measurementand compactedby a vibratory rollerwith the minimummass as shownin the followingtable.bulldozeror similar equipmentcapable of shiftingand formingthe layer into a neat and orderly condition.and the finishedwork shall be left in a neatand acceptablecondition.sand. whichare formedof materialthat containrock but also containsufficientcompactablematerialother than rock or other hard materialto make rollingfeasible. After placing rock material.Eachlayermust be approvedby the Engineerbeforethe nextlayeris placed.shale.3600 2600.survey pointsshould be establishedand rollingcontinueduntil differenceof levels as checked after two consecutive passes is less than one (1) percent of the total layer thickness.to form a solid mass.4300 4300.More over initial rolling of overlaidfine materialshall be done withoutwateringto ensuretheir intrusion in voids of rock layer beneath.Side slopesshall be neatlytrimmedto the lines and slopes shown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. Each layershall be bladedor leveledwith motorgrader. earth. clean small spells.2 Formationof EmbankmentWith RockMaterial Embankmentformed of materialconsistingpredominantlyof rock fragment of such size that the materialcannot be placed in layers of the thickness prescribedwithoutcrushing.Compactiontest will be made wheneverthe Engineerdetermines they are feasibleand necessary.pulverizingor furtherbreakingdown the pieces. 108-3 .2900 2900.Watering shall be done when voids are properlyfilled. Should such material be available but not reserved.

rooting or scarifyingby approvedmechanicalmeansto a levelto be determinedby the Engineer. 108.a special working platform shall be first established.for use in the embankmentor other items. 108. by the Engineer.the existing embankment and/or pavement may be leveled by cutting.5 Formationof Embankmentin Water LoggedAreas Where embankmentsare to be placedin water loggedareas and which are inaccessibleto heavy constructionequipment.3 Formationof Embankmenton SteepSlopes Where embankmentsare to be constructedon steep slope. Cut materialshall be incorporatedwith the new embankmentmaterialand compactedin horizontallayers.The earth.For this conditionto be met it will be requiredthat the ratio.3.The materialof the workingtable shall consistof normalor processedgranularfill. respectively. D65(NaturalGroundMaterial) Du5and D15mean the particlediameterscorrespondingto 85% and 1So/o. Benching shall be of sufficientwidth to permit operation of equipment possibleduringplacingand compactionof material. the originalslope of the hill side.3.the rock shall be reducedto a maximumsize not exceedingfifty (50) percentof the thicknessof the layerbeingplaced. 108. Constructionof this workingtable shall proceedfrom one edge of the soft area by usingthe fill as a rampfor furthermaterialtransport. it will be measuredunderitem 106a. passing(by weight)in a grainsize analysis.No extra paymentwill be allowedfor such an ooeration. '108-4 .This materialshall conformto the followingspecifications: SieveDescription 3 inch (75 mm) Percentageof Weight Passing Mesh Sieve.3.lf the materialis declared suitable it will be measured under relative item and if it is declared unsuitable.of existingpavementor adjacent to half width of embankmentshall be cut in steps of twenty (20) centimetersdepth.AASHTO T-27 100 The remaininggradingshall be such as to avoid intrusioninto the working ptatform material of subgrade or natural ground surface material.old asphaltor other materialarisingas a resultof this operationwill be declared either suitable or unsuitable.When rock to be incorporatedin fill is composedlargelyof weak or friable material. D 15(Working PlatformMaterial) is lessthan5.4 Formationof Embankmenton ExistingRoads Before fill is placed and compactedon an existingroadway. consistingof a blanketof fill materialplacedon top of the soft layer. hill sides or where new fill is to be placedand compactedagainstexistingpavementor where embankmentis to be built along one half the width at a time.obtainedfrom borrowexcavation.

he shall removeit withoutextra payment.an embankmentrequiresthe additionof materialup to 30 cm in thicknessto bring it up to the requiredgrade level.5 meter unlessdirectedotherwiseby the Engineer.4.pla.Contractor shall make specialarrangementsto ensurepropercompactionin restricted spaces and around structures.as directed by the Engineer.culvertsor pipe drainage. No density requirementsare specifiedfor the wor.suspend work on embankmentsand/orin cuts formingthe approachesto any such structure until such time as the constructionof the later is sufficiently advancedto permit the completionof the approacheswithout the risk of interferenceor damageto the bridgeworks. all times.care shall be taken by the Contractorto have the embankmentsbroughtto equally on both sides and over the top of any such structure.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 108. compacted in place.king. subsequentlayersabove it shail be compactedto the densitiesspecifiedin I t e m1 0 8 .3. the top of the embankment shall be thoroughly scarified before the additionalmaterialis being placed. the roadwayshall be kept in shape and drainedout at Duringconstruction. accepted by the Engineerformedwith materialresultingfrom: 108-5 .No compensationshall be made to the Contractorfor working in narrowor otherwiserestrictedareas. 108.1 Measurement The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the numberof cubic meterscalculated on theoretical designed lines and grades and the ground levels as establishedunder clause 100. 108.tform. The Contractorshall be responsiblefor the stabilityof all embankmentsand shall replace any portionsthat in the opinion of the Engineerhave been damaged or displaceddue to carelessnessor neglecton the part of the Contractor. 1 .The placementand compactionof the workingtable shall be carriedout by use of light equipment.and the approximatelV wiOtnsnatt n6 tnat of the embankment.In carryingembankmentsup to or over bridges. When as a result of settlement.The cost of such suspensionof work shall be included in the contract unit prtces for embankment.withoutextra paymentto Contractorfor the scarification.6 GeneralRequirements To avoid interferencewith the constructionof bridge abutmentsand wing walls.No additionalcompensation will be allowedfor the replacement.9. 3 .however. the Contractorshall at pointsdeterminedby the Engineer.cloud-burstor as a resultof unavoidable movement or settlementof the ground or foundation upon which the embankment is constructedshall be replaced by the Contractorwith acceptablematerialfrom excavationor borrow.Embankmentmaterialwhichmay be lost or displacedas a result of naturalcausessuch as storms. When unsuitablematerialhas been placedin the embankmentby the Contractor.The thickness of the working table as prescribed above shall be 0.

the paymentwill stillbe madeunderthis item 108 (a) & 108(b).cost of haulingincludingall lead and lift.dumping. In the measurementof "Formationof Embankmenton steep slopes"no allowancewill be made for the benchingor volume of materialcut out from the hill side or from the first half width fill to accommodatethe compactingequipmentbut will be calculatedonly on the net volumeof fill placedagainstthe originalhill sides.paymentof royalty. This quantityshall be the same as calculatedfor RoadwayExcavation. a) Formationfrom Borrow Excavation.equipment.watering. hauling.D Formation of Embankment from Borrow Excavation Measurement shall be made as under:- Formationfrom Borrow = Total Embankment Quantity (minus) Roadway excavationQuantity (minus) structuralexcavationQuantity. equipment.spreading. watering.4. iii) F.fm?tion from RoadwayExcavation.tools and ineidentalnecessaryto completethis item. spreading. ii) Formationfrom structuralExcavation This quantityshall be the same as calculatedfor structuralexcavation irrespectiveof its haulage distance except that declared unsuitable by the Engineer. rolling.levies and taxes of Local. labour.for his own convenience.rolling. 108.labour.Howeverif contractor. The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in embankmentand measuredas providedabove for materialfrom structural excavationand such paymentwill be deemedto includecost of excavation. The contractor will be supposed to use material from Roadway Excavationirrespectiveof haulagedistance.2 Payment. The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in embankment.tools and incidentalnecessary to completethisitem.measured as provided above for material from borrow excavation and such a payment will be deemed to include cost of excavation. provincialand FederalGovernment. 108-6 .uses the materialfrom borrow.o.the old embankmentor the first half widthfill. b) Formationfrom StructuralExcavation.

toolsand incidentalnecessaryto completethis item. Soft Rock CM CM CM Formationof Embankment from BorrowExcavation in CommonMaterial.spreading.c) Formationfrom RoadwayExcavation The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in embankmentand measuredas providedabove for materialform roadway excavationand such paymentwill be deemedto includecost of excavation. watering. i.dumping.equipment.labour. Soft Rock 108-7 CM CM CM . MediumRock iii. Pay ltem No. hauling. MediumRock iii. HardRock ii. Hard Rock ii.rolling. CM 1OBd Formation of Embankment from StructuralExcavation in CommonMaterial. 108a 108b Description Unit of Measurement Formation of Embankment form RoadwayExcavation in CommonMaterial CM Formation of Embankment from RoadwayExcavation in RockMaterial. CM '108c 108e Formation of Embankment from StructuralExcavation in RockMaterial i.

tog. 4254-83(ASTM).act as the base of the pavementstructure.brokenup. 109.3 Subsrade Preparation.TTEM109 109.brokenup. adjustedto moisturecontentand compactedto the same degreeof compactionas describedabove. in the absenceof subbase.1 SUBGRADEPREPARATION DESCRIPTION The subgradepreparationshall be that part of the work on which. 109-1 .the surfaceshall be scarified.in Earth Cut In case bottomof subgradelevel is withinthirty (30) cm of the natural ground. No work of subgradepreparationwill be startedbeforethe priorwork hereindescribedhave beenapprovedby the Engineer. shall be in such operative conditions as to ensurepromptandeffectivedrainageandto avoiddamage to subgradeby surfacewater.drains.the materialabovethe top of subgradeshallbe removedand subsequent layerof thirty(30)cm shallbe scarified.the bottomof subgradeis belowthe naturalgroundby morethan Thirty(30)cm.2.lt shallextendto the fullwidthof the roadbed including the shouldersand laybyesas indicatedon the Drawingsor as specified herein.headwalls/wingwallsof culvertsand any other minor structurebelow thirty (30) centimetersof existingsubgradelevel or all structureswhich will be below thirty (30) centimetersof newly placedsubgradelevel. adjustedto moisture to minimumdensityof ninetyflve (95)percentof the contentand compacted maximumdry densityas determinedby AASHTO T-180 Method D.2 Compaction Requirement All materialsdownto a depthof 30 cm belowthe subgradelevelin earthcut to at least95 percentof the maximum or embankmentshallbe compacted to AASHTOT-180Method'B' or'D' according dry densityas determined or correspondingRelative Density as per Dwhicheveris applicable.ditchesincludingfully compactedbackfilloverthem outlbtsfor drainage.1 PriorWork Beforecommencingthe work all culverts. ln case.2 REOUIREMENT CONSTRUCTION 109. 109. to ensurethat layerof approvedmaterialshallbe incorporated Subsequent the depthof subgradelayeris thirty(30)cm.2.2.the subbaseis placedor.

B. 1o9. by AASHTo o"nditvas determined shall be made to the Contractorfor over-cutor remedialmeasuresas describedabove.5 in Embankment Subsrade its width shall be the full \Men the subgradeis formedin embankment. if necessary. or eitherby meansof levelingcourse paidfor under and Engineer of the iequirements to shallbe constructed the 109-2 . requirement levelshallmeetcompaction valueof c.C.2.at the sub gradelevelwithina ln case.R of seven(7) percentand swellvalueof not morethan0. restricted to work due shallbe madefor extra compensation of this itemof workshallnot be paidfor underthis sectionbut Performance shall be deemedto be coveredby the contractpricefor pay item 108a. placed in the YPperpart of material and embankment o1 width of top belowsubgrade (30) centimeters of thirty a depth to down embankment Soilshavinga minimum of 109. shall be laid whichthe baseor subbaseis to be levelingcourse The by excavation. of at thedirection disposed 109. formationlayeras per laboratoryspecified the of which Engineer per of the direction as one of andreplaledby suitable of work' items relevant under made paymentwill be Rollersand otherequipmentsof approvedsize and type. The under cut materialshall be placedin embankment of Engineer. Unsuitablematerialif encountered disposed removed.4 in RockCut PreParation Suberade in rockshallextendto the subgradelevelas shownon drawings' Excavation Rockshallbe undercutnearlyto requiredelevationand sectionsshownon the plans or as directedby the Engineer'Transverseand longitudinal requirement'Cuts frofiies checkedby templateshall be accurateto the materialand subbase withselected betowsubgradelevelshallbe backfilled dry maximum t!9 percent (9S) qf compactei to minimumninety eight 'D'.2.Contractorshall ensureproper opti-mum and rollers'No in restrictedareasby use of specialequipments compaction space.2. moisturecontent.Formation r09. of Embankment' through108e. Engineer.A.6 Subgrade Level in Existing Road Whereindicatedon the Drawingsor directedby the Engineerthat the the correctelevationon existingroadsurfaceis to be usedas the subgrade.3 percentshallbe used.2.2. paid for removal of be shall contractor The ih" of approved replacement for "pproueb materialas per pay ltem 106aand unsuitbbte pay 108c' ltem under made willbe the payment material. No compensation method T-180. be shall test. wherenecessary. O"ptnoi tnirty 'miterial.the withinthe eiisting designallowsfor it. obtained. abovethe undercut section No rockshallbe higherthantwo (2) centimeters or elevation.Riessthanseven(7)%maybe 999din case. acceptedby the Watershall be addedto obtain shallbe usedfor compaction.unsuitablematerialis encountered in total1n{ replacedbyremoved be shall the same (30) cm.

The contractor shall be responsiblefor all the consequencesof traffic being admitted{o the subgrade. Any damage resulting from carelessnessof the contractorshall be repairedas directedby the Engineerwithoutadditional payment.or recompact the subgrade as may be necessary to restore it to the state specifiedherein.and in such case the contractorshall. if declared unsuitableit shall be disposedof and paid as providedin ltem 106a.9 Templates and Straightedges The contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer. For tolerances. He shall tiriit tne area of subgrade preparationto an area easily maintainedwith the equipment available. The subgrade. .of the subgradethat has been completedshall be protectedand kept well drained.3.2. ln case. 109. 10ga.referred to the. the Engineermay orderto strengthenand supportthe subbaseor base on one or both sides of the existing pavement.and paymentfor its removalshall be covered under the contract price of pay ltem No.the appropriatePay ltem involved. The finishedcompactedsurfaceof the subgradeshall be as specifiedin ltem 109.7 Subgradereinforcement \Men the width of the existing pavement. is insufficientto contain the subbase or base to be placed upon it.8 Protectionof Completed Work Any part.is liableto deteriorate. as providedin these specifications and no subsequentwork shall be permitteduntilthe subgradelevelshave been checkedand approvedby the Engineer. The excavatedmaterialshall.2. iie shall repairany ruts or ridgesoccasionedb! his own traffic or that of others by reshapingdnd compactingwith rollers of the size and type necessaryfoi such repiir. This work shall consist of the removaland disposalof any unsuitablematerialand its replacementswith suitablematerialtosuchwidthand depthas requiredby the Engineer. Excavationshall includedisposalof any surplusmaterialin the adjacentembankmentor elsewhereas directedby the Engineer. if declaredsuitablefor use elsewherein the embankmentby the Engineerbe so used.when preparedtoo soon in relationto the placingof the subbase. "Table for Allowable Tolerances"in these specifications.repair.reroll. subgrade preparationand subbase or base placing shall be arrangedto follow each other closely.2. either to be scarified or not.2.withoutadditionalpayment. the design level of subgrade is within 30 cm of the existing ground/roadthen the item shallbe measuredand paid accordingly.satisfactory templatesand straightedges in sufficientnumbersto check the accuracyoi the work. 109. 109.

subgrade preparationon "Existingsurface" shall only be measuredfor paymentwhen orderedby the Engineer. shall be paid for at the contractunit price respectively.for each of the particularpay items listed belowthat is shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich pricesand paymentshall be full compensationfor furnishingof material. equipment.3 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 109.determinedas providedabove.2 Pavment The quantities.109. 109. Withoutany fill With fill lessthan 30 cms 109-4 SM SM . labour.r Measurement The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of square meters of subgradepreparedas hereinbeforeprescribedand accepted. Pay ltem No.3.water. subgradein rock cuts and on embankmentnot consistingof the existingroad surfacein fill area shallnot be measuredfor directpayment. 109a 109b Description Unit of Measurement preparation Subgrade in EarthCut SM preparation Subgrade in Existing Road i.tools.J. ii.and all otheritems necessaryfor completionof work.

2 MATERHL REQUIREMENTS The major component of improved subgrade shall consist of material conformingto ltem 108.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 110.2.Az-aor A-3arcordingto AASHTO M-145 with Pl of not more than 6." The blending materialshall be any soilthat classifiesas A-1(a). 110-1 .the Engineer may requireadditionallaboratorytests.shall exhibit a laboratorysoaked CBR (96 hours) of not less than 20. The blended mixture when compacted to ninety five (95) percent of the maximumdry densitydeterminedby AASHTO T 180-D Method.ITEM 110 110. under subbase or base course as the case may be. uniformlymixed.or in thicknessas directed by the Engineer.1. lmproved subgrade as herein referred to may be defined as material suitable for embankmentto which better quality of material is blended in properproportionto improveits strengthpropertiesor performance.A-1(b). The blend proportionsthus establishedshall apply only when each material to be used is obtained from same source.The Engineershall specifya single percentageof each materialto be blended and shall establish the gradation of the resulting mixtures alongwith the ranges of permissible gradation tolerances to obtain the requiredCBR for the improvedsubgrade. grades and typicalcross-sectionsshown on the Drawings. t10. 110. or as specified in the drawings.1 Preparation The surface of the roadbed on which the improved subgrade is to be constructedshall be compactedto the densityspecifiedunder ltem 108.3. with an approved blend of materials. compacted.2 Proportioninq of Materials Prior to start of construction. Should a change in source of material be made.1 IMPROVED SUBGRADE DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the formation of the roadbed.3. a new proportion shall be established.3. the proportion of each material to be incorporatedfor improvedsubgradeshall be establishedas approved by the Engineer.shaped and finished to the lines. When unsatisfactoryresults or other conditions make it necessary."Materialrequirementsfor embankment. 110.

plaeed on the ioadbcdby meansof an approvedmechanical be compacted produce a uniform will rate that at be spread shall The mixture Compaction to the requiredgradeand cross-Section. or minustwo (2) percent.The mixingtime shallbe thatwhichis requiredto secure a uniformmixture. thicknessconforming untilthe continue shall and possible spreading after as as soon shallstart is achieved. these yield meeting results will that or equipment a) StationarvPlantMethod and watershallbe mixedin an approvedmixingplant The soil ingredients devices plant shallbe equippedwithfeedingand metering The (pug Mill).3.the blendedmaterialshall be to the job sitewhileit containsthe sufficientmoistureand shall transported spreader. to the percentage the mixture of content moisture to bringthe as necessary proper compaction.Eachlayershall be compactedto the densityconformingto the requirementsspecifiedin ltem 108.T-238or otherapprovedmethods.1 of the compactedlayersshallLremadein In-pacedensitydeterminations a@ordancewithAASHTOT-191.After mixing.After the materialshave been placed by a mechanical spreaderor windrowsizingdevicethe materialsshallbe uniformlymixedby watershallbe added the travelingmixingplant.Duringthe mixingoperation. fia=2 . suitablefor c) RoadMix Method to the site and spreadin layerson the The materialsshall be transported quantities to required producethe specifiedblend.3.Afterthe roadbedin the materialsfor each lift have beenspread.4 Comoaction Unlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineerbased on the performanceof from the trialsection.3.the materialsshall be mixedby motorgradersand otherapprovedequipmentuntilthe mixtureis uniform throughout.watershall be addedas ne@ssaryto bringthe moisturecontentto the properpercentage.3 Mixins andSnreading of machines with any combination lmprovedsubgrademay be constructed specifications. quantities. compaction specifiedrelative b) TravelinePlantMethod The travelingplantshallbe eithera flat transverseshafttype or a windrow type pugmill. Water specified in the blended be to materials the add that will quantity for required the in operation mixing the during be added shall optimummoisturecontentplus whichis approximately propercompaction. 110.each equipmentusedas determined the compacting layer of improvedsubgradeshall-beplacedin horizontallayersof uniform loosethicknessnot exceedingtwenty(20) centimdters. Duringmixingoperation.110.

The object of these trials is to determinethe proper moisturecontent. | 10.The improvedsubgrade.and to estabiishthe optimum lift thicknessthat can be effectivelycompactedwith the equipmentused.subgrade preparationand placementof succeeding layer to follow each other closely. is liable to deteriorate. rero.3."Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.or recompactthe improvedsubgrade as may be necessaryto restoreit to the state specifiedherein.base or asphalticconcretecourseare given in the relevant.3. The contractorshall be responsiblefor allthe consequencesof trafficbeing admittedto the improved subgrade.or as directedby the Engineer.the Engineer withoutadditionalpayment.7 Temolatesand Straiehtedses The contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer. without additional payment. the contractor shall constructthree trial sectionsof 200 meter lengthone (1) for each blend of improvedmaterialproposedto be incorporated for improvedsubgrade. No separatepaymentwill be made for this work. 110.He shall repair any ruts or ridgei occasionedby his own traffic or that of others by reshapingand compactlng with rollersof the size and type necessaryfor such repair. 110.5 Trial Sections Prior to the formation of the improved subgrade.ll.8 Tolerance The allowabletolerancesfor the finishedimprovedsubgradesurfacepnor to placingthe overlyingsubbase.110.and in such case the contractor shall.3.repair. which will be regardedas a subsidiaryobligationof the Contractorunderpay ltem No. as providedin these specifications and no subsequentwork shall be permitted until the improved subgrade level have been checked and approvedby the Engineer.when prepared too soon in relation to the placing of the layer ibove it.3.the relationshipbetween the number .-Heshall limitthe improved subgrade preparationto an area easily maihtainedwith the equipmentavailable. densityobtainedfor the blendedmaterial.6 Protectionof CompletedWork Any part of the completedimprovedsubgradeshall be protectedand well drained and any damage shall be repairedas directed by.acceptedby the Engineer.of passes of compacting equipment. 110-3 . 110.The compactingequipmentto be used in the trial sectionsshall be the same equipmentthat the contractorintendsto use for mainwork. satisfactory templatesand straightedgesin sufficientnumbersto check the accuracyof the work.

toolsand incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item. hauling. piacing in layers. 110 Description lmprovedSubgrade 110-4 Unit of Measurement CM .1 Measurement The quantityof improvedsubgradeto be paid for shall be measuredin square meter by the theoreticalarea covered in place as shown on the Drawings.which price and payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials.4.110. completed and acceptedimprovedsubgradein a thicknessof 30 cms. labour.4. ttO. equipment.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 110.2 Pavment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price per cubic meter of improvedsubgradefor the pay item listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantities. mixing. Pay ltem No. watering and compacting.

l General The mix in placemethodof construction shallonly be appliedto siteswith naturallyoccurringsand. gravel or sand and gravel mixture.ADE DESCRIPTION The work shallconsistof performingall operationsin connectionwith the formation of soil cement stabilizedsubgrade and all incidentalsin accordance withthe specifications and in conformity withthe linesand level. Soils. For the stationaryplant methodof constructionthe materialsshall complywith the specifications or materialsfromanyothersourceselectedby the Contractor shallbe subjectto the Engineer's approval.tt.it shall be improvedby addingcalciumchlorideupto two (2) percentby rirreight of thedrysoil. grade and typicalcross-sections shown on the plans or directedby the Engineer.1 SOIL CEMENT STABILIZED ST]BGR. P.ITEM IlI 111.Value SolubleSulphateContentmax: SolubleChlorideContentmax: 45% 20o/o Not less lhan 12 4o/o 8% lf the soil at site does not have P.2. b) Sandv an4 qravely soils Sandy and gravely soils used for cement stabilizationshall fulfill the followingrequirements: '111-1 . i) ii) iii) iv) v) LiquidLimit(Max).2 MATERIALREOUIREMENTS l.2 Soil Soil usedfor cementstabilization shall be either"Siltyor ClayeySoils"or sandyandgravelysoilswiththefollowingcharacteristics a) Siltv and Clavey Soils \Mten this type of soil is usedfor cementstabilization it shallfulfillthe followingrequirements.2. PlasticLimit (Max).value specifiedabove. wtrich don't meet above requirement. ttr. ttl.shall be subjectto the approvalof Engineer.H.H.

shall its to as doubt fourmonths.4. proofbuildingto protectfrom dampnesson raiied normal Under lumps.2.'36) sieve. 111. nv morethan rive ts) distilledwater. Any cemenithat has remained retested be quality. water to be used shall be free from injurious v e g e t a b l e m a t t e r a n d s a l t s .i) ii) iii) ili ui 100% Passingmaximumsizefifty(50)mm sieve 50% above sieve (\9: 4) (5) mm Passin!five above15% pissin60.shallhave strengthof 17 kilogrampersquarecentimeter' ii) swellingof volumeshallbe two (2) % The maximumpermissive eignt (g) % when tested in weight in and maximumloss T-135' AASHTO with accordance 111-2 .002mm (Clay) shallbe subjectto the approval soil whichdo not meetaboverequirements results' testing laboratory the oifngin""r.4 walcr quantities. sulphate of AASHTOM-74' requirement weather uponarrivaltosite. use. afterreviewing ttl.' below 5% Passin!0. all cementsnati ne free flowingand free of four than period longer a for cementshall not be stored circumstances of period excess in a for store in months.thecementbagsshallbestoredin lmmediately time of the At platform.or of wntfr inereis any requirements. a mixture' -iact percentigeof cementandwaterto be usedso as to obtain The mix of Engineer' for the approval shallbe submittedov tre contractor proportions shallbe iuch so as to satisfythefollowingrequirements.storedin box.m (No.Noiuch cementshallbe usedin the works for specification of Engineer' withoutthe aPProval Ltl. l t s h a | | n o t c o n t a i n m o r e t h a extent n1000partsper to the millionsof sulphates.5 in Laboratorv Mix DesienRequirement the proposedmix designshowing Beforestartingthe work of stabilization.tn no case. Mixturesample.3 Cement Portlandcement or The cement to be used for stabilizationshall be accordingto the Engineer the sulphateresistantcemlnt as directedby of to requirement pot1"nd conform shall Cement t"itt. of oil' alkali. resultsof laboratory to conform shall cement resistant AASIITO M-85 whil.watershallcontainimpurities twentyfive that will causecnangein settingtime of cementby more-than (14) fourteen after mortar of strength ilga9|i noi reductioi in "otpt"-tsive with obtained results to compared when percent ["v.075mm (No'200)sieve below3% Finerthan0.with maximumhumidityof ninety four(24)hoursandsubmerged nu"tgsl%fortwenty ilY?l:ll?: a minimumcompresslve two lrours beforecrushing.2.2.

"y be agreeo by the Engineeron basisof preliminary ". it srighflycuts edge of adjoining rane processed previousryto ensure proper processing 6f ail material throughoutthe depth of.mixer and then water be added n"""rr"ry1o bring the moisturecontentof the resurtingmixturewith in the "" range . WaterContent:0 to (+)2%of that given in the mix design. The mixersshall be equippedwith a devicefor contiollingth6 depth of processingand the mixing'bladesshalr be maintaineoso that correctdepthof mixingis obtainedaiall times. the appropriatemeasuredquantity-ofmaterial and cement shall first be placed in the.varue .2 StationarvPlant Method The stationary prant shail be of the power driven paddre or pan type and may be of the batchor continuoustype."tt not be less than twenty five rinear meters per hour r""rrrEo [t"nt tongituoinailyor completedstabilizedlayerin orderto achievesatisfactory comfiction. 111-3 .t. trial.rayer. I I 1.1 Mix in PlaceMethod The field equipmentsused for pulverizingand mixingthe stabilizeomaterial shall be approved by the engineer on tne basis'of pr"iirin"rv triars to ensurethat the plant is capableof producingthe required oegreeor mixing and uniformityof stabilizedmaterialto the full thickness or tayer nein! processed.g percentof that given in the mix design. The mixing machineshail be set so that. In case the batch mixes are used.3. fitted with a device to ensure a uniform and controllable rate of spread of cement both transverselyand longitudinally. The output br tnb mixing .p"tiilo above.2.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 111. water shall be addedto adjustmoisturecontentof material to optimumfor compactionusing water sprayerin uniform and controllable manner both transverselyand longitudinally. 111.lessthan the optimumas determined "en'ent by AASHTO r_ 134 Method and not more than rwo (2) percent above the optimum as determinedby this test or sucn nigner. The cement shall be spread ahead of mixer by means of a cement spreader. The moisture content of hii stabirized materialshall not be.iii) Maximum permissibretoreranceof cement and water content duringconstruction shall be as under:_ cement content:Toreranceof + 1.6 Composition of Mixture at Site soil shall be mixed with sufficientcement to obtain required crushing strength. ttt. The cementcontentshall be determinedat the laboratory so that minimumcompressivestrengthof mixtureis thirty(ao) xglsqu.3.re centimeter -the at seven (7) days.

Compactionshall be completedas soon as possibleafter mixing.which has been mixed or depositedafter cement hydration. No vehiculartrafficshall run on the stabilizedsubgradewithin a minimum curing periodof seven days. dependingmainly on settingtime of cementand weatherconditions.stabilizedsubgradeshall be protectedagainstdryingout damp or wet for a periodof at leastthree (3) days by keepingit continuously or by coatingwith approvedcuringmaterial. 111-4 .withinone and a half (1 to deficientareas at contractor'sexpense.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 111.3. Mixing shall be continueduntil the mixturehas the uniformityand mixingtime will not be less than one (1) minute. 111.3.1 Measurement The unit of measurementfor paymentshall be cubic meterof completedand acceptedsubgradeas measuredin place.the mixture shall be thoroughlyand uniformlycompactedwith approved rollers. Measurementshall not include any areas in excess of that shown on the drawings.or makinggood compaction. Measurementof cementcontentused shall be the numberof metricTon used to stabilizesubgrade. Compactionshall not be carriedout after cement hydrationand any soils material.Surfaceshall be maintainin an acceptableconditionat all times priorto the constructionof sub-base.except the areas authorizedby the Engineerin writing. normallywithin three hours. the cement is proportioned devicefrom accuratelyby a separateweighingor proportioning that used for the materialbeing stabilized."Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.shall be removedand replacedwith fresh mixedmaterial. ttt.4 Tolerance Tolerancein the thicknessof compactedlayersshall conformto as specified in the relevant. Thicknessshall be as shown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineerand shall complythe following reouirements.Care shall be takenwith batchtype paddlemixersto ensurethat the cement is spread uniformlyin the loadingskip so that it is fed evenly along the mixing trough and that with both paddle and pan mixers. This quantity of Cement consumed shall not exceed the theoretical percentage establishedin the laboratory.3 Compaction Any modificationto meet the specificationshall be completedtogetherwith '/2) hoursafter mixing. After compaction.4. ttt. Rolling shall continueuntil entiredepth and width of subgradeis uniformlycompactedto maximum density of Ninety five (95) % as tested in accordancewith modifiedAASHTO I-134. lmmediatelyafter spreadingand shaping operation.

compensation placing.correctingunsatisfactory necessarywaterfor compaction.finishing.which paymentshall be full for furnishingall labour.4. rolling.equipment.2 Payment as aboveshqllbe The measuredquantityof stabilizedsubgradedetermined paidfor at the contractunit priceper cubicmeterfor a particularitemlisted below and shown on the bill of quantities. cementconsumed Payltem No. Description 111a SoilCementstabilized Sub-grade Unitof Measurement CM 1 1 1 b C e m e n t c o n t e n t t y p e .including handling.compacting.shaping. . Ton 111-5 .material.ttt. .mixing manipulating.and incidentalsnecessaryfor completionof work except whichshallbe paidseparately as measuredabove. material.tool. . plant. . .maintenanceincludingprotectionof areas and unsatisfactory stabilizedlayers.

Lime stabilizationhas been used successfullyin clayey soils having to is applicable plasticityindexmorethanten (10).l Soil Naturallyoccurringheavyclay soils. Thistypeof stabilization clay' silty or of clay ihat soiiwnichcontaina highpercentage 112.l LIME STABILIZED SUBGRADE DESCRIPTION The work shall consistof performingall operationsin connectionwith of lime stabilizedsubgradeand all incidentalsin accordance construction and in conformitywith linesand level.2.2 MATERIALREOUIREMENTS tlz. Materialsfrom any Reluirements" shallcomplywiththe specification othersourcesselectedby the Contractor of stationaryplant construction in case Engineer the by all as approved method. ltem in specified properties as shaff conform to undeisoilscementstabilizedsub grade.2.ufi"i"nl proportion and construction of method in Place with limeshallbe requiredfor the-Mix "Material 111. tyfical cross-sections 112.2.ITEM 112 tt2.2 Lime Lime to be used for stabilizationshall be calciumhydroxide(slakedor for building lime)or Calciumoxide(quicklime)to the requireme-nts nVOrat"O temporary produced from quality lime lower limeas in tabiegivenbelowor Engineer' the by burningpitsor Kilnswhenapproved Tablell2l2 SPECIFICATION REOUIREMENT FOR LIME Oxides Not less than 92% Calciumor Magnesium Notlessthan95% Carbon Dioxide-atKiln Notmorethan3% Notmorethan5% Carbon Dioxide-elsewhere Notmorethan3% NotmorethanT% .gradeand *itn tn"t" specifications shownon the plansor as directedby the Engineer.clayeygravelsor_soils containinga stabilization of cliy oi silty clay to enablesatisfactory .

than two (2) percent above the optimum as determinedby VibratingHammermethodtest of BS 1924(1975).3 Water water used for lime stabilizationshall be clean and free from injurious substances.2 Mix in PlaceMethod The requirementsof constructionunderthis clause shall be in accordance w i t hs u bi t e m1 1 1 .3.1t2.10)percentof clay in soil.000 parts per millionof chloridesnor more than 1.300 parts per millionof sulphates(soa). r12.5 (i) The percentage of rime and water (optimum content and tolerances) (ii) The field densityof lime stabilizedmixtureto minimumninetyfive (95) percent of raboratorydensity estabrishedwith modified AASHTOT-134test. 1 .2.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS tt2.2. normallythree (3) percent to eight (8) percent lime content. Moisturecontentof the lime stabilizedmaterialshall be not less than the optimum nor more. 3 .3.cm.2.lime contentshouldbe establishedstartingwith 1% of lime by weightof dry soil for each ten (. t12. Comnositionof Mixture at Site soil containingclay shall be mixed with sufficientlime. 3 . 2 . water from doubtful sourcesshall not be used until tested as specifiedin AASHTo. rI2. As a guidetrials. It shall neithercontain more than 1. 112-2 . Potablewater is preferredand organic water is not permitted. so that minimum compressive strength is seven (7) Kilogram force per square centimetersat seven (7) days.4 Mix Designin Laboratorv The mix designshall be workedout in the laboratoryand it strallstate the followingfield requirements: 112.T-26 and approvedby the Engineer.l StationarvPlant Method The constructionrequirementsof this clauseshall conformto as specified in s u b i t e m1 1 1 . (iii) The requiredresultsof the compressivestrengthin laboratoryat 7 days shaltnot be lessthanten (10) Kg/sq.

lf wet weatherthreatensto be prolonged. care must be taken againstthe effectsof prolongedexposureto skin. The time withinwhich compaction shall be completedwill be estimatedin the laboratory. Compaction shall be continueduntilthe entiredepthof subgradeis uniformlycompacted to the maximum density of 95% as determinedby modifiedAASHTo T134.3. since it wiil attack equipment corrosivelyand precautionsshall also be taken againstthe risk of severe skin burnsto personnel. 112-3 . together with compactionwith One and half (1. Compactionshall not take place after hydrationof lime and any lime stabilizedmaterialthat has been mixed and depositedafter h1'drationof lime.5 Tolerance Tolerancefor lime stabilizedsubgradeshall be as specifiedin the relevant. working operationsshould take into accountthe wind directionto minirnisethe dust problem and consequent eye or skin irritationto any personnelinvolvedin the vicinity.Even when calciumhydroxide(slakedor hydratedlime) is used.'/2) hours after mixing.shall be removedand replacedwith fresh material.rt2. and protective doining worn by the operators.3.3. Suitablehandlingmethodsshall be used such as fully mechanisedor bottom dump handling equipment. for any removalof or makinggood to deficient Contractorwill be responsible payment. No vehicleor equiprrentshallbe allowedto extra areawithoutany initialsettingof 7 days.mixed and treated of this clause. the manufactureand layingof stabilizedmix shallbe suspended. The stabilizedmaterialshall not be laid on any surface. special measures shall be taken in handling. before subgrade over stabilised move 112. 1t2. Dry density of compactedlayersshall not be less than Ninetyfive (95) % of the maximum dry densitydeterminedin laboratory. 112.6 WeatherLimitation The layingof lime coursesshall be avoidedas far as practicableduringcold and wet weather and shall be suspendedwhen free standing water is presenton the surface. it shall not be permittedto compact the layers immediatelyafter spreadingthe lime.4 CompactionRequirement lmmediatelyupon completionof spreadinganC shaping operation' the mixtureshall be thoroughlycompactedwith approvedroller.3.which is frozenor coveredwith ice or Snow. lf quick lime is used. "Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications. becausethe hydrationof the lime will causedamageto the compactedlayers. in accordancewith the requirements Surface of subgradeshall be acceptablein all respectsto specification.3 Measures PrecautionarY Keepingin view the caustic nature of calcium oxide (quick lime).and layingshall cease when the atmospherictemperaturereachesfive (5) degree C. on a falling thermometeror as directedby the Engineer.

mixing. Measurement shallnot includeanyareain excessof thatshownon the drawrngs.4.r12. equipment.finishing. plant.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT t12. compacting inituoing necessarywater for compaction. shaping. correctingunsatisfactor! areas and unsatisfactorymixtures.rolling.pracing.4. ttz.percubic meter for a particularitem listed below and shown on the bill of quantities. Pay ltem No.2 Payment The measuredquantityof stabilizedsubgradedeterminedas aboveshall be paid for at the contractunit price. handling. Description Unitof Measurement 112a LimeStabitizedSubgrade CM 112b Lime Ton 112-4 . This quantityof limeconsumedshallnot exceedthe theoretical percentage established in the laboratory.which payment shall be full compensationfor furnishingall labour. and incidentalsnecessaryfor completion-ofwork except lime consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measuredabove. maintenance includin! protection of stabilized layers. tool. Measurement of lime consumedshall be the numberof metricTon used to stabilizesubgrade. except the areas authorized by the Engineerin writing. manipurating. material.l Measurement The unit of measurement for paymentshall be the cubic meterof the compacted and acceptedsubgradeas measuredin place.

Bitumenemulsionor foamed penetrationgrade bitumencan also be used subjectto the approvalof Engineeraftertrialtest.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS Equipment.and machinesusedfor bitumenstabilizedsubgradeshall be subject to the approval of Engineerand shall be maintarnedin satisfactory workingconditionsall the times. tools.uniformand thorough mixing and satisfactoryprocessingof the materialto the full depth of the layer. it shall be nonplastichavinguniformgradation. "Asphaltic Materials"for hot mix asphalticconcreteor can be viscous cut back that requires heating in areas where moisture content of sand is high. thicknessand typicalcross-sections shown on the plans or as clirectedby the Engineer.where naturalmoisturecontentof sand is low.2 Bitumen Bituminousmaterialused for subgradestabilization shall complywith the requirementas per relevant tables specified in item 301. 1 BITUMEN STABILIZED SUBGRADE DESCRIPTION The work shall consist of performingall operations in connectionwith construction of bitumen stabilized subgrade and all incrdentals in acuordancewith the specificationsin conformitywith the lines.ITEM llJ 11 3 . 113.2. ln dry areas.2. tt3. The quantityof bitumen requiredwill generallylie betweenthree (3) to six (6) percentby weightof dry sand. necessitating heatingand dryingof sand. Bitumen-sand mixturefor the gradeof bitumenselectedshall be ascertained by trial mixes using MarshallTest to determinethe quantity of bitumen requiredusing either heated or unheatedsand. the bituminous bindershall be fluid cut back conformingthe requirementsas given in tables 301-3and 301-4respectively of item 301 "AsphalticMaterials". 113. grade.l Soil This method will only apply to sites with naturallyoccurringnon plastic materialsuch as sand. lf the materialis brouqht at site.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS tt3. shallbe used ttJ-l . Mix in placemethodof bitumenstabilizatron will be subjectto the approval of Engineerto ensurefull controlof bitumencontent. For scarification of in situ materialand spreadingof Bituminous qraderwith bladeand bitumendistributor material.the higherproportionsbeingrequiredwith fine-grainedmaterials.

it shall be laid as singleoperationwhere as if thicknessof compactedstabilizedlayer is more than twentycentimeter.1 Compaction lmmediatelyafter completionof spreading.3.which is frozen or covered with ice or snow and laying shall cease when the air temperature reaches five (s) degree c on a falling thermometer.3.aerationand shapingoperation.materialshall be placedin two or more layers. AASHTO .trial sectionsas directed by the Engineer. steel wheeled tandem roller shall be used to carry out final rolling of compacted surfaceto eliminatethe tyre marks. lf thicknessof compactedlayeris lessthan 20 centimeters. the mixtureshall be thoroughlycompactedwith rubberor pneumatictyred rollers.The stabilizedsoil shall be left uncompactedafter pulverizationand mixing to allow for evaporationof volatile materialsthus increasingstabilityand decreasing water absorption particularlyin fine grained sand when temperatureis low. ll3."Tablefor AllowableTolerances. 113-2 . 113. Frequencyof testingin field and in laboratorywill be accordingto relevant schedulefor samplingand testingof thesespecifications.T-191. 113.2 Tolerance compactedlayer shall complywith the tolerancerequirementsas specified in relevant. In-situ densityof compactedlayershall be deierminedusing methodas described by MSHTO .3.Layingshallnot commenceuntilthe air temperatureis at least flve (5) degree c on a rising thermometerunless othenruisedirected by the Engineerand also if wet weatherthreatensto be prolongedthe manufatture and layingof stabilizedmix shall be suspended.eaeh within the range of eight (B) to twenty (20) centimetersin compacted thickness.spreading.shall be preparedby the contractorbefore main work of stabilizationis started.3 WeatherLimitation The laying of bituminouscourses shall be avoided as for as practicable during wet weather and shall be suspendedwhen free standingwater is presenton the surface. To determinethe efficiencyof mixing.' in thesespecification.T-205 or AASHTO -T-2ZB and shail be minirnLrmninety five (95) % modified AASHTO according to the above mentionedmethods. The resultsof cBR test for measuringthe strengthof bitumen stabilized materialsor cone stabilitytest for designingbitumen-sandmixtureshall not supersedethose of Marshallrest unlessagreed by the Engineer. compactionshall continueuntilentirewidth and depth of subgiade is uniformlycompactedto give soaked (96 hours)unconfinedcompressive strength accordingto design requirementto meet traffic loading.degree of compactionof equipmentand suitabilityof constructionmethod.The stabilizedmaterialshall not be laid on any surface.

plant.3 . This quantityof bitumenconsumedshall not exceedthe theoreticalpercentageestablishedin the laboratory' t13.rolling. correctingunsuitable areas and unsatisfactorymaterial. Pay ltem No.tYPe- Ton 11 3 . Measurementof bitumenbinder used shall be the number of metric Ton used to stabilizesubgrade.4. Measurementshall not includeany areas in excess of that shown on the drawings.mixing. maintenanceincluding protectionof stabilizedsubgradelayer and incidentalsnecessaryfor completionof work except bitumen consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measured above. except the areas authorized by the Engineer in writing. shaping. handling. CM 113b BitumenBinder.1 Measurement The unit of measurementfor payment shall be cubic meters of a given thickness of compactedand accepted subgrade as measuredin place.113. compactingincluding necessarywater for compaction.placing.2 Payment Measuredquantityof stabilizedsubgradedeterminedas aboveshall be paid for at the contractunit priceper cubic meterfor a particularitem listeJbelow and shown on the bill of quantities. which payment shall be full compensationfor furnishingall labour. finishing. material.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 173. manipulating. equipment. Description Unit of Measurement 113a BitumenStabilizedSubgrade. tool.4.

J. in cm 0 . t14.however.1 In case the berms show undulationof more than 5 cms in level from the reconstructedpavementstructure.or out of level.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS 1t4. watered. 114.Existing and fresh material shall be properlymixed.as under:_ Dgt[ Compactionrequirementas per AASHTO T-180 (D). wateredand compactedas directedby the Engineer. The existing material shall be scarified. mixed and properly leveled and compacted accordingto specificationdescribed here underor as directedby the Engineer. tt4.mixed and compactwith appropriate equipmentapprovedby the Engineer.15 (Toplayer) 100%for subbasematerial 11+1 common earth .SSING AND COMPACTION OF BERMS DESCRIPTION This work shallconsistof scarification of berms. t14.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS In this item no fresh materialis required.if fresh materialis used it shall be measuredand paid under other relativeitems of works.' t 5 l T o pl a y e n 95% for material 0 .2 Dressingof bermwith the useof extra material ln case the difference of elevation of existing berm with respect to reconstructed road structureis less than 15 cm than additionalmaterial (to be measuredunderother itemsof work) shall be addedto bringthe levelof berms in conformitywith the linesand grades of the existingr6ad.3.J Compactionrequirement compaction requirementof the fresh and existing material shall be in accordancewith the type of materialusedin berms.3.l DRJ.ITEM 114 tt4.the berms shall be scarifiedto a depth of 15 cm and material will be watered.which are undulated.

4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT I l-t. tools and incidentalsnecessaryto completethts item.1 Measurement Measurementunder this item shall be made in square meter of berms dressed or compactedin accordancewith theoretieallines. 1I4.3.4. mixing. equipment.2 Payment The paymentof this item shall be made for at the contractunit price per square meter of dressed and compactedberm measuredas above.4. In case partialfreshmaterialis used to compensatefor shortageof material in the top layerthe quantityof such materialshall be measuredby survey levelsof existingground and designedlines.4 Comoaction of slopes While reinstating/dressirrgof berms. labour. it shall be ensured that compaction requirements are observed on slopes of the berms. rolling. SM of bermwith 114b Dressing extramaterial. Description Unit of Measurement of bermwithout 114a Dressing extramaterial. The quantityof materialthus measuredshall be paid under other items of worksof formationof embankment/ subbase. SM 114-2 .t14. The degree of compaction shall be as per direction of the Engineer. 114.gradesor sectionsshown on the drawing. Pay ltem No. or sections shownon tne drawings.or as per existingedgeof road. for scarificationwatering.

5mm) No. No unburntor semi burntmaterialshall be allowed.ITEM 115 11 5 . 20o/omin.3 PhvsicalReouirements The additionalphysicalrequirementsof the kiln materialwill satisfy the followinglimits:4 2. SwellingValue. 1" (25mm) 3/8" (9.R. The materialshall behave like improvedsub gradewith followingproperties.0%max. L15.10 No.2.coarser than 1" (25 mm) size materialmay be allowedupto five (5) percentby the Engineer. rr5.2 !4AIN. .2.2 Cradation The gradingshallconformto the followinglimits. SieveDesiqnation MassPercentPassing. in conformitywith lines.(96 hours) 115-1 0. P . SoakedC. 6.RIAL REOUIREMENTS The materialshallconformto the followingrequirements.B. l .gradesand cross-sections shownon driwino.2. 1 REINSTATEMENT OF SHOULDERS FROM BRICK KILN MATERIAL DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof furnishingand placingin singlelayerof Brick Kiln materialon shouldersand to mechanicallyinterlockby wateringand rolling.v a l u e .2Ook max. 115.200 100 80-100 50-85 15-35 Note:. 11s.1 Texture The Kiln materialshall be fully burnthavingreddishbrowniblackcolour.

115. consistentwith the approved compacting equipment.1 Measurement The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the number in cubic meter by the theoreticalvolumeof shouldersconstructedaccordingto designedlinesand gradescompactedin placeand completein all respect. The dryingof wet materialmay be expeditedby discingor otherapprovedmethods. Side slopes shall be neatlytrimmedto the lines and slopes shown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.2 Compaction All materialshall be compactedto a minimumninetyfive (95) percentof the maximumdry densityas determinedaccordingto AASHTO T-180 method 'B' or 'D' whicheveris applicable.1 General Materialfor shoulders.sectionsand dimensions shownon the Drawings.and the finishedwork shallbe kept in a neat and acceptablecondition.obtainedand approvedas providedabove shall be placed and thoroughlymixed with water in horizontallayer of uniform ihicknessand in conformitywith the lines. The compactionof the shouldersshall be carried out at the designated moisture content.3.4.3.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 115. Material containingmoisture more than necessaryto obtain the requiredcompactionmay not.115. Shoulder materialthat does not contain sufficientmoistureto obtain the required compaction shall be given additional moisture by means of approved sprrnklersand mixing operation.The layerof loose materialshall not be morethan twenty (20) centimeters in thickness unless othenrviseapproved by the Engineer.grades. without writtenapprovalof tlre Engineerbe incorporatedin the shouldersuntilit has been sufficientlydried out. 115-2 . 115.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 11s. ln place density determinationof the compactedlayershall be made in accordancewith AASHTOT-191or other approvedmethod.

placing.mixing.2 Payment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit priceper cubic meter oi Brick Kiln shouldermaterial for the pay item listedbelow and shown in the Bill of euantities.wateringand compacting. hauling. Description Unit of Measurement Reinstatement of Shoulders from BrickKiln Material 11 5 . labour.e!uipment. Pay ltem No.4.toots and incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item.wrrichprrceand payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials.115.3 CM .

SUBBASE AND BASE .

.

lime stabilizedsubbaseand bitumenstabilizedsubbaseand base. crack relieflayers.and compactinggraded subbase. crushed limestone base course.and/oras shown on the Any of specification.spreading. cement stabilizedsubbaseand base course.2 MATERIAL The materialshallconsistof sand. materialmeetingthe requirement.when deemednecessaryby the Engineer.base course as called for in the specificationof partrcularapplicationand /or the bill of quantities.to assureconformancewith the requirements materialfound not to confortn with the requirementswill be subject to rejection.All rejected material shall be removed and replacedwith the at no additionalcostto the Client.shallbe sampledand testedin his presenceby the contractor for particularsubbase. asphalticbase course. 200-1 .Any deviationfrom the methodsand procedureprescribedthereinmay be made only as directed in writing by the Engineeras per relevant "Table for Samplingand TestingFrequency". providedin latest versionof AmericanSocietyof Testingand Materials(ASTM).1 SamnlinsandTestins samplesshall be submittedto Engineerfor testing Adequaterepresentative and preliminaryapprovalnot less than twenty days.SUBBASEAND BASE ITEM 2OO 200.constructedon a preparedbed and all incidentalsin accordancewith these specificationin shownon conformitywiththe lines. as directed by the and/or the drawing 200.gradethicknessand typicalcross-section Engineer. 200. Preliminaryapprovalof source shall not mean that all the materialin the sourceis approved. Samplingand testing.Materialrequirementsfor this work are specifiedundervariousitemsof the section.The material.shall be accordingto the standard methods prescribed in the latest edition of the American Associationof State Highway and TransportationOfficials(AASHTO)or standardspecificationand methods of samplingand testing.2. gravelor a sand gravelmixtureobtained from the source approvedby the Engineer.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The work shall consist of furnishing.uniess otherwisestated. drawing. before the intended materialis to be used in the work. base.

4 Scheclule fbr Sarnpling and Testing The samplingfrequency.2 Selection of Placefor SamDling The selectionof representative samplesfor testing shall be by "Random samplingMethod"by whicheverypari of a lot or stockpilehas equalchance to be selected. 200.when it is necessaryto sample stockpiles. 200.2.However contractorwill be responsibleto give required quality and workmanshipthrough any type of equipment irrespective of any approvalgivenby the Engineer.200.in thesespecifications. 200.togetherwith the allowabletolerancesfor the subbaseand base are as specifiedin "TableforAllowableTolerances".tools and machinesused in the performanceof work shall be maintainedin satisfactory conditionsat all times and be subiectto the approvalof the Engineer.A sufficientnumbero{.3 PLANT & EQUIPMENT All equipment.5 Tolerances The allowabletolerancesfor the subgrade prior to placing the overlying courses.and other informationfor proper controlof each work shall be as given in "Tablesfor sampling and resting Frequency"which will providethe minimumtestingfrequencyunder normal conditions.where frequenciesare givenas per layeror per stripthis will meanthe widthof stripor layerbeinglaid at any one item.samplesshall be obtainedto cover all variationsin the material. In samplingsandfrom stockpiles.3 NumberandSizeof Samplcs The numberand sizeof samplerequireddependson the intendeduse of the material.2.greater sampling frequencymay be taken as directed bv the Engineer. causingsegregation shallbe removedand representative samplesof the damp sand selected.every effort shouldbe madeto enlistthe serviceof powerequipmentthat is capableof exposingthe materialat variouslevelsand locations. 200.acceptancelimits. 200-2 .2.lf the materialsor operationsare variableand good control is difficultto maintain. The qriantitiesmust be sufficientto providefor properexecutionof the requuedtests. Listof recommended typeof equipmeniis onlyfor guidance of contractor.where samplingfrequenciesare not given in the tablethey shall be as directedby the Engineer.2.the outer layerwhichmay have becomedry.the quantityof materialinvolvedand the variationboth in quality and size of aggregate.

d) Numberof passesrequiredto satisfactorily compactthe layerto required level.J I'RIAL STIIIPS contractorshall preparetrial strip for any item as appearingin this chapter. c) Wateringand mixingprocedures. a) Maximumthicknessof looselayer. to establishthe following. e) Any otherrequirement orderedby the Engineer.:()(|. b) Typeof equipment to be used.whichcan be laid. Engineershall then inspect and test the Trial strip and approve the procedurein writing. Howeverthis approvalshall nol relievethe contractorfrom his contractual obligation 200-3 .to carry out the work.

B.5 4.1-_to 2-8 '100 55-85 40-70 30-60 20-50 10-30 5-15 The Coefficientof UniformityD60/D1Oshall be not less than 3.spreadingin one or more layersand compactinggranularsubbaseaccordingto the specifications and drawings and/oras directedby the Engineer.75 2. 201-1 .0 qnn 25.200 Mass PercentPassing Gradine A B 100 90-100 50-80 . stablesubbase.and shallbe of such nature that it can be compactedreadilyunder wateringand rollingto form a firm. and C given below. where D60 and D10 are the particlediameterscorresponding to 60% and 10%. a) Grading Requirementsfor SubbaseMaterial SieveDesignation mm 60.1 GRANULAR SUBBASE DESCRIPTION This item shall consistof furnishing. respectively.sand or stonefragmentand shallbe cleanand free from dirt.0 9. 201.1t2) (2) (1) (3/8) N o .HowevergradingA may be allowedby the Engineerin specialcircumstances.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Granularsubbasematerialshall consistof naturalor processedaggregates such as gravel.075 Inch (2.4 No.10 No.40 No.0 0.curve.TTEM201 201. passing(byweight)in a grainsizeanalysis.425 0. organicmatterand otherdeleterioussubstances. The materialshallcomplyto the followinggradingand qualityrequirements: The subbase materialshall have a gradationcurve within the limitsfor gradingA.

The fractionpassingthe 0. to Where D85 and D15 are the particlediarneterscorresponding eighty five (85) o/oand fifteen (15) 9/o.1 Spreadins Granularsubbaseshallbe spreadon approvedsubgradelayeras a uniforr. invariablybe done. e) The fractionpassingthe 0.to ensure proper bondingof material.passing (by weight)in a grainsizeanalysis.425 mm sieveshall have a liquid limit of not greaterthan 25 and a plasticityindex of 6 ol IESS.b) The Materialshallhavea CBR value of at least50%. if over-size quantityis lessthan 5% of the total mass. Segregationshall be avoided during spreading and the f. In case any materialis to be addedto compensatefor levels. Sandeouivalent 20t.curve. 200) sieve shall not be greaterthan two third of the fractionpassingthe 0.respectively.shall lf over-sizeis encountered.pickingup or othenruiseshiftingthe subbasematerial.nal of coarseor fine materials.the same shall be done after scarifyingthe existingmaterial. no hand pickingshall be allowed.i mixture. 4 shall have a percentageof wear by the Los Angeles Abrasion (AASHTOT-96) of not more than fifty (50) percent. 40) sieve. g) for all classesshallbe 25 min. compactedlayershallbe free from concentration Granularsubbaseshall be depositedon the roadbedor shouldersin a quantity which will providethe requiredcompactedthickness without resortingto spotting. additional 201-2 . The CBR value shall be obtained at a densitycorrespondingto Ninety eight (98) percentof the maximumdry densitydeterminedaccordingto AASHTO T-180 Method-D.075 mm (No. 0 screeningof materialat source. determined accordingto AASHTOT-193.however hand picking may be allowed by the Engineer.425 mm (No. the ratio D15 (Subbase)/D85 (Subgrade)shouldbe lessthan 5.3. c) The coarse aggregatematerial retainedon sieve No.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 20r. d) In order to avoid intrusionof silty and clayey materialfrom the subgrade in the subbase.

where the thicknessin looselayershallnotbe morethan 10 cm. All subsequentlayers shall be spread and compactedin a similar manner.plate compactorsor mechanicaltampers.in the judgmentof the Engineer.by wateringwith approvedsprinklersmountedon trucks or by dryingout.the entire surface of each layer shall be properlyshaped and dressedwith a motor grader.wherethe rollingshall beginat the low side and progressto the high side.five hundred(500) meters and not less than two hundred(200) meterswith the approvedsubbasematerialas wlll be used during constructionto determinethe adequacy of the contractor's equipment.3 Compaction The moisture content of subbase material shall be adjusted prior to compaction. The subbasematerialshall be compactedby means of approvedvibrating rollers or steel wheel rollers (rubber tyred rollers may be used as a supplement).3. as required.When the requiredthicknessis fifteen(15) cm or less. Granularsubbaseshallbe spreadwithequipment that will providea uniform layer conformingto the specifieditem both transverselyand longitudinally within the tolerancesas specifiedin "Table for AllowableTolerances"in these specifications.5) centimetersthick.progressinggraduallyfrom the outside towards the centre. the weatheror road conditionsare such that the haulingoperationwill causecuttingor ruttingof subgradeor contamination of sub basematerial.For details. 201. loosedepthmeasurement necessary to resultin the specified corripactedlayer depths. Each succeedingpass shall overlapthe previouspass by at least one third of the roller width.not to exceed.contractorshall constructa trial length. Rolling shall continue until entirethicknessof each layer is thoroughlyand uniformlycompactedto the specifieddensity. the aggregatesmay be spreadand compactedas one layer.refer to clause 1.to attaina smooth surfacefree from ruts or ridges and having proper section and crown. the aggregatesshall be spread and compactedin 2 or more layersof approximately equalthickness. zv t-5 .2 ContiractionTrials Prior to commencementof granularsubbaseoperaron. while the rolling progresses. the field moisture content.in orderto obtainthe specifiedcompaction. Any area inaccessible to rollingequipmentshall be compactedby means of hand guided rollers.20 (General)of these specifications.No haulingor placementof materialwill be permitted when.3.but in anv case the maximumcompactedthicknessof one layershallnot exceed15 cm.but in no case shall a layer be less than seven and' one half (7. Where the required thicknessis more than 15 cm. excepton superelevated curves. and the relationshipbetweenthe number of compaition passes and the resulting densityof the material. 201.

AASi-1TO Methodf -224 shallbe used 201. The edges or edge slopesshall be bladed or otherwisedressedto conformto the lines and dimensionsshown on the otans.6 b) Moisturecontent for calculationof field density and proctor shall be observedon materialpassing4.5 MoistureContentDetermination As rr is customaryin the projectlaboratories that smallsamplesof materials are placed in ovens for moisture determinationfor proctor.rework.or part thereof does not conform to the requiredfinish. following precautions are necessaryto ensurepropercompactionresults.ce theoreticallimitsas shownon the cross-sections.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 201. For all matbrials.and recompactthe materialbeforesucceedinglayerof the pavementstructureis constructed.No allowan.75 mm sieve. The field densityshall be determinedaccordingto AASHTOT-191 or otherapprovedmethod. Prior to placing the succeeding layers of the material.3.4.3. 201.the Contractor shall.The allowabletoleranceshall be accordingto the "Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesesoecifications.lf the layer of subbase material.the top surfaceof each layershall be made sufficientlymoistto ensurebond betweenthe layers. lmmediatelyprior to the placingof first layer of base course the subbase layer (both underthe traveledway and the shoulders)shall conformto the required level and shape. of laboratory 201.1 C'omDaction requirements The relativecompactionof each layer of the compactedsubbaseshall not be less than Ninety eight (98) percent of the maximum dry density determinedaccordingto AASHTOT-180 Method-D.placedand acceptedin the completedgranular will be givenfor materialsplacedoutsidethe subbasecourse.75 mm sieve. No materialfor constructionof the base shall be olaceduntil the subbase has beenapprovedby the Engineer.the field densitythus obtainedshall be adjustedto accountfor oversizeparticles(retainedon 19 mm sieve) as directedby the Engineer Also for adjustinentof any materialretainedon 4.ot his own expense. Tolerance The subbaseshallbe compactedto the desiredleveland cross slopesas shownon the drawings.3.1 Measurement The quantityof subbaseto be paid for shall be measuredby the theoretical volumein placeas shown on the drawingsor as directedand approvedfor construction by the Engineer. 201-4 . a) Same sizeof sampleis placedin oven for moisturedetermination in case density(Proctor)and fielddensity. 20L.water.

2 Pavment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedaboveshall be paidfor at the contractunit price per cubic meter of granularsubbase. hauling.watering.tools and incidentalsnecessary to completethe item.labour.for the Pay ltem listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantities. Pay ltem No.equipment.rolling. placing. 201 Description GranularSubOase 201-5 Unit of Measurement CM .201.4.which price and payment shall constitute full compensationfor furnishing all materials.

spreadingand compactingone (1) or more layersof aggregatebaseon a preparedsubgrade. stablebasefor bothflexibleand rigidpavements.ITEM 202 202.1 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE DESCRIPTION This item shall consistof furnishing.or existing and the drawingsand/or road surface.havinga minimumof two (2) fracturedfaces' 202 1 .200 A 100 70-95 30-65 25-55 15-40 8-20 2-8 B 100 75-95 40-75 30-60 20-50 12-25 5-10 The materialshall be well gradedsuch that the coefficientof Uniformity D60/D10shallbe greaterthanfour (4).subbase.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Materialfor aggregatebase course shall consistof crushed hard durable gtatef.0 9.0 25. a) The gradationcurve of the materialshall be smooth and within the envelopelimitsfor GradingA or B givenbelow. b) crushed Aggregate(materialretainedon sieve NO. 202. rocf oi-itone fragments. Gradine Requirementsfor AggregateBaseMaterial Mass Percent Passing Grading Sieve Designation mm 50. 4) shall consist of material of which at least ninety (90) percent by weight shall be crushedparticles.lumpsof clay and otherdeleterioussubstances.75 2. The aggregate base shall comply to the following grading and quality requirements.4 N o .1 0 No.00 0.The materialshall be of such a naturethat it can be compactedreadilyunder wateringand rollingto form a firm. lt shall be clean and free from organtc iratters.425 n n76 Inch 2 1 3/8 No.5 4.40 No.in accordancewith the specifications as directedbYthe Engineer.

3.in additionto that naturallypregentin the aggregatebase materialis necessaryfor meetingthe gradingrequirementor for satisfactory bondingof the material. The material for such purposeshall be obtainedfrom sourcesapprovedby the Engineer. g) Laminatedmaterialshall not exceed 1s% of total volume of Aggregate BaseCourse. AASHTO Sieve PercentPassi 3/8 lnch 4 100 Plasticity Index(AASHTO T-90) SandEquivalent (AASHTO T-176) 100 85-'100 10-30 6 maximum 3 0m i n i m u m Howeverthe combinedaggregatespreparedby mixingthe coarse material and fillershallsatisfythe requirements as mentionedin clause202. 2. The materialpassingthe 1g mm sieve shall have a CBR value of minimumeighty(80) percent.02-2 .3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 202.r Filler for Blendine lf filler.2. the subbasecourse shall not have loose materialor moisturein excessto optimummoisturecontent.12)percent.dirt.clayand clay lump or otherdeleteriousmatterand shallconformto followingrequirement. 202.1 Prenarationofsurfacefor Aggregatebasecourse In case crushed aggregatebase is to be laid over preparedsub base course. e) The sand equivalent determinedaccordingto AASHTOT-176 shall not be lessthan 45 and the materialshallhaVea Liquidlimitof not more than twentyfive (25) and a plasticityIndexof not more than 6 as determinedby AASHTOT-89 and T-90.The cBR valueshall be obtainedat the maximumdrv densitv detbrminedaccoidingto AASHTOT 180.it shall be uniformlyblendedwith the base course materialat the crushingplantor in a pugmillunlessothenrrise approved.2above. The materialshallbe free from organicmatter.shale.when subjectedto five cycles of the Sodium Sulphate Soundnesstest accordingto AASHTOf -104.c) The Coarseaggregateshall have a percentageof wear by the Loss AngelesAbrdsiontest (AASHTOT-96)of not morethan forty(40) d ) The materialshall have a loss of less than twelve(.tUetfroA O. 202.testedaccordingto the AASHTO T 193.

loose depth measurementnecessaryto result in the specifiedcompacted layerdepths.3.the contractorshall nraintainthe lurface until final acceptanceand shall preventrevelingby wetting.6 Tolerance The completedbase course shall be tested for requiredthicknessand in smoothnessbefore acceptance. 3 .3.4 MoistureContentDetermination Moisture content deternrinationshall conform in all respects to the underclause201.reshaping. Skin patchingof an area without r""rifying ihe surfaceto permitproper bondingof added materialshall not be permitted.AASHTOMethodT224 shall be used Completedbase courseshallbe maintainedin an acceptableconditionat all times untilprimecoat is applied.The allowabletolerancesshall be accordingto the "Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.recompactinganO tihistrlngas specified.2 Comnaction compaction process shall conform in all respect to the requirements specifiedunderthisheadingin ltem201 (201. irregularities be shall (15) M fifteen (2) in cm two (3) M Or excessof one (1) cm in three correctedby scaiifyingthe surface.5 Trial Sections of aggregatebase courseoperations.The fielddensityshallbe determined accordingto AASHTOT-191 or other approvedmethod' For all materials.spreadingshall conformin all respectsto the requirementsspecifiedunder t h i sh e a d i n gi n l t e m2 0 1. Any area having waves.3. clause1.S u b b a s e( 2 0 1 .rollingand additionof fines as may be requiredto keep the base iightly bound and leave a slight excess of materialover the entire surface which must be removed and the surface finish restored before applicationof Primecoat.and relationshipbetweenthe numberof compactionpassesand the resultingdensrtyui inaierial. 202-3 . 202.field moisturecontent. 1 ) ' 202.3'5for subbase' specified requirements 202.blading. the field densitythus obtainedshall be adjustedto accountfor overstze particles(retainedon 19 mm sieve)as directedby the Engineer' Also for adjustmentof any materialretainedon 4]5 mm sieve.3.3)' 202.but not to exceedfive hundred(500) meters shall be prepared by the contractor using same material and equipmentas will be used at site to determinethe adequacyof equipment.20(General) 202.a trialsection Priorto commencement of two hundred(200)metersminimum.When base courseis to carrytrafficfor an indefinitelength of time before receivingsurfacing.3.3.addingapprovedmaterial.MethodD (Modified).3 Requirement ComDaction The relativecompactionof each layer of the compactedbase shall not be less than 100 percentto the maximumdry densitydeterminedaccordingto AASHTOT-180.For detailsreferto of thesespecifications.

equipment.rolling. 202.4."Table for Samplihgand TestingFrequency"or as approvedby the Engineer.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 202.watering. labour.3. Unitof Measurement CM .for the item listedbelowand shown in the Bill of Quantities. 202 Description AggregateBase.2 Payment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas aboveshallbe paid for at the contract unit price per cubic meter of aggregatebase.hauling. shall be measuredby the theoreticalvolume in place as shown on the drawings or as directed'and approvedfor constructionby the Engineer.placed and accepted in the completedcrushedaggregatebase course.No allowancewill be given for materials placed outside the theoreticallimits as shown on the cross sections.toolsand incidentalsnecessaryto completethis item.1 Measurement The quantityof aggregatebase to be paid for.placing.292.1 Acceptance. Pay ltem No. 202.4. Samplingand Testinq Acceptance of sampling and testing with respect to materials and constructionrequirementsshall be governed by the relevant.which price and payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishingall materials.

organic matter. the of Drawingsand the directions 203.shale.The fillermaterialshill consistof finelydividedrock dust.Rock or boulders from which coarse aggregate is obtained.in case the coarse aggregatesare of quartiziticnature. it shall be sufficiently gradation: following to Fillermaterialshallconform US Standard Sieve PercentPassing Weisht 100 95-100 70-100 No. and when tested for stability. crushedgravelor crushedboulder.then hydratedlime or a bettermaterial dry to flow freely.and in strictaccordancewith this Sectionof the Specification' Engineer. 4 sieve shallconsiit oi crushedrock. 4 sieve shall consistof pieces with-at least two (2) mechanicallyfractured faces.lt shall be clean.equipmentand material and performingall operationsin connectionwith the constructionof an asphalticplant-hix base courseon a previouslyconstructedand accepted subgrade.hard.durable.1 ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE PLANT MIX DESCRIPTION This work shallconsistof furnishingof plant.At the time of use. sfritt ne allowed.hydratedlime.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 203.all conformingwith the followingrequirements: Coarseaggregatewhich is the materialretainedon AASHTO No. When the combinedgradingof the coarseand fine aggregatesis deficientin materialpassingtto.2OOsieve.4 sieve.clly lump or other deleterioussubstances.ITEM 203 203.50 No.free from decomposedstones.labour.shall be of uniform quality throughoutthe quarry The crushingshall be so regulatedthat at least ninetyfive (95) percentby weightof miterial retainedon AASHTO No.iinJaggregateand filler material.r Mineral Aggregate Mineral aggregatefor bituminousbase course shall consist of coarse aggregate.hydraulic cement or other suitable mineral matter. However. stabilityof bituminousmix shallshow satisfactory Fineaggregatewhichis materialpassingNo.additionalfillermaterialshall be added.if required.subjectto terms and conditionsof the the Con'iract.shall consistof 100% miterialfrom rock or boulder.tough.subbaseor base course.30 No.2.200 203-1 .sound. No naturalsandwill be allowedin the crushe-d mix.

or"'tl:i#:''T.n :ili.lllo uotleutulexauqder6o:.a6 (q r1Ius1e.iUolueLtl arouraq lou leqs (96 j O1HSW) uotserqy sele6uy lsel sol aql Aq reann1o a6eluac:aOaqj (e elqecrldde ourirnol.iJ"ril Tfi rtXTn""". (c '1UaC:ad (ZL)a^tomtueqtssat aq leqs (tOi f OIHSW) ]so]sseupunos oleqolns untpos oq] Jo se. pa)coqc aq lleqs (6 "ir"o" qstqMpoMolle lso] oq] sautlenb aq llellslet:aleut1eq1 Iluo pue ZgL_l OIHSW Jopunpaqucsap se sele6aL66eesleoc uo partrolad aq lleqs lsal OurOdulg 0 \ L : gz = s u o t s u o t u l p urnuluLu ol unutxeul Jo orlet) salclped pele6uo1a Jolpue Iq luacled gf ueql oJoLUureluoolou lleLlsa^ats lell lo 1q01em (qcut ele) ULU9 6 aql uo pautelarale6e.f aql ]eaurnr^ 1r{s1eLaueg lo sluo.cIc a^U ol lcafqns ueLlmssol oql (q '(Ol)."ll Hli! 'sageOetO'6e '"qf ".i 7.'7't07 .xorrnbar 8*igH se 00t-0g lo 01.-09'09-07 "flf epelOuolletlauad Ourneq ]uauao lleqospaq lleqs aseq 3tlleLldse ecnpotd o1 a1e6el66eeLl]qln^ paxtul aq ol Japutq lleqosV iEirstEn-5jtmiBv 'taeul6u3 eq1{qpalceltpos lt pelcnpuoc aq lleqs ale6et66e esleo3 aL.eaur6u3 .o1 aqr ]oaurteqs sale6e:66e aur.z-t0z :alqeloun^olloJ aLllut u^ oqs g sselc jolpue v sselc oi uilojuoc lleqs osJnoceseg roJ saJnlxrtr6urnedelaJcuoccrlleqdseaq] jo uorlrsodLuoc aq1 f 'z'f0u .fJo'' aql Iq palsop Jt".{1uann1 ueq}eroLu}ou trurl prnbrle aneqljeqsiale6a"rooe e-uij (p '(St) enUl{UoJ uerl] ssal eq )ou lleqs]uouloolleqdselo uoqtppelo1ldacxaburssaco:d lle reue pautultolep(Sty t OTHSW) luelenrnb3pues aLll ..r66e uoipod aql 1o (e '06-1pue 68 I O1HSW Aq poururralep se (g) xrs ueL{larour}ou lo xopul{lrcrlseJ6 e pue (97j anr. Iaq] ]eql o no.

3 0 m 4-10 No.8 ( 2 .TABLE203-1 CombinedAqqreqateGradinqRequirements Mix Designation ClassB ClassA Use Leveling/Base Leveling/Base Thickness Comoacted 70-90mm 50-80mm U.3 0 1 5. 200 (0. 1 / 2("3 8m m ) 9 0.5 0 ( 0 .3 5 0 m) N o .S.5mm) 45-60 N o . 4 ( 4 . 3 8m m ) 1 5.5mm) 55-70 3/8"(9.1 0 0 75-90 1" (25 mnt) 3/4"(19mm) 100 65-80 56-75 112"(12. 7 5m m ) 23-40 30-45 N o .075mm) 3-6 2-7 AsphaltContentweight oercentof totalmix (Minimum) (minimum) .StandardSieveSizePercentpassingby weight 2" (50 mm) 100 1 .

. . . c) The batchweightsare typicailyof 4 Kg. .slb.4mm (5. with spadingperformedaftereach incrementto avoidhoney-combing. . e) The mix is placedin the mold in two approximatelyequal increments. ..88inches) flat tamping face.5 inches)will be preparedaccordingto modifiedMarshallmethodas per MS-2 Asphalt institute. ) . 1993 or the latest edition.) Mixes composedof largersize aggregateswith maximumsize upto 3g mm (1.)and has a 149.sixth edition 1993.. .2 mm (3. 75 1000Ks (Min.4 mm (6 inches)diameterby 95.3 MS-2 . s)The designcriteriashall be modifiedas well.5 times (75 or 112 blows)of that requiredfor the smallerspecimen(s0 or 75 blows)to obtainequivalentcompaction.2kg (22..sixth edition.75inches)thickness... 2 5m m ( 0 . .5 times normalsizedsoecimens. only mechanically-operated device is used for the same457 mm ('18inches)dropheight. 25 percent (Max. . b) The specimenhas a 152. . Asphalt institute. 0 ' i1n . . d) The equipmentfor compactingand testing(moldsand breakingheads) are proportionately largerto accommodatethe largerspecimens.) Flow0 . the minimumstabilityshall be 2-25 times and the range of flow values shall be 1.The asphalt concrete leveling/ base course mixture shall meet the followingMarshallTest Criteria. . .followingvaluesshallbe usedto convert the measuredstabilityvaluesto an equivalentvaluefor a specimenwith a 95.2 mm (3. . 8-14 Percentair voidsin mix 4_8 Percentvoidsin mineral aggregates Loss in Stability Accordingto Table 5.75 inches)height.if the actualthicknessvaries: 203-4 . f) The numberof blowsneededfor the largerspecimenis 1.. . h ) similarto the normalprocedure.The pr_ocedure is basicallythe same as the originalmethodexceptfor following differencesthat are due to the largerspecimensizethat is used: a) The hammerweighs10..numberof blowseach end of specimen Stability. Compaction.

mineralfiller and asphalt to produce a final mix that.{') (3 "/.2 (MS-2). of filler(passingsieveNo.shall conform thereto Moreoverupon receivingthe job-mix.03 1.1 93. when limits' compireOto job mixformulashallbe withinthe following 203-s .a Job-MixFormula(JMF)for the asphalticbase courseto be used for the project.3.orthe latestEdition.4 100.92 0.0 1 0 1.shall be establishedjointly by ihe Engineerand the contractor in the project laboratory. The ratioof wt. 200) to that of asphaltshall range between1-1."/ru) (3 . Job mix forrnula shall combine the mineral aggregates and asphalts in such requirements.u) (3 "4') (3 /ru) " (3".Approximate Height SpecimenVolume (3 t^tr) (3l/.the Contractorshall adjust his plant to proportionthe individual aggregates.9 90. The JMF.5 e2.5 for hot ciimateareaswithtemperaturemorethan 4OoC.all mixtures furnished for the project representedby samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation.0) (4) 1608to 1626 1 6 3 7t o 1 6 6 5 1666to 1694 1695to 1723 1 7 2 4l o 1 7 5 2 1753to 1781 1782to 1810 ' 1 8 1 t1o 1 8 3 9 1 8 4 0t o 1 9 6 8 .90 Job-Mix Formula At least one (1) week priorto production. proportionconformingto specification The JMF shall be establishedby MARSHALL Method of Mix Design accordingto the procedureprescribedin the AsphaltInstituteManualSeries No.1 1.2.2 96.8 e8.uo 1.95 0. 6 203.12 . approved by the Engineer.97 0.tJ) (3. After the JMF is established. 88.1 no l. with the allowabletolerancesshall be withinthe rangespecifiedin Item 203.7 95. Each JMF shall indicatea single percentageof aggregate passingeach requiredsieve size and a singlepercentageof bitumento be addedto the aggregate.2.sixthedition1993.00 0.

5 decksof hot sieves. JMF shallbe modifiedor an antistripping agentshallbe used.4 to No.00h + 1. lf filler is used as a separare componentit will also be stored and measuredseparatelyand accuratery beforebeingfed intothe mixerthroughfillerscrewmechanism.a new Job Mix Formula shall be establishedbeforethe new materialis used. Plant shall have minrmumthree cold bins and at least 3. One bin shall containaggregateof such size that eighty(80) percent will passsieveNo. aggregatesfor the asphalticbase courses shall be separatedinto three or more sizes and stored separatelyin cold bins. coordinatedand operatedto producea mixturewithin the limits of these specifications.r BituminousMixing Plant Plants used for the preparationof bituminousmixturesshall be "Batching Plants" conforming to AASHTO M 156. 203-6 . Asphaltcement heatedabove maximumshown shall be consideredoverheatedand shallbe rejectedand removedfrom iob site.3 C O N S T R U C T I O NR E Q U I R E M E N T S 203. when unsatisfactory resultsor otherconditionsmake it necessarv.30h In additionto meetingthe requirements specifiedin the proceedingitems.Oo/o AsphaltContent Weightpercentof total mix + 0.2 Prerrarationof Aggregates Before being fed to the dryer. 4.Maximum Valiation of Percentaqeof Materials RetainedNo.3.a new Job Mix Formulawill be required 203. 203. shoulda changeof sourcesof materialsbe made. Asphaltcementshall be heatedwithina temperaturerange of hundredand thirtyfive to hundredand sixty three (135-163)degreescentigradeat the time of mixing. and of adequate capacity.stabilityby immersionof specimenin water at sixty (60) dqgree centrgradefor 24 hours as comparedwith stabilitymeasuredafter immersionin water at 60 degreescentigraoefor 20 minutesshall not exceedstwentyfive (25) percent. 4. Should fine material.3.00h + 4.200 + 7.4 and larger PassingNo. separatebin shall be provid6din additionto the three bins mentionedabove.be incorporatedin the mix. lf the mixturefails to meet this criterion. 100 sieve PassingNo. and the othertwo bins shallcontainaggregateof such sizes that eighty(80) percentwill be retainedon sieve No. the mixtureas establishedby the JMF shall also satisfythe following physicalproperty Loss of Marshall.

proportionate shallnot be lower Temperatureof asphalt. Eachtruckshallhave a coverof canvas or of other suitable material of sufficientsize as to protect the mixturefrom the weather.clean. lf aggregate contain sufficient moisture to cause foaming in the mixture or their temperatureis in excess of hundred and sixty three (163) degrees centigtad. any method which causes segregationor uncontrolledcombinationof materialsof differentgrading. heated if necessary. smoothmetalbedswhichhave beenthinlycoatedwith an approvedmaterial to preventadheringof materialto the beds.1 Pavers Bituminous power-propelled units.Dried aggregateweighedand drawn to pugmillshall be combinedwith quantityof asphaltcement accordingto the job mix formula. the two materialsenterintothe pugmill. at the time.paver is not pushedbackproducing a humP. bituminous Asphaltplant shall have mtnimumthree and half (3 controlthe gradationof hot bins. provided Bitumrnouspaversshall be self-contained.3. exceed lmmediatelyafter heating. they qhall be removqd frqm tlle bins and returnedto their respectivestock piles.shall be discontinuedand the segregatedor for reuse.The mixturewill be deliveredon the road at a temperaturenot less than hundred and thirty. Driversof dump trucks will ensure that while reversingthe vehicles. 203. 203-7 .properlyadjustedto maintaina uniformdepth of materialaheadof the screed.3.3 tlr) sieve decks to HaulingEquipment Dump truck used for haulingbituminousmixturesshall have tight. effectively 203. For placingthe materialsin bins or in movingthem from bins to the dryer... shall the temperatureof asphalticmix '163degreecentigradewhen dischargedfrom the pugmill. The paver shall be equipped with automaticfeed controls. Paversusedfor shoulders and simitarconstructionshall be capableof spreadingand finishingcourse plantmix materialin widthsshownon the plans. with an automaticallycontrolledactivatedscreed or strike-offassembly.capable of spreadingand finishing courses of bituminousplant mix materialin lane widths applicableto the specified typicalsectionand thicknessshownon the plans. degradedmaterialsshallbe Prescreened not to shall be heatedand driedat temperature Each aggregateingredient exceedhundredand sixty three (163) degreescentigrade.exceptfor temporaryfluctuations. of bituminous The paver shall be equipped with a receivinghopper having sufficient capacityfor a uniformspreadingoperation. than fifteen(15)degreescentigradebelowthe temperatureof the aggregate. In no case.the aggregatesshall be screenedto required sizes and stored in separate hot bins for batching and mixing with material.(130) degree C.

.ecrleuolnepalloJ}uoc eq llells sauelalerpaulalullo.iep 6uunparnlxl.. patrnbalaq ll$ soutlacuarolau 'suorlecrlrceds eql burleeuasmraLilosllnsoJacnpo.ellelsutpue qstuln1lleqslolceJluoCorjf 'luauanedlor:adnse uteluteu ol sltellolcelluo3 aq] lanouoLlm {lalelpauur palelsuraroq lleqssoull ocueleleJaq] Jo asn aq1 'teaul0uJoLl]1o .{lessaceusauossoocepue oJm 'sacnapburuorsuel 'slo)ceJq'surd .pnnuorleledolenuel4 'uorlerJen luectad t 0 snuttrlro snld urqlnnedo.lsnourunltq :o1 alqeldmoe aq lleLls slalloJ fuo1erql4 uot]tpuocolqe)JoA e ut lltls sr lr elrqM{lrsuap pelrnbereq} o} oln}xlu orl} lceduoc o} }uatct}Jns aq lleqs pue laqunu oql 'eJnylulsnoutunltqoLi]]o ]uauece.lm .o asn oLll ]noqlm po^oil{ceaq lsaq uec ssauLllootuspue suotlcos ssorc 'eperO'autlotll o) luaulonoJdurLaqynl'laeur0u3aql 1o uorurdoaLl]ul uotll 'pue eoueralolpaqstlqelseaq1ol.r6oLll 'paptul:adaq llm autl acueJaJoJ 'lolluoo eq1 6utzrlr1n loJluocleluoztJoH lectpanio1 Ieanpeolautl uteu qcea polaner} ro1{em eq11osebpelo}no Llloqro.enoldde aLll o] lcafqns polnltlsqnseq ^eu lueuuabuerealll-lls e 'aurl o3uoJoJol oql .rouednssr Durned:o.acueJa}oluo.rl {1.o esn aqf uorlceduocalnlxtu.8_e0z 'pegtulod aq lou llm ole6al60eaql io 6urqsn:ca^rsse3xa 'luaudrnbe ur sllnsor r.enueu pe}eladoaq Ieu lueudrnbe aql 'srnccoslolluocctleuolnEaql lo uotlcunller!Jo uMop)eoJqB JoAouaLlM 'sealelouruJpue paoeqs .rluocpaercscrleuolne qlnnpaddrnbaoq lleLls:anedeq1 'sJnoq 'burpea:ds .dor..rolne eql lo uorlelado{rolcelstlesloJ . .qedec':anedaLl]Jo septsrl]oqJo laq]to Jol sJosuasq]rmslo.o Ournoqs'6uuee1lnoqlm alnlxal pue ssauuanepa:rnbaloL{}}o agepns potlsru4e Ourcnpo:d 1o alqedecaq lleLlsIlquuasseJJo-olulslo poaJcsaqI s'f'f u.otaql loaJaLl] aJqedec'uotltpuoc lnoqlM Oursrane:.peledaldepet6 eLllJo tlsluqeql uoqM 'luauebuele tls lenp e Jo ectnaploJluocedo.ls lln laned aq1 'aJnyrureq11o6ur{epfuopelsrlesq}m }ua}srsuoc spaedspJeMJoJ 'sornlxtruaql Ourrtel uaqM 1e paleredo6uraq1o alqedecoq llells raned eq1 'eJnlxrril aq] 6urOno0 .llle paonpo:d{peaL.spaltsopeql paorcs eq1 6ururelureu ]e 1o elqedecaq lleLlsrallolluocadolsas:ensuer]aq1 'lueua6uere olrl-r)se io outlo3uala1alB lrtoJ. eleredolllmllleql Bolanitsuocos eQ lgeqsiosuas aq1 'edo1sailensueri pue epel6 perrsapaq] ureluteulol paalos aq1salelado qcrqnn sleu6tsctleulolne aq16utpno:dpue paalos eql 1o adols asJansuel]eq1Dursuas'outlegualaloJ aprslnoue [uol] apel6 6ursuaslo a.nbelrJo uorlonrlsuocaLl} ur peplLuLad eq {Juo .:e.lctr.o 'fuoleLqrA pue e$ cryeunaud'1aaqrur uorleurqu03e to leals aq lleLlsslalloE SlaltoU 'luauudrnba lo:1uoc crleu.se pue r)s e lo sueatu{q :o saur.spue epe.edo oq llells pue 'qsellceq poobul aq lleqs(s)le.dsrp sJelloJ 1o 1qOrem prone o] qOnouaMols spaads ]e pale. ado.duocyru:edo] oult] ur :ened ol palentlepaq lleLlsletJaleuJ paxtu aLlt 'pasn0uraq:emod qorLl^ edfi eql roJ eq1 enr6 speeds 1o llnsal lsaq 1e pale:edoaq ller.elleqdseaLllesn ol Joloe:}uocaL{} Molleo] rapio ur spoqlau :aq1o{q io {.{.rd1lurn uorletadoJo pot1}otu srql paprno:d ']rsueJlur ro 1ue.u1ouorlceduocpue 6urqsturl 1q6r1 1o uotla.

Oaversshall be used in echelonto ptacethe wearing course in adjacent lanesand compactedto form a surfacewithoutlateraljoint' 203-9 . as is necessaryto obtainthe proper conditionof tackiness. When the surfaceof the existingpavementor old base is irregular. spread and screededto give the requiredcompacted of coarseand fine material.203. however.ensuringeven distrlbution When productionof the mixturecan be maintainedand whereverpractical. This maintenanceshallincludethe spreading of sand or otherapprovedmaterial.3.if necessaryto preventadherenceof the prime coat to the tyres of vehiclesusingthe primed surface.Bituminouspaversshall be used to distributethe mixtureeitherover the entirewidth or over such partialwidth as may be practicable. After a primecoat is applied.2.the joint in the top layershallbe below. in one layershalloffsetto that in the layerimmediately The longitudinaljoint 15.gutters.and patching any breaks in the primed surfacewith additionalbituminousmaterial.Any breaksin the tack coat shallbe repaired.by approximately at the centerlineof the pavement if the roadway comprises two lanes of width.lt shall be ensuredthat when premixis !aid.3. 203.6 Preparationof Baseor ExistingPavementSurface Before spreadingmaterials.0cm.to the satisfactionof Engineer.the surface of base or existingpavementon which the mix is to be placedshall be conditionedby applicationof a prime or tack coat as sPecified.and other structures. thickness.it shallbe broughtto uniformgrade and cross-sectionby levelingcourse as directed.prior to the bituminous mixturebeingplacedagainstthem.spread and struck off to the sectionand elevationestablished.manholes.7 and Finishins Spreadinq The mixtureshall be laid upon an approvedsurface.the mixture shall be spread.Any area of primedsurfacethat has becomedamagedshall be repairedbefore the mix is placed. primedsurfaceis nol in tackyconditionr After a tack coat is applied.it shall be left undisturbednot less than twenty four (24) hours. The'tackcoat shallbe appliedonly as far in advanceof the placingof mix. The levelingcoursemixtureshallconformto the requirements A thin coatingof bituminousmaterialshallbe sprayedon contactsurfaceof curbing.or at lane linesif the roadwayis more than 2lanes in width' On areas where irregularitiesor unavoidableobstaclesmake the use of mechanicalspreadingand finishingequipmentimpracticable.For such areas the mixture shall be dumped.raked and lutedby hand'tools.it shall be allowedto dry until it is in the proper conditionof tackinessto receivethe mix. of ltem 203. The Contractorshall maintainthe primedsurfaceuntilthe mix materialhas been placed.

To preventadhesionof the mixtureto the rollers. for initialbreak down rollingwhile all other compactiorroperationsshall be completedbeforethe temperaturedrops down to hundredand ten (110) degreeC. Rolling shall be continueduntil all roller marrs are eliminatedand a minimum density of Ninety seven (g7) percent of a laboratorycompactedspecimenmade from asphalticmateriaiobtainedfor dailyMarshalldensityis achieved.All mixturesshall be spreadat a temperatureof not less than hundredand thirty (130) degree c and atl initiatrollingor tamping shall be performed when the temperatureof the mixture is such that the sum of the air temperatureplus the temperatureof the mixtureis between165 degree c and 190 degreec. on super elevatedcurvesthe rollingshall begin at the low side and progressto the high side by overlappingof longitudinaltrips parallel to the centerline. lntermediaterollingwith a pneumatictyred rollershall be done behindthe initialrolling.3.the longitudinaljoint should be rolledfirst followedby the regularrollingprocedure. care shall be exercisedin rolling not to displacethe lineand gradeof the edgesof the bituminous mixture. Initialrollingwith a tandem steel roller or a three-wheeledsteel rollershallfollowthe paveras closelyas possible. 203. Finalrollingshall eliminatemarksfrom previousrolling. The numberand weight of rollersshall be sufficientto obtainthe required compactionwhilethe mixtureis stillin workablecondition. Rollersshall move at a slow but uniformspeedwith the drive roll or wheels nearest the paver.or from othercauses. Any displacementresultingwhile reversingthe directionof a roller.rollingshall beginat the lowerside and proceed longitudinally.Excessliquidwill not be permitted. lnitialor breakdownrollingshall be done bl meansof eithera tandem steel roller or three wheeled steel roller. Unlessotherwisedirected. In no case shallthe temperaturebe less than hundredand twenty(120)degreec.8 Compaction After spreadingand strike off and as soon as the mix conditionpermitsthe rollingto be performedwithout excessiveshovingor tearing. The mixtureshall not be placedon any wet surfaceor when weather conditionswill otherwise prevent its proper handling or finishing. when pavingin echelonor abuttinga previouslyplacedlane. Rollingshall begin as soon as the mixturewill bearthe rollerwithoutunduedisplacement.shallbe correctedat once by the use of rakesand additionof fresh mixture when required. graduallyprogressingto the crown of the road. 203-10 .Rollingshallnol be prolonged when cracksappearon the surface.the mixture shallbe thoroughlyand uniformlycompacted.The sequenceof rollingand the selectionof rollertypes shall providethe specifiedpavement density. parallelto the road centerline.wheelsof rollersshall be kept properlymoistenedwith wateror water mixedwith very small quantities of detergentor otherapprovedmaterral.eachtrip overlappingone-halfof the roller width.

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203.l Measurement The quantitiesfor asphalticleveling/ base course will be measured by volumein cubicmeterscompactedin place. when layer thicknessof asphalticbase course is deficientby more than five (5) rnm from that specifiedin the Drawings. cores extracted for thickness measurement shall not be used for density determination and density cores shall not be used for thicknesi measurements. 203.3. Quantitiesof liquidasphalt. lf base course deficienciesare corrected in this manner.but no additionalpaymentwill be madefor the increasein thicknessof the "AsphalticWearingCourse. 203. Unless othenryisepermitted.one (1) core for each hundred(100) linear meter of each lane shall be taken.3..revisedthicknessdeterminations shallbe made by measurements of new cores taken after placing of "Asphaltic wearing Goursel!material or as direeted by the Engineer.the deficiencyshall be removed with satisfactorybase course materialandlor made up by additionalasphalt concrete wearing course thickness without extra cost to the Employer. full payment for the "Asphaltic Base course" will be made to the contractor.Measurementshallbe basedon the dimensionas shown on plan or as otherwisedirectedor authorizedby the Engineer. lf suchremedialactionis authorised.shall be governedby the relevant.20(General). 203.11 BaseThicknessTolerances For determinationof thickness.13 WeatherLimitations Hot asphalticmixturesshall be placedonly when the air temperatureis four (4) degreescentigradeor aboveand no asphaltshall be laid under foggyor rainyweatheror over moistsurface.shallnot be measuredor paidfor.r{ Trial Section contractorshall preparea trial sectionbeforethe start of work in light of proceduregivenin clause1.No measurementshallbe made for unauthorized areas or for extrathickness.wastedor remainingon hand aftercompletionof the work. The quantityof asphalticmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconerete mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.3.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 20J.12 AcceptanceSamplingand Testing Acceptance of samples and testing of materials and construction requirements.3."Table for Samplingand TestingFrequency"or as approvedby the Engineer. 203-12 ..l.203.

if allowedand used to meet with JMF requirementshall not be paid directly. paymentshall be deemed to be includedin the respectivepay items of AsphalticBaseCourse.2 P4vment The quantitiesdeterminedas providedabove shall be paid for at the contract unit price respectivelyfor each of the particularpay items listed below and shown in the bitt of Quantities.203.which pricesand paymentshail constitutefull compensationfor all the costs necessaryfor the proper completionof the work prescribedin this item. Asphalt additive or antistrippingagent. Pay ltem No.4. Description Unit of Measurement AsphalticBaseCoursePlantMix(ClassA) CM BaseCourse203b Asphaltic PlantMix(ClassB) CM 203a 203c 203d AsphalticLevelingCoursePlantMix(ClassA) CM CourseLeveling Asphaltic PlantMix(ClassB) CM 203-13 .

2and item401 .425ym (No.passing the 0. Fassingmaximumsize50 mm sieve 1OO% PassingAASHTONo.finerthan 0. 200) shall not be greaterthan two{hird of the^fraction.to.002mm betow 3% 204. 201.40) sievel The fractionpassrng 0. ana plasticity indexnotgreater than6.2 Cement Cementshallconformin all respectto requirementspecifiedunder sub-item 111. coarse aggregateretainedon sieve No.hard durabreparticlesfree of decomposed stone.'. thicknessand typicalcross-sections shown on the plans or as directedby the Engineer. 4 sieve above50% PassingAASHTO No. 200 sieve betow 5% Clayfraction. 40 sieve above15o/o PassingAASHTONo. grade.2.425 mm (t.2. 4 shail have a percentage of wear !v t-9s Angeles Abrasion as determinedby AASHTO r g6 not more than forty five (45) for base courseand fifty (50) filr subbasemateriat.organicmatterand other deleterioussubstancesand shall consistof materialof which at least by weight of the total aggregatesstratthave at _50yo least two (2) mechanicailyfracturedfaces tor cem6it Jtabirized subbase whereas for cement stabilizedbase course.1 QgIL CEMENT qIAEIIIZED SUBBASE AND BASE DESCRIPTION The work shall consistof performingall operationsin connection with the constructionof cement stabilizedsubbase or base and all incidentals in accordancewith the specificationsin conformitywith ttre iines.2.r Mineral Aggregate Aggregateshall be crean. tough.2. materialshall have at reast Ninety(90) percentby weightof totalaggregatehavingtwo (2) mechanically fracturedfaces. FractionPassing0.075 mm (No.2. sandy and gravelysoilsusedfor cementstabilization shallfulfillthe following gradingrequirements.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 204.ITEM 204 204. 204.3 Water water used for cementstabilizedbase courseor subbaseshall conformrn arrrespectto requirements specifiedundersub-item112.a0)sieveshailhavea tiquid iimitnotgreateiiiin zsv.. _44-t .3.'Concrete.

and shallfulfillthefollowingrequirements: i) The mixture sample submergedin water for two hours before crushing.The moisturecontentof the mix cement base respectively stabilizedmaterialshall not be less than the optimum as determinedby MSHTO T-134 Method and nor more than two (2) percent above the optimumas determinedby this test or such highervalue as may be agreed trial.2. 204.204. materialfor curing seal shall be any one of the Bituminous : following Type RC-250 MC-250 SS-1 RT-5 cations ApplicatrleSrrecifi AASHTOM-81 AASHTOM-82 AASHTOM-140 AASHTOM-52 Optimum moisture content shall be determined in accordance with MSHTO T-134 by placingmoist sample under shade for seven days and crushingaftertlo hoursof immersionin water. by the Engineeron basisof preliminary . iii) shall be as givenbelow:Maximumvariationduringconstructions a.cmfor sub baseand thirty(30) kg/sq. Water contents: 61s +2okof that givenin the mix design. cm for at seven(7) days. iv) CementContent: -1 to +1ok of that given in the mix design.proposed mix design indicatingthe exact percentageof cement and water to be used so as to obtaina uniformmixture.24 in Laboratorv Mix DesignRequirements Prior to commencementthe work of stabilization. cm for sub base and eighty (80) kg/sq.5 of Mixture at Site Comnosition be mixedat site with sufficientcement The granularmaterialshallthoroughly The cement content shall be strength.after storage in a box having minimum humidityof ninety five (95) percentfor Twenty four (24) hours shall have a minimumcompressivestrengthof twentythree (23) kg/sq.shall be submittedby the Contractorfor Engineer's approval. ii) The maximum permissiveswellingof volume shall be two (2) percent ald mqximum loss in weight eight (8) percent when testedin accordancewithAASHTOT-'135. required crushing to obtain determinedat the laboratoryso that minimum compressivestrength of mixtureis fifty (50) kg/sq.cm for base respectively.

The plantshall be equippedwith feedingand meteringdevices that add the materials. that wiil produce a uiriformry comfacted rayer conformingto the required grade and cross-section. mixed thoroughlyand sufficienilyto obtain intimate and uniform mixture with out cementlumps.fitted with a device to ensure uniformand required .3.base shall be subjectto the approvalof Engineerand shall be maintainedin satisfactoryworkingconditionat all times.3. The material shall be processedthroughoutthe depth of layer *it ot"ol. The mixtureshall be transportedto paving area in trucks or other approved eq_uipments having clean bed within a mlximum hauling time of fbity five (45) minutes.tools. The mixing plant shail be of approvedtype.cement and water into the mixer in specitiedquantities. it shail be of the power driven paddreor pan type and may be of batchor continuoustype. Mixing shail b6 continued uniit mixture is uniformlymixedbut in no case lessthan one minutemixingtime.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 204.The cementshallbe spread-ahead of mixerby meansof cement spreader.cement and water shall be mixed at an approved central mixingplant by eithercontinuous-flow or batchtype mixer reloving blades or rotarydrum mixer. lf batch mixer is used.r StationaryPlantMethod Equipment.204. The aggregate.range. 204-3 . lf stationaryplant is used. compactionshall start as soon as possibleafter spreadingand elapsedtime betweenthe additionof water to mixture and start or co"mfacttn shall not exceedninety(90)minutes. water being added to bring moisturecontent of mixture within the optimum. coordinatedand operatedas to produce mixture within mix design requirementsand shall be of sufficient capacity. The plant used for pulverisingano mixint-ihe stabilized materialshallbe approvedby the Engineeron the basisof triil conductedto establishthat the prantis capabreof producingthe degree oi mixing and uniformityof materialaccordingto specificatiorirequireiient. The mixture shall be placed on moist subgrade/or subbase wthout segregation at a rate. 204. machinesused in the performanceof cement stabirized subbase.2 Mix in PlaceMethod cement stabilizedsubbase/basecoursecan also be constructed by Mlx_lN_ PLACE method.-'rate of spreadof cementbothtransversely and longitudinally. of approved mixingequipment. measuredamountof materialand cement shall first be placed in mixer. The mixture shall be spread by spreaderwithinthirty minutesafter placementof mixure.

materialshall be spreadin such amountsas are foundto be necessaryand the added materialshall be uniformlymixed into previouslyplacedmaterial. The mixture shall be spread and finished true to crown and grade by machine or hand method where machine methods are impracticableas determined by the Engineer and shall be thoroughlycompacted with approvedrollersuntil entire depth and width of subbase/baseis uniformly compacted to maximum density of 95% as tested accordingto procedure outlinedin AASHTOT-134. All materialshall be placed and spread evenly by mechanicalspreader capableof levelingoff the materialto an even depth.in orderthat the work shallconformto the lines. Areas of segregatedmaterial shall be correctedby removingand replacingwith satisfactorymaterialor by additionalapproved re-mixing.Moisturecontentof the materialshall be adjustedto optimum using water sprayerof such designthat water is dischargedin uniformand controllable and longitudinally mannerbothtransversely 20-1.lf thicknessof each layerdoes not exceed twentycentimeters.gradeand crosssectionsshownon the drawing. a series of parallellanes of convenientlength and width meetingapprovalof Engineershall be built with true verticalface free of looseor shatteredmaterial. Guidestakesshallbe set for cementspreadingand mixing. normallywithinthree (3) hoursafter addingwater dependingon settingtime of ceinentand the weatherconditions.set ahd maintaihedby contractor. 204.it shall be constructedas one layer. When necessaryto meet the requirements. The mixtureshall be mixed uniformlywith propermoisturecontent. Compactionshall not take place after cement hydrationand any materialthat has been mixed or depositedafter cement has hydratedshall be removed and replacedwithfresh mix material.3. Giade and alignmbntstakes shall be furnished. lf thickness of layer exceeds twenty (20) centimeters.3. addingwateras requiredto obtainthe specifieddensity. 204-4 . For large area.4 Compaction The thicknessof layer shall be as shown on the Drawingsbut in no case shall be less than eight(B) centimeters. The compactionshall be complete as soon as possible after mixing. shall be formedby cuttingintocompletedwork to form a true verticalface.3 ConstructionJoints joint a straighttransverseconstruction In the end of each day construction.it shall be constructedin two or more layers each within the range of eight (8) to twenty (20) centimetersin compactedthickness.

reshapingwith added rnaterialand recompactingall to specification.Any area havingcompactedthicknessless thanthe thicknessshownin the billof quantitiesand/oron the drawingsshall be reclifiedby scarifyingthe top seventyfive (75) mm.. In qlqge density determination wiil be made using AASHTO r-19.6 Curing/Maintenance After compactionthe stabilizedsubbase/baselayer shall be protected againstdryingout by keepingit continuouslydamp for a periodof at least three (3) days or by coating with approvedcuring material at the rate approvedby the Engineer. prior to constructionof subsequent asphalticlayer. 204. Purposeof this trial sectionis to determineefficiencyof mixing. The completedcement stabilizedsubbase/baseshall be maintainedin an acceptableconditionat all the times.7 Tolerance The surface of each subbase/basecourse shall be properlyshaped to a smooth uniformsurfaceparallelto the finishedsurfaceof the carriageway and shallnot vary morethan the limitsas specifiedin the relevant.suitabilityof constructionprocedures.3. Cement stabilized subbase/baseshall be constructed only when the atmospherictemperatureis above 4 degrees centigradeand when the weatheris not rainy.5 PreliminaryTrial At leastone (1) week beforemain work of stabilization is startedcontractor shall constructa trial section of two hundred (200) meters in length at locationapproved by the Engineerwith same material. 204.1 or AASHTOT-205& T-238Method.depth of layer being compactedwith availablecompactiveeffon. 204-5 .equipmen[ mix proportionand constructionprocedurethat he proposesto use for the main work.'Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.3.spreading.204.3. No vehiculartraffic shall be allowedto pass on the compactedlayer until curing period has elapsedwith a minimum notraffic period of seven (7) days. compaction.skin patchingof an area withoutscarifyingthe surfaceto permitproperbondingof added materialwill not be permitted. The completedsubbase/Basecourseshall be testedfor requiredthickness and surfacebeforeacceptance.

handling. compactingincluding necessarywaterfor compaction. heating (if required)equipment.spreadingand protectionfrom traffic as directedby the Engineer.tool.placing. material. manipulating. Measurementof cement content used shall be the number of metric Ton consumedto stabilizesubbase/base. 204.4.This quantityof cementused shallnot exceedthe theoreticalpercentageestablishedin the laboratory. the areasauthorized.4.by the Engineer.maintenanceincludingprotectionof stabilized and unsatisfactory layerand incidentalsnecessaryfor completionof work except subbase/base cement consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measured above.finishing.2 Payment Measuredquantityof stabilizedsubbase/basedeterminedas providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price per cubic meter for a particular which paymentshallbe item listedbelowand shownon the Billof Quantities.mixing.material. Pay ltem No. full compensationfor furnishingall labour. shaping.204.r Measurement The unitof measurement for paymentshallbe cubicmeterof the compacted and acceptedsubbase/basematerialas measuredin place. Paymentfor bituminouscuring materialshall includeall labour.equipment. plant.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 204. Bituminouscuring material shall be measured by the metric Ton. The Contiadbrshall fuinish in dupliCatecertifiedwei$hl tidketSfrom the batdh scalesof commercialplants. Measurement shall not includeany areas in excessof that shown on the drawingsexcept in writing. Description Unitof Measurement 204a CementStabilizedSubbase CM 204b CementStabilizedBase CM 204c Cementcbntent Ton 204d LiquidAsphaltfor curingseal.correctingunsuitablearea material.rolling.type-- Ton Emulsified Asphaltfor curingseal.type_ Ton 204e 204-6 .

5 : 1 ) . Asphaltic Material Asphaltic bindershallbe asphaltcement.2.thicknessesand typicalcrosssectionsshownon the Drawings. b) Sand equivalentand plasticityrequirements are not applicable.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 205. 4) sieve havingat leasttwo fracturedfaces. (No.2. RELIEF LAYER DESCRIPTION The work shall consist of constructinga layer of graded crushed aggregate or asphalticopen-gradedplant mix on a preparedsoil-cementbase course in accordance with these specificationsand in conformity with the lines. with the following exceptionsand supplementaryrequirements: The portionof the aggregateretainedon the 9. (3/8 inch) sieve shall not contain more than 10 percent by weight of flat and/or elongated particles (ratio of maximum to minimum d i m e n s i o=n 2 .1 CRACK.meeting the requirements of AASHTOM-20. 205.3 Asphaltic Open-Graded Mixture The composition of the asphaltie open-graded crack-relief layer shall meet the following criteria: .60-70penetration grade.ITEM2O5 205.2. 205.5 mm. a) b) ' Crushedaggregatesshall consistof particleswith not less than Ninety(90) percentof the portionretainedon the 4.1 Aggregates Materialfor gradedcrushedaggregatesshallin all respectsconformwiththe requirementsspecified under ltem 202.2 a) Fineaggregatesand mineralfillerwill be required.2.1with thefollowing exceptions: 205. Aggregates for the asphalticopen-graded plantmix shallconformto the requirements of ltem203.75 mm. grades.

exceptas providedbelow:a) Compaction shall be accomplishedby ten (10) Ton steel Wheeled tandem rollers.4 4. 205-2 . in the totaltest and to satisfaction b) The consistencyand temperatureof the mix shall be such controlledthat it does not squeeze out or move under the pressureof dompactingroller.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS Prior to constructionof the crack-relieflayer (CRL) the completedsoilcementbasecourseshallbe dulyacceptedby the Engineer. 205.3.Aggregate Grading Requirements Percent Passingby weight SieveDesignation Inch mm 502 1. A maximum of three complete coverages.1 0 0 0.3. For this purpose.15 AsphaltCementContentof totalMix MixingTime Mix Design 100 75-90 50-70 8-20 0-5 2-3%byweight 30 seconds(Maximum) WithinMasterRangeGradation The exact percentageof asphaltcementcontentshall be such that at least Ninetyfive (95) percentcoatingof aggregateswill be achievedwhen tested in accordancewithAASHTOT-195.3. however the compactionshall be achievedin the same manneras displayed of the Engineer. 205.trial reaches shallbe preparedby the contractorto fix the aboveparameters.2 AsnhalticOpen-GradedCRL Constructionof this layer shall conformin all respectsto the requirements specifiedunderltem 203. No density test will be required.75 N o .shall be sufficient. 205.5 3t4 19 No.1t2 37.3.or as otherwisedirectedby the Engineer.1 GradedCrushedAgsregate Constructionof this layer shall conformin all respectsto the requirements specifiedunderltem 202.

In order to ensurethe stabilityof CRL beforethe placementof any subsequentlayer or openingof a layerto traffic.1 The quantityof Asphalticmaterialis includedin the mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.a priming time of 4 days in hot weatherwill be allowed..1 Vleasurenrent The quantityof gradedcrushedaggregatecrack-reliefasphalticopen graded layerto be paidfor shallbe measuredby the theoreticalvolumein pllce as thown on the drawingsor as directedand approvedfor constructionby the Engineer. The quantityof asphalticopen gradedcrack relieflayershallbe measuredin cubic metersby takingout cores as detailedfor Base course Asphaltunder item 203.2 Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas providedaboveshallbe paidfor at the contract unit price respectively for each of the particularpay items listedbelow and shownin the Billof Quantities. 205.{ MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 205. 205.1.This tine mav be reducedto two dayswherethe lowertemperatureallows. c) All trafficshall be kept off this layeruntila subsequentlayernas been placedon it. Any damagecausedby trafficmovingdirecfly on the crack-relieflayer shall be the responsibilityof the contractorand all necessaryrepairwork theretoshall be at the Contractor's exoense.placedand acceptedin the completedgradedcrushedaggregate crack-relieflayer.4.4. 205a 205b Description Unit of Measurement GradedCrushedAggregate Crack-Relief Layer CM Asphaltic Open-Graded PlantMix CrackRelief Layer CM ZU3-J . which pricesand paymentshallconstitutefull compensationfor all costs necessaryfor the propercompletionof the work prescribedin this item: Pay ltem No.

5 25 19 12.tc ols 100 9 0. 100 hr 100 85-I 00 10-30 The materialpassingNo. 206-1 .1 0 0 25-75 u . Unlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineerthis item of work may be applied to road structureor shoulders. dirt and other objectionablematerial.exceptthat no CBR testingwill be required.The gradationcurveof the coarseaggregateshallbe withinthe enveloplimitsgivenbelow:Percent Passins bv weisht SieveDesignation mm Inch 102 89 76 63. 40 sieveshall have a liquidLimitof not more than twentyfive (25) and a PlasticityIndexof not morethan six (6).5 (4") (3.15 PercentPassi 3t8 No.1tz'.1 0 0 35-70 0-15 ntr Fine aggregate(fillermaterialor screenings)shall consistof cruShedstone screeningsor any otherfine materialapprovedby the Engineer.4 No.and voids thereof filled with screeningand binding materialwith the assistanceof water. 206. or existingpavementin conformitywiththe lines.1t2") ( 1' ) (3t4") (1t2") ClassB ClassA ClassC 100 9 0.5 37. The fine aggregateshallbe of the followinggradation. SieveDesignation mm Inch 9.1 WATER BOUND MACADAM BASE DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof furnishingand placingone or more coursesof clean crushed stone base mechanicallyinterlockedby rolling.lt shall be free from clay lumps.1 0 0 25-60 o-rs 0-5 100 9 0.) (2") (1. laid on a preparedsubgrade.NTS Coarse aggregateseither crushed or broken stone shall conform to the qualityrequirements as specifiedhereunder.2 MATERIAL REOUI REMF.112:) (3") (2.sub base.gradesand cross-sections shownon the drawings.35 0.ITEM 206 2{J6.5 4.

206. 206-2 .50 mm x 50 mm furrows shallbe cut in the existingsurfaceat one (1) meterintervalsat fortyfive (45) degree to the centre line of the carriage-waybefore proceedingwith the layingof coarseaggregates.2.2 LossAngelesAbrasionValue Max 45oh FlakinessIndex Max 15o/o The loss when subject to five cycles of the Sodium Sulphate Soundness test (AASHTOT-104)shallbe lessthantwelve(12).necessaryarrangementsshall be madefor the lateralconfinementof aggregates.1 PhysicalRequirements The additionalphysicalrequirementsof coarseaggregatesfor water bound macadamwill satisfythe followinglimits:a.3.The practiceof constructingwBM in a trench sectionexcavatedin the finishedformation must be avoided.1. After shouldersare ready. tf lime stone formationsare availablenearby. water sprinklers and rollers/compactors.one methodis to construct side shouldersin advanceto a thicknesscorresponding to the compacted layerof the wBM course. Before startingwith wBM construction. lime stones dust or as directed by the Engineer.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 206. b.3. Bindins Material Bindingmaterialto preventravelingof water bound macadamshall consist of a fine grainedmaterialpassing'100percentthrough425 micronsieveand possessingP.l value of four to Rine(4-9)when the weter Bouad Macadam (WBM) is to be used as a surfacingcourse. c.thereinsideedgesmay be trimmed verticaland the includedarea cleanedof all spilled material therebysettingthe stage for spreadof coarseaggregates.2.1 Equinment Any combinationof machinesor equipmentthat will produce the results meetingthesespecifications may be usedwith the approvalof the Engineer.may be usedfullyemployedfor this purpose.3. 206.and upto 6 when WBM is being adoptedas sub-base/base coursewith bituminoussurfacing. Where the existingroad surfaceis blacktopped. 206. These include mechanical spreaders.206.2 StructurePreparation Preparation of surfacefor water boundmacadam.shall be carriedout in the samemanneras for aggregatebasecourseitem202.

3.s Maintenance The completedbase courseshall be maintainedin an acceptablecondition untilthenecessarysubsequenttreatmentis applied. of additionalscreeningsshallcontinueuntila grout sprinklingand application is formed that fills all the voids and forms a wave of grout in front of the roller.however dumpers shall be allowed at the construction area wherethe materialwill be spreadedquicklyafterdumping.3. The surfaceshallbe sweptwith mechanicalor hand broomsto aid spreading of the screenings. Crushed stones shall be added or shifted to provide a true surface. Spreading of the coarse aggregates shall be followed by rolling with a smooth wheel rollerweighingat least 10 tons. Rollingshall begin at the lower edge of the shoulders to lock the stones firmly at the edge. The rolling. each layer shall be constructedas beforeprescribed..shall be lightlyrolled sufficientonlyto establishthe requiredgradeand levelof the stones. Each layershallbe inspectedthoroughlybefore rolling to detect high or low spots.shallcoarslatgregates where these are to be laid nor shall the haulingover a partlycompleted base be permitted. When the intersticesin the coarseaggregateare filledwith screenings. Followingthe initialrolling. Dry rollingshall be continuedwhile screeningsare being applied. Rollingshall continue until the aggregateis well keyedand does not creep aheadof the roller. 206.iiy ontnearei In nocase.3 Spreadinqand Comnaction Crushedstoneshallbe depositedand spreadon the preparedsurfaceto the proper depth so that the compacted layer will not exceed two and a half (2.4 ConstructionControlTestinq Tests for compliancewith the requirementsof ltem 206.dry screeningsshall be applieduniformlyover the surface.206. oftenas deemednecessaryand to the satisfaction 206.the surface shall be sprinkled with water until it is saturated. When more than one layer is requiredto completethe Macadam base course to the thickness shown on the drawings.112)timesthe thicknessof maximumaggregatesize. The course aggregatelayer. then progressgraduallytowardsthe centre line.after being laid to proper thickness. n" itoi"a in neipi di.3. 206-3 .2 will be made as of the Engineer.

placed and accepted in the completed waterbound Macadam Base course. 206a 206b 206c Description Unitof Measurement Water BoundMacadamBase with CoarseAgg: ClassA CM Water BoundMacadamBase with CoarseAgg: ClassB CM Water BoundMacadamBase with CoarseAgg: ClassC CM . for the pay items listedbelowand shown in the Bill of euantities.4. hauling.206.tools and incidentals necessaryto completethis item. Payltem No.watering.labour.r Measurement The quantity of water Bound Macadam Base to be paid for shall be measuredby the theoreticalvolumein place.equipment.2 Pavment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the contract unit price per cubic meter of water Bound Macadam Base.as shown on the Drawingsor as directed and approved for construction by the Engineer.rolling.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 206. 206.which price and payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials.4. No allowancewill be given for materialsplaced outside the theoreticallimits shown on the cross-sections.placing.

1 Measurement The quantityof deep patchingto be paid for shall be measured in square meter of the area demarcatedor approvedby the Engineer.Requirementunder this item is to removethe existingroad base and to strengthenit to take new layerof aggregateor water boundmacadambase. non-plastic 207. after properlywateringand mixing.ITEM 207 207.2 MATERIAL RT.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS Patchesof roads in which surface courseshave broken and road base has moved. 207.4. 207a 207b Description Deep Patching (0-15cm) Deep Patching (15-30cm) 207-1 Unitof Measurement SM SM . Next layer shall be watered and compacted. hauling. Materialwill be recompactedin layers not exceedingfifteen (15) cms thick with approved equipments. 4. 4.equipment. placing.4. 207.2or 206. 207.OUIREMENTS Freshaggregatebase or water boundmacadambase may be requiredto be added to existingroad base.5 square meters irrespectiveof the size of the pot hole.thereby the removed materialshall be placed back duly screened to remove plastic contamination. the materialwhich has lost its compactionshall be removed. if needed particularly fines passingsieveNo. Additional material will be added.The minimum area will be taken as 0.2.2 Payment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price per square meter of deep patching.which price payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials.labour.rolling.by hand pickingand passingthough sieve No.1 DEEP PATCHING DESCRIPTION This work shall be carried out in patchesof roads where the existing road base materialhas moved and is lying in loose condition. Specificationfor such materialshall conformto materialrequircmentsof item 202.watering.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 207.tools and incidentalsnecessary to completethe item: Payltem No.

Pot holes.O. .sectionsand dimensions. Granular Aggregate basecourse.as directedby the Engineer.for reinstatementof surfacethe Engineershallselectitem of work as mentionedhere under: 1) 2) 3) 4) A\ subbase. Asphaltbasecourse. The surface thus exposed shall be compactedin accordancewith applicablerequirement.4.the item used.MENTS The contractorshall remove loose materialfrom the pot holes or from road depressionsand shall also reshapethe holes and depressionby removing firm materialas directedby the Engineerand disposeall materialaccoiding to the instructionof the Engineer.ITEM 208 208.reinstatedin accordancewith the requirementof thisitem. 208. The Engineermay select one.1 Measurement The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the number of square meter of pot holes or road depressions.1 REINSTATEMENT OF ROAD SURFACE DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of reinstatementof worn out road surface with a materialapprovedby the Engineer.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIRf.Q. 208. The materialused for reinstatement of the pot hole or road depressionshall be measuredin cubicmeteror tonesas applicableunder. grades.ditchesand depressionsshall be filled with the approved materialsin layers in conformitywith lines.2 The materialused underthis item shall conformto the materialrequirement of differqntB.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 208. 208. or more than one of the items mentioned above to reinstatethe pot hole or depressionsin the road surface according to size and depthof the holeor depression. Surfacetreatment.itemsselectedfor use bylhe Engineer. Waterboundmacadam.

208. Howeverthe materialused such as subbase.tools.2 Pavment The acceptedquantitiesmeasured. labour.water bound Macadam or asphaltic base course shall be paid at the rates applicableto the item.as providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price per square meter of reinstatedsurface. rolling.as for the pay item listed below and as shown on the bill of quantitieswhich price shall constitute full compensation for excavation and disposal of material. Pay ltem No. equipment. watering.4. and incidentalnecessaryto completethis item.aggregatebase course. 208 Description Unitof Measurement of RoadSurface Reinstatement SM .

1 SCARIFICATION OF EXISTING ROAD/BREAI<ING OF ROAD PAVEMENT STRUCTURE DESCRIPTION Thisitemshallconsistof scarification of existingroadsurfaceor breakingof existingroadpavementstructureto ensurebondageof new layerwith the existingroadpavementandto ensuredrainageof waterbelowthe surfaceof freshlylaidaggregate base.equipment.to be paidfor shall be measuredin Sq. meter to a depth as shown in the drawings/cross sectionsor as specifiedby the Engineerand in the area earmarked bythe Engineer for suchpurpose.r Measurement Thequantityfor roadpavementstructurebrokenandremoved. meter as shown in the drawings/cross sectionsor as specifiedby the Engineerand in the area earmarkedby the Engineerfor suchpurpose.3.3 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 209. 209. accordingto the satisfactionof the Engineer.The surfaceobtainedafter scarificationor breakingtheexistingpavementshallbe compacted to the densityprescribed underitem 108.1. 209. meterof breakingof roadpavementstructureand per Sq. toolsand incidental necessary to completetheseitems.the materialshall be removedand disposedoff outsidethe right of way.to be paidfor shall be measurementin Cu. The quantityfor road pavementstruclurescarified. Scarification of Existinq RoadPavement zfrp':1 CM SM .3. meterof scarification of existingroadpavementstructure. 209.2 Payment The quantities as measuredaboveshallbe paidfor at the contractunitprice per Cu. in accordance withtherequirements undersiteconditions.3. Afterthe existingpavementstructurehas beenbrokenoff.ITEM 209 209.for carryingout the works mentioned aboveincluding cost of labour.The surfaceon whichthe basematerialis to be constructed shallbe approvedand acceptedby the Engineerpriorto placing the crushedstonebaseaggregate.2 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS The methodof scarificationof road surface or breakingof pavement structureshall b'epropose-by the Contiacloiandepprotedby the Engineer. Payltem No. 209a 209b Description Unitof Measurement Breakingof ExistingRoadPavement Structure.Paymentof suchcompaction shallbe includedin the contractpricefor item209.

2 MATERIALS Materialsfor the constructionof "PavementWidening"shall conformto the requirementsspecifiedin relevantitems of Subbaseand Base course in these specifications.the trench shall be cleanedof all loose material.1 PAVEMENT WIDENING DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the widening of the existing pavement and and in finishingof the completedwork in accordancewith the specifications conformitywith the lines. 210. The barricadesshall be placed at intervalsnot to exceed one hundred (100) meters or as directed by the Engineer. barricadesshall be placedalongopen trenchesday and ntgnt.before placingany wideningmaterial.IT[. firm and at the designated elevation. The edge of the existingpavementshall be thoroughlycleaned. 214-1 . Adequate provisionsshallbe madefor drainageof the trenchto preventdamageto the subgrade. Barricadesand lights shall be approvedby the Engineer.the subgrade. The trench must be approvedby the Engineer. 210. The bottomof the trenchshall be compactedwith rollersand/or tampers approvedby the Engineerto minimum ninetyfive (95) % of the maximumdry densityas per AASHTOT-191 method. Reflectorized Lightingshall be placedat each barricadeat night.i{ 210 2t0.subbaseor base shall be compacted by rolling with an approved type trench roller until the entire surface is smooth.streetsand privateentrances. Prior to placing any widening material. The Contractorshall make adequateprovisionto enabletrafficto cross open trenchesat intersectingroads.placingwideningmaterial.grades. All subsequentlayersshall be compactedto the degreeas shown under relevantitem of these specifications 210.4 SPECIAL PROVISIONSFOR HANDLING TRAFFIC Wideningoperationsshall be permittedon onlyone (1) side of the pavement at a time and excavationof trenches shall be permittedonly sufficientlyin advance of other operations to ensure a continuityof the operations of excavating.thicknessof each pavementcomponent and typical cross-sectionsshown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer. lf the plansdo not call for a specifictype of compaction.3 TRENCHING The contractorshall excavate along the edge of the existing pavementfor the full depth and width as indicatedon the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.and rolling.

2r0. No separate payment will be made for handling traffic which will be consideredsubsidiaryto the item of "PavementWidening. will be paid for at the unit price bid in the Bill of euantities for "PavementWidening..'.but will be consideredsubsidiaryto the item of "PavementWidening".which priceshall be full compensationfor furnishing materials.s.2 Pavment The amount of completed and accepted work.'. No measurementwill be made of unauthorizedareas or for extra width or thickness. base course and water etc.1 Measurement "Pavementwidening"shallbe measuredby the unit of cubicmeterand shall includeall excavation.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 210. ordered by the Engineeror added with the consent of the Engineer. and all other items necessary for the proper completionof the Work Pay ltem No.trimming.will not be paid for separatelybut wiil be consideredsubsidiaryto the itemof "PavementWidening. which is necessary to obtain satisfactory compaction of the foundation treatmentwill not be paid for separately. such as subbase. tools. The removalof edge kerb if exists. equipment. 210 Description Unitof Measurement PavementWidening CM 210-2 . for all labour. 210.Partial shoulderingshall be performed immediatelyafter completionof wideningof portionsof the Work in orderto eliminatethe hazard.disposaland compactionof subgradeand subsequentlayersof subbaseand base course. supplies. water. measured as provided above.5.".

and typicalcrossspecifications sectionsshownon the Plans. 200 Percent Passingbv Weight 100 80-100 50-80 30-60 10-30 5-15 passing 0. objectionable Table-2fib CRUSHEDSTONE GRADING SieveDesignation Inch mm 37.l Coarse Aggregate Coarse Aggregatesfor crushed Lime stabilizedBase Course shall be composedof hard. tough.l LIME STABILIZED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of performingall operationsin connectionwith constructionof "Lime StabilizedAggregateBase Course"on the prepared Subbase or Subgradesurface and all incidentalsin accordancewith the in conformitywith the linesand levelgrade.425mm) sieveshallcontainat leastNinety (00) percent by weight of crushed particleshaving more than one fracturedfaces.2. 2t1.40 Sieve). 40 (0.40 No.075mm (No. than60%thefractionpassing Crushingof boulderor rockshallbe regulatedin sucha way thatfractionof aggregatesretainedNo.75 0.1t2 1 1t2 No. zrt. 4 sieve shall consistof freeof loam.075 1.2 Fine Aggregate The fractionof crushedaggregatespassingNo.200Sieve)shallnotbe more Thefractionof material 0.425 0.5 4.organicor othermatter. soft and disintegrated material or other matters.O 12.2.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 2rr. sound durablecrushedlimestone.ITEM 211 ztL.4 No. stonescreenings 211-1 .5 25.complyingwiththe followingrequirements.425mm (No. mechanical The Abrasionloss of crushedLime stone as determinedby AASHTO T96-74shallnotexceedfortyfive(45)percent.particlesfree from thin and elongated.

Transportvehiclescarryingplantmix materialshallhave a capacitysuitedto the outputof mixingplantand the site condition.2 Construction Grade and alignmentcontrolstakes shall be furnished.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS zlt. 6 Maximum. grade and cross-sectionshownon the drawings. Blade graders.The material passing 0.l Equipment All equipment.3. LiquidLimit PlasticityIndex 25%Maximum.the materialshall have adjustable bladesfor slopes. The calciumsulphatecontentof the fractionretainedon sieveNo. 4 shallnot exceedten (10) percentby weight. 40) sieve when prepared in accordancewith AASHTOr 146-49and tested by appropriatemethodsshall conformwiththe followingrequirement.water shall be applied to the materialsduringthe rollingoperationin such amountas may be requiredto obtain the specifieddensity. Mixing plant shall be of approvedtype. 211.set and maintained by the contractorin order that work shall conform to the lines.toolsand machinesused in the performanceof the work shall be in goodworkingconditionand maintainedallthe times. Aggregate shall be spread to loose thickness necessary to obtain the requiredcompactedthicknessof the layer. the material shall be compacted thoroughly with approved mechanicalor hand tampers to density comparableto inat obtaihbdby 211-2 . lmmediatelyafter spreadingand shaping operation.The spreadershall be adjustableso that width and thicknessof the spreadercan be set to any dimensionrequired by the drawingsand for uniform and completecoverage.the mixture shall be thoroughlycompactedwith approved rollers. 211.42s mm (No. All sprinklingequipmentshall be suitablefor applyingwater uniformlyand at controlledquantitiesto variablewidth of surface. ln all the places not accessibieto the rolling equipment. Materialshallbe placedand spreadevenlyusing mechanicalspreader. coordinatedand operated so as to produce a mixturewithin requiredspecificationlimit and shall have sufficient capacity.3.if used for spreading.

Any areas of the completed base course having compactedthicknessless than the thickness shown on the drawing.which must be removed and the finish restoredbeforethe applicationof prime coat.3. 2tr.reshaping.3. 2r1.aslight excess of maierial over the entire surface.addingapprovedmaterial.5) centimeters.Skin patchingof an area without scarifyingthe surfaceto permit proper bondingof added materialwill not be permitted.t'helayerthicknessmay be increasedto maximumof twentyfive (25) centimetersprovidedthat satisfactorycompactionis achieved. in these specificationsShall be corrected by scarifying the surface.recompactingand finishingas specifiedand is approvedby the Engineer.the contractorshall maintain the surface until final acceptance bnd shall preventravelingby wetting. 211-3 .4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 2tt.r Measurement The unit of measurementfor payment shall be in cubic meter of the completedand acceptedcrushed lime stone base course as measured in place.4 Maintenance The completedbase course shall be maintainedin an acceptablecondition at all times until prime coat is applied.Where the thickness exc-eedstwelve and half (12.n"tt o" testeJ ior tne required thickness and smoothness before acceptance.rolling.blading. Measurementshall not include any area in excess of that shown on ihe drawings except the area authorized in writing by the Engineer. When the base course is to carry traffic for an indefinite length of time before receiving the surfacing or pavement. Each layer shall be compacteduntil the entire depth of course is at least 95% of density at optimum moisture content as determinedby AASHTO T 180-74. Compactionshall be completed as soon as possible after the materialhas beenspread."Table for Allowable Tolerances".3 Finish Thickness'and Completed oar" corr. until the surface is smooth and free from waves and irregularitiesand is true to grade and cross-section. 211. This quantity of lime used shall not exceed the theoreticalpercentageestablishedin the laboratory. Measurementof lime used shall be the numberof metricTon consumedto stabilize base course.4. or waies and irregularitiesas specifiedin the relevant.it shall be compacted in two layers of equal thickness except that if vibratory roller is used for compaction.The surfaceof the final layer shall be finishedby bladingand the addition of water.rollingand the additionof fines as may be requiredto keep the base tightlybound and leave." .

equipment.2 Pavment Measuredquantitiesof crushedlimestonebasecoursedeterminedas above shall be paid for at the contractunit price per cubic meterfor particularitem listedbelowand shownon the bill of quantities.correcting unsuitable areas and unsatisfactorymaterial. compacting'inituoing necessarywater for compaction.shaping. handling.2It. manipulating. material.placing.which paymentshall be full compensationfor furnishingall labour.4. Pay ltem No.rolling. finishing. 211-4 . maintenanceincluding protectionof preparedbase courseand all incidentalsnecessaryfor completionof work exceptlime usedwhichshallbe paidseparatelyas measuredabove.mixing. 211a 211b Description Unit of Measurement LimeStabilized Aggregate BaseCourse CM. Lime Ton. plant.tool.

organicmatterand substances.75 mm (No.T 78-74for the selectedgrade requirements the bituminous to suitthe cutbackas approvedby the Engineer. materialretainedon No.425mm (No.Alternatively binder shall be asphalticcement of 80/100 penetrationin summer and 1201150in winter. In dry areas. Cut back shall meet the requirementof MSHTO M 81-70 and M 82-73 for rapid and medium curing type respectively lt shall comply with the of AASHTOT 49-74. otherdeleterious Crushing of material shall be regulatedsuch that material retained on 4.in situ sand and gravelshall meet the gradationrequirementas per Table 2 for bitumenstabilizedSubbaseor Base Gourse: Coarseaggregateretainedon 4. The fraction passing 0. 200) sieveshallnot be greaterthan 2/3 rd of the fractionpassingthe 0.all ingredientsshall complywith any of the gradingcurve given in Table 1 whereasfor mix in place method.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS lf stationaryplantis used for blending.2. 4) sieveshall consistof tough.1 BITUMEN STABILIZED SUB-BASEOR BASE DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of performingall operation in connectionwith constructionof bitumen stabilizedsubbaseor base and all incidentalsin conformitywiththe linesand level. lf mineralaggregatescontain moisturethus necessitatingdrying.ITEM 212 212.thicknessand typicalcross-section shownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. 4 sieveshallhaveat leastNinety(90) percentby weightof total aggregatewith fracturedfaces. hard and durableparticlesfree from decomposedstone. 40) sieve.425 mm (No. 4 shall have a percentageof wear by Los Angles AbrasionTest as determinedby AASHTO T-96 not more than forty five (45) percent in case of base course material and fifty (50) percent in case of sub-basematerial.bitumen materialshallbe of such naturethat it will not foam when heatedto hundred and eighty(180)degreecentigradeand shall conformwith requirementsas shownin Table301. Fractionpassing0. 2t2. two (2) mechanically Aggregateretainedon sieve No.7Smm(NO. The bituminousemulsionshall comply with the requirementsof AASHTO M 100-70and be tested in accordancewith AASHTOT 59-74. a0) shall have a liquid limit not greater than 25% and plasticitylndexnot greaterthat 6.T 50-69.4) sieve shall have 50% by weightof total aggregateswith at least two (2) mechanicallyfracturedfaces in case of bitumen stabilized subbasewhere as for bitumenstabilizedbase.where natural moisturecontentof mineralaggregateis low bitumenbindershallbe cut back conformingwith the followingrequirements.075mm(No.grade.bitumenemulsionof 80/100penetrationin summer and 150/180penetrationin winter. 21L1 .

4 N o .and using eitherheated or unheatedaggregatesas appropriate.1 0 No.Bitumen-Aggregatemixture for the grade of bitumen selected shall be ascertainedby trial mixesusingMarshalMethodto determinethe amountby weightof dry material.200 100 70-100 50-80 40-65 30-50 15-25 3-10 't* 65-95 50-80 40-65 20-35 3-10 Tahle-J SAND .0 12.075 Sieve Designation Inch I 1.75 o.75mm (No.5 4. 212.425 0. TENTATIVE CRITERIAFORBITUMEN-AGGREGATESUBBASE/ BASE MATERTAL Characteristic MarshalStability (Min) (Min) Flow Subbase Base 250 Kg 400 Kg 2mm 2mm TABLEJ SELECTEDGRANULARSUBBASE /BASEMATERIAL-GRADING.425 0.5 4.freefromorganicor otherobjectionable substances.4 sieve)shallconsistof sharpnatural sand.40 No. Percent Passins bv Weisht 100 80-100 50-80 30-60 10-30 5-15 passing Fineaggregate 4.40 No. Inch.5 25.75 2. SieveDesisnation mm Inch 75 50 25 9.GRAVEL SUB BASE MATERIAL . lnch.4 No.2 .075 Percent Passingby weight Type-A Type-B Type-C 100 90 -100 55-90 35-65 25-55 20-40 10-25 3-10 3 inch 2 inch 1 inch 118 inch No. 200 Inch.GRADING mm 37.112 1 112 No.0 0.

capacity.tools.3 .r Mix in PlaceMethodof Construction Mix in place methodof constructionmay be adoptedwhere the use of low vlscositybrnderi. CutbasKor Bilumenemqisiqnarq foqnd suitqble. dischargingcleanly. grade and shownon the drawings.The Transportvehiclescarryingplantmix materialshall have a capacitysuitedto the output of mixing plant and the site condition and be capable of of materialshallbe avoided.coordinatedand operatedso as to and shall have sufficient producemixturewithin requiredJob-Mix-Formula plant be weigh batch shall type. Areas of segregatedmaterialshall be correctedby removingand replacing with satisfactory material or by re-mixing.3.e.and workingconditionat all times. if less than required.additionalapprovedmaterialshall be spread in such amountsas are foundto be necessaryand the added materialshallbe uniformlyspreadaddingwaterif requiredto obtainthe specifieddensity.shall be adjustedby sprinklingequipment. machinesused in the performanceof work shall be in good workingconditionand be subjectto the approvalof the Engineer. asphaltcementbinderof penetration The mixing plant shall be designed.The stakesshallbe set in rowson and cross-section parallelto the centerlineof pavementand spacedso that stringline may be stretchedbetweenthem. 212. All materialshall be placedevenlyusing mechanicalspreaderor spreader box operated with a mechanismwhich levels off the surface to an even depth. Moisture content. shallbe maintainedin satisfactory Bladegraderif used shall have an adjustablebladefor slopesand shall be self propelled.which shall be suitable for applyingwater uniformlyand at controlledamount to variabledepth of layer.2 StationaryMixing Plant Method with will be used where stabilization Stationaryplant methodof construction grade80/100is necessary.Segregation 212. Mixingshall be accomplishedon one or more passesof the mixerthrough the materialand shall be continueduntil the resultingmixture is entirely uniform and of proper moisturecontent.3. When necessary to meet the requirementof specified.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS All equipment. 212. Grade and alignmentcontrolstakesshall be furnished.2t2.set and maintained by the contractorin order that work shall conformto the line.

2t2.4. 212. 212.3 Compaction lmmediatelyafterspreading.4 Tolerance Tolerancein the compactedlayer shall be as specifiedin the relevant.3. 212.Measurementof bitumenbinderused shall be the numberof metricTon usedto stabilizesub base or basecourse.6 WeatherLimitations Layingof bitumenstabilizedbase/subbase shallbe avoidedwhen air temp is fo_ur degreescentigradeor belowor when whetheris rainyor foggy. 2r2.the stabilized subbase/Base shall be protected against damage and maintainedin an acceptableconditionat all times prior io the construction of subsequentcourses. compaction shall continue until the entire depth and width of subbase/Baseis uniformlycompacted. No vehiculartrafficshall be allowedto pass on the stabilizedsurfacefor a minimumperiodof two (2) days.the mixture shall be thoroughlycompactedwith rubber or pneumatictyred rollers.Deficientpavementshall be removedand replacedwith satisfactory material.The bulk densityof the mixture shail not be tess than ninetyeight (98) % of the laboratorybulk density. "Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.3.4 MEASUREMENTOFPAYMENT 212.3.capable of reversingwithoutbacklash and shallbe operatedby skilledoperator.r Measurement The unit of measurementfor payment shall be cubic meter for the compacted and accepted bitumen stabilized subbase/basecourse as measuredin place.s Curingand Maintenance After compaction.3.shapingto requiredlevel. The quantityof bitumenused shall not exceed the theoreticalpercentage establishedin the laboratory.crownand grade. Roller shall be in good working condition. Alternatetrip of roller shall be of slighfly different length.placing of mixtureshallalso be avoidedwhen surfaceis wet or on any surfacewhich is frozen or coveredwith ice or snow.Rollingshall begin at the low side and progresstowardsthe higher side overlappingeach precedingtrip until entire surface has been rolled. 212-4 . compactionshallbe checkedon stabilizedlayerin accordancewith ASTMD 915-61 (1973).Measurementshallnot includeany area exceptthe area authorizedin writingby the Engineer.

212a 212b 212c Description Unit of Measurement BitumenStabilized Subbase. Pay ltem No. mixing. finishing. shaping. manrpulating. equipment. plant. tool. CM BitumenBinder.rolling. Ton 212-5 . compacting. CM BitumenStabilized BaseCourse. maintenance including protection of stabilized Subbase/Baseand all incidentalsnecessaryfor the completionof work exceptbitumenconsumed whichshallbe paidseparatelyas measuredabove.2 Payment determinedas aboveshallbe Measuredquantityof stabilizedSubbase/Base per for particularitems listed price meter cubic paid for at the contractunit payment shall be full quantities.placing.212. handling.4. correcting unsuitable areas and unsatisfactory material. material. which bill of the on and shown below compensationfor furnishingof labour.

SS_1.1 COLD RECYCLING OF ROAD PAVEMENT STRUCTURE/SOIL STABILIZATION.e of broken material reducesto basicsizeof aggregates.ITEM 2T3 213.SS-1h) 213. iv) Layingof treated materialin smooth layer. Howeverin order to achreveproper strengthof ihe relayed materiat.3.RS_2. Cold Recvclinsof Asphalt a. DESCRIPTION This item shail consist of breaking. iii) Mixingof wateror bitumenbinderin the total mass. 2t3. base and subbase coirs" in a singre operation ln this operation. ii) Pulverizingand mixing of different types of materials to give homogeneousmix. Milling Process This work shall be carried out by specialized equipment designed to break and pulverize the asphaltic layerin a mannerthat'maximu.keepingthe grade and lineas per design.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS No fresh materialis to be used as far as quarry materialsare coneerned. cement and bitumenbinderof followingnomenclature shall be used.r Equipment Equipmentutilizedfor this item of work shail ensurefollowingactivities in a singleoperation: 213. cement or bitumen binder may be requiredto be adled.additionof water or binderwill also be requi6d to add strengthto the mix.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 213. 213_1 . removar.3. Asphaltic material lumpsshall be reduced to a maximum sizeof fifteen(15)mm.ii. water. i) Ordinaryporflandcement(Type_l) ii) Emutsified asphatt(RS-1. specification requirements of theseingredientsshallbe same as describedunder relative items of work.2 t) Breakingof layersin full depthin singleoperation. mixing. reraying and compactionof rayers of surface.

Bitumen of bitumenbindershallbe controlledby system. 213-2 .b. Compaction Initial compactionshall be providedwith paving screeds. c. Milling Process This work shall be carriedout by specializedequipmentdesignedto break and pulverizeasphalticlayersand base and subbasecoursesto a depth of maximumthree hundred(300) mm in a singleoperation. General Totalwidthof roadasphaltshallbe recycledin a numberof strips. Howeverall longitudinal and lateraljointsshallbe properlyworkedup to ensuresmoothridingquality. Quantity and spray/injection programmablemicro processorswith respect to forward speed. Mixing and Lavins Milledmaterialsand additivesshall be mixedin a forcedmixer to make the mass completelyhomogeneous. In case cementis to be used for improvingthe strengthof relayedmix.4 SOIL STABILIZATION a. 2t3. the same shall be calculatedand spread over the pavementstructurebefore millingstarts. Additives Bitumenbinder (EmulsifiedAsphalt)shall be added to the mix through a controlledunit for selectingand measuringthe electronically computerised. however final compaction shall be carried out with conVentionalrolling equipment approvedby the Engineerconsideringthe type of materialand thicknessof recycledlayer.depending on width of recyclingequipmentand widthof road.millingwidthand densityof material. Paving sCieedsshould be designedto piovidd initialcbmpaetionand shapingthe surfaceto givethe requiredgradeand profile' d. milling depth. Materialthus preparedshall be relayed throgghpav]ngblgckhavlnglamqng and vibratingpavingscreeds. Howeverfinal compactionshall be checkedafter completion of iolling as determinedby AASHTO T-230 methodand shall not be less than ninetyseven(97) percentof the Marshalldensity. e. and additivesshall be added with pump binder reouiredamount. Breakingand pulverizingshal!ensurereductionof bindingmaterialto reduceto a size of bO mm (maximum)or to a smallersize dependingon the thicknessof relayedlayer.

Additives water shall be added to the mix through a computerized. Materialthus preparedshall be relayed through paving block havingtamping and vibratingpaving screed. c. Measurementfor bitumen binder shall be made in tons deliveredto the equipmentfor work minusthe balanceleft in the equipment.millingwidthand densityof materials. Mixine and Layine Milledmaterialsand additivesshall be mixed in a forced mixerto make the mass completelyhomogeneous. General Totalwidthof roadasphaltshallbe recycledin a numberof strips. however final compaction shall be carried out with conventionalrolling equipment approvedby the Engineerconsideringthe type ol materialand thicknessof recycledlayer. 213.water shall be added with pump and spray/injectionsystem. 213_3 .depending on width of recyclingequipmentand width of road.electronically controlledunit for selectingand measuringthe requiredamount. No allowanceshall be given to material laid outside approved theoretical limits. millingdepth.b. Measurementfor cement shall be made equal to the number of tons of cementdeliveredand laidoverthe pavementin mannerdescribedabove.5. e.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 213.1 Measurement The quantityof cold recyclingor soil stabilizationto be paid for shall be measuredby the theoreticalvolume recycledas shown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. Howeverall longitudinal and lateraljointsshallbe properlyworkedup to ensuresmoothridingquality. paving screedsshould be designqd!o provideinltialqompaetionand shapingthe atrftde to gite the iequiieOgrade and profite.completedin place as per proceduredetailed above. d. Howeverfinal compactionshall be checkedafter completion of rollingas determinedby AASHTO r-230 method and shall not be less than NinetyFive (95)percentof the modifiedproctordensity. Quantityof water shall be controlledby programmablemicro processorwith respectto forward speed. Compaction Initial compactionshall be providedwith paving screeds.

shall be paid for at the contractunit price for each of the particularpay item listed below.C. 213a Description Unit of Measurement Coldrecycling of Asphaltic layer CM zl3n SoilSta6iii2ation CM 213c BitumenBinder(Asphaltic Emulsion) Ton 213d CementBinder(O.2 Payment The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove.which price and payment shall constitute full compensation for furnishing all materials.5.equipments.toolsand incidentals to completethe item.P. Pay ltem No.2r3.Type-l) Ton 213-4 .labour.

when the combinedgradingof the coarseand fine aggregatesis deficientin materialpassingthe No. crushedgravelor a mixtureof naturaland crushed gravel.additionalfiller materialshall be added.which is material retainedon the No.200 100 95-'100 70-100 TheCoarseandfineaggregates shallmeetthefollowing requirements: a) The percentage of wear by the LosAnglesAbrasion test(AASHTO T 96)shallnotbe morethan40%.50 No. 214.and be of uniform quality.Water borne materialsuch as river bed gravel.30 No.such that all faces of each piece are fracturedfaces in cuboidshape.hard.gradesand typicalpavementsectionsshown on the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. Fine aggregate. 4 sieve.which is materialpassingthe No. b) The losswhensubjectto fivecyclesof the sodiumsulphatesoundness test(AASHTO T 140)shallbe lessthan12%.1 ASPHALTIC CONCRETEBINDER COURSE DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishingand mixing aggregatesand asphalt binderat a centralmixingplant. 214. shall consistof crushedrock.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS. coarse and fine aggregatesshallbe clean.transporting. 214-1 .geology and petrology. 4 sieve shall consist of 100%crushedmaterialfromrock or boulder. vegetable matter and other deleterious substances.2. spreadingand compactingthe mixtureon a preparedbase in accordancewith these specifications and to the lines.tough.No naturalsand will be allowed in the mix.sound particlesfr"ee from decomposed material.The aggregateshall containnot more than 8% by weight of flats/or elongatedparticles(ratiomaximumto minimum5:1) and shallcontain100% angularmaterial.if used.1 Aggregates. 200 sieve. The filler materialshall consist of finely dividedrock crust. shall also conformto the above criteria. hydrauliccementor other suitablemineralmatterand shall conformto the followinggradation: US Standard Percent Passingby Weisht ---!&ye_No. hydratedlime.TTEIM2I4 2t4. Coarse aggregate.

075 4 I 3t4 3/B No. I Combined Aggregate Grading Requirements Sieve Designation Inch mm 25 19 9.5 mm (3/8 inch) sieve shall not contain more than 15 percent by weight of flat and/or elongated =2.2.5 (minimum) The asphaltconcretebindercoursemixtureshallmeetthe following Criteria: MarshalTest numberof blowseachend Compaction. (Asphalt InstituteUSA) edition 1993 25% (Max.2. particles(ratioof maximumto minimumdimensions 214.38 0. Percent Passingby Weisht 100 90-100 56-80 35-65 23-49 5-19 2-8 3.25mm (0.as specifiedby the Engineer.4 No.3.c) The Sand Equivalent(AASHTOT-176) determinedafter all processing exceptfor additionof asphaltcementshouldnot be lessthan45.8 No. e) The portionof aggregateretainedon the 9.50 No.5 (applicableto oC. The compositionof the asphalticconcretepavingmixturefor bindercourse shallconformto classshownin the followingtable: Table No. 2t4. 8-14 4-8 according to article 5.3 AsphaltConcreteBinder CourseMixture.5:1).5 4. MS-2.0.75 2. hot climate(> 40 . of Specimen Stability(Minimum) Flow.2 AsphalticMaterial Asphalticbinderto be mixed with the aggregateto produceasphalticbase shall be as asphaltcementpenetrationgrade40-50.200 Asphalt Content Weight Percent of total mix.Generallyit will meet the requirementof AASHTO M-20.or 60-70 or 80-100.01") Percentair voidsin mix.30 0. d) All aggregatesshall have a liquid limit of not more than 25% and a PlasticityIndexof not more than 4 as determinedby AASHTOT-89 and T-90.) 1-1. Percentvoidsin mineralaggregate Lossof stability ratio Filler/Bitumen 214-2 75 1000Kg.

construction requirementsfor this item shall conform with the same constructionrequirementsspecifiedfor Asphalticconcrete Base course PlantMix underltem 203.shall conform thereto with the tolerances as per clause zlq. May 1992Edition.ofMix Designaccordingto the procedureprescribedin the AsphaltInstituteManualserJesNo. At least one week prior to production.all mixtures furnished for the project representedby samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation.3.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS. After the JMF is established. 1. 100 sieves PassingNo.0% 4.exceptas modifiedin the followingsub-items. RetainedNo.0% 1 0.2. Weight percent of total mix.4 CombinedAgeregates Gradation.3% Asphalt Content.as directedby the Engineer 2r1.when unsatisfactory resultsor otherconditions madeit necessary. 214-3 . jointlyby the Engineerand the Contractor.3. 214. shallbe established The JMF shallbe establishedby MarshalMethod. Before spreadingmaterialsthe surface of the previouslyconstructedand acceptedbase courseon which the mix is to be placedshall be conditioned by application of a tack/orprimecoat.q of these specifications.z. 7. shoulda changeof sourcesof materials be madea new Job Mix Formula shallbe established beforethe new materialis used.200 r .r PreDarationof BaseCourseSurface. 4 to No. 2 (MS2).0% 1. The asphaltconcretebindercourseshall be compactedto the desiredlevel and crossslopeas shownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.5 Job-lVlixl'ormula.2.2 PavementThicknessand Tolerances. with the allowabletolerances. The JMF. 214. a newJob MixFormula willbe reouired. 214.3. .a Job-Mix Formula (JMF) for the asphaltic concrete course mixture or mixtures to be used ror tne project. 4 PassingNo.214. Each JMF shall indicatea single percentageof aggregatepassing each requiredsieve size and a single percentageof bitumento be addedto the aggregates.shall be within the master range specifiedin Table No.

2 Pavment The quantitiesdetermined.and the level at any pointshall be withindrawings.lf the thicknessso determinedis deficientby more than + 10 percent. shall be paid for at the contract unit price respectivelyfor each of the particular pay item listed belowand shown in the Bill of Quantities. 2t4.one (1) core per hundredmeters of each lanewill be taken. 214. 214-4 Unitof Measurement CM .0 millimeters.wastedor remainingon hand after completionof the work. 214 Description AsphalticConcrete BinderCourse.The tolerancesin compactedthicknessof the bindercourse shall be + 10 percent from the desired thickness shown on the drawings.or by other means satisfactory to the Engineer.the Engineershalldecidewhetherto acceptthe deficitthickness or to directreconstruction.by overlaying.as providedabove.which pricesand paymentshall constitutefull compensationfor all the costs necessaryfor the proper completionof the work prescribedin this item: Pay ltem No.4.longitudinal or transversewith the surfaceshall at no point + 5.r Measurement The quantitiesof asphalticbindercourseshall be measuredper cubic meter basis.2 percentof that specified.The cross fall (camber)shall be within+ 0. 2t4.4. For determinationof the thickness.shallnot be measuredor paidfor.All humps or depressionsexceedingthe specifiedtoleranceshall be correctedby removingthe defectiveworks and replacingit with new material. Quantitiesof liquidasphalt.The variationof the surface from the testingedge of the straightedgebetweenany two contacts. The quantityof asphalticmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT. The surface of the bindercourseshallbe testedby the Engineerusingat 3meter straightedge at selectedlocations.

. resistantto lime.wave actionor changingwater levels.1 DESCRIPTION The work covered by this section shall consist in furnishingall material.ITEM 215 GEOTEXTILES 215. For. 2r5. one road foundationfor the purpose of separation between road fill malerial and soft underlyingsoils in order to eliminate the need for removalof poor subsoilmaterialand quick and effectivedrainageof soil_ fill interface. 215. The geotextile wilf relain tne particles from passing whilst allowing the seepage water to' pass through. . The fibers shall consist of continuousfilaments of approximaiely40 micron diameterand mechanically bondedby needling.soil system.3. . As a filter for all drainagesystems where a danger of clogging by fine particles of adjacent soil is possible. A prolongedout side exposureof several mohths shall-haveno effect on the propertiesof Geotextile. in thicknessesand to the dimensionsshown on the typicalcross-sections of applicabledrawingsor as directedby the Engineer.equipmentand placingof Geotextileson preparedsurfices complete in accordance with the specificationsfor the work items involved. 215-1 .Geotextilewill be placedto performone or more of the followingfunctions. cement and concrete.The geotextilematerialshall be resistantto acid and alkalinemedia in the pH raige2 to 13.2 GEOTEXTILE FUNCTIONS where indicatedon the drawingsor directedby the Engineer.permanent proteclionof syntheticsealingsystems(Geomembranes) againstmechanicaldamageduring installationand afier completiono'f construction.3 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 215.resistantto all naturallyoccurringbacteriaand fungi. labour. o For subgrade stabilizationand increasing soil shear strength by providingbondingmechanismof the Geotextile.r Compositionand EnvironmentalBehaviour I|" l?* materialof geotextileshalt be UttraViolet stabilizedpolypropylene. . As a filter elementfor all bodiesof water where the soil can be erodedby current.

.lt is to be ensured that there are no protrudingStones which may damage the TaDnc.1 PreDaration The surface shall be fairly leveledbefore placementof Geotextile.4. oeotextrle 215.6 Jointilg of GeotextilePanels weldingor sewingas shown A tensionjoint shallbe achievedby overlapping.4. 215. To ensure free drainage.In order to avoid displacingthe geotextileduring backfill over end paneljoints.2 GeotextilePlacement The Geotextileshallbe rolledout directlyon top of the preparedsurfacein a lt shall be over lappedat the manneras recommendedby the manufacturer.4 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 2I5.4 Spreading Spreading of fill material shall be done with suitable equipment and pioceOureensuringthat geotextilemust not be dqmagedby high axle load stressesof spreadingequipmenttravelingon sharpfill over the geotextile' 215. the geotextile shall have high water permeabilitY. 215. The geotextileshallhave optimumstress-strainbehaviourevenwith low damage. 215.Necessaryprecautionsshall be observedto ensurethat geotextileshallnot be damagedduringplacement' 2t5.4.the connectingpanel must be placedunderneaththe end cf the previouslyrolledout geotextile.2 Mechanicaland HvdraulicProperties .3 Placementof fill The first layerof fill materialshall be appliedby overheadplacement. unitweightfor high resistanceagainstinstallation .4. on drawingsor approvedby the Engineer.2r5. i) Overlanning Overlapprngwidth shall not be less 30 cm on even surfaceand 50 cm on uneven'surface.5 Compaction The compacting method (Static/Dynamic)shall be suited to subgrade/fill material. u5a .4. Geotextileshallofferhigh retentioncapabilityfor almostalltypesof soils.3.Traffic on the geotextileitself shall be avoided.4. edgesas shownon the drawingsor as recommendedby the manufacturer.

1.2 . 215.alongwithsuitabletack coat of bitumen. To ensure proper adhesion between old pavementand new asphalt overlay & thus reducing the over all flexural tensile stresses and increasinglifeof road surface.1 215. 215-3 . The welded geotextilesectionshallbe continuously presseddown by walkingon it during placement. As a cut off layer for the prevention of propagationof cracks in the pavement. . ConstructionRequirements . Fillingpotholesand larger cracks (>Smm)with hot mix or an adequate filler. . dust and vegetationfrom wearingsurfaceand cracks.a calculatedamount of tack coat (Q$ of -approx. Removalof sharpor craggyedgeson surface.a levelcourseof approx.1. iii) Sewine The stitchingmethodshall be singlethread.geotextilewill be plaeedto perform one or moreof the followingfunctions.5 GEOTEXTILE FUNCTION FOR REPAVING This section deals geotextilesplaced between old pavement and new asphaltoverlay. .1 kglm2active binder is to be sprayed evenly on the preparedsurfacebeforelayinggeotextile.where indicatedon drawingsor directed by the Engineer. ' The sprayingtemperaturefor pure bitumenis kept between150 oC and 170oCto achievea coatingas even as possible. The thread shall be sufficiently tightenedand stitchdensityshallbe threeto six stitchesper inch. 215. A wide patterngas torch shallbe used at a low temperatureand about20 cm from the geotextile.doublethreador butterflytype suitable to geotextilethread type and strength.ii) Weldins welding widthshallnot be lessthan 1o cm. Removalof dirt. . As water barrier.even under high pressureto stop reflectivecracking in the pavements.5 cm shallbe laid to avoid the labour intensiveand time consumingoperation of crack filling.5. .5. Applvins the tack coat Dependingon the conditionof the old surface.makingsurethat:_ o The bitumenis appliedbeyondthe width of the geotextileby about 5 cm on eitherside. On badlydamagedroads.

3 Laying Geotextile Geotextileshallbe laidby hand or machinetakinginto accountthat.5.Geotextileshall not be laid until the emulsionhas cured.e. a The coatingis onlyappliedto areaswherethe pavingfelt is to be laid. overlapping . 215-4 . Applyingthe asphaltconcretesurface The asphaltconcretesurfacingshall be appliedimmediatelyafter laying Geotextilepreferablyby crawlertype finisher. During short time stoppages of constructionwork. . . Wrinklesshallbe avoided. a 215.4 . Edges lengthwaysand across overlap by 5-10 cm.takingthe followingpointsinto consideration. an additionalpure seams' bitumenbinderoi 0.5. at least 25cm of the lengthwaysfelt edge shall remainuncoveredto allow when layingthe otherhalf of the road.When usingbitumenemulsion.the coatingamountis adjustedto contain the requiredaverageamountof bitumen. When using bitumenemulsions. . . a No additionalpre-sprayagentis appliedon top of the pavingfelt. Rain water on the Geotextilesurfaceshall be allowedto evaporatebefore applyinga top layer. 2t5.9 tg/mt shallbe appliedon the overlapping . Where only sectionsfor the road are coveredwith the pavingfelts. When using pure bitumen as tack coat. a a The materialmix shallhave a temperaturebetween145oCand 165oC To avoid types of the finisher or truck stickingto the felt (which can happenin hot climatesor where too much tack coat has been applied)' some of the mix can be spreadmanuallyin the pathwayof the vehicles. is to be carriedout with referenceto the direction Transverseoverlapping will proceedi.their surfacesmust be gritted. immediately . underthe previousone so finisher the asphalt in which that the felt does not shift out of place when the asphaltconcreteis applied. When one half of the road is made (leavingthe other open to traffic). Geotextile may be [aid aftercoating. the road under constructionshall be opened only to slow traffic without detrimentto Geotextile.

The certificateshall note complianceto the specifications and shall state the resultsof the tests performedon the material. CBR PunctureResistanceTest BS 6906/4 .The contractorshall furnishtechnical literature and Manufacturer's Certificate of Guarantee for the type of geotextilematerialfor approvalof Engineerpriorto deliveringthe materialto the site. All costs connected with certificate of Guaranteeand any subsequentqualitytestingshall be at the contractor's expense. Grab TensileTest ASTM D-1682 . PoreSize E DtN60500/6 Based on the requiredfunctionsand the type of stresses.7. PenetrationResistanceTest (DropTest) NT Build243 .Measurementshall only be made of area coveredwithoutconsideringany overlap.havethe Geotextilematerialtestedfor conformanceto the applicablespecifications at an approved testing laboratory. Tear StrengthTest ASTM D-1117 . VerticalPermeability BSE90613 . 215-5 .as requiredby the specifications.when directedby the Engineer. .1 Measurement The quantityof Geotextilemeasuredto be paid shall be the number of square meters of work completedin accordancewith requirementof this item and the limitingdimensions shallnot exceedthan thoseshownon the drawingsor fixed by the Engineer. The Contractorshall. 215.7 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 215.6 GEOTEXTILE TESTING Geotextilestesting shall be in accordancewith following standard test methods. Thickness tso 9863 .215. Weight ASTM D-3776 . StripTensileTest ASTM D-4595 .the contractor shall proposethe type of Geotextile.

215.M. 215 Description Providingand Placing of Geotextile. type------ 215-6 Unit of Measurement S.labour.7. Pay ltem No.equipmentand placingof geotextile.2 Pavment The accepted quantity measured as provided above sfrall be paid at the contract unit price per square meter of Geotextilelaid for the pay item as listed below in the BOQ which price and payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishingall materials. .

The area will than be watered and kept under rollingto achievea smoothsurface. The filler materialshall be kept addingwhile the soling stones are rolledunder a 6 tons roller.pioperlyshapedor bouldersof maximumsize 15-20cm. handpackedon a surface (subgrade)preparedearlier and all intersticesfilled with sand or similar approvedmaterialsto provideproper bondingof all the stones with each other. 216. 216.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Thematerialfor solingshAllbe iouhd and d0iableioCk.1 The subgradeto receivethe soilingstone shall be preparedunder relative item of the work.1 SOLING STONE DESCRIPTION This item shall consistof layingof solingstone.The additionof filler materialshall continuetill the area does not absorbmore materialand it is ensuredthat all intersticesare fully filled.3 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 216.3. The filler materialtofill the interstices shall be coarse sand or rock dust or any other materialapprovedby the Engineer.lt shallbe ensuredthat the maximumdimensionis kept in verticalpositionensuringthe variationof the size of the stone does not exceed+ 1" of soecifiedthicknessof solino stone: The filler materialshall be dry and in free flow conditionwhen placedover the soling stone. The measurement shallbe madein CM. 216.TTEM216 216.3 CONSTRUCTIONRf.QUIREMENT 216.Materialshall be cohesionlessand clean to allow its free flow down to the bottomof solingarea.1 Measurement The areato be measuredshallbe boundby the linesshownon the drawings whereasthe normalthicknessshall be that which is describedin BOQ.3. 2t6.3. 216-1 .2 Placinsof SolineStone The solingstoneshall be placedfrom outer edges of the road and finishing at the crown of the road in such a way that all stones are properly handpackedand keyedwith the surroundingstones.

216. Pay ltem No.3.2 Pavment The quantities determined as provided above shall be paid for at the contract unit price for cubic meter which price and payment shall be full compensationfor all cost of materials. 216 Description Unitof Measurement Layingof SolingStone CM 216-2 .manpowerand equipmentsinvolved in the propercompletionof work.

Paving blocks covered by these Specificationsare designed to form a structural element and the surfacing of pavements. havingthe blockto blockjointsfilled.2. Detailedrequirement of materialsand construction shallbe as under: 217.lay byes.2 Aggregates Pavingblocksshall be made usingone or more of the followingaggregates complyingwiththe relevantstandards: NaturalAggregates(Crushedor Uncrushed) Air Cooledblastfurnace slao Pulverizedfuel ash Groundgranulatedblastfurnace slag 217-1 BSBB2: 1983(exceptgrading requirements in clause5) BS 1047:1083(except gradingrequirements in 4. 217. Wheregroundgranulated blastfurnace slag is used.thicknessesand typicalcrosssectionshownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.the proportions and properties of the combination with PortlandCementshallcomplywith BS 146:Part2.the proportions and properties of the combination withPortlandCementshallcomplywithBS6588.8) BS 3892: Part-1or Part-2 BS6699 .{2t7 217.2.parkingareas. grades.rl-Ev.1 INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS DESCRIPTION The work shall consistof precastconcretepaving blocks intendedfor the construction of low speedroads. 217.1 Bindersand Binder Constituents Pavingblocksshall be made using one or more of the followingbindersor binder constituentscomplying with the requirementsof the relevant standards: Ordinary Portland Cement B S1 2 Portland Blastfurnace Cement B S 1 4 6: P a r l 2 Portland Pulverized FuelashCement BS6588 Pulverized fuelash BS3892: Part1 Groundgranulated Blastfurnaceslag BS6699 Wherepulverized fuel ash is used.industrialand other paved surfacessubjectedto all categoriesof static and vehicularloading and pedestriantraffic.2 MAT4RIAL REOUIREMENTS For executionof this item provisionsmade in BS 6717 shall be applicable.so as to developfrictionalinterlockand placed in conformitywith the lines.

2.not paising a 5 mm sieve complyingwith BS 410) shall or in on.beformedas an integral parl of ine ntobf and shallbe not lessthan 5 mm thick' 2t7.4 ADMXTURES AND PIGMENTS proprietaryaccelerating. retained fraction the in lSy" Oi mass of acid solublemaierialeither the fractionpassing.217. For equivalentdurability. The preferredwork sizethicknessesare 60 mm.7 SIZES AND TOLERANCES 2t7. The Enginler wilt decidethe additionalbindercontent.a 600 p m sieve.2.2.1 Acid SolubleMaterial (FineAssresatel (material When testedas describedin BS 812 : Part 119. Pigmentsshallcomplywith BS 1014.The compressivestrength tesi will be the onlyguideto the amountof additionalbinderneeded.2.6 BINDER CONTENT The cement content of the compactedconcrete shall be not less than 380 fglm5.1 Sizes mm' Paving blocks shall have a work size thicknessof not less than 60 a and mm of 200 length size work fype-F blocksshall be rectangularwith a within fitting shape of any be shall blocks work sizewidth of 100 mm.7.the fine aggregate than more contain.pavingblocks made with binderconstituents oiner tnan ordinaryPortlandc'ementshall have a higher binder-contentthan paving blocks mide in a similar way using only PortlandCement. 80 mm & 100 mm' A chamferaroundthe wearingsurfacewith a work size not exceeding7 mm in width or depth shall be permitted.2.2. In compositepavingblocksthe surfacelayer shall. 217.3 Water with the The water shall be of drinking quality or in accordance 1980' : 3148 of appendixA of BS recommendations 217.2. 65 mm. Calciumchlorideshallcomplywith BS 3587 t111< FINISHES and the Engineer' The finishshouldbe agreedbetweenthe manufacturer concrete describedas "naturalcolout''shall containno pigment. All arisesshallbe of uniformshape' 217-2 . Type-S a2g5mmSquarecoordinatingSpaceandsha||haveaworksizewidthnot lessthan B0 mm. 217.retardingand water reducing agents shall comply wlth BS 5075 : Part 1.

2r7.2 Tolerances The maximumdimensionaldeviationsfrom the statedwork sizesfor paving blocksshall be as follows: length width thickness 1 2mm t 2mm + 3mm where a pavingblockincludesprofiledsides.e.9 SAMPLING The following sampling procedure shall be used for the compressrve strengthtest. BS 6717 : part 1 : 1986*. b) The number and date of this Britishstandard.taking precautionsto avoid damage to the paving blocks in transit.carry out any tests as soon as possibleafter the samplehas beentaken.divideeach designatedsection.the profileshallnot deviate fromthe manufacturer's specification by morethan2 mm. Each sample shall be accompaniedby a certificatefrom the person responsiblefor taking the sample.2.or latestrevision. trade mark or other means of identification of the manufacturer. c) Protectthe paving blocks from damage and contaminationuntil they have been tested. manufacturer'sor supplier's certificateor brochure suiplied with the consignmentof blocks: a) The name.217. 217.2.clearlymark all samplesat the time of samplingin such i way that the designatedsectionor part thereof and the consignment representedby the sampleare clearlydefined.2.8 COMPRESSTVESTRENGTH The compressivestrengthof pavingblocks shall be not less than 49 N/mm2 and the crushingstrengthof any individualblock shall be not less than 40 N/mm'.statingthat samplingwas carriedout in accordancewitn tnis Partof BS 6717. i.Take two (2) blocksfrom each group.2.10 MARIqNG The followingparticularsrelatingto pavingblocksmade in accordancewith this standard shall be indicated clearly on the delivery note invoice.7. a) Beforelayingpavingblocks.comprising not more than 5000 blocks. 217-3 .in a consignmentinto eight approximately equalgroups. 217. b) Dispatchthe sample to the test laboratory.

2 Tolerance Toleranceof these layers shall be as per applicablerequirementof each item of this specifications.materialsand equipmentfor propercompletionof work.5 squaremeters.2 Pavment The qualitydeterminedas providedaboveshall be paid for the unit priceof contractfor each square meter of paving block installedincludingsand cushion and sand filling in joints and all other work relatedfor installing paving blocks.1 Layine the ConcreteBlocks The total area to be coveredwith pavingblock shall be preparedby: a) Compactionof subgrade b) Layingof subbasein a thicknessspecified c) Layingof crushedaggregatebase or lean concretein thicknessas per typicalsection 217.4. Cost shall includeall labour.3. 2t7. 217.217.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 217. The total area will therebybe dividewith nylon strings into sectorsof not more than 1.This shall be done to controlthe alignmentof paving blocks and to avoid multiplication of deviationin sizes of paving blocks.4.3.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 217.Unit of measurementshall be square meter measuredin horizontalplane. Description Unitof Measurement 217a Installation of pavingblocks 60 mmthick SM 217b Installation of pavingblocks 80 mmthick SM 217c lnstallation of pavingblocks 100mmthick SM 217-4 . Paymentfor each of the aboveitem shallbe made underthe relativeitem of work.r Measurement The area to be measuredshall be boundby linesshown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. Pay ltem No.

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SURFACECOURSES ANI) PAVEMENT .

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While and pavingoperationsare in progress.flares. Shouldthe Engineerpointout the inadequacyof warningand protectivemeasures.Samplesof materialsfor laboratorytestsand theirsubsequentapprovalsshall be utilized accordingto thesereferencesunlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineer. 300-1 .a detourshall be subgrade/subbase providedfor vehicularflow in order to avoid any publicinconvenienceand thoroughlybe maintainedtill completionof that particularsection of the project or as a whole. the contractorshallfurnishcompetentflagmenwhosesole dutiesshallconsistof directingthe movementof publictrafficthroughor around the work. Matefialsw!!qh dq 1ot confolm !o lhe requirementsof these specifications will be rejectedwnetneiin titae or not. In order to expedite the passage of public traffic throughor aroundthe work.warning lights.such actionon the part of the Engineershall not relievethe contractorfrom responsibilityfor publicsafety or abrogatehis obligationto furnishand payfor theseservices.convenienceand direction of public traffic.and requireadditionalmeasures.barricadesand other facilitiesfor the safety.The materialsto be used shall conformto specificationsand testing proceduresas per AmericanAssociationof State Highwayand TransportationOfficial (AASHTO)or the American Societyfor Testingand Material(ASTM)as indicatedin their latesteditions. Also where directed by the Engineer. the contractorshall installroad signs.lights. ihef straifbe removedimmediately from the site of the work at the expense of contractor.SURFAGEGOURSESAND PAVEMENT TTEM 3OO GENERAL This sectiondescribesthe requirementsand proceduresfor executionof surfacecoursesand pavements.shallbe includedin the respectivework item. The of such road-signs.flaresbarricades cost of furnishingand installation and otherfacilities.

Theycan be eitherof two types: cationic(ASTMD 2397 or AASHTo M 208) or anionic(ASTMDg77 or AASHTOM 140). F) AC-40 AR-8000 40 / 50 pen. coal tar. No emulsification shalloccurwhen a thirty(30) gram sampleis boiledfor two (2) hourswith two hundredand fifty(250)cubiccentimetersof distilledwater in a five hundred(500)cubic centimetersEdenmeyerflask equippedwith a refluxcondenser.ITEM 301 30r.C (75 def. Becauseasphaltmixturesare influencedby temperature. Asphalt cement shall be classifiedby penetrationand when tested in accordancewith the standardmethods of tests of the AASHTO.mean annualair temperature < 7 degreeC (45 degreeF) AC-10 AR-4000 80 / 100pen Warm. Hot.C (45 deg.2 EI{VIRONMENTAL FACTORS In areas where highlyfrost susceptiblesoils and severe low temperature conditionsare encountered. lt shall be free from admixturewith any residuesobtainedby the artificialdistillation of coal. * Bothmediumsetting(MS)and slowsetting(ss) emulsified asphaltsare used in emulsified asphaltbase mixes.C(75 deg. rne grade of asphaltto be used shall be in accordancewith these specifications or the SpecialProvisions or as directedby the Engineer.it is recommended that differentasphaltgradesbe used where differenttemperatureconditions prevail.preparedfrom crude asphalticpetroleum.it may be necessaryto removeand replacesoils susceptibleto frost heave or take other precautionsprior to pavement construction. mean annualair temperature > 24 deg. .the grades of asphaltsshallconformto the requirementssetforth in Table got-2.Fj and 24 def. Table below gives recommended asphalt grades for various temperatureconditions.or a mixtureof refinedliquidasphalt and refinedsolidasphalt. In extremelyhot climates.t ASPHALTIC MATERIALS ASPHALT CEMENT Asphaltcement shallbe an oil asphalt. 301. or paraffinand shall be homogeneousand free from water. mean annualair temperature between7 deg.asphaltmixesshouldbe designedto resistruttingand maintainstiffnessat hightemperatures.selectingone of the two shaildependson the type of aggregateusedfor betteraffinity. SELECTING ASPHALT GRADE Temperature Condition alt Grade+ Cold. F) AC-20 AR-8000 60 / 70 pen.

Grade 120-150or Grade 2OO-aOO. cemept fluxqd-orblendedwilh a kerosene consistof asphalt Rapidcuringproductsdestgnateduy tl9 lettersRC. shall be The bituminousbase used in manufacturingssl type em.the. pha|ts(cutback)sha||consistofmateria|sconformingtothe Wn"n tested in accordance with the standard t"ff-"*irg shall conform methodsof tests of the AASHTO.tnan. 301-2 .They emulsifiedwith water and an emulsifying shall and Setting.pnaii Engineer. Slow or classified according to ut" as Ra[lO 301-5' Table in specified contormto the requirements shall be The bituminousbase used in manufacturingRS-l type emulsion by the designated as i"*ent. 301. selectionare the water availabilityat the rate. curing the and used. shall fluxedor blendedwith a naphtha cementwith a punutr"tiono"fgradetiO-tOO. ". 301. by coating and to satisfactorilycoat-in"-'"ggr"gate. or stabilizing -setting . CraOe 60-70 ilng Engineer.i"bitiit Gst (nsrrv D z4i.the gradesof liquidasphalt 301-4' and 301-3 Table in the specified to the requirements consistof asphalt Medium curing productsdesignatedby lettersMC..4 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT base uniformly Asphalticemulsionsshall be composed of a bituminous shall be agent. solvent.'nns'Hro T 59).3 CUT. be piocess to the mixing time of construction. Grade or ..ulsion by the designated as 12b-150.assifiiationi.]h1g is determined in the important faclors .basisof its ability The gradeof emulsifiedasphaltis selectedprimarilyon. other at the weather job anticipated site. shall solvent.BACKASPHALT L i q u i d a s'.

. 40 min.APPLICATION TEMPERATURES TABLE 301-I Application Temperature Range. Saybolt-Furol or as required to achievea Kinematic Viscosityof 150-300 centistokes. MC. Mixing Temp As requiredto achieve viscosityof 75-150secs. SC) 70 250 800 3000 55-80 75-100 80-115 301-3 20 min. 55 min. oC Asphalt Type / Grade a) AsphaltCement (Allgrades) b. Spraying Temperature RoadMixes 160 (Max) Emulsified Asphatts ffi RS-2 MS-1 MS-2 MS-2h HFMS-1 HFMS-2 HFMS-24 SS-1 SS-1h CRS-1 CRS-2 CMS-2 cMS-2h CSS-1 css-1h c) 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10-70 10:70 20-70 20-70 2i-7i CutbackAsphatts(RC.

cm.ClevelandOpen cup. 118in. Max. per min. 5 cm.2 mm). 60-70 80 . 5 hr Losson heating. Flashpoint.percent. ouciitityof residueat77 oC. of original. 58 1.percent Penetration.TABLE 301-2 REQUIREMENTSFOR ASPHALT CEMENT (AASHTO M-20) 40-50 at77oF (25"C) 100 Penetration g 5 Sec. Min. 40 50 60 70 80 Max. 100 120 Min 120 450 (232) 450 (232) 450 (232 ) 425 (218) 100 '100 100 100 oo 99 lene Solubilityin trichloroethy percent. c.80 54 50 50 75 1. Min. m .3 46 oF (25 301-a 75 100 .80 of residue.(3.0 0.100 Min. Max..oF("c) oF Ductilityat 77 (25 "C)5 cm p e rm r n . 99 150 Max 150 Thin-filmoventest. 0.325 "r ltOe "C.

. s e c . . . .100 to 200 Sec. . .o p e nc u p ) . 2. lf penetrationof residueis morethan 200 and its ductilityat 25oC(77'F) is lessthan 100 cm. 0 g .. (a?7otr\ 55 87 45 75 ol Testson residuefrom distillation: p e n e t r a t i o1n0.TABLE 301-3 REOUIREMENTS F'ORMEDIUM-CURING TYPE ASPHALTS (AASHTO M-82) MC-70 Min. . .. . . . the materialwillbe acceptableif its ductilityat 15. "C 100 is morethan 100 cm. .a t 2 5 o C( 7 7 " F ) .5 oF.800 800 1600 n 35 80 Distillation test: Distillate. . . .c e n t . 120 250 120 250 120 . .percentageby volume of total distillate at 360oc(680"F) ^t 22qoc. As an alternate. 0. .2oC(180"F). . GradeMC-250FurolViscosityat 60oC(140"F)- 125to 250 Sec. . 2 5 0 100 100 100 S o l u b i l i it ny T r i c h l o r o e t h y l epneer. KinematicViscosityat 60oC(140"F)(See Note Max Min. . . . . . . 301-b . 0 99.SayboltFurolvicositiesmay be specifiedas following: GradeMC-70 FurolViscosityat 50oC(122"F)- 60 to 120 Sec.D e g r e eC .9 9 . . Volumepercentage 55 1\ Centistnkes MC .0 Ductility.2 66 oo 70 140 250 500 0 20 65 20 60 90 0 15 60 't0 0F) A l 2600C /500 at 315 0C /600 oF'l oC (680 Residue from distillationat 360 "F) of sampleby difference. Max 0. .2 0..2s0 Min..2 nornonf F l a s hp o i n t( t a g . . .cm (see note2) Note: '1.. GradeMC-800FurolViscosityat 82. .5 cm/min. . . .. . \A/rtor Max MC . . .5.0 99. .

.. 99. ...TABLE 301-4 ITEQUIREMENTSFOR IL{PID-CURING TYPE ASPHALTS (AASHTO M-81) RC .at 25"C (77 BO 5 cm/min..800 500 800 1 6 0 0 test: Distillation Distillate.... 301-c 120 . .. .0 Note: 120 BO 80 120 As an alternate.... 1\ Cantielnkcq 7n 140 lsb Max 0.250 RC-70 Min. 125to 250 Sec.. Volumepercentage '10 50 70 85 35 60 80 45 55 65 75 15 75 Tests on residuefrom distillation: oF). .0 99. .. 100 100 100 percent Solubilityin Trichloroethylene. ..2 Water. ..100 to 200 Sec.. Ductility.2 0..D e g r e eC .. . .0 99...percent. .SayboltFurolvicositiesmay be specifiedas following: GradeRC-70 FurolViscosityat 50oC(122"F)GradeRC-250 FurolViscosityat 60oC('140"F)- 60 to 120 Sec. GradeRC-800 FurolViscosilyat 82.. 100g: 5 Sec. . KinematicViscosityat 60oG (140"F)(See Note Min.2 27 27 F l a s hp o i n t( t a g .2oC(180"F). penetration. Max Min. .percentageby volume of total distillate at 360oC(6Bo"F) at 1go"c (37:4"F) tt 2)60(. t4?70tr\ af rAnoc /qnootr\ at 21F'on /Ann otr\ oC (680 "F) Residue from distillationat 360 of sampleby difference..... 0.of 25oC (77"F) cm . .o p e nc u p ) . Max RC .

. Viscosity......lh Min...if the elapsedtimeis less than 5 daysl The 24-hr.... 0... . SaybottFurolat 122oF(50"C)Sec..TABLE 3OI-5 Trrna Rapid-Settine RS-I Slow-Settins RS-2 Min. 10( 400 Settlement5days... Sec. 75 Demulsibility.. The demulsibility test shallbe nnadewithin30 daysfrom date of shipment.075mm) sieve..percent....77"F (25oC)... Sievetest.. 20 0.percent.. .cm Solubilityin trichloroethylene.10 55 n 4n 63 57 Test on Residue from Distillation Test penetration "F(2s"c... or the Engineer requirethat the settlementtest be run from the time the sampleis receiveduntilit is used...02 NCaCl2percent 1 60 4 I Residueby distillation..5 cm/min.. NIax. Max..10 0.... 'Pt 301-d .... SaybottFurotat T7"F(ZSoF). (1 day) storagestabilitytest may be used insteadof the 5 days setflementtest.0 2.... percent.slurrysealtreatments The test requirementfor settlementmay be waivedwhen the emulsifiedasphaltis used in less than 5 days time..3mm) sieve and a portion of which may pass a No. Surfacetreatment& penetration penetration macadam and tack macadam coat on Plantor road mixturewith gradedand f t e aggregates.. Ductility..toog. 20 100 SS. 6 5 1 1 2.a substantialquantityof wh :h passes a No..1( 60 Cementmixingtest. B (2.5 97"5 97.5 97. .5 Surface treatment.0 0. 35 m1.. 2 )0 (0.....5 sec... Storagestability test 1 day (b)... Min. percent(a) . 2A 100 Min. Ma Test on Emulsions: Viscosity... percent Suggested a) b) c) 100 200 100 200 '100 200 4A 40 40 40 40 97. ... SS-I Max.

the surfacemay be reasonablymoist.so that the Primedsurfaceshallbe kept undisturbed bituminousmaterialtravelsbeneathand leavesthe top surfacein nontackycondition.earth sub grade.ITEM 302 302.whichever is eitheaentbaek or Emulsified specifiedin the Billof Quantities.and as otherwiseshown on the plans in strict accordancewith the specificationand in conformitywiththe linesshownon the drawings' 302. labour. waterboundbase course. (iv) Other surfaces as shown on the plans or ordered by the Engineer.equipment. The applicationis prohibitedwhen the weather is foggy or rainy.Areas to be primedwill be classifiedas under: (i) The top of earth surface or water bound base courses from a pointtwenty(20) centimetersoutsidethe edge of the pavement line to 20 cms outside the line on the oppositeside of the roadway.the surfacesshall be cleanedof all loosematerial as describedin Section302. Asphalt.No asphalticoperationsshallstarton a tackycondition.or when the atmospherictemperatureis below fifteen (15) degree C unless otheruvise directedby the Engineer. 302. Priorto the applicationof prime coat on bridgedecks and concretepavdments.No trafficshall be pefmitted on the surface after it has been prepared to receive the bituminousmaterial.crushedaggregatebase course.all loose materialsshallbe removedfrom the surfaceand the same shall be cleaned by means of approved mechanicalsweepers or blowers and/or hand brooms.I BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof furnishingall plant.untilit is as free from dust as is deemedpracticable.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS of the item 301 Asphaltic materialshall conform to the requirements 'Asphaltic MateTialS". .tops of roadwayshoulders. for at least24 hours.3. All expansionjoints shall be cleanedand filled with bituminousmaterialas directed by the Engineer.applyinga liquid asphaltprime coat on a previouslyprepared and untreated.material and performingall operationsin. (ii) of embankment The top of the shouldersfrom the inter-section pavement line. edge of the to the of subgrade slopeand top (iii) The bridgewearingsurfacefrom curb to curb and end to end of bridgewearingsurface.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS Prime coat shall be appliedwhen the surfaceto be treatedis dry: exceptthat when emulsifiedasphaltis used.Priorto the applicationof the primecoat.

The pump shall be furnishedwith an indicatorshowing the performancein litresper minute. The thermometershallbe placedin such a way that the highesttemperature in the tank is measured.or the speed of the pump shall be synchronizedwith the speed of the distributor. At the suctionside the pump shall hive a filtereasilyexchangeable.mounted on pneumatictyres of suchwidthand numberthat the load producedon the road surfacewill not exceed hundred(100) Kg per cm width of tyre.will be less than two (2) degree c per hour. The tank shall be insulatedin sueh a way that the drop in temperaturewhen the tank is filledand not heated.302. The heating deviceshall be so that overheatingwill not occur. The tank shall be furnishedwitn a device that indicatesthe contents. to a total width of four (4) M. lt shall be of recognized manufacturer.to coverany irregulararea or coveringthe area improperly sprayed. The tachometershall be visiblefrom the driver'sseat. The pipesfor fillingthe tank shall be furnishedwith an easilyinterchangeable filter.lf requiredby the Engineer. The sprayingbar shall have nozzlesfrom which the liquid is sprayedfan-shapedon the road surfaceequallydistributedoverthe totalsprayingwidth.3. 302.The liquidshall be circulatedor stirredduringlhe heating.A thermometershall be fixed. The functionof the distributorshall be so exact that the deviationfrom the prescribedquantityto be spread on any squaremeterdoes not exceed10% The distributorshall be equippedwith a devicefor hand sprayingof the bituminousliquid. consequenfly. The distributorshall be able to vary the spraywidth of the asphalticliquidin steps of maximum 10 cm. The distributorshall be furnishedwith a tachometerindicatingthe speed in meter per minute. The distributorshallhavea pumpfor sprayingthe liquiddrivenby a separate motor. Asphaltic Materialsshall be appliedat 302-2 . A thermometershall be fixed to the tank in orderto be able to controlcontinuously the temperatureof the liquid.2 lmmediatelybeforeapplyingprime coat.3.the flamei must not touch directlyon the castingof the tank containingine asphaltic liquidor gasestherefrom.The contractorwill be responsiblefor any fire or accidentresultingfrom heatingof bituminousmaterials.which indicatesthe temperatureof the liquidimmediatelybeforeit leavesthe sprayingbar.r Equipment The liquid asphalticmaterial shall be sprayed by means of a pressure distributorof not less than 1000 litre capacity.the surfaceshall be made moist but not saturated. The tank shall have a heating device able to heat a complete charge of asphalticliquid up to one hundredeighty (180) degree C. the full area of surfaceto be treated shall be swept with a power broomto removeall dirt and other objectionable material.

The spraynozzlesandspraybarsshallbe adjustedand frequently checkedso as to ensureuniformdistribution. for spraying from the using device hand tnanually the The surfaceof structuresand treesadjacentto the areabeingtreatedshall in suchmanneras to preventtheirbeingspatteredor marred.75 0.Sprayingshall of any nozzleand uponany cloggingor interference ceaseimmediately is resumed. 1.4 from the exactrateshallbe specifiedby the Engineerdetermined However.. measures takenbeforespraying remedial shallbe as of asphalticmaterial(cutback/emulsified) The ratefor application unoer:LITRES PER SOUARE METER TYPE OF SURFACE Minimum Subbase. in thepresence Contractor for a periodof at least24 hours. herein. willbe made the areas bythe Engineer. The Contractog providepropertrafficcontrolso that vehiclesmay proceedwithoutdamage to the primedarea. The Contractorshall maintainthe prime coat until the next courseis applied.WearingSurfaces. coat in accordance primed specified. shown for outside the limits.any excessshallbe blottedwith sand or to the distributor shallbe sprayed similartreatment. 302.65 1. and Crushedstonebasecourse. Bridge. of bituminous materialis not in Care shallbe takenthat the application excessof the specifiedamounts. Subgrade. ConcretePavement Maximum 0.4.rses.15 0.4 ANDPAYMENT MEASUREMENT 302. Workshallnot be startedon the portionof the roadnot coveredby previousapplicationuntil the surfacepreviouslycoveredhas driedandis readyfor traffic.r Measurement coveredby prime shallbe squaremeteras actually Theunitof measurement or payment No measurement with thesespecifications. Water boundbaseco.and Theprimecoatshallbe leftundisturbed penetrated and curedsufficiently so it has to traffic until not be opened shall that it will not be pickedup by the wheelsof passingvehicles. on theplansor designated 302-3 . by the Engineerand performedby the Thetestmethodsshallbe determined of Engineer.operations Where no convenient shall confinedto one-hdlfthe roadwaywidth at a time. be protected shall be detouris availablefor traffic.operated statedin ltem 301 by approvedpressuredistributors temperature by skilledworkmen. 2. fieldtrials.All areasinaccessible distributor.

equipment and incidentalsand for performingalt the work involvedin applyingprime coat. 302 Description Bituminous PrimeCoat.2 Pavment The paymentfor area primed measuredas stated above. which paymentshall be full compensationfor furnishingall labour.4. material. 302. 3024 Unitof Measurement SM . shall be made for the contractunit price per sM. completein place in accordancewith these specifications: Pay ltem No.tools.Blottingmaterialwillnot be measuredfor paymentand shallbe considered subsidiary to theprimecoat.

applicationmay be n'ladeon a reasonable moist surface. A hand power spray attachmentto a bitumen pressure distributoror other operatedbitumenpump. Rates used.pressuregauge.in additionto performingall operationsin connectionwith the applicationof a Bituminoustack coat.sections of applicabledrawings.an inspectionof the preparedsurface 'Engineerto determine its fitness to receive the will be made by the Bituminousbinderand no tack coatwill be applieduntilthe surfacehas been approved. 303.labour. litre square O.ITEM 303 303.r Equipment Equipmentshall conformin all respectto the provisionunder. cjirt or other objectionablematerial. complete in accordancewith these specificationsand to the width shown on the typical cross.shallbe furnished. 303. all loose material.or cut back asphaltas calledfor in the Bill of Quantities. 303. 303-1 .1 and'shall be subject to the approvalof the Engineer in additionto the maintenanceof the same in a satisfactoryworking conditionat all times.2-0.supplementedwith hand brooms.O Engineer. containerhavingan independently of the asphalt tank contents temperature the determining for thermometer and a hose connected to a hand power spray suitable for applying the Bituminoustack coat in the amountsspecified.4 the range within of applicationof cut back shall be rage of the within rate be shall the asphalt square meter and for emulsified the by specified rate shall be exact per the meter.3.shall be removedfrom the surface to be treated by power brooms and/or blowers. Priorto the application.2 Applicationof AsphalticMaterial: at the Asphalticmaterialshallbe appliedby meansof a pressuredistributor. 303. Applicationof tack coat shall be avoided in case of foggy or rainyweather.3.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS lmmediatelybefore applyingthe tack coat.1 BITUMINOUS TACK COAT DESCRIPTION The work coveredby this sectionshallconsistin furnishingall plant. hbweverfioremulsifiedasphalt.The tack coatshallbe appliedonlywhen the surfaceis dry.b O.3. "Asphaltic Materials"for emulsifiedasphalt.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Asahlltic mateiiatshallconformto the requiiement$of item 301.all to be such as to meetthe approvalof the Engineer. equipment and ap'plyingasphaltic material on a previously prepared asphalticlayer.as directed by the Engineer. being particular material temperaturestated in ltem 301 for the per lihes of 0.ltem302.

any excess asphaltshall be blotted by sand or similartreatment. Traffic shall be kept off the tack coat at ail times. The surfacesof structuresand trees adjacentto the areas being treated shall be protectedin such a manner as to preventtheir beingspatteredor marred.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 303. The contractor shall provide proper traffic control so that vehicles may proceed without damage to the treatedarea. The tack coat shail be sprayedonly so far in advanceoflhe surfacecourse as will permit it to dry to a "tacky"condition. Any area that has become fouled.which paymentshall be full compensationfor furnishingall labour.2 Piyment The paymentof bituminousTack coat. equipmentand incidentalsand for performingall the work involvedin applyingTack coat completein place.care shallbe takenthat the applicationof asphalticmaterialis not in excess of the specifiedquantity. measuredas stated above shall be paid for at the contract unit price per square meter. Pay ltem No.1 Measurement The quantitiesof BituminousTack coat shall be measuredin square meter for the actualarea Tacked with asphalticmaterialon the preparedsurface in accordancewith this specification. 303. operations shall be confined to one-half the roadway width at a time.materials. The contractor shall maintainthe tack coat until the next course has been placed. 303 Description Bituminous TackCoat.4.shall be cleaned by contractor at his own cost before the next courseis applied. as shown on the Drawingsand in accordancewith these speiification. Unitof Measurement SM . where no convenient detour is available for traffic. All areas inaccessibleto the distributorshall be treated manually using the device for hand spraying from the distributor. work shall not be startedon the portionof the road not covered by previous application until the surface previously covered has dried and is readyfor paving. by traffic or otheruvise. 303.4.tools.

75 .2. !n no case moisturebe drawingfrom the truck bed' Theportionofaggregateretainedontheg.Nominalsize Nominalsize Nominalsize 18 mm 12 mm 9 mm 6 mm in thetablebe areOefrned Thenominalsize Specified Size NominalSize (mm) 1B i2 I 6 PassLn_g_ Sieve (mm) 19 12.whentested sodium-sulfate of (5) cycles five inatt niie"ieed 25%. against The nominalsizes of aggregatesused for surfacetreatment.ormorecoversofaggregatesoranapplicationofaspha|ticmateriai and ir' *iinort ajgregates apptijO'in accordancewith these specifications or as cross-sections the typical on contormit!-withtne lines and width shown establishedbYthe Engineer. part (1990) BS-812 under tested lndex.toUgh. dry.Algqlql clay dirt.5:1. from quality.5 9. Aggregatecrushingvalue (ACV).shown table304-1shallbe as under: SizeNo.2 SizeNo .5mm(3/8inch)sievesha||not of flat or contain more thln f-ifte"n (15) percent of particles by weight minimum the and maximum the between or both.5 6.sha||be25(max)fornominalsizel8mmandl2mmand30(max)for nominalsize9mm.3 SizeNo. filnen subjectedto a weight soundnesstestingas determinedbyAASHTOT-104.1 BITUMINOUSSURFACETREATMENTANDSEALCOAT. Flakiness 2.5 6.ITEM 304 304. 304. 4 - Nominalsize . hard.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 304. 304-1 o/o?!e 100 100 100 100 * Retained Sieve(mm) 12. anJ otner objectionable lt:/ wea" of establishedadhesionpropertieswould be used.The percentage than fc':tv the Los AngelesAbrasiontest (AASHTOT-96) shall not be more (1990) per BS-812 as (40). 1 SizeNo.3 .3 o/o?ga 85 85 B5 85 resPective rialwithinthe 4.1 Aggregate goqnq Aggregate shall csnsist of clean. (10) loss of not greater than ten not shall material bituminous of the the to directly aggregateap-ptieO lirrfqce absorption water (112) the plus one-half weight by p"r"eni tnreb'1a1 shall free "iJ"""O of the aggregateat the time of dllivery to the Project. it shall have in the content moisture The percent./ PAD COAT DESCRIPTION of asphalticmaterialand This work shallconsistof one or more applications one.5 9. durable.that the'ratio etongateO. diminsionsexceeds 105. free and gravel of uniform crushed stone or crushed of sources the only from Aggregates iratter. SIEVES.

1 4 0m n . 1 4 5m i n . 1 4 0m i n .5 AC-5 AC-10 AC-20 AC-40 1 3 0m i n .sprayingteriperaiureshall be as shownagainsteachtype.2 AsphalticMaterial The asphaltic material shall conform to the requirementsof ltem 301 'Asphaltic Materials'. 1 4 0m i n . 1 4 5m i n . 1 3 0m i n . AsphattUements AC-2. . AR-1000 AR-2000 AR-4000 AR-BOOO AR-16000 200-300pen. 130min. T able atures Asphalt Type / Grade a. pen.2. EmutstttedAsphalts RS-1 RS-2 MS-1 MS-2 MS-2h HFMS-1 HFMS-2 20-60 50-85 20-70 20-70 FIFMS-2h HFMS-2s SS-1 SS.followingTableshallbe used: 304. 40-50pen. 1 5 0m i n . 1 4 5m i n . 1 4 5m i n . 60-70pen.as ihown in the Bill of Quantitiesor orderedby the Engineer. p.For Materialpassing3/8" Sieve.The type shall be one of the following. for SurfaceTreatments SprayingTemperature SurfaceTreatments 1 5 0m i n . 120-150 1 5 5m i n . '140mn. 85-100pen.1h CRS-1 CRS-2 CMS-2 50-85 50-85 cMS-2h CSS-1 CSS-1h 3442.

3. 95 min.and the lernperatureshall not be less than twenty (20) degree C duringthe spraying.the generaluse of waterto washthe roadshallnot be permitted.The Engineer shall also satisfy himself that fundamentalpavement defects e. CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS At the time of the application.3.g. Adheringmud or othersoilingmay be removedusingwaterand brushes.3 Applicationof AsphalticMaterials Asphalt cement.which are excessivelyrich in bitumene. have been remediedbefore surface dressingis attempted. liquid asphaltand emulsifiedasphalt shall be appliedby means of pressure distributormanual or automatic at the temperature specifiedfor the type and grade of asphalt being used.dirl and other objectionablematerialsshall be removed from the surfaceand surfaceshall be primedas per item 302.3 30 min. and patched. 'bleeding'. 1 1 0m i n . 304.the surfaceshall be cleanedby power broomingor wire brushuntilall looseand foreignmaterialsare removed. All patches. drainage problemsetc. and the road surfaceshall be clean and dry.shall lrregularities be corrected prior to surface dressing. 304-3 .1 Equipment Equipmentshallconformin all respectsto the provisionsunderltem 302. Necessarysafetyarrangementfor the workers. base failure. 3043.depressions.dust are foreignmaterial lmmediatelypriorto the application shall be removedby thoroughbroomingand / or the use of compressedair.Asphalt Type / Grade SprayingTemperature SurfaceTreatments CutbackAsphalts(RC. 75 min. 50 min. The rates of applicationshallbe withinthe rangesgivenin Table304-1. of binderall dirt.2 PreparationofSurface and surfacedamagee. occasioned shall be thoroughly compacted.shall be cut out Areas.g. lf so directed by the Engineer. potholes. MC. Prior to applyingthe asphalticmaterial. however.g.raveling. SC) 30 (MConlv) 70 250 800 3000 304.equipmentand traffic shallbe ensuredduringthe operations.3.the weathershall be warm and dry. The equipmentshall be operatedby the manpowerspeciallytrainedfor this work. Sprayingshall not be done unlessthe roadtemperatureis abovetwenty(20)degreeC for at leastone hour priorto the commencementof-sprayingoperations.sealedand blindedwith crusherdust beforeopeningto trafficfor severaldays beforesurfacedressingcommences. 304.1.

ur.r aq llBt..dn ]o uotluole:lredu.llptm oLll ueql arou rxo (0t) ual lseel le oq lleqs sletraleu snoutunltq1o pea.rdseq1 v'e'vOe .rrostmJoqlo 'llrrlcol pomolle oq ll$ leueleu snoutunltqlpql JouueurL{cnsut paaco:d las suorleladolleLlssacuelsuncJtcou lapun 'Ja^ocr.lslolnqulstp aql 'acr^op burpeerdsaLll rxor1e1eba.r66e eql Iq paJa^oooq ol L.dde [eq:.rddesuBaul raqlo r{ue ro repeards e1e6a.fup .t-ervr palone4oLl]Jo acelns oq] uo leueleu snoutunltqdup 1oullm lustueqcout ro Jeqr{erdseql }eq1paubrsepos aq 11eqs burpeards1ouueqnn')o1nqr.o ecerd {ue 1o 6uru:n1.crue uodn r{lalerpaurur aseoclleqsuollnqutslpoqt 'parnsuasr uor}nqulsrp uJJoJrun }eq} polcaLlcrtJluenba4pue pelsnlppos aq lleLlslBq {e.r66e'-lecruer.iluo anurluoc lleqs 'railorpuocas e se pasn oq {etr suol (gj lq6te o1 (g) xrs uoa/\^loq 9utttgu -raors v 'Jalourluec e.6urpe1s}o selnpacoJd paute}qo .1ssatcuatct.l3or! penorddeuB_rIloJJ acelns paleoJleql JaAopalnqulstpr{1uane pue {.oues spea:ds lesruBr{3aur lr se pJe/v\)ceqa^orrJ l1eqs a1e6er66eaql ourfurec rcrut aqr .' burqbrervrJailor poroaLr^ 1o ernsserd ]cBluoculnuturrrJe 6uneq la1.v-v0t.lcrqM luerudrnbJ .r66e fup '.nla.tnspalceduoc IgqOno:oq1 e lt}un .(1a1erpeurul @ 'paunsal st uotlnqlJlsrp ololaq uo)el oq llBrls saJnseeuta^tlcalloc pue aEzou r{ue1o asueJola}utto 6ur66o.ro .recoq lleLlsspealds Jo suollcunf .adxeol pamolleaq rolnqulstpoq) lleqs osec ou ul 'leHaletusnouttunltq uotlnqulslpLlJolun e aq.r}slp aqI 'JBocJonocaql ro . poupads sa'ueroL*urrilr^ aqrerrsparrdde aqo]sale6ar66" ri lfli.oc oq ller..burddols.'il/'^eio4 l€ql os .o:a:Iycrleutnaudpelledold_1|as e qym pa1lot aq lleqs aceJJnspaleojl eq1 'e1e6ar66e aql 10 ourpeerdsJaue{le1erpeutrl 'burr{elds raye salnurur(67) {1uaaq}o ssocxaur pouade Jo}palenocunuteuloJlleqsJaputqaq11ouoryod o1r1'lleqdsepaferds {pneu eq1uo r.ro.l snourunltq.elerpauwr uec letJaleu leoc Ja^oc qlm papeol slcnJ] qctqM leLll uetll paosxo lou lleqs leuoleu.renosT'6)g:.rddeue ut palca.dde :edold le pleruo16urnou.ll 'asBInS "ttt Oql uotj po^oulel eq lle-pue papto^e aq lleqs leuo]Br! ta^oc lo suorlecr.rdseq1 eq1pue iqotaLl 1o salzzoufelds eq11oa16ueeq1 'ebera^ocuonaun6ursnec-rqa:aLll leueleur snourunltqoq] ql!/v\:le .:euueu pbno.L{}oouls s! oce1.abeJJrds 'saprLla^ aq1ourddepa^o lo slaaLmol aroqpelou saop pue 'sllnsarocerns uena ue lrlun pabbelpuooJqpue pellor reqynl pue a1e6e:66e leuoryppe tllm paJanocaq lleqs ecefns aql uo smoqs laputq ajaqm acegdIuy 'palrqrqo:d oq saslnocleasaLll o1aoeuep-Joleualeu ranocall] lo ]uoruoceldsrp ur s]lnsoJ'r.eueleurcrlleqdseaq1 bur^lddereye .lcarrpOurnupuro4 ropeorosite6aio6e aLl}pue )3ru1 oll} 10 seil1 eql luanerd ol se os .o pee:ds10 q16ua1 oq|aceJJns 6urpuq100rusB arnsseol apeur I|.raeur6u3 gql fq peno.opJo seale peddlys Auy 'peuedo st leq Ields aq1 aurl aql 1e peads uorlecl.run aq llBrls a1e6a.ublle-rJddE lo qcPo ]o pua oLll le Jolnqulsrpalll u! ual letJaleu snoutulnltqluotetJJns pue pelelnbal os oq lleqs letJaleu snoululnllqaql lo uotlnqulsl6 .

No separatepaymentshall be made for conformanceto this paragraph. and a sufficient number of pilot cars to control traffic thioughthe bituminoussealingoperationswhen so directedby the Engineer.3.8 Openingto Traffic and after-care There shallbe no delayin openinga completedsurfacedressingto traffica.304.3.5 Maintenanceof Traffic Detouringof highwaytrafficfor this work on runningroadwill not be provided for or peimitted.t a controlledspeed.excess stone will be removedby brushing.3. bariicades.All these items beihgconsideredsubsidiaryto the item (s) given in the Bill of Quantities.Priorto openingto traffic any spillageof aggregatesshall be removed and any binder drips or wind blown contaminationshall be dusted with crusherwaste.One (1) flagman shall be stationedimmediatelyahead Sf the applicationof the bituminousmaterial and one (1) flagman immediately behind the section being rolled.After stabilizingof pad coat under traffic. Pilot cars shall be light "Pick up" trucks or other approvedvbhiclesand shallbe equippedwith signsreading"PILOT CAR .5 . After 2-3 days under traffic. chipping will be applied. The contractorshall provideflagmen.DO NOT PASS"in both Englishand Urdu languages'Two (2) signs shall be mountedon the vehicles so as to be clearly visible from both direetisns.spreading. the contractor will be required to add bituminousmaterialor aggregateor both to the portionof road identifiedfor such purposeon the project.and the signs shall move forwardwith the flagmanas the work progresses.9 Pad Coat To ensure chippingretentionwhen surface dressinga very hard surface.Furnishingadditionalbituminousmaterialand furnishing. the surfacedressingwill be applied. appropriate 304. One way traffic shall be maintainedand traffic speeds restrictedto fifteen (15) Km per hour. a pad coat consistingof applicationof an initialbindersprayfollowedby 6 mm.3.7 work Maintenanceof comPleted when directed by the Engineer.3. 304.except when authorizedby the Engineer' All construction operations shall be coordinatedto result in the least practicabledelay of trattic.6 Workins Period All work shall be so conductedthat the work of applyingasphalt and aggregateand of all rollingshall be completedduringthe time from sunrise to sunset and under favorableweather conditionsaS determinedby the Engineer. Suilable speed limit signs shall be displayed. pilot cars shallbe usedto lead the trafficthroughthe areasof all distribution and sealingoperations.warning signs. 304. 304.draggingand rollingof additionalaggregatewill not be paidfor separatelybut will be consideredas subsidiarywork pertainingto the SurfaceTreatment"' relevantitem of "Bituminous 304.

304.which payment shall be full coqlpglsetion_Iq fuittrsflQg a!! labour.4. Description Unitof Measurement 304a SingleSurface Treatment SM 304b DoublesurfaceTreatment SM 304c TripleSurfaceTreatment SM 304d SealCoat/ PadCoat SM 304-6 .304.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 304.2 Payment The aggregateand asphalticmaterialmeasuredas stated above shall be paid for at the contractunit price per square meter for a particularitem listed below and shown on the bill of quantities. tooJs equipment and incidentalfor performingall the work in the constructionof bituminous surface treatment or seal coat complete in place and according to specification. materiats.1 Measurement The quantityof surfacetreatmentto be paidfor shall be measuredin square meterwithinthe theoreticallinein placeas shownon drawing.4. includingprimingof surface. Pay ltem No. due to requirementof contractor'soperations or placedout sidethe limitsdue to inadequatecontrol. No allowance will be given for materialplaced outsidethe theoreticallimits of finished surfacingwhetherplacedfor.

depending iii) Primecoat shallbe appliedpriorto the surfacetreatmentfor the newly pavement at the rateas specifiedin the item302.cut-back by 115% materialmaybe variedby the Engineer of bituminous Quantities on siteconditions.19 (b) (a) (b) (c) (c) 12.90 (b) (a) 2.63 1.0 I Double Second Type 12.63 (b) (a) 2. /Sq.5 1.14 1.5 2 3 6.5 Notes:- typesare (a) asphaltcement.2.63 0.3.M First 3 Third Seal Coat / Pad Coat with Aggregate (a) 1.19 (b) (a) 1.19 24.5 24.M 12.0 1 Tripple Second 1.68 4 4 0.(b)cut-backor emulsified material Bituminous andemulsified.TABLE 304-1 Ouantitiesof Materialsfor BituminousSurfaceTreatments Type Application Single Single First Bituminous Material Aggregate Surface Treatment SizeNo. Quantity Kg. constructed 304-7 .14 1. and(c)asphaltcement.5 z I Quantity Litres / Sq.

300 0. spreadingand compactingthe mixturein an approvedmanneron primedor tacked base.600 0. clay.200 Percent Weisht 100 95-100 70-100 . hydratedlime.fine aggregatesand fillermaterial. hydraulic.The coarseaggregatesshallbe free from.shall consistofone hundred(100) % crushedrock orcrushed gravel having two (2) faces mechanicallycrushed.transporting.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 305.tough. vegetable matter.subgrade.if requiredand shall be clean.anexcessof flat orland elongatedparticles.1 Mineral Aggregates The Aggregatesshall consist of coarse aggregates.075 No.PLANT MIX DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishingaggregatesand asphalt binder at a central mixing plant. 4 Sieve.The fillershall consistof finelydivided mineralmatter such as rock dust. Coarse aggregatewhich is the materialretained on an AASHTO No. 4 sieve.30 No.grades and typical cross-sectionsshown in the drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Fine aggregatewhich is the materialpassingfrom AASHTO No.1 ASPHALT CONCRETE WEARING COURSE. 200 sieve.calcineddust cement or other suitablemineral matter free from lumps. and no naturalsandwill be allowedin the mix. subbase.petrologyand free from decomposed material. balls or other deleteriousmaterialand shallconformto the followinggradation: SieveDesignation mm Inch 0.bridge deck or concrete pavementin accordancewith these specificationsand in conformitywith the lines. lumps and other deleterious substances. when the combinedgradingof the coarseand fine aggregatesis deficientin materialpassingthe AASHTo No.hard.mineralfillermaterialshall be added as approvedby the Engineer.ITEM 305 305.geology. Fineaggregate shallbe storedseparately. The type of source shall be uniform throughoutthe quarry location from where such a material is obtained.50 No. shalfconsistof 100o/o crushedmaterialfrom rock or boulder. 30s. to a specified mixing temperature. soil.durableand sound particlesof uniformquality.2.

1\. The percentageof particleshavingcertain proportionsbetweentheir largest and smallestdimensions(i.5 mm (3/8 inch) sieve shall not containmore than 10 percent by weight of flat and/or elongated particles (ratio of maximum to minimum = 2. d) All aggregatesshall have a liquid limit of not more than twenty five (25) and a PlasticityIndex of not more than four (4) as determinedby AASHTOT-89 and T-90. e) The portion of aggregates retained on the 9.are determinedfor each particle and its proportioncalculated(withone decimal).2. By means of a sliding caliper. dimension Stripping test shall be performed on crush aggregatesas describedunder AASHTO-182and only that materialshall be allowedwhichqualifiesthe test.60-70 or 80-100 as specifiedby the Engineer.5'.betweenthe largestdistancethe particlescan fill out betweentwo parallelplanesthat will permitthe particleto pass). 4 sieve are eliminated.The coarseand fine aggregatesshallmeetthe followingrequirements: The percentof wear by the Los Angeles Abrasiontest (AASHTO a) T 96) shallnot be morethanthirty(30)' b) The loss when subjectedto five cyclesof the SodiumSulphate Soundnesstest (AASHTOT 104) shall be less than twelve(12) DercenI. AsphalticMaterial Asphalticbinderto be mixedwith the aggregateto produceasphalticbase shall be asphaltcement penetrationgrade 40-50.all particlespassingNo. h) Petrographicexaminationof the coarse aggregate shall be conductedif so directedby the Engineer.The sample shall be of sufficientquantity that at least100 particlesremain. iii 305. the largest and smallest dimensions.shall be determinedin the followingwaY: Form a sampleof coarseaggregates.5) or less and three (3) or less.Generallyit will meet the requirementof AASHTO M-20. g) The coarse aggregatesshall be checked if desired by the Engineerfor cationicand anionicbehaviourso that their affinity with the bitumento be usedis verified. .2 The total weightsof particleshavingthe proportionstwo and a half (2. c) The Sand Equivalent(AASHTO 1 176) determinedafter all processingexceptfor additionof asphaltcementshallnot be less than45. are determinedand their percentagein relationto the totalsampleare calculated.e.as definedabove.

200 AsphaltContentweight percentof totalmix 100 75-90 60-80 40-60 20-40 5-15 3-8 56-70 35-50 23-35 5-12 2-8 3 .8 1.5 3/8 4.30s.18 N o . sixth addition. numberof blows each end of specimen 75 1000Kg(Min) Stability Flow.38 No.3MS-2 (AsphaltInstitute.75 No.2. 5( M i n .0.01inch) 8-14 Percentair voidsin mix 4-7 Percentvoidsin mineralaggregates according to table5.1 6 0.4 2.) Lossof Stability 305-3 .5 1t2 Percent Passingby Weight 100 90-100 9. 5( M i n) The asphalt concrete wearing course mixture shall meet the following MarshalTest Criteria: Compaction.075 No.25mm (0. 1993. ) 3 . 20%(Max.3 Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Mixture The compositionof the asphaltic concrete paving mixture for wearing course shall conform to Class A and/or Class B shown in the following table: Table 305-1 Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Requirements Mix Designation ClassA ClassB CompactedThickness 50-80mm 35-60mm Combihed AEEregate Giadin$ReqUiaemEffiS SieveDesignation mm Inch 25 1 19 3t4 12.USA ).

0% 11. After the JMF is established. The ratio of weightof filler (PassingNo.a new Job Mix Formulawill be required. Weightpercentof total mix + 0.. Shoulda changeof sourcesof materialsbe made a new.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS Construction requirements for this ltem shallconformwith the same as specified for Asphaltic ConcreteBaseCoursePlantMix underltem 203.0% 14. Each JMF shall indicatea single percentageof aggregatepassingeach requiredsieve and a singlepercentageof bitumen to be addedto the aggregates.1.3% In additionto meetingthe requirementsspecifiedin the precedingitems.JobMix Formula shall be establishedbeforethe new materialis used.the mixtureas establishedby the JMF shall also satisfythe followingphysical property: Loss of MarshallStabilityby immersionof specimenin water at sixty (60) degreeC.shall jointlyby the Engineerand the Contractor.0% Asphalt Content.all mixtures furnished for the project representedby samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation. for twentyfour (24) hoursas comparedwiththe stabilitymeasured afterimmersionin waterat sixty(60) degreeC.4 to No. When unsatisfactory resultsor otherconditionsmake it necessary.shall conformtheretowiththe followingrangesof tolerances: Combined aqgreqatesg radation Retair{ed No.the JMF shallbe modifiedor an anti-stripping agentshallbe used. 4 and larger PassingNo. 2 (MS-2).200 17.shall be within the master range specifiedin Table 305-1.sixthedition'1993 orthe latestEdition. exceptas modified in thefollowing sub-items. 305.Formula At least one week prior to production.5 for hot climateareaswith temperaturemorethan 40 "C. with the allowabletolerances. 200) to that of asphaltshall range between1 .{ Job-Mix. be established The JMF shall be establishedby MarshallMethodof Mix Designaccording to the procedureprescribedin the Asphalt InstituteManual Series No. lf the mixturefailsto meet this criterion.305. 305-4 .3. 100sieves PassingNo.2.a Job-Mix Formula (JMF) for the asphalticwearingcoursemixtureor mixturesto be usedfor the project. The JMF. for twenty(20) minutesshall not exceedtwenty(20) percent.

3. laid and compactedin place. 305.or by other meanssatisfactory to the Engineer.1 Measurement The quantitiesof Asphalticwearingcourseshall be measuredby volumein CM. The quantityof bitumenmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.305.However.by overlaying.2(2) of this specification.A toleranceof + three (3) mm shall be allowed in comiiacted thicknessof wearingcourse.2. clause305. All humps or depressionsexceedingthe specified toleranceshall be correctedby removingthe defectivework and replacingit with new material.and the level at any point shall be within + three (3) mm of the level shown on the Drawings.2 PavementThicknessand Tolerances The asphaltconcretewearingcourseshall be compactedto the desiredlevel and crossslopeas shownon the drawingor as directedby the Engineer. if directedby the Engineer 305.'in these specifications.3.2 percentof that specified.(2) of this specification. The variationof the surface from the testing edge of the straightedge between any two contacts. but not more than ten (10) mm.shall be in accordance with the relevant.For determination of thicknessone ('1)core per hundredmetersof each lane will be taken. paymentwill be made at an adjustedprice as specifiedin table-1. 30s.4. The cross fall (camber)shall be with + 0.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 305.4. "Tablesfor Samplingand Testing Frequency.the surfaceof the previouslyconstructedand acceptedbase courseon whichthe mix is to be placedshallbe conditioned by applicationof a tack coat.4. The surface of the wearingcourseshall be testedby the Engineerusinga 5 meters straightedgeat seiectedlocations.3 AcceptanceSamplingand Testing Acceptance of sampling and testing for this ltem with respect to materials and constructionrequirements. lf the thicknessso determinedis deficientby more than three (3) mm. Measurementsshall be based on the dimehsionas shownon plansor as othenvisedirectedor authorizedby the Engineer.3. longitudinalor transversewith the surfaceshall at no point exceedfive (5) millimeters. not specifiedherein. 305-5 .any asphaltin excessof 3 mm shall not be paid and any layerdeficientby more than 3 mm but not exceeding10 mm shallbe paidas per clause305.1 Preparationof BaseCourseSurface Before spreadingmaterials. The tolerancesin compactedthicknessof the wearing course shall be +3mm from the desiredthicknessshownon the drawings.

Quantitiesof Bitumenor asphalticconcretewasted or remainingon hand aftercompletionof the work shallnot be measuredor paidfor.1 Deficiency in thickness as determined bY cores Proportional Rate of contract Price allowed. paymentwill be madeat an adjustedpriceas specified in table-1below:Table . Pay ltem No. The contractorwill receive no compensation for the aboveadditionalwork. 305. lf the ttiidkneSS determinedeS per Cla0Se305. but not more than ten (10) mm. which prices and payment shall constitutefull compensationfor all the costs necessaryfor the propercompletionof the work prescribedin this item. Alternately.paymentshall be deemedto be includedin the respectivepay itemsof Asphalticwearingcourse. 0 m m s0% 5 .4. 2\ Ptiaatedil5tmeRt.3. the contractorshall removesuch deficientareas and replacethem with wearingcourse of an approvedqualityand thicknessor the contractor may opt to place an additionallayerof wearingcourse asphalt. 1m m t o 1 0 .2 Payment 1 ) The quantitydeterminedas providedabove shall be paid for at the for each of the particularpay items listed contractunit price respectively below and shown in the Bill of Quantities.Asphaltadditiveor antistrippingagent. 0m m t o 3 .)with smoothtransitionas approvedby the Engineeron eithersidewith no extracompensation.grading with a minimum thicknessof 35 mm. 0 . if allowedand used to meet with JMF requirement shall not be paid directly. 0m m 100% 3 .2of this specificationis deficientby more than three (3) mm. 1m m t o 5 . the Contractormay chooseto overlaythe area in a thickness of 30 mm (min. 0m m 8Oo/o When wearingcourse is more than ten ('10)mm deficientin thickness. 305a 305b Description Unitof Measurement AsphalticConcretefor WearingCourse(Class-A) CM AsphalticConcretefor WearingCourse(ClassB) CM 305=& .

!9vati919f the sybgrade or sub-baseand whlch e{eqds frsm the edge of the wearingcourseto the pointof inter-section with tne emojntment slopes on eitherside of the road centerline.1.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 306.item 202.'AggregateBase course" or item 206.ITEM 306 306.1 Definitionof Shoulders That portion of the completed road construction which lies above the 9. emulsifiedasphaltsor asphaltcement as specifiedor shown on the driwings and in the Bill of Quantities.2 AseregateShoulders Materialused for'Aggregateshoulders"shall be of classdesignatedon the plans and shall conform to all the requirementsof item 201. 306. Asphaltic materials shall conform to all the requirementsof item 301 for the type specified. 306."SoilGementStabilizedSubbaseor Base'.2. grades thicknessand typicalcross-sectionsshown on the pl"ns or establishedby the Engineer.1 SHOULDER TREATMENT DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of constructing shoulders of the types specified hereinafterin accordancewith the specificationsand in coniormity to the lines. 306-1 .3 SoiICementStabilizedShoulders Materialfor soil cement shouldersshall conform to all the requirementsof item 204.2. "Granular subbase". 306. 306.2.4 AsphalticMaterials Materials for surface treatment of shoulders shall be liquid asphalts. 'water Bound MacadamBase".1 Earth Shoulders The materialused for "Earth Shoulders"shall consistof suitablematerials from roadwayor structuralexcavationsupplementedby additionalsuitable materialfrom borrowexcavationor as designatedon the plansand shall be obtainedfrom sourcesapprovedby the Engineer.2.. 306.

The shoulderingshall be a continuous operationfrom that time on untilcompletion.3. whetherthe projecthas a flow of trafficthrough constructionor not.3. requirements 306.howeverin the case of cementconcretesurfacing.on roadsundertrafficor as directedby the Engineer.3.with the weatherbeingthe only delayingfactor.The delineatorsshall be approvedprior to use and shall be placedat the edge of the surfacingat approximately one hundred(100) meter intervals.4 AgeregateShoulders Aggregate shoulders shall be constructgd in accordance with the of ltem 201.306.shoulderingoperationshall not be initiatedprior to Engineer'sapproval.3.3 Earth Shoulders Earth shouldersshall be constructedin accordancewith the applicable paragraphsunderltem 108.6 AsphalticTreatmentof Shoulders The asphaltic treatment of the prepared shoulders shall be either a bituminoussurfacetreatmentor seal coat or a layer of asphalticconcreteas shown on the plans or in the Bill of Quantities. 306.2 Shoulderingand delineation On projectsthat carry trafficthrough construction.1 General All shouldersshall be formed and compactedas soon as practicableafter the asphalt paving on the traffic lanes is completed.!1 wlrch case the shoulderingshall begin as soon as the weather does permii. 306. 306.or 305.3. 3U6-2 . Detailed construction proceduresfor the particulartreatmentspecifiedare outlinedunder item 203.5 SoiICementStabilizedShoulders Soil cement stabilizedshouldersshall be constructedin accordancewith the requirements of item204.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 306.The cost of this delineationwill be consideredsubsidiaryto other items in the Bill of Quantitiesand will not be paidfor directly. 304. the Engineermay order the contractorto cease paving untilthe shoulderwork has begun.202 or 206 whicheveris shownon the drawings. qless wqqlhe1cq[ditions prevent lhis qpeqqtion.the contractorshall begin shoulderingon the secondday of the layingof the final roadwaysurfacing layer.3.delineatethe edge of pavementas soon as the surfacingis begunand maintainthe delineationuntilthe shouldersare completed. tt tne contractorfails to beginthe shoulderingwithin a redsonabletime after the last layer has been laid. The Contractorshall. 306.

The quantitiesof differentitemsof work as mentionedbelowshall be added to relativeitemsof the billof ouantities..PlantMix. Description Unit of Measurement 108 a Formationof Embankmentfrom RoadwayExcavationin Commo4Materiq! CM 108c Formation of Embankment from Borrow Excavationin CommonMaterial CM 108 d Formationof EmbanKment from structuralExcavatron in CommonMaterial. Class.. CM 203 AsphalticBase..4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT The quantitiesfor shouldermaterialsand treatmentshall be measuredand paidfor as specifiedunderthe pafiicularpay items in the work listedbelow. Pay ltem No.type_ Ton 206 WaterboundMacadamBase.. 204e 306-3 CM .Class..306... CM 304 BituminousSurfaceTreatment and SealCoat..type_ Ton EmulsifiedAsphaltfor curingseal. CM 202 AggregateBase. SM 305 AsphaltConcreteWearing CoursePlantMix. CM 204a CementStabilizedSubbase CM 2O4b CementStabilizedBase CM 204c Cementcontent Ton 204d LiquidAsphaltfor curingseal. CM 201 GranularSub Base.

free from decomposedstones.grade. hydratedlime or hydrauliccement. hard. leveling course and wearing course in accordancewith the specificationand in conformitywith the lines.they must be stockpiledseparatelyto preventintermingling.mineraltillershall be added. The equipmentand methodsused for stockpilingand removingaggregatesshall be such that no degradationof aggregatewill result and no appreciable amount of foreignmaterialwill be incorporatedinto the aggregate. When aggregatescontaininga wide range of sizes are to be incorporated.free from lumps. 200 sieve.compactingon an approved pr:imedsubgrade.2. At the time dry to flow freely. b.all conformingto the following aggregates. of use it shallbe sufficiently Aggregateshouldbe storedon hard clean surfaceso as to facilitateprompt inspectionand control. The fillermaterialshallconsistof finelydividedrock dust from soundrock.if necessary. durable.spreading. Fine aggregateswhich is the materialpassingNo. shall consist rf crushed rock crushed boulder.or crushed gravel. organic matter. shales. lt shall be clean. Private propertyshall not be used for storage purposeswithoutwrittenconsentof the owneror lesseeand paymentto him by contractor.MAC DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of furnishingand mixing aggregateswith asphalt binderat site in mobilemixingplant.Materialshall be stored in such a way as to preventsegregationand coningto ensurepropercontrolof gradation.ITEM 307 307. 4 sieve shall consistof crushedsand.subbase or base course.thicknessand typicalcross-sectionshown on the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineerincludingsealing of cold slurry.1 BIT . clay lumps or other deleterioussubstances. for potholes repair. 307-1 . 4 Sieve and Passing 25. When combined gradationof coarse and fine aggregatesis deficientin materialpassingNo. requirements:speciftcation Coarseaggregatewhich is the materialretainedon No.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 307.MineralFillermust be protectedfrom moistureto eliminatecakingand hardening. Rock or boulders from which coarse aggregates shall be obtained. sound.1 Mineral Aggregate Mineral aggregatesfor BIT-MAC Constructionshall consist of coarse fine aggregateand fillermaterial. bituminoussurfacecrackswith sand-bitumen 30'7. must be of uniform quality throughout the quarry location.4 mm sieve. tough.

3 DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS optimum Gradingc-urves. Mixing temperatureshouldbe keptwithinthe rangeof 140170 degreescentigrade. Temperatureof asphalt shall be checked frequently. To achieve uniform mixing and proper coating.is suitablefor open graded wearingcoursehavingroughsurfacetexturewith good skid resistancethus havingminimumbleedingtendency.2 BituminousBinder Asphalticbinderused shall conformto standardspecificationof petroleum asphalthavinggrades60-70 or 80-100 penetration.to ensure propercoatingof aggregates. Asphaltcementheatedabove 163 delrees centigradeshall be rejected. euantityof aggregatesfed !o dryer (mixer) must be accuratelycontrolledby suitablemeis-uringdevice (lron box) having predeterminedvolume of one (1) cubic fooi or as instructedby Engineer. 307-2 . Both bitumenand aggregatesmust be heatedbeforethey are combinedin the mixerdrum.The range of heatingof aggregatesshall be strictlyfollowed.2.3. 307.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 307.given-in Table 307.must be carefullyselectedconsideringaveragethicknessof patches. Designsheet undertable No. Mixing time shall be prolongedto hundred (100) seconds if coating of aggregatesis not proper.the aggregatediin6 time must be increased.Table301-2.2.2.1 Mixing Requirement Asphalt cement shall be heated to a max.AshowingDense GradedMix used for leveling courses and potholes should use litfle asphalt content of such qllaltity tq prcvenl!-leedlngthrough subsequentwearing course or surface treatment.307. aggregatesand asphalt cement must be thoroughlymixed for a minimum durationof ninety (90) seconds. After one hundredand iwenty (120) secondsif it is still not possibleto get good coating. 307.for differenttypes of hot mix asphalticdesign relatedto quantumof repairwork and maximumsize of aggregates.2.Designsheetundertable No. temperatureof 163 degrees centigradeat the time of mixing. Fine aggregatesshall be introducedinto the dryer (mixer) rirst rot-towiony the coarseaggregatesto assurepropermixing. 307. 307.2-A.8.Generallvit will meet the requirementof AASHTOM-20. Each aggregateingredientshall be heaiedto temperature150160 degreescentigradefor at leastsix'(6) minutesbeforemixingof asphalt cement to ensurecompletedryingof aggregates.

of Mix. MinimumLayer Thickness:-50mm 20mmDown Aggr. 75-88 B2 90-100 '100 54% 4 46% 2 24-37 30 4-12 8 314" 4% by Wt of Mix. FINE AGG.5) REMARKS 43% 5 l"/o 3-11 BITUMEN USED. 200 (0. COARSE AGGREGATES FILLER A GREGATEIN 34-47 40 57-70 oz 49-61 54 46% 54% 2 4 307-2(A) 70-87 76 88-100 100 Aggr.5%by Wt.I.max size : 9 mm Rateof Aggr.r]TLr. Rate of A p p l . Appl. MinimumLayer mm of Mix.5%by Wt.:ificationRanqe Allo red % Passinq % b 'Weight Qtv. 3.:150Kg/SM. bv Prooortion. MinimumLayer 30mm Thickness: 12mm Size:Aggregate Rateof Aggr. Appl. Spe :ificationRanqe Allo ued% Passinq % b 'Weiqht Qty by Proportion.r'. Sp( cificationRanqe Allc ruedo/oPassinq % J y Weiqht Qtl bv Proportion. 70Kg/SM.:- 3.5) Soe.75) 3/8" (e.ificationRanqe 4-11 MIX Sir)ve Size lnch (mm) Allc rrtedo/oPassinq % t r Weiqht Qty bv Proportion. of Mix. Appl.1: 1 5K g i S M .8 (2. Thickness:-20 Aggr. 4-12 43-56 48 55-75 65 90-100 Sor . .size:-20mmDown Rate of Aggr.size:Aggr.Lc-ArD-p9:]EQl'!s'lBe-llrro --f-AsPTTALTBTNDER60-70oR 80-100PENETRATIoN GRADE. Layer Minimum Thickness:-50mm 54% 4 46% a 1t2" (12. 30-45 36 R 46-60 54 ( 1s) t1" (25) 4% byWt.075) No.TABLE 307.36) No.2-A ro rrucxxnsswnlr onbrcnsnrnrs nonlrr'lsn cn'loso uor vux' non.4 (4.:-50 Kg/SM 100 87-100 100 72-87 80 32-46 46-60 65-80 38 CJ 7'r.

Appl. MinimumLayer Thickness:-50mm Aggr.4 3tE" (4. MinimumLayer Thickness:-60mm Aggr.36) NO. bv Prooortion. REMARKS MinimumLayer Thickness: 20mm AggregateMax. 64% 1 1-9 THI DE.5) 2-10 24-37 40-50 88-1 0o o % Dy wetght Qty. Appl. by Proportion.:-135 Kg/SM.8 (2. Appl.TABLE 307.5%by Wt.25mmDovVN Rate of Aggr. 1-10 Specification Ranoe Allowed% Passinq % bv Weiqht Qty. z 20 o 1" (251 69% 14-28 o 3t4" (1e) z 14-28 o 112" (12. : ' 1 1K0g / S M . of Mix 74% 1 J 12-25 41 II 23% 4% by WL of Mix. A p p l . Size-9 mm Rate of Aggr. SieveSize Inch (mm) 200 (0. by Proportion.51 20-35 26 36-51 41 770h 1 307-2(B) W IT BITTJMEN USIiD. COARSEAGGREGATES 36% Specification Ranoe Allowed% Passino % bv Weioht Qty.size.size20mmDow Rate of Aggr.751 (e. of Mix.2-8 DESIGNSH HOT NDER 60- RW FILLER FINE AGG. 100 25-40 32 45-57 58-70 87-100 65 100 45-60 65-81 52 72 5tl 260/o 3.:50 Kg/SM. of Mix. 2-10 z3 32-45 37 31% 1 100 57-70 75-100 A? 3.075) N o . 5 %b y Wt. by Proportion. rvlililtttultt Lclyul Thickness:30mm AggregateSize:-|2n1m Rateof Aggr. 43 Specification Ranoe Allowed% Passinq % by Weiqht Qtv. EAN ION PENET AGGREGATE IN MIX Specification Ranqe Allowed% Passinq N 82-100 100 3 .:70Kg/SM. .5%by Wt.

3 LevelingCourse pavement All local depressionscorrugatedsurface. Spread shall and with steel.4.4. use stringlineto checkthe riding 307. small for recommended is.3.4.3.wheeled done carefullyto preventsegregationand compact pot holes hand tempersshall be allowed' fneumatictyied roller.3.or any method as convenientto the contractorand approvedby the Engineer Surlace 307.2 holes DeepPatches/Pot The surfacesof base coursethus preparedas mentionedunder ltem 207.7 to 0."1.of sufficientcapacity.1 Mini Mixine Plant Localmade bitumen4ggregatemixerequipmentusedfor preparationof BitMac shall be in good-riroriingcondition..3. J"d A vibratory'plate compactor -whereas roller may be more practicalfor larger areas. clean and smooth metal bed hand trolleys. 307.3. or as shall be primedto receiveBit Mac in a thicknessas per drawings avoid to carefully directed by the Engineer.capableof beingoperatedto producea uniformblendwiththe giveningredients.2 Preparationof aggregates Aggregatesshall be stored and handledas discussedunder item 307. 301.3. straight edge or shall be used to check ridingqualityand the alignmentof the stringlrne patch.2.for smail quality of the levelingcourse. patches.4 Preparationof Baseor ExistingPavernent surface of base or existing pavementupon whrch Bit-Mac mix is to be olacedshall be cleanedby means of compressedair to removedust or as approvedbYthe Engineer. is course shouldbe rectifiedbeforeleveling air' co{npressed or btoollrmechallca! dust or other loose materialwith 801100 Ae ol mefel per square litres 0. MaterialRequirement.3 HaulineEquiDment Bit-Macmixed materialshall be deliveredin tight. 30'7. 307-3 .2 coat. ripples across the free of area the Clean placed.301. Apply light tacK pln&r"ton grade. After dryingdensegradedhot Bit-Macshall be spreadin be iayer not m6re than seven (7) centimetersin thickness.1 WearingSurface 307. Bit Mac shall be spread of the size to suited equipment Compaciionshall be done with segregation.3.

4.. Al[ mixtures shall be spreadat temperaturesnot ressthan one rrunoiedand forty (1a0) degreescentigrade. but avoidingexcess *"t"r. struck off to required :ggtign manuaily with rakes or hand toors by experiencedforeman. The rate of apprication of tack coat shail be 0.us9.5ritresp"r rqu"r"rnut"r. in" r.. lhe.3.. Roller shall be operatedat speed srow enougn to avoid dispracementof mixture.bJ. Along forms.spreadand-proceedingtowaid. beginning at the rower side of. capabre operatedat speeds slow enough to avbid displacement git_lvac..the.Roilinj wiri-noi'b"proronged to avoidappearanceof cracks.. curbs..4litres per square meter.4. sand bitumensrurryto searthe cracks in crod bituminous surfaceshail be injectedby pressurepumps with nozzresfiiled at the end insteaoof spray pipe in conventional harristrolley.rand weightof rollerssnitt oe sufficientio compact ine mixturewnite it is stillin workabreconditionto obtaincompaction to rngineei..iiy. 307.i shallnot be permitted. 347-4 . The roiler(s) shailbe in good working condition.5 Spreadingand Finishing Bit-Macmrxtureshail. distributedover the entire width or"partial width as r"qirir"o. overlappingsuccessivetrips by at least one hilf (112) the width of rear wheelsof roller.6 Compaction Rollershallbe steerwheer.of equipmentwhich resultsin excessivecrushing .3.mixed with dirt or is defectivein any way shall be replacedwith fresh hothixture and compactedto conform the requirement.bepracedon approvedsurface. headers. when surface of existingpavement org base is irregurar. 307... The rate of applicationof prime coat shail be 0.-norring shall be continueduntilall rollermarkshavebeenetiminated. Tack coat shall be done in a manneras describedin item 303.ssatisfaction. Roilingwiil be oone tJnjituJ.wails and other praces not accessibreto the roller..Primingshalr be done in a manneras describedin item 302.it shail ne orougnt to uniform 9f grade and cross-section by reveringcou-rseas describeJ. "f After spreadingand strikeoff as soon as the mix conditionpermitthe roiling to be performedwithout excessiveshoving or tearing.the mixtureshail be thoroughrycompacted with hot hand tampersor mechanicaltampers.g-1.Mixtureshallnot be placedon any wet surfaceor when the atmospherictemperatureis berowfive (s) degreectntrgiale or when the . the wheelsof roilerssharl be kept properlymoist with water.weatheris foggyor rainy..2-0. To preventadhesionof mixtureto rolrers.to be of The numbe.capabreof reversingwithout backrash. Any mixturethat has becomecordenough.ign"r side. or pneumatictyred. the Bit-Mac mixture shalrbe thoroughryand uniformrycompact6d.

05 cubicmeters.equipment.4.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 307. compensation hauling.placing.primingand tack coat. quantityof BIT-MACshall be measuredby theoreticalvolumeof compacted mix.Minimumquantityfor pot holeshall be 0. in place.2 Pavment T[q aqqepted qua4lttieq lle3surgq aloyQ shall be parq fql et the qqn!1qgt unit price per cubic metersof BIT-MACfor the Pay ltem listed belowand shown in the Bill of Quantities. Pay ltem No. CM Open GradedHot BIT-MAC. which priceand paymentshall constitutefull for slurryseal. 302a 307b Description Unitof Measurement DenseGradedHot BIT-MAC. 307.rolling.3Q7.4. Measurementwill be based on the dimensions as shown on plans or as directed by the Engineer.r Measurement Unless otherwiseshown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer.labour. No measurementwill be made for unauthorizedareas or for extra thickness than specified. in cubic meters.tools and incidentalsnecessary to completethe item. CM 307-5 .furnishingall materials.

308.3. 308.ITEM 308 308. 308-1 .which will be calculatedto ensure preparationof properfinal mix.2 ScarifvingAsphaltCourse Rotatingshaft scarifiersfitted with carbide bits shatlremove asphalticcourse to a depthas specifiedin drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS Materialspecifications for coarse and fine aggregatesand asphalt oinoer shall correspondto the specificationrequirementselaboratedunder items 203.4 Addition of FreshAsohaltConcrete Freshasphaltconcreteof specifieddesignpreparedas per ltem 203 or 305 shallbe addedin proportionto be establishedas per requirementof line and gradesor as directedby the Engineer. laying and compaction of properly mixed asphalt concrete in thicknessand widthas per drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. mixing.r Heatingthe ExistingPavement Asphalt pavementshall be heated and softenedby preheatersor in built infraredgas firedheaters.scarifiers shall be controlledby electronicdevicesto ensureremovalof materialsto a specifieddepthand grade. Materialto be added may be asphalt binder or aggregate. This shall be done in conventional way throughdumper-hopper arrangement. Fresh materialshall be carried by drag-slat conveyor into a second mixer. 300 and 305 respectively. 308. A second mixer shall ensurehomogeneity of reclaimedand fresh asphalt.3 Mixins of ReclaimedMaterial Formulafor the admixturewill be based on materialanalysisof existing pavementby bitumenextractionand sieve analysis.to temperaturesbetween140-170degreesc. Exact mixing ratio will be achievedby calibratingthe speed of the electronically adjustabledrag-slat conveyorto the fonruardadvancespeed of the remixer. before starting this operation. 308.addinga calculatedquantityof asphalt binder.3.3.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 308. adding of freshly prepared asphalt concreteof specifiedquality.This ratioshall dependupon the qualityof existingasphafiil concrete.3. 308.1 HOT RECYCLING OF ASPHALT CONCRETE DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of heating and removal of the existing asphalt concretelayerto a designateddepth.Engineershallestablish the ratio of fresh and existingasphalt premix to be relayed.

2 Payment The quantitymeasuredas providedabove shall be paid at the contractunit price per cubicmeteras shownin B.Q.Screedsshall be able to lay the mix true to the levelsand gradesrequiredby the drawingsor as directed by the Engineer..5. 308.Labour.acceptablylaidand compactedin place. 308.4 GENERAL REOUIREMENTS Any otherphysicalpropertyessentialfor workmanshipor qualitycontrolshall be fixed by the Engineerand contractorjointly. Description Unit of Measurement 308a Recycling of AsphaltConcrete (0-60mmThick) CM 308b BinderGrade Bitumen (40-50.308. 308.5.3.Bo-100) Ton WearingCourseAsphalt Ton 308c -304-2 . 60-70. Compaction shall be carried out by conventionalequipmentto achieve ninety seven (97) percentcompaction with respectto the laboratorycompactionachievedby the mixedasphaltas oer Marshallmethod. Physicalpropertiesof the fresh m?terial shall correspondto the applicablerequirementsof such ingredientsin this specifications.s MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 308. Paymentfor asphalticbinderor fresh asphaltwearingcourseshall be made separatelyunderrelativeitem of work as given below: Pay ltem No.tools and incidentalsnecessary to comoletethe item.equipments.O.s Layine and Compaction Laying and preliminarycompactionof mixed asphaltshall be effectedby tampingand vibratingscreedsof the recyclingequipment.r Measurement The quantityof recycledasphalt shall be measured in cubic meters of asphaltconcreteremovedand relayedafter mixingof otheringredientssuch as asphalticbinderor freshwearingcourseasphalt. Measurementand paymentof fresh wearing course asphalt or asphaltic binder shall be made in tons and paid under applicableitem of work separately. which paymentshall be deemed to includefull compensationfor furnishingall materials.

TTEM 309 309. Millingshall proceedfrom one edge of the road. Milledmaterialshall be removedand disposedas per special provisionor as directedby the Engineer.2 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS specializedequipmentto be used for this item of work shall be qapablgof following operations: 309. iii) pclaper bars and belt conveyorsystemshall ensurepickingand loadingof milledmaterialin a truck. ConstructionProcedure Area shall be earmarkedwith respectto depthof milling.1 i) Millingdrumshallbe capableof levetand gradeadjustments and it shall have variablespeed provisionto ensure productionof smoothor roughmilledsurface. ii) Level and grade control shall be ensured through electronic sensors. 309.2. Millingmachineshallbe adjustedto cut to requireddepth.capableof givingan accuracyof t two (2) mm.removalof cut materialand disposalas per special provisionor as directedby the Engineer. strip by strip in a manner that may ensureresultingsurfaceevenand level. Millingdrumshall be correlatedto sky or-stringline arrangementto ensuremillingiccordingto requiredgradeand profile. Milled surface shall be cleaned by wire brushes or compressedair for subsequentoperation.1 COLD MILLING Df. 309_1 .which shall be split in stripslookingto the widthof millingdrum and widthoiarea to be milled.SCRIPTION This work shall consistof milling(cutting)of concreteor asphalticlayerto a designatedlevel and width by means of specializedEquipment.

70 mm SM _309 2 .provded-abave shall be paid al lhe contractunit priceper squaremeterof cold millingfor the pay itemsas listed below and in the B.1 Measurement The quantityof cold millingto be paid shall be measuredby the numberof square meters of area milled and cleaned as described above. 3 0 m m SM 309 b ColdMilling. which price and payment shall constitutefull for labour. .0 .309. No allowancewill be given for millingout side the approvedlimit. Pay ltem No.50 mm SM 309 c ColdMilling. Description Unit of Measurement 3 0 9a C o l dM i l l i n g0.shallbe reinstatedby the Contractorat his own expense..3 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 309.3. 309.O.3.Q. Any such area milledbeyondapproved limits.0 .2 Pavment The accepted quantity measured as -. as per drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.equipmentand incidentalsnecessaryto complete compensation the item.

2:1 LOnCrete 310.In additionto it the contractorshall advise the Engineerimmediatelyafter the award of the contractof the source of all materialsto be used in proportioningconcretefor the work. Both plain and reinforcedconcrete shall include deformedbars for contractionjoints and dowel bars for expansionjoints or as shownon the Drawings. lf the contractor later proposesto obtain materialsfrom a differentsource.The sheeting shall have the minimummechanicalpropertiesshownin tableas under: Properties Machine Direction Transverse Direction.2. ReinforcingSteel concrete reinforcementshall conform to item 404 or as indicatedon the Drawings.thicknessand typicalcross_sections shown on the plans.he shall notify the Engineerat leastthirty(30)days beforesuch materialsare to be used.lt must be suppliedin sheets. TensileStrengthMethodASTM D882-73Kgf/SM 140 105 Elongationat Break9. 310. steel fabric for reinforcementof concrete shall conformto AASHTOM 55-73.ITEM 310 310. lf required.grades.o 150 500 Tear StrengthElmendorfMethod ASTM DOB9-62(1974)-Kgtcl'n2 390 310 .065mmthick or havinga minimumweignt of fifty (50f grams per square 'oi meter (whicheveris greater) made from polythene other approved hydrocarbonthermoplastic resin(producedby the polymerization of eihylene under high pressureand density) and given an inti-static treatment to reduce dust attractionand reduce friction.3 PolvtheneSheetins Polytiene sheetingfor placingimmediatelybelow concreteslabs shall be 0.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 310.2 concrete materialsshall conformto the requirementsindicatedin item 401 and as specifiedhereinafter.1 CONCRETE PAVEMEN:IS DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of a pavement composed of porfland cement concrete with or without reinforcement as specified constructed on a preparedsubgradeor base course in accordancewith these specifications and in conformitywiththe lines.2. 310.

The minimumlengthof the dowel bars spaced at one meter centreto centre or as shown on the drawings.2. The compoundis to be impermeable.shall end of each dowel bar in all joints.6 DoweiBars Dowel bars shall be cut from mild steel bars and will be approvedby the attentionis directedto the requirementthat one Engineer.The Contractor's joints.7 ExpansionCaps Expansioncaps for dowel bars in expansionjoints shall consistof pressed metalsleevespluggedat one end by punchingthe specifiedjoint fillerboard of a wad of cotton waste of similarcompressibility and sealed at the end againstentry of mortar.The asphaltcontentof the joint materialshall be betweenthirtyand fifty per cent.s Joint SealingCompound Joint SCalinEadmFoUndiS to be as BS 2499(1973\typo A1 or A2.2.2.Stripsof the joint fillerwhich do not conformto the specifieddimensionswithinthe tolerance1 two (2) mm for thicknessand + twelve (12) mm for depth are to be rejected.2. uo-2 .310. or aS approvedby the Engineer.1 Joint Filler Joint filler shall consistof cane or other suitablelong fibres of a cellular natureuniformlyimpregnatedwith asphalt. 310.bendingor other ordinaryhandling.The tube shall have an internaldiameterpermitting slidingon the dowelbar but closeenoughto prevententryof mortar.spallingor disintegrating and will not requirean impracticableconditionof drynessor cleanlinessof the concreteslabs.except bondedconstruction likelyto interferewith its be sawn and not shearedso that no irregularities slidingactionin the concreteshall occur. The joint materialwill not deteriorateunderany weatherconditionsand is to be of such a characteras not to be permanentlydeformedor brokenby moderatetwisting. shallbe thirtyfive (35) times the diameterof the bar used unlessotheruuise specifiedor as directedby the Engineer.All damagedstrips are to be rejectedtoo. 3t0. 310. Where recommendedby the manufacturerof the sealing compound.is to withstandall weatherconditions and is to be capableof adheringto the concretewithoutcracking.a primersuppliedby him is to be usedto improveadhesion.

To ensurethe proper depth and section.a scratchtemplatetrue to depth and sectionand restingon accuratelyset sideformsshallbe movedover the surfaceimmediatelybeforeplacingconcrete.2. Battensof highlyabsorbentwood or other.025%by weightof the concreteaggregate.as providedundersuch other items throughout the periodof placingconcretepavement.shall be 0.3.2. to assurethat his materialsand workmanshipcomplywiththe specification. Additionalsamples will be taken and tested by the Employerduring the progressof the work to check on the qualityof the materialsbeingsupplied and/orplacedby the contractor.material shall be of cross-sectional dimensionsshown on the Drawings. 3TO3 .. 310.and any irregularities shall be immediatelycorrected. either as an aqueous dispersion containingat least 25% of solids.3r0.10 SamplingandTestins All materialsshall be approvedby the Engineerprior to use in the work.9 CrackInducineBattens crack inducingbattensshall be of wood or of any other suitablematerial proposedby the Contractorat the time of tenderingand approved of at the awardof the contractor approvedby the Engineerat his discretionafterthe award of the contract. or as a powder to be .to be addedto the mixingwater. The darkeningagent shall be free from sulphurtrioxideand from any other matterdeleterious to concrete.lt shall be self-dispersing approvedby the Engineeras non-deleterious and as giving a grey colour and shall be addedat the rate of 01% by weightof the mixedconcreteif it is aqueousdispersion.2.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS 310. No measurement or payment will be made for such additionalconcrete.8 Darkenins Agent Darkeningagent for the top course of concretepavementsif orderedand specified shall be a carbon black. 310.High spots sball be planeddown and the contractor shall have the optionof eitherfillinglow spots to the proper elevationwith approvedmaterial. 370. The minimumquantityof self-dispersing powder.The resultsof these tests will be available for the contractor'suse.1 Pavement Base The base upon which the concrete pavement is laid shall be leveled compactedand true to the grades and cross-sections shown'on the plans and shalLbeso maintained. howeverthey are not intendedfor construction control purpose.and treated to preventadhesionbetweenthem and the concrete.addedto aggregateand cement.which shall be watered compactedand struck off to the requiredgrade or of placing additionalconcrete.The contractorshould set up his own test facilitiesor arrangethe same from a prrvatelaboratory.

310.Until the subgradehas been checkedand approved.They shallbe made of two and half (2. Side forms for machineplacingShallhave roltedsectionsteel rails which shall be of adequatestiffnessto carry the laying.The forms sectionsshall be tightlyjoined by each joint free from play in any direction.compactionand finishing machines. These machinesshall not run on folded sheet metal form tops' The top faces of the forms are to be carefullycleanedand maintained. Storingor stock pilingof materialson the subgradeand placing of surfacingmaterialor laying of pavementon muddy or frozen subgradewill not be Permitted. Pins for stackingforms in place shall be made of steelat leasttwo(2)centimetersin diameteras directedby the Engineerin caseof impracticaluse.they shall withstandthe impact and vibrationof the compactingand finishing equipmentwith settlementnot exceeding1.3. Wooden forms may be used for curves havinga radius of less than fifty (50) meters.no materialshall be depositedtheieon .5 mm in three (3) metersform a true planesurfaceon the top of the form and insideface shallnot vary more than six(6)millimetersfrom a planesurface. These pocket shall be equippedwith a positive non-detachable pins and length of the size placed least three steel using at by shall be forms approvedby the Engineeror as shownon the plans. Straightformsshallbe set out as chordsto convexedgesand as tangentsto concave edges. but payment will not be made for concrete outside the curvededgesshownon the Drawings.5)centimeterswell seasoned surfaced planks fastened together and shall be attached securely to a wooden base in width. All wooden forms shall be braced at least every sixty(60)centimeterswith steel pins of the size and lengthhere in specified.These forms shall be stacked with steel stakes and shall be of a lengthapprovedby the Engineer. They shallbe equipped with positivelockingdeviceswhich will permit neat tight joints and do not deform under impact vibrationby thryst.The width of the bases of steel forms shallbe not less than their heightexceptthat the forms havinga base not less that two-third(213) -of their helg[t and mqqtilg q]l olhgqrequlrements hereinmay be usedfor manuallayingof non rectangularbays' The depthshallbe equalto the thicknessof the pavementat the edge or as shownon the plans.The forms shall be withouthorizontaljoints and with flange bracesextendingoutward on the base not less than twothirds the height of the forms. 31e-4 . Each stack wedge.2 Forms Side forms shall be made of metalof an approvedsectionand construction providedwith adequatedevicesfor securesettingso that when in place.Each sectionof forms shallhavestake pockefat each end and at intervalsof not more than one and one-half(1:5)metersbetweenends. Each sectionof forms shall be straightand free form bendsand warps at all times.

percent Nominal sizeof aggregate 250 kg/sq.preferablynot less than two hundred(200) meters. Composition (a)All concreteshall be proportioned by weighingand shall conformto the followingstrengthand mix requirements i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Compressive Strength. Formsshallbe thoroughlycleanedand oiledeachtime they are used."whenpavement is placed adjoiningexistingconcretepavement upon which the finishing machinewill travel.) 0. 310. sacks(50Kg) Watercementratio.cm. Forms shall be set to the requiredlines and grades well in advance of placingconcrete.Before placing forms the underlyingmaterial shall be excavatedto the requiredgrade.maximum Slump Entrained air. special forms or other supportingdevices meeting the approvalof the Engineershall be used to supportthe joint filler at transverse'controt ioints when concreteis to be placedon only one side of the filler. air entrainment agent. (b) At least 35 days prior to the start of paving operationsand afler approval of all materialsto be used in the concrete.45 25-75 mm 3+0.Formsshallbe carefullyremovedin a mannerto avoiddamage to the pavement.6 1rlr" Max.Howeverthe Engineermay allow pavingoperationon the basis of seven (7) days strengthif he is satistieowitn-tnb resuttsof seven (7) days strength. saturated surface drv aggregatesand water.Underno circumstances will the use of pry bars between the forms and the pavementbe permitted.This mix designwill be testedby the Engineerand approvalwill not be grantedunlessthe averagetwenty eight (2g) days compressivestrengthexceedsthe minimumstrengthrequi-remeni oy lt least 15 percent.5 (min. 28 daysminimum Cementcontent.the contractorshallsubmitfor approval.any irregularities in the old pavementshall be grorni down to a true uniform surface of sufficient width to accommodate the wheelsof the finishingequipmbntif necessaryto obtainpropersmoothness of the pavement.Forms shall not be removedfor at least twelve (12) hours after the concretehas been placed.3.the mix design he intends to use based on proportioned weights of cement. .The forms shall have full bearingsupon the fbundationthroughouttheir length and shall be placed with exactnessto the requiredgrade and alignmentof the edge of the finishedpavement.pavementwhich in the opinionof the Engineeris damageddue to the carelessremoval of forms shall be repavedby the contractoras directedby the Engineerat the contractor's own expense. and shall be firm and compact.3 1. 7.

placin$ the cement in another bin.5) centimeter ball penetrationis consideredequivalentto a slumpof five (5) centimeters.When cementis subpliedin bags.4 Batchinsand Mixine Concreteshalleitherbe batcheddnd mixedat a centralbatchingand mixing plantor batchedat a centralbatchingplantfor either mixing in field mixers adjacentto the forms for slabs. d) The compressivestrength of the concretewill be determined by testing standard cylinders made from concrete taken from the mixer.uniformand plastic.or mixedin a truck mixer. whenthe sourceof any materialfor the e) Duringthe courseof construction.cuiing and testingof the specimenswill be in accordancewith AASHTOT23-73. concreteis to be changed.3.lf it is not sufficientto produce concrete of the compressive strength specified it shall be increasedas necessarywith out additionalcompensationunder the contract.c) The cement contentgiven rn the foregoingtable is minimum.permittingproperhandlingand finish. 310.Two and a half (2.The slump shall be determinedby AASHTO f 1rc-74 except that during the course of constructioncontrol of concrete may be accomplishedby the ball penetrationas outlined in AASHTO T1B3-72. The making. There shall be minimum of segregationand surplus water during the process of handling and finishing.additionaltests and necessaryadjustmentsin the mix shallbe made as requiredto obtainthe specifiedstrengths. of .each stored in a separate bin. recombining 310-6 . i) Batchine Eq'UBrugB! All aggregatesand bulk cement for use in pavementshall be batchedby weight by means of automaticdevices of approved type conformingto the reqiirements specifiedbelow:The batchingshall consistof dividingthe aggregatesinto three sizes. The cement content shall be determinedby means of a yield test in accordancewith AASHTOT121-74. but shall remain in a conicalpiie. and of theseingredientsas hereinprovided. each batch of concreteshall containa whole numberof bagsof cement.When depositedit shtlll not flow.or if thereis any variationin the qualityof the materialsfurnished. ConsistencY The requiredconsistencyof the concretemixture shall be such that the mixturewill be cohesive. 2.

91any_weighing.Multiplebeanr scales shall be providedwith an indicatoroperatedby the main beam which will give positivevisibleevidenceof over or underweight.togetherwith the scales of any kind used in batchingmaterials. The beams or dial of automatic scales shall be so arranged that the weighing units will be in a conlpartmentthat may be toireo at the requirement of the Engineer. scales utilisedin the batchingdevicemay be of the springlessdial type or of the multiplebeamtype.The means of withdrawalfrom the severalbins anil of dischargefrom the weigh box shall be so. after which the gate shall automatically closeand lock.shall be so insulatedagainstthe vibrationor movementof the rest of the plant due to any operatingequipment.be oTeratedduringthe adcitionof the last seventy kilograms The overtravetof the indicatorhand shall be ai . Whgn the dischargefrom the severalbins is controlledby gates. lf they are the dialtype.equired weight is dischargedinto the weigh box.eacn gate gherllaqrlgmalcqlly-lock in an open or partiallyopen positionirntil the r. Indicatorsshall be enclosed against moistureand dust.that the orderof dischargecan be changed as desiredby the Engineer. All receptaclesused for weighingmaterials.will be withintwo (z) ig of the weightcalledfor by the scatesettingfor the bin.The automaticweighingdevice of the dial scale shall be so markedthat the numberof proportionirequiredmay be set on the dial at the same time and that proportionsmay be changed withoutdelay. with weighingdevicesat rest. The dischargeshall be so regulatedthat the amount of materialdiscirargedinto thd weigh hppperfrom any bin. 310-7 .The indicatorshall be so designedthat it will. It is the intentionof this specificationthat the deviceshall be automaticto the extent that the only manual operation required for combining the ingredients for one batchshallbe a singleoperationof a switchor a starter.all bins may be operatedand dischargedsimultaneously.the separatebeamsshallbe automatically connectedto the hopper or weigh box in sequence.and that the weigh box cannotbe trippedrintil the requiredquantityfrom each of the several bins has been deposited therein.weighing with the entireplantrunningwiil not eiceed two per cent of any settingnor exceedone and a half per cent of any batch.interlocked that not more than one bin can dischargeat a time.should a separateweighbox be usedfor edch size of aggregate. lf they are the multiplebeamtype. least one-thirdof the loadingtravel.Materialdischargedfrom the severalbins shall be controlledby gates or hy mechanicalconveyors..that the errorin.the dial shall be of such size and so arrangedthat it may be easilyread from the ground.

The weighingscale shall be of the beam or springlessdial type of standard designand make.but of differentmoisturecontent. and the partitionsbetweenthem shallextendnot lessthanone(1)meterabovethe bins. The weighingscalesshallbe arrangedfor readystandardization.be availableat the batchingplant.The binsshallbe equippedwith baffleboards so as to assist drainageof the aggregates and preventthe drainedout water from passingthroughthe outletgate.and shall be easily to handle and attached. The bins shallhave a total capacityof not less than 100 tons. The standardweights shall be protected againstthe defacementand injury. A dial whichwill show the weightwhen the load is within forty five (45) kg of that requiredand an approvedsignal device shall be provided. The beam type shall have separatebeamsfor each size of aggregate.the equipmentfor batchingof concrete materialsshallconformto the followingrequirements:The betching eqfiBmeff shall bo substantially. the standardweight to be furnishedshall be as approvedby the Engineer.Aggregatescontainingexcess moistureshall be stockpiledprior to use until sufficientlydry to meet the aboverequirement. The weighinghoppershallhave a singlecompartmentwith arrangements for readyremovalof excess material.and each beam shall have an easilyoperated lockingdevice. expense.lt shallhavethree(3) binsand a weighinghopper. two 5kg and two (2) kg weights. when the Engineermay permit othenvise. two 10 kg.any part or all of the weighingdevicesor other appurtenancesare not satisfactory.Shouldseparatesuppliesof aggregatematerialsof the same sizegroup. For batchersof capacityof hatf (112)cubic meter or less. and with each scaleshall be furnisheda set of standardweightsincludingseven 25 kg. and shall be able to recordthe true weightwithintwo (2) kg at maximumload. Tftere shall be sufficient clearanceat all pointsfor the weighinghopperto functionproperly. Except where small quantitiesof concreteonly ar6 to be used.withdrawals shall be made from one supply exclusivelyand the material therein completelyexhaustedbeforestartingon another.All parts of the weighing devices and appurtenanceof the made and shall be maintained batchingequipmentshall be substantially in properoperatingcondition.and with a dischargegate opening parallelto the portlonof receivingtrucks. they shallbe replacedin satisfactory at the Contractor's 24n Q g tv-u .eonstructedon a firm foundation.lf in the opinionof the Engineer. Al platformshall extendaroundthe weighinghopperfor easy means of inspection.The toleranceto these scalesshallbe withinthose listedin table 3 of the US nationalbureauof standardNBS handbook44.adjusimentand weighing. The moisture content of the aggregate shall be such that no visible separationof moistureand aggregatewill take place during transportation from the batchingplantto the pointof mixing.highenoughabovetrucksbeingloadedto functionpropedy.The amountof openingof the dischargegate shall be readily controlled.

Paditionsseparatingbatches shall be adequate and effected to prevent spillingfrom one compartmentto anotherwhile transit or being dumped. Batchesshall be deliveredto mixerseparateand intact. the mixershall have a capacityof not less than one cubic meter. batchesshall be dischargedfrom the weighing. boot or other approveddevice. Cement in originallyshipping packagesmay be transportedon top of the aggregates.Batcheswhere cement is placedin contactwith the aggregatesmay be rejectedunlessmixedwithin one and a half hours of such contact. where the volume of concreteto be placedjustifiesit.to preventloss of cementand arrangedto providepositive assurance of the actual presence in each batch of the entire cement specified.uniformdistribution of materialsthroughoutthe mass.the Contractormay be permitted to substitute manually controlleddevices.In lieu of the automatic devices for controllingthe weighing of the aggregatesand bulk cementas describedin the forgoingspecification for batching equipment.Each batchshallbe dumpedcleanlyinto the mixerwithoutloss of cement. ii) Unloadingand HaulingEquipment Aggregateshall be transportedfrom the batchingplantto field paver mixers in batchboxes.vehiclebodiesor othercontainersof adequatecapacityand construction to carrythe volumerequired. iv) FieldMixins Equipment The concrete mixer shall be a batch mixer so designed as to ensure positive.properly.and when more than one batchis carriedon the truck withoutspillingof materialfrom one batch compartmentintoanother. with chute.For all work. iii) Batchingto CentralMixing Plant At a central mixing plant. hopperintothe mixereitherdirectlyby gravityor by elevatingcontainer. The size and type of mixer used on variousclassesof work shall be as specifiedbelow and shall be approvedby the Engineer.The plantshallbe arrangedto ensurethat there is no lossof cementduringtransferfrdrnthe weighinghopperto mixerdrum.the contractorshall use a suitablemelhod of handlingthe cement from weighinghopper to transportingcontaineror into the batch itself for transportationto mixer.and shallcomplywith the followingrequirements:- 3't0-9 .each containingthe numberof bags requiredby the job mix. provided approval for such devices is grantedby the Engineer. shall be of approvedmake and acceptableto the Engineer.large enoughto containthe batch. where cement is storedin bulk. Loosecementshall be transportedto the mixerin waterproofcompartments carryingthe full amountof the cement requiredfor the batch or it may be carriedin compartmentscoveredby the aggregate.

The Contractorshall furnish a certifiedstatementfrom the manufactureras to their originalwidth. The mixershallbe keptcleanand free from hardenedmortar. All water added to the mixer shall be passed through an approvedwater meter. 310. located betweenthe water tank and mixer drum.5 PlacingConcrete a) General The mixer shall be operated outside of the forms at all times except at locationswherethe Engineerdeemsit not feasibleto do so.a regulatorthat will maintainthe rate of speedfor which the mixer has been designed.equippedwith outsidetaps and valvesto facilitatecheckingtheir calibration. a verticalwater tank with an automaticdevice that will measure and dischargethe requiredvolume of water.The Contractorshall furnish a certified statementfrom the manufacturer as to the originaldepthof the blades.and to registerthe volumedischargedaccuratelyon a gaugeor dial whichshallbe calibratedbeforethe mixeris used and shall be kept properly calibrated.Measuringtanks. The mixer shall not be used when any of the devicesabove stated are not functioningproperly. An inspectionopening shall be providedon each mixer.ThdmEsuTing oflhe volume of water requiredshall be done by means of adjustabledischargedevice onry. 310-10 . to permit ready determinationof the consistencyof the concretebeing placedin the forms. The loadingskipof the mixershallbe substantially madeand shapedso that wet sand and othermaterialswill not remainin it when it is beingdischarged.to be easilyadjustedto dischargea largeror smaller volume.The automaticdevice for measuringand dischargingthe requiredvolume of water shall be arrangedto dischargea predetermined volume.shall be providedfor the mixing watgr. an automatic locking device preventing materials being placed in the mixer before dischargegate is closed.A by-passvalve shall permitthe dischargeof all the water into a meastrriirgeafl fo-tllc pul.or when the bladesof the mixer have worn down to ninety (90) per cent of their originalwidth. Eachtransitmixershall have a watertightdrum.ifyingthe amount of water added to mixing shall be providedon each mixer. valves to prevent overflowinto the mixing chamberor on to the ground when the discharge valveis closedand intothe tank when open.A batch meter and lockingdeviceto preventdischargepriorto completionof mixing shall be providedon each unft.trtossofcalibration.a signaldevicethat will functionwhen water is added.and capableof measuringand discharginga specifiedamountof waterwithinan accuracyof one per cent. When pick-upand throwover bladesare worn down two (2) centimeteror more in depth. equippedwith indicatingdials and totaliser.3. The device shall provide means of readilyver. v) Truck Mixers Truck mixersshall be used only when permittedby the Engineerin writing.and valvesand pipingin proper order to prevent any leakage.Mixers shall have a locking device preventingthe mixture from being dischargedbeforethe expirationof the specifiedmixingtime.they shall be replacedwith new blades. suitablemountedand fitted with adequateblades capable of properlycombing the mixture.

the placementof concreteshall not be more thantwenty(2O) minutesaheadof the spreaderstrikeoff. In no case shaflthe vibratorbe operatedlongerthan fifteen(15) seconds.Spreading.compactingand finishingoperationsare to be completedwithoutdelay. should any concretematerialsfall on or be worked into the surface of completedslab.Spreading shall be done by an approvedmechanicalspreaderin a mannerthat will prevent segregationand separatiqn of the materials. concreteshall be thoroughlyconsolidatedagainstand alongthe faces of all forms and along the full length and on both sides of ail expansionjoint assembliesby means of vibratorsinsertedin the concrete.protectingand curing of the pavement. Workmen shall not be allowedto walk in the freshlymixedconcretewith bootsor shoescoatedwith earth or foreign substances.Necessary hand spreadingshall be done with shovels.equired cross-section afterconsolidation in order to providea roll of concreteahead of the front screedof the finishingmachinefor the full lengthof the screed.Vibratorsshall not be permittedto come in contactwith a joint assembly.the grade or a side form.lf concrete is placedin one(1)layeronly. Concretemixed in centralplant shall be transportedwithoutdelayfrom the mixingplantto the positionfor layingand any concretewhich in the opinion of Engineerhas been mixed too long before reaching.The hopper is well centeredon the joint assembly.the work will be rejectedand shallbe removedfrom the site.they shallbe removedimmediatelyby methodsapprovedby the Engineer.The concreteshallbe deposited on the subgradein successivebatchesfor the full width betweenforms and in a mannerwhich will requireas littlerehandlingas possible.concreteshall be depositedas near to expansionand contraction joints as possiblewithoutdisturbingthem but shall not be dumpedfrom the dischargebucket or hopper on to a joint assembly.not rakes. Trucks delivering concrete shall not run on polythenesheetingnor shall they run on completedslabs until at least fourteen(14) daysafterplacingthe concrete.the subgrade shall be moistened as directed.prior to the placementof the subgradepaper such as polythene sheeting. The mixing and placing of the concreteshall progresso-nlyat such a rate as to permit proper finishing. Placementof concreteahead of the initialspreaderstrike off shall not be more than fifteen(15)minutesahead of final spreaderstrike-off.the concreteis io be spreadwith a surchargeabovethe finishedlevel of the layer. 310-11 . In orderto secureadequatecompaction.When ordered by the Engineer. The total time taken from the additionof the water to the mix until the completionof the surfacefinishingoperationsshall not exceed thirty (30) minuteswhen the shade or mix temperatureexceedstwenty seven (27) degreeC or forty (40) minuteswhen less than twentyseven (27) degreeC.Damage to joint assembliescaused by dumpedconcreteshall be repairedimmediatelyas directedby the Engineer at Contractor'sexpense.the amount of materialdepositedshall be sufficientlyin excess of that requiredto form {he pavementto the r.

the tie bars may be installedmechanicallyby means of equipmentand methods approved by the Engineer.lf the centerjoint is to be sawedin lieu of placing the metalcenterstrip. Any positionof the bottom layer of the concretewhich has been placed more than thirty (30) minuteswith out being coveredwith the tpp layer shall be removedand replacedwith freshlymixed concreteat the contractor'sexpense. Laps parallelto the Jtv-lz . The top of the forms shall be kept free from accumulationof concrete or foreign material. The Contractor shall not permit the accumulationof laitancealong the edge of a siab poured adjacentto one previouslyplaced.the entire width of the bottom layer shall be struck-offto such lengthand depth that the sheet of fabric or bar mat may be laidfull lengthon the concretein its final positionwithoutfurther manipulation.supportingthe barsfrom the forms.will not be permitted. When reinforcedconcrete pavementis placedin two (2) layers. All marginalbars.the bottomlayershallbe supportedin the requiredpositionwith bar chairs. b) WeatherConditions 401. when satisfactoryplacementis not obtainedby mechanical'means. Any accumulationof laitance shall be removed and replacedwith fresh concrete.as at bridge approaches.requirements will be followed.struckoff and screeded.3.6(l) of these For concretingduringhot/coldweather.The use of removabledevices.The satisfactory placementof the tie bars shall depend upon the abilityof the mechanical deviceto placethe tie bars in theirtrue position. Where two (2) layersof wire mesh reinforcementare required. Followingthe placingof the concrete. The Engineermay require.. The reinforcementshall then be placed directlyupon the concreteafterwhichthe top layerof'the concreteshall be plabed.shallbe struckoff to conformto the cross sectionshown on the plans and to an elevationsuch that when the concreteis properlyconsolidated and finished.6 PlacingReinforcemen( All pavement reinforcementshall be placed as shown on the plans.Separatorsshall be used for the top layer if the strikeoff cannot be properlyused for the operation.Plain concreteand bar reinforcedbridge approach pavementmay be plaoedin'one(1) layer.As soon as the side forms are removed. specifications 310.the surfaceof the pavement will be at the elevationshown on the plans.the edges of the slab shallfirst be inspectedby the Engineerand any minor honeycombedareasshallthen be filledin with mortarcomposedof one part of cement to two parts of fine aggregateunder the supervisionof the Engineer.dowelbars.The additivesshall be added to the concretemix so as to ensure more settingtime.it.3.and tie bars requiredby the plansshallbe held in proper position by sufficientnumber of metal bar supports or pins as approvedby the Engineer.Laps in adjustmentsheets or mats of reinforcementshallbe as shownon the plans. that the tie bars be installedaheadof placingthe concreteand that they be securely stakedand tied if necessaryto hold them in their exact position.

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Jointsfor pavementdesignedfor two (2) or less lanes of trafficshall be
assembledand installedin one (1) continuouspieceor the connections
between sectionsshall be made rigid and tight to prevent offsets in
sectionsof the joints. The lengthof individualpiecesof the expansion
joint filler shall be not less than the width of one ('l) traffic lane of the
pavement.
The finishingmachineshall be operatedin a mannerthat will prevenr
displacement
of the joint. lf for any reasonit is necessaryto straightena
joint,any depressioncausedby this operationshall immediatelybe filled
with fresh concrete, respaded and brought to the original crown in
advanceof the longitudinal
finishers.Any fluid laitanceor mortarcaused
by this operationshallbe removedand replacedwithfreshconcrete.
As the finishingmachineapproachesthe joint on the firsttrip,the excess
concreteshall be shoveledahead and the tamper and each screed,in
turn, shall be lifted over the joint. On the second trip of the finishing
machine,the screedmay be operatedoverthe joint.
b) ContractionJoints
jointsshall be of the type and dimensionsand at the spacing
Contraction
shownon the plans. Sawed contractionjoints shall be cut by means of
an approvedconcrete saw. The joints shall not be sawed until the
concrete has hardened to the extent that tearing and reveling is
precluded.All joints shall be sawed duringthe initialcuring periodand
the sawingshall begin beforethe pavementstartsshrinkingand before
uncontrolledcracking takes place. Any procedurewhich results in
prematureand uncontrolledcracking shall be revised immediatelyby
adjustingthe sequenceof cuttingthe joints or the time intervalinvolved
betweenthe placingof the concreteor the removalof the curing media
and the cuttingof the joints. In no case shall the pavementbe left
overnightwithouthavingthe joints sawed. The joints shall be sawed at
the depth,spacing, and lines shownon the plans. Guidelinesor devices
approvedby the Engineershallbe providedto ensurecuttingthe joint in a
straightline and perpendicular
to the centerlineof the pavement. The
dust resultingfrom sawing shall be completelyremovedfrom the joint
and adjacentareas by means of an air jet or a combinationof air and
water appliedunder pressureimmediatelyafter the joint has been cut,
and before filling with joint compound. When the plans specify that
dowels be installedthrough contractionjoints,'the subgrade at the
contractionjoints shall be accuratelytrimmed to the required cross
sectionand to the properdepth of the pavement.A string line shall be
stretchedbetweenthe pavementforms alongthe centerline of the joint.
Each dowelshall be paintedand thoroughlycoatedwith hard greaseor
lubricant,in accordancewith the directionshown on the plans or as
approvedby the Engineer,to preventthe concretefrom bondingto that
portionof the dowel. The entire joint assemblyshall be of the type
designatedon the plansand shall be installedin such a positionthat the
centerlineof the joint assemblyis perpendicular
to the centerline of the
slab and the dowelslie parallelto the slab surface and parallel to the
centerlineof the slab. The greased ends of the dowelsshall be placed
310-14

in the directionas indicatedon the plans and shall be free to slide in the
dowel holder. Any excess hard grease on the dowel holder shall be
removed.
c) LongitudinalJoints
joints shall be constructedin conformancewith the details
Longitudinal
shown on the plans.When the fabricatedsteel strip is specified,it shall
be held rigidlyin placewith an adequatenumberof pins drivenintothe
subgradeto ensure that it will remain true to line and grade during
concretingand finishingoperations. On multiplelane pavenientwhere
jorntsare constructedat the form line,an approvedrecessed
longituoinar
form and tie bars will be required. The full depth fabricatedsteel strip
will not be permitted.When sawed
designatedfor otherlongitudinaljoints
joints are specifiedor used, suitable guidelinesor devices shall be
joint on the true lines as
furnishedto ensurecuttingthe longitudinal
shallbe performed
shownon the plans. The sawingof longitudinaljoints
cracking. Sawedjoints
at a time that will precludeerraticor uncontrolled
shall be filledwith the type of joint compoundindicatedon the plans.The
dust resultingfrom sawing shall be completelyremovedfrom the joint
and adjacentareas by meansof air jet or a combinationof air and water
appliedunder pressureimmediatelyafter the joint has been cut and
beforefillingwithjoint compound.
.Ioints
d) Construction
joint shall be made perpendicular
to the centerlineof
A butt construction
the pavementat the closeof each days work and also when the process
of depositingconcreteis stoppedfor a length of time such that, in the
opinionof the Engineer,the concretewill have taken its initialset. This
joint shall be formed by using a clean plank header having a nominal
a width of not less than the thicknessof
thicknessof five (5) centimeters,
the pavementand a lengthof not less than the width of the pavement.
The headershall be cut true to the crown of the finishedpavementand
shall be accuratelyset and held in place in a plane at right angles to
to the surfaceof the pavement.
centerlineand perpendicular
The top surfaceof the headershall be protectedwith steel as approved
by the Engineer.On the face along with the center of the header there
shall be fasteneda trapezoidalpiece of metal or wood the full lengthof
the header, five (5) centimeterswide and at least twenty five (25)
millimetersin depthto form a groovedjoint.The headershallhave drilled
holes to accommodatethe dowelor tie bars hereinafterspecified.Upon
resumptionof Wort<any surplusconcreterepaining upon the subgrade
shall be removed.The headershallthen be carefullyremovedand fresh
concretedepositedagainstthe old in such a manneras to avoidinjuryto
the edge of the old concrete.The fresh concreteshallbe vibratedintothe
joint.
groovein a mannerto ensurean interlocking

310-15

joints
Dowelbars or loadtransferdevicesshallbe used in all construction
in accordancewith the detailsshownon the plans.lf no such detailsare
shown on the plans,tie bars as providedfor the longitudinaljoint, and
spaced at forty-five(45) centimetercenters,shall be placed acrossthe
joint in a plane parallelto the surface of the pavementapproximately
midway between the top and bottom surfaces of the pavement. The
edges of the joint shall be grooved,edged,and sealedwith the material
joints.
usedfor sealingexpansionand contraction
No constructionjoint shall be placed within three (3) metefs of an
jotnt.
expansion,contraction,
or otherconstruction
e) SealineJoints
a)

Materials:Joints shall be sealed with material of the type
designatedon the plans.

b)

Hot PouredJoints:The joints shall be sawed as providedin sub
and coveredas providedin sub item 310.3.7(c).
item 310.3.7(b)
After the fourteen(14) or seventeen(17) day curing periodfor
the pavementhas elapsed,the jute o6other protectivecovering
shall be removedfrom the joint and the joint thoroughlycleaned
of all loose scale, saw dust, dirt, laitance or other matter.
Cleaningmay be accomplished
with a compressedair jet, air and
water underpressure,wire brushesor in extremecasesthe joint
shall, when directedby the Engineer,be resawedto ensure a
completelycleanjoint. The joint surfacesand adjacentareas of
the slab shallbe thoroughlyclean.
The hot pouredjoint materialshall be heated in a heatingunit
approvedby the Engineerto the temperaturewithin the range
requiredas shown by tests. The joint shall be filled from the
bottom of the saw cut to the surface of the pavement.Any joint
with a depth greaterthan twenty five (25) millimetersshall be
filled with a minimum of two (2) layers, each layer being
equalin depth.
approximately

c)

Cold PouredJoints:The jointsshallbe sawedas providedin subitem 310.3.7(b)& 310.3.7(c)
and cleanedof all loosesaw dust,
laitance,dirt,otherforeignmatterand free water.
The joints shall be filled immediatelyafter cleaning.The nozzle
used must be so designedthat the joint is filledcompletelyfrom
bottom to top. The joint shall be filled so it is roundedon top
about six (6) millimeters above the pavement surface.
lmmediatelyafter the joints have been filled, they shall be
covered with strip of nonabsorotive paper at least four (4)
centimeterswide. Eleven(11) kilogramglasslineor heavycraftis
suitable.The paper shall remain on the joint until it weathers or
wears off.

310-16

fl PermanentHeaderBoard
lmrnediatelyafter the forms are removed from the ends of concrete
pavementthat will be exposedto other than permanent
type surfacing
and temporaryand permanenttraffic,a headerboardhavingdimensioni
of not less than eight rs) centimeters (nornirrar)by twenty (20)
centimetersshall.be bolted securelyto the end of ttre pavementin
a
mannerto protect. gdoe of the pavementfrom damage.The header
!!e
boardshallextend.thefulr roadwaywidth,but may be in tilo (z) sections.
nt lhe time of ptacingthe concrete, six (6) (threefor each tane),thirteen
(13) millimetersby twenty (20) centimetersbolts shall be embedded
in
the end of the pavementin a manner that will hold the header board
securely.The headerboard shall be shapedto conformto the crown
of
the pavementand shall be installedflush with the concretepavement
surface.The finishingand installingof the'header board shall
be
c.rnsideredsubsidiary-worrpertiiniig to the other items in the Bill
of
Quantitiesand will not be paidfor direcily.
The headerwiilnot be requiredon concretebasecoursework.
310.3.8

Consolidatinsand Finishins
After being spreadand struck-offas providedin sub-item310.3.5"placing
concrete,"the concreteshall be furtherstruck-offand consolidated
with an
approved finishing machine to such an elevation that when
finishing
operatiorrs
are completed,the surfacewill conformto the requiredgradeand
crown.The finishingmachineshall operateover the entire'surface
at least
twice,the first time with the finishingmachinetamper ano notn
screedsin
operation.A uniformroll.of concreteapproximatelyfifteen
(15) centimeters
abovethe pavementgradeshall be maintainedaheadof the front
screedfor
its entire length during the first trip over with the finishing
macnine.'
Excessivetampingor finishingresurtingin bringing
of mortar to
the surfacewill not be permitted
"n """"ii
After the last pass of the finishing machine, a mechanicaltongitudinal
finisher shall be operatedover the concrete surface.The forurard
motion of
the longitudinal
finisher-shall
be so adjustedthat the screedwiil pass over
each portionof the surfaceat leasttwlce. The longitudinal
finishershall be
operatedin a mannerthat will preventexcessives[imping of the
concreteat
the form lines or the metal center strip or the loss of the crown
of the
pavement.lf necessaryor when orderedby the Engineer,
the finishershall
be operatedin one directiononly or shall be operatedfrom only
-."ttion
the form to
the centerlinein order to ensure that the proper .ro..
of the
pavementis obtained.The leadingedge of the screedshall
clearthe forms
upon completionof each.transversepass in order to clear the pavement
surfaceof any laitanceor thin mortar.
In general,the additionof superficialwater to the surface of therconcrete
to
ass.istin finishingoperationswill not be permitted.tf the apptilaiion
of water
to the surfaceis permittedby the Engineer,it shail oe apptieioas
a fog spray
by meansof approvedsprayequipment.

310-17

As an alternativeto the longitudinalfinisher,the contractormay use a
machinecomposedof a cuttingand smoothingfloat, or floats,suspended
from and guidedby a rigidframe. The frame shall be carriedby four (4) or
morevisiblewheelsridingon, and constantlyin contactwith,the sideforms.
when directedby the Engineer,followingone of the precedingmethodsof
longitudinal
finishing,long-handled
floats havingbladesnot less than one
and one half (1.5) metersin lengthand fifteen(1s) centimetersin widthshall
be used to smooth and fill in open{exturedareas in the pavement,Longhandledfloatsshallnot be usedto floatthe entiresurfaceof the pavementin
ileu of, or supplementing,one of the precedingmethods of longitudinal
finishing.
when the longitudinal
finishinghas beencompleted,
the entiresurfaceshall
be testedwith straightedges
not less than three (3) metersin length.The
straightedges
shall be operatedparallelto the pavementcenterlinestarting
at the center and progressingtoward the forms. Advance along the
pavementshall be in successivestagesof not more than one half (l/2) the
length of the straightedges.
All laitance,surpluswater, and inert material
shallbe removedfrom the surface.All high placesshallbe workeddown and
all low placesfilledby combinedoperationsof floatsand straightedges until
no irregularlties
exist.The propercrownof the pavementshallbe maintained
throughoutthe operations.
After floatingand straightening
has been completed,the concreteshall be
finishedby using a belt made of canvas,rubber,or other approvedbelting
not less than fifteen (15) centimetersin width, nor less than sixty (60J
centimeterslongerthanthe widthof the pavement.This belt shallbe worked
with a longitudinal
and crosswisemotion. care shall be exercisedin the use
of the beltto ensurethat the edgesof the belt do not dig intothe surfaceof
the concreteor work the crownout of the pavement.Eithermachinebelting
or hand beltingwill be permitted.
As soon as all excessmoisturehas disappeared,and whilethe concreteis
stillplasticenoughto make a granularsurfacepossible,a drag shallbe used
whichshallconsistof a seamlessstripof damp burlapor cottonfabric,which
shall produce a uniform surface of gritty texture after dragging it
longitudinally
alongthe full width of pavemlnt. For pavement(5) metersor
more in width,the drag shall be such that a strip or burlapor fabricat least
one and one half (1.5) meters wide is in contact with the full width of
pavementsurfacewhilethe drag is used. The drag shall be maintainedin
such conditionthat the resultingsurface is of uniform appearanceand
reasonablyfree from grooves over two (2) millimeters in depth, as
determinedby the Engineer.Dragsshall be maintainedclean and free from
encrustedmortar.Dragsthat cannotbe cleanedshall be discardedand new
dragssubstituted.
After draggingthe surfacewith burlap,the concreteover the expansionjoint
fillershall be completelyremoved and the joint finished. The edgei of
the concrete at expansionjoints. shall be finishedwith an edgerto the

310-18

radius shown on the plans. The exposededge of the pavementshall be
finishedwith an edger to a radius of six (6) millimeters.Any tool marks
appearingon the slab adjacent to the joints or edge of slab shall be
eliminatedby draggingthe surface.In doingthis, the roundingof the corner
of the slab shallnot be disturbed.
310.3.8.1

HandFinishine
Unless otheruuise
specified,hand finishingmethodswill not be permitted
excep_t
underthe followingconditions:
i)

In the event of breakdownof the mechanicalequipment,hand
methodsmay be usedto finishthe concretealreadydepositedon
the grade when the breakdown occurs, and no additional
concreteshall be placeduntilsuch equipmentis repairedto the
satisfaction
of the Engineer.

ii)

Narrowwidthsor areas of irregulardimensionswhere operation
of mechanicalequipmentis impracticalas determinedby the
Engineer,may be finishedby approvedhand methods.

iii) Short lengthsof pavement,such as bridgeapproachpavement,
where the operationof mechanicalequipmentis impracticalmay
be'finishedby approvedhandmethods.
Concrete,as soon as placed, shall be struck-offand screeded.An
approved portable screed shall be used. A second screed shall be
providedfor striking off the bottom layer of concrete if reinforcementis
used.
The screedfor the surfaceshallbe at leastone (1) meter longerthan the
maximum wiOtn ot the slab to be struck-off.lt shall be of approved
design,sufficientlyrigid to retainits shape,and be constructedeitherof
metalor othersuitablematerialshodwith metal.
consolidationshall be attainedby the use of a suitablevibratoror other
approvedequipment.
In operation the screed shall be moved forward on the forms with a
combinedlongitudinal
and transverseshearingmotion,movingalwaysin
the directionin which the work is progressingand so manipulatedthat
neitherend is raisedfrom the sideforms duringthe strikingoff process.lf
necessary,this shall be repeateduntilthe surfaceis of uniformtexture,
true to grade and cross section,and free from porousareas.
Afterthe concretehas beenstruck-off,it shallbe furthersmoothed,trued,
and consolidatedby means of a longitudinalfloat. The hand operated
longitudinal
float shall be not lessthan threeand one-half(3.5) metersin
lengthand fifteen(15) centimetersin width,properlystiffenedto prevent
flexing and warping.The longitudinalfloat, operatedfrom foot bridges
resting on the side forms and spanningbut not touchingthe

310-19

concrete,shall be workedwith a sawingmotion,while held in a floating
poiition parallelto the road centerline,and passinggraduallyfrom one
side of the pavementto the other,Movementaheadalongthe centerline
of the pavementshall be in successiveadvancesof not more than one
nalt ttizl the lengthof the float. Any excesswater or soupy materialshall
be wastedoverthe side forms on each pass'
floats having bladesnot
At the optionof the Engineer,the long-handled
length and fifteen ('15)
in
meters
less than one and one rratt 1t.s;
the hand operated
for
substituted
be
may
centimeters in width
float.
longitudinal
All other operationsafter this substitutionfor the mechanicalequipment
shallbe performedin the mannerpreviouslydescribed'
concreting operationshall be performedonly in daylight,under no
circumstaicesshallconcretepavementplacedor finishedat night.

3r0.3.9

RemovingForms
Unlessotherwiseprovided,forms shall not be removedfrom freshlyplaced
concreteuntil it has set for at least twelve (12) hours, except auxiliaryforms
used temporarilyin widenedareas. Formsshall be removedcarefullyso as
to avoiddamagbto the pavement.After the forms have been removed,the
sides of tfre ltab sfrait be cured as specified for the surface. Major
honeycombedareas will be consideredas defectivework and shall be
removed and replaced at the Contractor'sexpense, as directed by the
Engineer.Any area or section so removed shdll not be less than three (3)
r"i"ts in lengtnnor less than the full width of the lane involved.When it is
necessaryto remove and replace a sectionof pavement,any remaining
portionof the slab adjacentto the jointsthat is less than three (3) metersin
length,shallalso be removedand replaced.

310.3.r0 Protectingand Curing of ConcretePavement
a) Initial Curins
finished,the initial
As the surfaceof the newly-laidpavementis progressively
be
started.
shall
curingand protectionoperations
Upon completionthe finishingoperationand whilethe surfaceof concreteis
stillmoist,but no free water remains,a liquidcuringmembraneapprovedby
the Engineershallbe appliedto the exposedsurfaceof the pavementat the
rate nol lessthan one (1) litreper threeand two-thirds(3-213)squaremeters
are used.The curing
of surfaceareawhen mechanicalpressuredistributors
by means of
applied
be
shall
areas,
membrane, except on irregular
hand
approved
or
distributors
pressure
mechanical
approvedself-propelled
the
mixing
provided
thoroughly
for
be
shall
means
.piuyt. Satisfactory

310-20

curing membranecompoundbefore and during its use. The mechanical
sprayingequipmentmay be either a full width spray bar equippedwith
multiple nozzles or a traversingspray which travels from one edge of the
pavementto the other.In eithercase the path of adjacentnozzlesor passes
of the traversingsprayshalloverlapa minimumof one-half(112)thewidthof
the spray patternso that all portionsof the surface shali receivedouble
applicationsfrom adjacentnozzlesor passes.The pumping,pressureand
distributionarrangementshall be correlatedwith the foruvardspeed to
provideadequateand uniformcoverageof the pavementat not lessthan
the
minimumrate required.lrregularareas to which the mechanicaldistributor
cannotbe adaptedmay be coveredwith hand sprays.
when hand spraysare used,the curing membraneshall be appliedin two
(2) applications,each at a rate of not less than one (1) litre'per five (5)
squaremetersof surfacearea so as to providea total rate of application'oi
one (1)litre pertwo and one half (2-112)squaremetersof surfacearea.The
path o! the spray on the secondapplicationshall be at right angles
to the
path of the spray on the first application.when hand ope-rated
iprays are
permitted,-the
equipmentsupplyingthe pressureto the.spraynozzleshallbe
capableof supplyinga constantand uniformpressureto provideuniformand
adequate distributionof the curing membrane compound at the rate
required.lf from any cause,such as rain-fallsoon aftei its application,the
curing membrane is damaged, the contractor shall immediatelyapply
anotherapplicationof curingmembraneto the surfaceof the pavement.The
rate of applicationfor the replacementmembraneshall be the same as for
the originalmembrane.
Unless othenruisedirected by the Engineer, immediatelyfoilowing the
applicationof the curing membrane,an approvedshade-canvasshill be
placed.approximatelythirty (30) centimetersabove the pavementsurface.
The shade-canvasshall be constructedof materialsand in a manner
approvedby the Engineer.In no case shall any portionof the shade-canvas
come in contactwiththe pavement.The initialcuringshallbe continuedfor a
period of twenty four \24) hours from the time the curing membrane
is
applied.
when forms are removed,whether during the initial or the final curing
period,the edgesof the pavementshallreceivecuringmembraneat
the rate
of coveragespecifiedfor the pavementsurface.
The curingmembranemay be appliedto the verticaledgesof the pavement
by means of hand sprays or by nozzles attached to the mechanical
distributor,but the edges of the pavementshall be covered with curing
membraneat the ratespecifiedwithinthirty(30) minutesafterremovalof the
forms.
when cold-pouredjoint compoundis used, all joints shall be sawed during
the initialcuringperiod.The shade-canvasmay be moved at joint locations
for short periodsof time to permitthe sawing.Beforebeingseiated,
the joints
shall be thoroughlycleanedof all loosesawdust, laitanceldirt,otherforeign
matter, and free of water.As the methodof final curing is different

310-21

from that of the initial curing,the cleaningand sealing of joints shall be
performedimmedlately
followingthe removalof the shade-canvasat the end
period
and prior to the applicationof the polyethylene
of the initialcuring
sheeting.
When hot pouredjoint compoundis used,the jointsshallbe sawed,cleaned,
and filledwith jute or other acceptableprotectivematerialin the same time
joints.
sequenceas for cold-poured
In no case shall any portionof the concretepavementbe exposedto the
directrays of the sun for morethan one (1) hour.
Followingjointingoperations,curingmembraneshall be appliedto the joint
area at the ratespecifiedfor the pavementsurface.
b) Final Curine
Upon completionof the initialcuringperiodand after the shade-canvashas
been removed and jointingoperationhas been completed,the pavement
shall be completely covered with White Opaque Polyethylene Film as
specifiedin AASHTOM 171.Adjoiningsheetsshall be lappeda minimumof
forty five (45) centimeters.The sheetingshall be held in place in a manner
approvedby the Engineer.
Finalcuringshallbe continueduntilthe concretereachesan age of fourteen
film
('14)days. During this period,the curing membraneand polyethylene
from
Any
one
cause.
damage
protected
from
any
from damage
shall be
cause shall be immediatelyrepairedby the Contractorat his expense.No
shall be allowedon the surface
traffic,includingworkmenand pedestrians,
of the pavementuntilthe expirationof the fourteen(14) daycuringperiod.
When concreteis beingplacedduringthe time that the air temperaturemay
be expected to drop below fifteen (15) degrees C, a sufficient supply of
burlap, straw, hay, or other suitable blanketingmaterial shall be provided
alongthe work to protectthe concreteand maintaina minimumtemperature
of fifteen(15) degreesC in the concreteas measuredon the surfaceof the
pavement. An approved moisture barrier such as wet burlap or plastic
sheetingshall be placed on the concreteprior to placing the blanketing
material.This type of cure shall be maintainedfor a periodof seventytwo
(72) hours as the initialcure.After the initialcure as specifiedabove,a final
cure as specifiedabovemay be used. The final cure shall be maintainedfor
a period of fourteen(14) days, thus making a seventeen(17) day curing
periodfor coldweatherconcreting.

310.3.11

SurfaceToleranCe
As soon as the concretehas hardenedsufficiently, the pavementsurface
shall be tested with a three (3) meter straightedge or other specified
devices. Areas showing high spots of more than three (3) mitlimeters,
but not exceeding twelve (12) millimetersin three (3) meters between

310-22

any two contactpoints,shall be markedand immediatelygrounddown with
an approvedgrindingtool to a toleranceof less than three.(3) mm as
describedabove.where the departurefrom correctcross sectionexceeds
twelve(12) millimeters,
the pavementshall be removedand replacedbyand
at the expenseof the Contractor.
Any area or sectionso removedshall be not less than three (3) meteis in
lengthnor less than the full width of the lane involved.when it is necessary
to removeand replacea sectionof pavement,any remainingportionof the
slab adjacentto the joints that is tess than three (3) meters in length,shall
also be removedand replacedat the Contractor,s
expense.
310.3.12

Testsfor Thicknessof Pavementand Degreeof.Compaction
i) Thicknessof Pavement
The Employerwill not be liablefor paymentof any excess in thicknessof
depthof pavement.Duringthe progressof the work, the thicknessor depth
of pavementwill be determinedby the Engineerfrom cores cut from the
concretepavementby the contractor.The cost of guttingand recoveringall
the cores describedin this clause and the followingparagraphshalf be
deemedto be includedin the ratesand pricesfor porflandcement concrete
Pavemententeredby the Contractorin the Billof euantities.
Unsatisfactory
work shall be repaired,replaced,or will be paid for at an
adjustedprice,as follows:
a)

One 15cmdiametercore will be removedby the Contractorfrom
each lane, at such locationsas the Engineermay direct, and
shallrepresentnot morethan 1000SM of pavementarea.A lane
shall be consideredthe pavementsurface betweenlongitudinal
joints,or a longitudinaljoint
and pavementedge.

b)

lf any core measurementis deficientmore than 6.5 mm from the
requiredthicknessa core measurementshall be taken at each
30m intervalin both directionslongitudinal
from the first deficient
core in the same lane, as definedherein,until the thicknessof
the pavementis foundto be not morethan 6.5 mm deficientfrom
the requiredthickness.Each deficientcore shall be considered
as representing
the'conditionin the same lane or longitudinal
section, as above defined, for a distance of 15m, in each
directionlongitudinally
from the core.
c)
Sectionsof pavementwhichare deficientin thickness,as
determinedby cores, by an amount more than 1.3 cm shall be
removedand replacedwith pavementof the specifiedthickness
at the expenseof the Contractor.The removaland replacement
shall startat the determinedpoint of deficiencyand proceed
longitudinallyas hereinafterspecilied, until the pavement is
to be not more than 6.5 mm Ueficientfrom the required
thickness.The old reinforcingsteel shall be left extended a
sufficientdistanceso as to allowthe new reinforcementsteel to
be lappedwith the old, the requireddistanceto be weldedto the
satisfaction
of the Engineer.

310-23

d)

e)

The removal and replacementsof pavements shall extend
the full width each lane in which such deficiencyis
transversely
found.
All pavementswithin two (2) meters of the deficiencyspot shall
be removed,except that When any joint is more than two (2)
meters,all pavementsshallthen be removedto the nextjoint'
Sections of pavement which are deficient in thickness, as
determined by measurement of cores in accordance with
AASHTO T14il-49, by an amount more than 6'5 mm, but not
i"norethan 1.3 cm, will be paid for at an adjusted price as
specifiedin TableBelow:
DEFICIENCY IN THICKNESSAS DETERMINED
FROM CORES

Thickness

Proportional Part of Contract of
Contract Price to be allowed.

3 00 mmto 6.5mm

95%

6 . 5m mt o 1 3 m m

75%

ii) Degreeof .ComPaction
The coresthat have been cut from the concretepavementaccordingto the
requirements of (i) above shall be examined by the Engineer's
to check the degree of compactionachievedthrough the
Representative
the effectivenessof the bond betweenthe top and bottom
check
to
sla'band
courseconcrete.
Should any core reveal that any part of the slab has not been adequately
compactedby revealinghoneycombedor segregatedconcreteand should
the bond betweenthe top and bottomlayersof concretebe suchthat a plane
of weaknessis present,then adOitionalcores shall be taken to check the
areas of defectiveconcretepavementaccordingto the procedurelaid down
in (i) above for determiningthe areas of concretepavementdeficientin
compaction.
Any areas of defectivepavementconcreteso found shall be replacedwith
new concretein accordancewith this sectionat contractor'sOWnexpense'
The Engineerreservesthe right to carry out crushingtests on any or all of
the conirete cores taken in accordancewith this clause,and shouldthese
tests show that any area of pavementconcrete has failed to meet the
then such areasof concreteshall
strengthrequiremenisof the specificatibn,
be re-movedand replagedwith new concrete,mixed, laid, compactedand
own expense'
of this sectionat contractor's
finishedto the requirements

310-24

iii) Refillineof Holes
Holes in the pavement.createdby the cuttingof cores shall be thoroughly
coatedon the insidewith a neat cementgrout and shall then be filledilith
concreteof the same mix as shownin the pavement. The fillingshall be in
two-equal layersand each shall be rodded25 times to its full-depth.The
surface shall be finishedflush and broomed. The surface shall be kept
thoroughlywet for 72 hoursthereafter.
310.3.13

Replacement
of DefectiveConcrete
Any concrete not complyingwith the specificationshall be cut out
and
replacedin accordancewith the specification
over the full width of the slab
betweenlongitudinal
jointsand over a lengthextendingbetween
construction
two transversejointseach of a typeotherthan a warping
foint.

310.3.14

ConcreteLug Anchors
"concrete Lug Anchors" shall be constructedin accordance
with the
dimensionsand notes and at the locationsshown on the plans.
unless
otheruviseindicated on the plans, the class, composition,consistency,
proportioning,
batching,mixingand curingof the concreteused in concreie
lug anchors shall conform to the sarne requirementsas the
concrete
pavement.Reinforcingsteel,concreteand excavationfor
lug anchorsshall
be subsidiaryto the Billof euantitiesitem "concreteLug Ancliors."

310.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

310.4.1

Measurement
The unit of measurementfor paymentshall be the cubic meters
of the
completed and accepted poriland cement concrete pavement,
as
measured in place.The numberof cubic metersof the completedporfland
cement concrete pavementshall be determinedby the rengin measured
along the centre line and upon the surfaceof the roao, times"ihe
width as
snownon the Drawingsplus the areas of any wideningon curves,
turnouts
and intersection,authorizedand measured-separateiy.Measurement
of
pavement thickness will be ensured by erecting
shutters for screeding
concreteat requiredlevel.
The unit of measurementfor bridgeApproachslabs shall be the
square
meters of the area actuallyconstructedin accordancewith the Drawings
or
as directedin writingby the Engineer.
concrete Lug Anchorsshall be measuredby the linearmetersin prace,
the
measuringbeing made along the centerlineof the concrete lug
anchor
transverseto the pavementcenterline. No measurementwill
be made of
unauthorized
areasor for extrathickness.

310-25

310.1.2

Payment
The number of cubic meters of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement,
measuredas specifiedin sub-item310.4.1above , will be paid for , at the
pricetenderedper cubicmeter in the Bill of Quantities,adjustedas specified
for deficiencyin thickness,which priceshallincludethe cost of constructing,
finishing,curing,protectingand cleaningthe pavementas above described;
the preparationof subgradeto receivethe pavement;the constructionof all
joints of whatevertype; cutting of cores and fillingof holes, all materials,
includingjoint filler and other material, equipment,labour and all else
necessarytherefor,and all otherwork in connectiontherewithand incidental
there to in accordancewith the specificationand Drawings. Reinforcing
steel shall be measuredseparatelyunder relativeitems of work.
The numberof cubic metersof BridgeApproachSlabs,will be paidfor at the
price tenderedper cubic meter in the Bill of Quantities,which price shall
finishing,curing,protectingand cleaningthe
includethe cost of constructing,
slab as abovedescribed;the surfacepreparationof the sub-baseto receive
the slab; the constructionof all joints of whatever type; all materials,
includingjoint filler and other joint material,equipment,labour and all else
necessarytherefor,and all otherwork in connectiontherewithand incidental
and Drawings.
theretoin accordancewiththe Specification

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

3 1 0a

PlainConcrete
Pavement

3 1 0b

ConcretePavementCM
Reinforced

3 1 0c

ConcreteLugAnchors

310-26

CM

M

ITENI 3I I

3l l.l

ASPHALT CONCRETE WEARING COURSE (PLANT MIX)
WITH CELLULOSE FIBRE.
DESCRIPTION
The work shallconsrstof furnishing
aggregates,
asphaltbinderand cellulose
fibre at a controlasphaltbatchingplant,'mixedat a specifiedtemperarure,
spreadingand compacting
the mixturein an approvedmanneron primedor
tacked surface of base, subbase,bridge deck or concretepavement,in
accordancewith these specificationra'io in conformitywith lines, grades,
typical cross-sections,shown on the drawings or as directed by the
Engineer.

311.2

MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS

3lt.2.l

VlineralAggregates
a ) Coarse Aggrcgates

coarse Aggregatesshall be crushed, non-absorptivestones and unless
othenvisestipulated,shall conformto the followingqrialityrequirementsof
AASHTOM 283 for classA aggregates:
1. Los A.ngelesabrasion,AASHTOT 96
2. Flatand ElongatedParlicles,
ASTM D 4791,Comparinqtenqthto
thickness(measuredon mate ial
retainedabovethe No. 4 sieve)

30% max.

15 oh max.

2.5:1
3. Sodiumsulfatesoundness
loss
(5 cycles),AASHTOT 104

15 oh max.

4. Particles.
retainedon the No. 4 sieve
shallhave at least
one fracturedface,
two fracturedfaces

1 0 0% m i n .
75 % min.

5. Absorption,
MSHTO T 85

2 o/orfax.

6. Coarseand finedurabilitv
index.
AASHTOT 210

40 o/omix.

Mixeswith relativelypure carbonateaggregatesor any aggregatesknownto
polishshallnot be used.
h) FineAggregates
Fineaggregate
shallconsist
of a blendof 100% crushed,manufactured
sancl.lt
shallconformto the qualityrequirements
of MSHTo M 20. The sodiumsulfate
soundnessloss in 5 cyclesshailnot exceed15 percent.ln addiiion,the liquid
iimitshallnotexceed25 as determinecl
bv AASHTOT g9.
Jti-l

c) CombinedAggregates
The severalaggregatefractionsof courseand fine for the mixtureshall be
sized, graded, and combined in such propotlions that the resulting
comoositebtendconformsto Table-Abelow.
Table A
(Percentage
by WeightPassingSieves,AASHTOT 27 &f 11)
PercentaqePassinq

Sieve Designation
3/4 in.
1t2
3/B
No.4
N o .B
No. 30
No. 50
No. 200
0.020mm

lessthan

1 0 0%
85-95
60-75
20-23
16-24
12-16
12-15
8-10
3*

* To be controlled
and mineralfillertaken
of aggregate
froma combination
samples.
stockpile
fromrepresentative

3rr.2.2

AsphaltCement
a) AsphaltCementshallbe AC-20or similargradeand conformto AASHTO
M 226.
b) AsphaltCementshallbe mixedat a temperatureas requiredto achievea
kinematic viscosity of 150 to 300 centistokes.Typical plant mixing
is 310o-325oF and at no time shallthemixingtemperature
temperature
exceed325 "F.

31t.2.3

Mineral Filler
a. Mineralfiller shouldconsistof finelydividedmineralmater such as rock
or limestonedust or other suitablematerial.At the time of use it should
dry to flow freelyand essentiallyfree from agglomerations.
be sufficiently
Fillershould be free from organicimpuritiesand have a plasticityindex
not.greaterthan 4. Fillermaterialforthe mix shall meet the requirements
ofAASHTOM 17.
b. Commercialmineralfiller added to the mixture,shall be limitedto less
than20ohof its weightsmallerin sizethan 0.02 mm.

31r.2.4

Fibre
Cellulose
Fibrestabilizer,cellulosefibre is to be utilized.Dosageratesfor celluloseis
0.3 % by weightof the total mix. Allowabletolerancesof fibre dosageshall
be +/- 10 % of the requiredfibre weight.The selectedfibre shall meet the
propertiesdescribedin Table-Butilizingthe listedtest procedures.

311--2

Table B
C E L L U L O S EF I B R EP R O P E R T T E S
1 ) SieveAnalysis
d.

MethodA - AlpineSieveAnalysis:
FibreLength:
PassingNo 100sieve

0.25"(maximum)
70 % (+1-19 o1"1

MethodB - MeshScreenAnalysis;
FibreLength:
PassingNo. 20sieve
No. 40 sieve
N o . 1 4 0s i e v e
2) Ash-Content:
3) p H :
4) OilAbsorption:

1B% 1+1-non-volatiles)
7.5 (+l--.9;
5.0 (+l- 1.9;
(timesfibreweight)

5) MoistureContent.
l

a)

0.25"(Maximum)
85 oh(+l- lgo1"1
65 % (+l- 1go 1
30 % (+t- 10%)

<50

Method A - Alnine Sieve Analvsis

This test shall be performedusingas AlpineAir Jet sieve (Type200 LS). A
representative
five gram sampleof fibre shall be sievedfor 14 minutesat a
controlledvacuurnof 22 inches(+/- 3) of water.The portionremainingof the
screenshallbe weighted.
b) Method B - Mesh ScreenAnalvsis
Thistestshallbe performed
usingstandardNo. 20,40,60,g0, 100 and 140
sieves,nylon brushesand a shaker.A representative
10 gram sample of
fibreshallbe sieved,usinga shakerand two nylonbrusheson eacn screen.
The amount retainedon each sieve shall be weighedand the percentage
passingcalculated.
Repeatability
of this methodis suspectand needsto be
verified.
2) Ash Content
A representative
2-3gram sampleof fibreshallbe placedin a tarredcrucible
and heatedbetween1100oFfor not less than two hours.The crucibleand
ash shallbe cooledin a desiccator
and reweiqhed.
3) pH Test
Fivegramsof fibreshallbe addedto 100 ml of distilledwater,stirredand let
set for 30 minutes.The pH shall be determinedwith a probecalibratedwith
pH 7.0 buffer.

311-3

4) OilAbsorptionTest
Five gramsof fibreshallbe accuratelyweighedand suspendedirt an excess
of mineralspiritsfor not less than five minutesto ensuretotal saturation.lt
will then be placed in a screen mesh strainer(approximately
0.5 square
millimeterhole size) and shaken on a wrist action shakerfor ten minutes
(approximately
1 - l14inchmotionat24Oshakes/minute).
The shakenmass
shall be then transferredwithout touching, to a tarred container and
weighed.Resultsshallbe reportedas the amount(numberof timesits own
weight)the fibresare ableto absorb.
5) MoistureContent
Ten gramsof fibre shallbe weighedand placedin a 250" forcedair oven for
two hours.The sample will then be reweighedimmediatelyupon removal
from the oven.
311.2.5

DesiqnMix RequiremenE
Design parametershall be rn accordancewith Hot Mix AsphaltDesign by
MarshalMethodutilisingAASHTOT - 245.

Sr. N o
t,

ii.
iii

tv.
vi.

vii.

Test

Parameter

WM percent.
AsphaltContent%
(Kg).
Stability
VMAperbent.
Flow0.01inch.
Compaction No. of
blowson each side of
specrmen.
Drain Down Test,
percent.

3-4
6 . 0m i n .
1 0 0 0m i n .
1 7m i n .
8-14
Er\

Desiqnation
T-166,T-209,T-269
of total mix.
MarshallMethod
MS-2
MarshallMethod.
MarshalMethod.

0.3max.

The mix designtest propertyvaluesand cures used to developthe job mix
in accordancewith the Asphalt InstitutesManual Series No. 2 (MS-2).
Acceptabledeviations
from variousvaluesof JMF shallbe as under:
a. Agqregates
PassingNo.4 and largersieves
PassingNo.8 to No. 100sieves
PassingNo. 200 sieve

!5%
!3%
+1ok

b. AsphaltCement
Percentby wt. in totalmix

!4.3%

c. CelluloseFibre
Percentby wt. in total mix.

311-4

+ 0 . 0 3%

3lr.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS

311.3.r

NlixingPlant
Plantsused for the preparationof the mixtureshall conformto AASHTOM
156and the following.
a. HandlineFiller
Adequatedry storageshall be providedfor the mineralfiller,and provisions
shallbe made for proportioning
the fillerintothe mixtureuniformlyand in the
desiredquantities.Mineralfillerin a batchplantwill be addeddirectlyintothe
weigh hopper.In a drum plant mineralfiller will be added directlyinto the
drum mixer.Specialattentionis directedto providingappropriateequipment
for accuratelyproportioningthe relative large amounts of mineral filler
requiredfor mixture.
b. Fibre Addition
Adequatedry storageshalt be providedfor the fibre additive,and provisions
shall be made for proportioning.fibre
into the mixtureuniformlyand in the
desiredquantities.
c. BatchPlant
Loosefibreor palletizedfibreshallbe addedthrougha separateinletdirectly
into the pugmill before adding bitumen in the mix. The additionof fibre
should be timed to occur duringthe hot aggregatecharging.Adequatedry
mixingtime is requiredto ensureproperblendingof the aggregateand fibre
stabilizer.Dry mixingtime shall be increased5 to 15 seconds.Wet mixing
time shall be increasedat least 5 secondsfor cellulosefibres to ensure
blendling
with the asphaltcement.
d. Hot - Mixture Storage
When the hot mixture is not to be hauled immediatelyto the projectand
placed,suitablebins shall be provided.Such bins shall be eithersurge bins
to balanceproductioncapacitywith haulingand placingcapacityor storage
bins which are heated and insulated and which have a controlled
atmospherearoundthe mixture.The holdingtime shall be withinlimitations
imposedby the Engineer,basedon laboratorytests of the storedmixture.In
no casewill mixturebe kept in storageovernight.

311.3.2

HaulingEquiBment
Hauling equipmentand paver shall be of . a type normally used for the
transportand placementof dense grade asphalthot mix. Truck beds shall
be coveredand insulatedif necessary,so that he mixturemay be delivered
on the road at a temoeratureof not lessthan 130 oC.

311-5

311.3.3

Pavers
Paversshall be a type normallyused for the placementof dense graded
asphalt hot mix. They shall be self-contained, power-propelled units
provided with an adjustable activated screed, heated and capable of
spreadingand finishingcoursedof asphaltplantmix materialin lane widths
applicableto the specifiedtypicalsectionand thicknessshownon the plants.
The paver shall be capableof being operatedat fonarardspeeds consistent
with satisfactoryplacementand compactionof the mixture.The paver shall
be capableof strikinga smoothfinishof uniformtexture.

31r.3.4

Conditionineof Existinq-.rsgr:tac9
a. lmmediatelybefore placing the mixture,the existing surface shall be
cleanedof loose or deleteriousmaterialby brooming or other approved
means.
b. A thintack coat of asphaltemulsion(SS-1,SS-1 h, CSS-1,CSS-1h or
similarmaterial)conformingto AASHTOM 140 or M 208 shall be applied
to ensure uniform and complete adherenceof the overlay.The asphalt
emulsionused for this purposewill be dilutedwith an equal part of water
and be appliedat the rate of approximately.1 gal/squareyard.
c. Where the existingsurface is distorted,a levelingcourse of hot asphalt
mix shall be requiredto restorepropercross-sectionprior to construction
of the overlay.

311.3.5

FacinsAnd Finishine
oF. The
The mixture shall be placed at a temperaturenot less than 290
mixturetemperatureshall be measuredin the truckjust priorto dumpinginto
the spreader.
The mixture shall be spread and struck off to the establishedgrade and
elevationwith asphaltpavers.
Facing speed will be adjusted so that sufficient time is allowed for
compactionoperationsand to providecontinuity.

311.3.6

Compaction
lmmediatelyafter the mixture has been spread and struck off, it shall be
thoroughlyand uniformlycompactedby rolling.
a. Due to the nature of mixture,the surface shall be rolled immediately.
Rollingshall be accomplishedwith steel wheel roliers of a minimum
weight of 10 tons. Rollingproceduresshall be adjustedto providethe
specifiedpavementdensity.Rollersshall move at a uniform speed not to
exceed 3 mph with the drive roll nearestthe paver. Rolling shall be
continueduntiland rollermarks are eliminatedand the minimumdensity
has been obtained.The Contractorshall monitor density during the
compactionprocessby use of nucleardensitygaugesto assurethat the
minimumrequiredcompactionis beingobtained.

3 11 - 6

b. To preventadhesionof the mixtureto the rollers,it shall be necessaryto
keep the wheels properlymoisturedwith water mixed with very small
quantitiesof detergentor otherapprovedmaterial.
c. The pavement shall be compacted to at least g4o/oof maximum
theoreticaldensityand at no morethan 6% air voids.
d. Once sufficientin-placedensity has been achieved,rolling operating
shouldcease,as over-rollingmay cause migrationof asphdltcementand
fillerto the compactedpavementsurface.
3t1.4

CONTROL OF ASPHALT MD(TURE
The mixture furnished by the Contractor shall conform to the job-mix
formula, within the allowable deviations from the target values. The
allowabledeviationsfrom the target values for the JMF of the aggregate
shallbe +l- 4% for the 314",112"
and 3/8"sieve,+/- 3Yoforthe No. 4, No. 8,
No. 30 and No. 50 sieve,and +/- 2o/ofor the No. 200 sieve.The allowable
deviationfrom the target value for the asphalt content shall be +/- 0.3
percent.

311.5

TRIAL / EXPERIMENTAL SECTIONS
Test section (s), a minimum of 200 meter each, shall be constructedto
examine the mixing plant process control, placement procedures,mix
surface appearance,compaction patterns and to calibrate the nuclear
densitydevice.

311.6

WeatherLimitations
The mixture shall be placed only when the air temperature is four (4)
degrees centigradeor above and no asphaltshall be laid under foggy or
rainyweatheror over moistsurface.

311.7

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

311.7.1

Measurement
The quantitiesof Asphalticwearingcourseshall be measuredby volume in
CM. laid and compactedin place. Measurementsshall be based on the
dimensionas shownon plans or as otherurrise
directedor authorizedby the
Engineer.A toleranceof + three (3) mm shall be allowed in compacted
thicknessof wearingcourse.However,any asphaltin excessof 3 mm shall
not be paid and any layer deficientby more than 3 mm may be rejected
unlessrectifiedby overlayingadditionallayer at no extra cost, approvedby
the Engineer.
The quantityof asphalticmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete
mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.
QuantitiesBitumen,wasted or remainingon hand after completionof the
work, shallnot be measuredor paidfor.

311-7

7. and paidseparately' 311. Description Unitof Measurement 311 a AsphalticConcretefor WearingCourse(ClassA) SM 3 1 1b Cellulosefibre SM 311-B .2 Payment The quantitydeterminedas piovidedabove shall be paidfor at the contract for each'of the particularpay items listedbelowand unit jrice respectively shown in tne bitt of Quantities. Pay ltem No.which prices and paymentshall constitutefull compensationfor all the costs necessaryfor the propercompletionof the work prescribedin this item.The quantityof cellulosefibreshallbe measuredin Kg.

312. 312.3 MEASUREMENT ANDPAYMENT 312. Pneumatic typeroller. the proof rolling is to be carried out on granularmaterial/ subgrade. Labour.2 Payment Thequantityof completed and accepted work. Padfootvibratoryroller.10tonscapacity. Payltem No.in case.g wheeler_ 21 tonscapacity.2 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 1.min.1 PROOF ROLI.3.and otheritemsnecessaryfor the completionof the work. Combination vibratoryroller_ min. 2. b" c.3. subgradematerialor asphalticlayersas tho ciie mai oe.The equipmentrequiredfor compaction may be any of the followingor combination thereof: a. However.all the undulations shall be removedoy irre contractoras a pre-requisite of this item for which paymentshalt be deemedto be includedwithinthisitem. The proofrollingis to be carriedout on any type of granularmaterial.measuredas providedabove will be paid at the unit price quotedby the contractorfor furnishingall equipments.10tonscapacity. 312.1 Measurement Proofrollingshallbe measuredby the unitof squaremeterin the areasas designated on the drawingsor directedbythe Engineer.The proof rollingshall'be-carriedout in accordancewith these specifications and in coriformation with the lines shownon the drawingsor as directedbythe Engineer. 312 Description ProofRolling 312-1 Unitof Measurement SM .ING DESCRIPTION Theworkshallconsistof conducting proofrollingby a specifiedtypeof roller to confirmthe adequacyof compaciionfor ihe-underlyinglayersof an existingroad or naturalsurface.ITI]M 312 312..

s .r.striln'I.cnu.

.

.100. AuionomousBodies. 400-1 .buildings. prestressed and posttensionedgirderand all brickand stone masonrystructuresbuiltas indicatedon the drawingsand in conformitywith the lines.power lines. methodsappliedin the work shall equipment. prices are such no where but items.STRUGTURES ITEM 4OO .workmanshipand construction conformto the requirementslaid down hereinand shall also followthe best modernconstructionpracticeswith the approvalof Engineer. Special clearingof site such as removal of existing prices bridges.3 ALIGNMENT AND GRADE The structureson verticalcurvesor the structureswhich have superelevated roadwaysbecauseof horizontalcurvesand those spans on which definite finished camber is necessaryin order to form a uniform grade line.in the manneroutlinedin section10'1"clearingand Grub'bing"cost of which shalt be deemed to be included in the price bid for the vari6us items.and methods of measurementand payment for all concrete structures including bridges.The Employershall bear the costs of relocatingsuch utilities.bushes.This item shall also includeconstructionof certainstructuralfeaturesand incidentalitems which are either common to all types of structuresor which may apply to any of them. telegraphlines. all requirespecialcare and attentronregardingto the elevationand alignment of their railingand kerbs. tendLredfor these be included to deemed be shall clearing special with the costsin connection in tlre price tendered for various items of the structuresin the Bitl of Quantities. shall be arranged by the Employer's n"pr"r"ntrtlu" with the concerned Government Agency/Agencies. piles' compositestructuresof concretesuch as barriersand steel. culverts..1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION This item containsa generaldescriptionof the specificitems of work.100. .sewer and water pipe lines.Utilitycompaniesinvolved. Materials. Removal or relocationof public or private utilities such as telephone. the materials.dimension in conjunctionwith ant instructionsissued by the Engineer.railwaytracksand theii appurtenances etc. .grade.100. will be paid for at the all provided for.2 CLEARING OF SITE The contractorshall clearthe sitesfor proposedstructuresof trees.concretepavementetc. stumpsand debris.constructioi requirements.

lumber.400. headwallsand on embankment slopes. fabricating.Bridgedecksand side walks shall be left in cleanand workmanlike condition.6 OPENING TO TRAFFIC Bridges or slab or box culverts h4ving decks constructedwith porfland cement concrete shall remain closed to all traffic and contractor. The contractorshall level off all excavatedmaterialnot used for back fill around piers.1 Measurenlelt The quantities of various pay items which constitute the completed and acceptedstructuresshall be measuredfor payment accordingto the plans and specification for the severalpay items appearingin the Biil of euantities and in term of the prescribedunits providedfor theleveral pay items. 400. the time of openingto traffic shall be increasedat the discretion-ofthe Engineer.7.falsework and otherincidentalexpenses.4 FOUNDATIONDATA Referto clause400(4).7. 400. culvert.e structure.the contractorshall clean up the site.5 FINAL CLEARING upon completionof structure. preparing.s equipmentsubjectto the resultsof tests made of the concretebut not less than twenty eight (28) days after the placingof concrete. 400-2 . form lumber.2 Payment The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the unit pricesbid for the severalpay items appearingin the Bill of euantities which paymentand priceb shall be full compensitionfor furnishinj.placingancl erectingall materialtor ine complet. when temperaturesare belowten 1io1degreec.7 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 400.equipmentand all other debris. remove all temporarybuildings.equipment. The above time of openingto traffic is applicablewhen temperaturesare aboveten (10) degreec.for all labour.only acceptedwork shall be includedfor paymentand the measuredquantity shall be basedon the dimensionof componentas shown on the plansor ai directedin writingby the Engineer.transporting. bents.false work. tool and all other items necessaryfor the completionof work such payment shali constitutefull paymeni for completed structure and no allowance will be made roi cofferdam construction.In any event bridgesor culvertswith concretedecks shall not be openedto trafficwithoutthe approvalof the Engineer.No specificpaymentfor clearingup shall be made but the cost shallbe includedin otheritemsshownon the billof quantities. 400. abutment.3(b) 400.

test pits or other sources.but where no such prices are providedfor.item 403 "Form Work".concrete pavementshallbe paidfor at the pricestenderedfor these items.in conformitywith the lines. FoundationData Foundationdata includingthe locationof all boreholestogetherwith the records of ground conditionsencounteredhave been obtainedfrom soil investigationby test boring. b.bushes. stumps.A. as directedby the Engineer. and item 405 "Pre Cast ConcreteStructures". Clearingthe Site The contractorshallclearthe site of the proposedstructureof trees.item 401 "Concrete"". sewer and water supply lines. undergroundcable lines. Special clearingof site such as removal of existing buildings. power lines. .2 MATERIALS The materialsused shall be those prescribedfor several contractitems which are to constitutethe completestructure.{00. 400.dimensionsand designshorvnon the plansarrdin accordancewith the provisionof item 107 "StructuralExcavationand Backfill".1 BRTDGESAND CULVERTS DESCRIJTION All steel and concretebridgesand concreteculvertsshall be constructedas indicatedoir the plans.railwaytracks and their appurtenancesetc. all costs in connectionwith this special clearingshallbe deemedto be includedin the pricetenderedfor the various itemsof structuresin the tenderedBillof Quantities.The Employer shall bear the cost of relocatingsuch utilities.utility companies and person involved. and all other pay itemswhichare to constitutethe completeconstructionof the structure. Removal or relocationof public or private utilitiessuch as telephoneor telegraphslines.and debrisin accordancewith section101 "Clearingand Grubbing".3 CONSTRUC'TIONREQUIREMENTS a.100. shall be arranged by the employerrepresentative with the specificgovernmentagency.grades. item 402 "False Work and Centeringfor BridgeS".A.(A) ITEM ZIOO . item 404 "Steel Reinforcement". lt is the Engineer's responsibility to ensureby additionalinvestigations throughthe contractorat the very beginningof constructionwork that the foundationlevelsgiven in the Drawingscoincidewith the localrequirements.A. 400(A)-1 .

NavigableStreams The channelof navigablestreamsshall be kept clear for safe passageof water. e.cast in situ deck slab. sidewalkand/orkerb may vary with respectto the grade line of the slab in order to producethe desiredappearance. Rails.5 It.the heightof rail.c. The contractorshall provideand maintainall necessarylight and signals in accordancewith the navigationauthority'srequirements.The contractorshall pay due regardto the hazardof the riverflow duringperiod of intenserainfall. In such cases. Concreting. d. the contractorshall submitfor approvalan outlineof the method he proposesto follow in the erectionof structure. PublicBodies/Service Authorities The Contractor'smethodologyshall meet all statutoryrequirements of the railway. ErectionMethod Beforemovingany constructionequipmentto the site.the contractorshall clean up the site conformingto requirements in item400. sidewalks and Kerbs on the curved portion of structureshall be constructed.3 g. cast in situ superstructures. wheel guards.irrigationor ServiceAuthoritiesand his ratesshallincludefor all costsof meetingthese requirements.bridge rails including kerbs. The concreteof Bridgesor culvertsshallbe pouredand surfacefinishedand curedas per requirements conformingto item401. safety fencing shall be so constructedand placed that finished vertical alignment and gradeshallbe as shownon the Drawings.All nraterialdepositedin the channelshall be removedto the requireddepthand clearancelinesat the contractor's expense. as far as possible after the completion of the entire superstructure slab. 400(A)-2 . f. Alignmentand Grades All structuralmemberssuch as prefabricated girders. Final Clearing upon completion of structures.

fabricating.A. 400(A)-3 .4.placingand erectingall materialfor the complete structure.falsework and otherincidentalexpenses.. -100.2 Pavment The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the unit pricesbid for the severalpay items appearingin the Bill of Quantitieswhich payment and prices shall be full compensationfor furnishing. Such payment shall constitutefull payment for completed structure ancl no allowance will be made for cofferdam form lumber.A.1 Measuremdnt The quantitiesof variouspay itemsof Bridgesand culvertswhich constitute the completedand accepted structuresshall be measuredfor payment for the severalpay items appearing accordingto the plansand specification in the Bill of Quantitiesand in term of the prescribedunits providedfor the severalpay items. Only acceptedwork shall be includedfor paymentand the measuredquantityshall be based on the dimensionof componentas shownon the plansor as directedin writingby the Engineer.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 400. construction. tool and all other items necessaryfor the completionof work.t.transporting.preparing.equipment.for all labour.A.400.

The concreteof the variousclassesshall satisfy the requirementsshown in Table401-1 IABLETI0LI Po Classof Concrete Min. 40r.D1.Cement Vibrated Ratio (mm) 25-75 100-150 100-150 25-75 25-75 50-100 50-100 50-100 25-75 0.in thin reinforcedsections. Engineer.58 0.finishingincludingtransport 'approved 'indof cement concrete made from typ6 of cem-ent.watei.B. Size of Coarse Aggregate (mm) A1 A2 A3 B (D1 D2 D3 Lean Concrete 300 350 400 250 275 450 500 550 400 175 n 28 days Compressive Strength(Min) (Cylinder) (Ke/Sq.tolhe lines.as indicatedon drawings.r. ClassB Concreteshallbe used onlywherespecified.65 0.Y and Lean concrete.. Cement Kg/Cubic Meter t Conc Max.58 0. Thlefoilowingrequirtfieiiii shallgovernunlessotherwiseihown on the Drawings.) 20 25 38 51 38 25 25 25 13 51 210 245 280 170 210 350 425 500 210 100 401-1 Conristency Maxlmum Consistency Permissible (Range in Slump) Water . except as-noted below or directed-byth. concreteptacedroi pitei shall be class43 with a minimumcement'cohtentof four huhdreo laoo) rg per cubicmeter.40 0. class Y concreteshall be used as a filler in steel grid bridgefloors.l CLASSESOF CONCRETE The classes of concrete recognized in these specificationsshall be designated: A.or as otherwisedirectedby the Engineeror specifiedin the Specialprovisi6hsor on tne Orawings.yith. grades.40 0.q slump bgtyegl ten (10)and fiftebnlisy-cin. for non-reinforcedand reinforcedconcretestructures.D2.or as othenvisespecifiedin the-speciatFrovisions. fine coarse aggregates all in accordance with the requirementsin these speciflcationsand conforming. concreteshall be used for pre-stressedand posttensionedelements..D2 or D3.D3.concrete placedunderwaier shail be class 42 with a minimum cement content of three hundredfifty (350) kg per cubic meter of concrete r.in the speciar provisiors. bnd typical sections shown on the Drawingsor called for in the special provisiohsand to the approvalof the Engineer. Lean concrete shall be used in thin layers underneathfootinqsand when calledfor on the Drawingsor directedny tne Engineer. class c concreteshallbe usedfor cribbing. class D1.C.ITEM 401 401.58 ..The class of concrete to be used shall be as called for on the Drawingsor as directedoy tne Eng.cm.58 0. class 41 concrete shall be used everywhere.40 0.58 0.1 CONCRETE DESCRIPTION This work consistsof furnishingplacing. curing.ineeror specified.

On Ground Concrete concretepouredby erectingformworkwith necessarybracingson ground. or a l.shall be type l. Differentbrand or differenttypesof cementfromthe samemill.soft or flaky particles. The type of the cement to be used.ombination thereof. sampling of cement shall be in accordancewith AASHTO Designatioh r-127.2 Fine Aggregate The fine aggregateshall consist of sand. alkali. hard. 401.rated grains -shale fr.uncr.for more than six (6) monthsor cement stored in local storage by contractorfor more than three (3) months after shipment from the factory may be retested before use and shall be rejected if it fails to meet any of the speciflcation requirements. prior to shipment. durable. Portland cement shall conform to the requirements of the standard specifications for Portland cement.2.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 401. bracing and towers to support the formworkat higherlevels. lumps.\. unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.40t. Millcertificates shallaccompany deliveryof the materialto thework. stone screenings. or other approvedinert materialswith similar characteristics. sound.2 TYPES OF CONCRETE WORIG Under Ground Concrete concrete pouredbelowNaturalsurface Levelwith or withoutshutteringand shoring. AASHTO Designation Mgs (ASTM Designationc150).ee. strong.or the samebrandor typefrom differentmills shallnot be mixedor used alternatelyin the same item of constructionunlessauthorizedby the Engineer.The.after preparingnew mix design.200sieveby washingnor morethanone percentof claylumpsor one(1)percentof shale. from injuriousamountof dust.1 PortlandCement cement remainingin bulk storageat the mill.organicmatter. 401-2 . cementshallbe deliveredin sufficientquantitiesto ensurethat thereis no suspensionof the work of concretingat any time. Elevated Concrete concrete poured by erecting props.havingclean. and shall not containmore than three (3) percentof materialpassingthe No.materialreactivewith alkalisin the cementloamor otherdeleterious substances.2.useof beachsandis prohibited withoutthewrittenconsentof theEngineer. 40r.

9of these Specifications.t o N o .1 CombinedAggregate The coarse and fine aggregate shall be combined in the proportions accordingto the approvedtrial mixesfor each classof concrete.8 sieve. hundred(500)revolutions. No.The coarseaggregateshall be of uniformgradingwith maximumsizes as requiredfor the variousclassesof concreteas shown in Table 4O1-2and when tested in accordancewith AASHTO DesignationT-11 & T-27 shall meetthe followinggradingrequirements. Testing of coarseaggregateis specifiedunderltem 401.4 100 90-100 10-30 35-70 35-70 J5-/U 0-15 0-5 0-5 10-30 90-100 20-55 0-15 0-10 0-10 25-60 95-100 95-100 95-100 1nn 11lz-in. 4 to t/o-in. When testedin accordancewith AASHTOT-104.i n t.4 1 0-5 0-5 Not morethan five 5 percentshallpassNo.i n .1nn 1 . It shall have an abrasionloss of not more than forty (40) percentat five when testedin accordancewith MSHTO T-96. 401-4 .In case the Contractor characteristics proposesto use the aggregatehavingthe alkaline/siliceous with the intentionto use it with Blast FurnaceSlag Cement.for five cycle.4 2 . 3 tlo '100 30-1 0 0 40-70 0-15 t/r-in.200 sieve by washingand not more than five (5) percentof soft fragments.i n I n c h e s Designated Sizes z12 a 111 1nn 1 1l z .4 100 N o . No. * 20-55 1 0 0 90-100 . TABLE 40T.3.t o N o . Coarseaggregateshall containnot more than one (1) percentby weight of materialpassingthe No. o N o .3lq-in.the loss with the sodiumsulphatesoundnesstest shallbe not morethan 12 percent.t o 1 .2 GRADING OF COARSEAGGREGATES Percentageby Weight Passing LaboratorySieves H a v i n qS q u a r eO p e n i n g s . he will under take to carryout the job with out any extracost and shall arrangeto conduct the necessarytestsas directedby the Engineer. Natural aggregatesshall be thoroughlywashed before use.i n .2.i n . reactivewhere the concreteis to be The aggregateshall be non-alkalilsilica pouredunderwateror exposedto humidconditions.4 to 2 .i n . 101.

Sand equivalent(T-176)shall be 75 min.1 6 45-85 No.or laminatedpieces.prepared with standardPortlandcement and tested in accordancewith AASHTO Designation T-71.1.For exposedwork.2.9 of these specifications. gravel or otherapprovedinert materialswith similarcharacteristics.REGATES SieveDesignation 3/8 inch PercentagePassingby Weight.havingclean.qualifiesfor these requirements.sound.shalldevelopa compressivestrengthat 7 days of not less than 90 percentof the strengthdevelopedby a mortarpreparedin the same mannerwith the same cement6nd gradedsand havinga finenessmodulus of 2. 401-3 . 100 N o . Fine aggregatesshall be of such qualitythat mortar specimens. Testing of the aggregate is specified under ltem 401.hard.200 0-3 In case if fine aggregates fail under Fineness Modulus or Gradation howevermaterialpassingNo. then the materialcan be accepted. 4 in combinedaggregate. strong.free from injuriousamount of soft. The fine aggregate shall be uniformlygraded and when tested in accordancewith AASHTO DesignationT-11 and T-27 shall meet the followinggradingrequirements: GRADING OF FINE AGC.3 to 3.a finenessmodulus determination shall be made upon representative samplessubmittedby the Contractorfrom such sourcesas he proposesto use.3. the fine aggregateshall be free from any substancethat will discolourthe concretesurface. friable.50 10-30 N o . 401. For the purposeof determiningthe degreeof uniformity. Naturalaggregatesif requiredshall be thoroughlyand uniformlywashedbeforeuse. Fine aggregatefrom any one sourcehavinga variationin finenessmodulusof greaterthan 0.3 CoarseAggregate The coarse aggregateshall consist of crushedor broken stone.durableuncoatedparticles.1 0 0 2-10 No. or a combination thereof. alkali.4 95-100 N o .20 eitherway from the finenessmodulusof mix designsamplessubmittedby the Contractormay be rejectedtill new trial mixes are preparedand tested by the contractor. organic or other deleterious matter and conforming to the requirements of theseSpecifications.thin elongated.

The Engineermay require that aggregates be stored on separate platforms at satisfactory locations.2. ASTM C535. or flaws of any character.shall be transferredto elevatedair tight and weatherproof bins. The floor shall be raisedfrom the ground. and durable rock. which will protect the cement from dampness. Cement held in storage for a period of over sixty (60) days. 401. and the shipments of cement as received shall be separately stored in such a manner as to provide easy access for and inspectionof each shipment. Provisionsfor storage shall be ample.6 Storageof qlment andAggreqates a) All cement shall be stored. Copiesof cementrecordsshall be furnishedto the Engineershowing such detailas.if approved. the Engineermay requirethat the coarse aggregatebe separatedinto two or more sizes.if used.. In orderto securegreateruniformityof the concretemix.sacked cement on small jobs may be storedin the open. In general.101.the percentageof wear shall not exceed fifty (50) when tested in accordancewith the Standard Method of Testing for Abrasionof CoarseAggregateby the use of the "Los Angeles Machine". The buildingsshall be placed in locationsapprovedby the Engineer. 401-5 . However. Storagebuildingsshallhave identification capacityof a sufficientquantityof cement for at least thirty (30) days use.for any reasonthe Engineermay suspectof beingdamaged.2. seams. The stone shall be free from coatings. Storedcementshall meet the test requirements at any time after storagewhen retestis ordered by the Engineer. b) The handlingand storingof concreteaggregatesshall be such as to preventsegregationor the inclusionof foreignmaterials. lf aggregatesare storedon the groundthe bottom layer of aggregateshall not be disturbed or used without. sound. Bulk cement.shallbe subjectto a retest beforebeing used in the work. the quantityused duringthe day run or at each part of the work.At the time of use all cement shall be free flowingand free of lumps.immediatelyupon arrivalon the site of the work. upon a raisedplatformprovidedthat ample wa+erproof coveringis ensured. Cement bags shall be weighedat randomto checkfor variation.5 Rubbleor CyclopeanConcrete Rubble or cyclopeanconcreteshall consist of tough.recleaningand as approved by the Engineer. Differentsizes of aggregateshall be storedin separatebins or in separate stock pilesto preventthe materialat the edges of the pilesfrom becoming intermixed. or cement which. rn weather-proofbuilding.

density. in concrete.000)partsper millionof chloridesnor morethan one thousandthree hundreds(1.transport. for washing aggregates.1 of Concrete Proportioning All concreteshall be proportionedby wbighing.3. and changesin the proportionsmay be requiredfor durabilityand the purposeof iequiredworkability.2.fine aggregates.Designation: 401.ordinaryPortlandcement shall be used for all types of concrete. handling and placing of concrete shall conformwith the requirementsgiven hereinafter.impermeability. 401-6 .except as specifiedherein.for washingaggregatesand for mixingshall be subject to the approvalof the Engineer. the of produce etching concreteor when requiredby the Engineer. When sulphateresistingcement or_othertype of cement ii'required.000)parts per millionof chloridesnor more than one thousandfive hundreds(1.500)partsper millionof sulfatesas soa.2. O"ys of more than five (5) percent when compared obtainedwith distilledwater. they shall not bb used in are'peimitted stringth accelerators greater dosages than those recommended by the manufacturer. of the to cause discolouration amount containany impuritiesin a sufficient surface. .and shalt conformto the requirementF of the agenfs specifiedby the manufacturer' .the quality of the mixing water shall be determinedby the StandardMethod of Test for Quality of Water to be used T 26. The proportionsby weight of cement.1 Water The waterfor curing.AASHTOMethodsof samplingand Testing. the water for curing.10L. water for curing concreteshall not In additionto the above requirements.lt shallbe free from oil and shallcontainnot more than one thousand(1.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS The manufacturing. In no case shall the water containan amount of impuritiesthat will cause a changein the settingtime of Portlandcementof more than twentyfive (25) putceintnor a reduCtionin the compressivestrength of mortar at fourteen to the result it+.101.and for mixingshall be free from oil and shall not containmore ttrantwo thousands(2. strength. ln non-reinforced concrete work. Unlessotherwisespecified.8 Admixtures Admixturesshallonly be allowedto be usedwith writtenpermissionfrom the agents.or for each [ermitted by the Engineer.t01.it will be specifiedon the Drawings/orin BOQ or orderedby the Engineer. lf air-entraining to be used.set retardersor Engineer. such approvalmay be withdrawnat any time.300)partsper millionof sulfates(SO+).coarse aggregates and water necessary to produce concrete of the required strength and consistencyshall be approvedby the Engineer.water reducingagents.

3 Mixing Concrete a) Mixins General The concreteshallbe mixedonly in the quantityrequiredfor immediateuse. The consistencyof concreteshall be deierminedto be as dry as it is practicableto satisfy the requirementsfor transportationand placing of the concreteas describedhereinafter.3. lt shall be of such a consistencythat it will flow around reinforcementsteel but individualparticlesof the toarse aggregatewhen isolatedshall show a coatingof mortarcontainingits proportl6nate amount of sand. Concretethat has developedan initialset shallbe rejected. No concreteshallbe placedin the works untilthe resultsof the twenty eight (28) days test indicatethat the design proporlionsare satisfactoryas per requirementsunder ltem 401.2 Consistency concrete shall have a consistencysuch that it will be workable in the requiredposition. 401. consistency of concrete shall be determined as specifiedin AASHTO T-119.3.3. 401-7 .10 "Testing of compressive sirengih".desired workability with the proportions originally approved.1or as designatedby the Engineer. Adjustmentof the proportionsshall be subjectlothe followingprovisions: a) Adjustmentfor variationin workability.Based on the approvedmix proportions.The amount of water in the mix is the total amount of free water. concreteshallbe thoroughlymixedin a mixerof an approvedsize and type that will ensurea uniformdistribution of the materialsthroughoutthe mass.and shall be posted at the mixer. The contractor'sattentionis drawn to the time requiredto prepare and test trial batchesand the contractorshall be responsiblefor productionof trial batches at a sufficienilyearly date so that the progressof the work is not delayed.the contractorshall prepare lists showingthe numberof kilogramsof the variousmaterialto be used in the batch size adopted. The consistencyof concreteat the time of deliveryshall be as shownin Table 401. 401.lf it is found impossibleto obtain concrete of the . b) Adjustmentfor new materials. such lists are subjectto approvalby the Engineer.No changein the sourceor characterof the materialshall be made withoutdue noticeto the Engineerand no new materialsshall be used until the Engineer has aicepted such materialsand has approvednew proportionsbasedon triarmixes. includingthe free waterheld by the aggregates.the Engineershall make such changesas aie necessary. The requiredconsistencyshall also be shown.

except as otherwisespecifiedor where other methods are specificallyauthorizedby the Engineer.lz) percentfor any size of aggregate. b) Mixine at Site Concretemixersmay be of the revolvingdrum or the revolvingblade type and the mixing drum or blades shall be operateduniformlyat the mixing speed recommendedby the manufacturer. Concrete mixers shall be equipped with adequatewater storage and a controllingthe quantityof devicefor accuratelymeasuringand automatically water used. or below than the original height of the design. Measurementby wheel barrowvolumeswill not be permitted. which would have contacted with plastic concrete during mixing.or one (1) percentfor the total aggregatesin any batch. All measuringdevicesshall be subjectto the approvalof the Engineer.one and half (1. suitableallowancesshall be made for variationsin the moisture condition of the aggregates. transportingor pumpingof Portlandcementconcrete.In such cases.shallnot be used. Weighingequipmentshallbe isolatedso that vibrationor movementof other operatingequipmentdo not effectthe accuracyof reading.shallnot be used. accuratemeasurement The accuracyof all weighingdevicesexceptthat for watershall be such that successivequantitiescan be measuredto within one (1) percentof the desired value.The auxiliarysupply of concreteshall be sufficientto joint . Mixingplant and equipmentfor transportingand placingconcreteshould be arranged with an ample auxiliaryinstallationto provide a minimumsupply of concrete in case of breakdownof machineryor in case the normalsupplyof concrete should be disrupted. The pick-upand throw-over blades of mixer shalt be restoredor replacedwhen any part or sectionsis worn two and half (2. The water measuringdevice shall be accurateto plus or minus half percent1 0.the weight Wherevolumetricmeasurements proportionsshallbe convertedto equivalentvolumetricproportions. Materialsshall be measuredby weighing. aot-a . Mixersand agitators. Cement in standard packages (bags) approved by the Engineer need not be weighed.Boxesor similarcontainersof the exact volumerequiredshall be filled and struckoff. Scalesand measuringdevices shall be tested at the expense of the Contractoras frequentlyas the Engineermay deem necessaryto ensuretheir accuracy.including the bulking effect in the fine aggregates.The apparatusprovidedfor weighingthe aggregatesand cement shall ensure of each ingredient.50%.All concreteshall be mixed in mechanicallyoperatedmixers.5) cms.which have an accumulation manufacturer's of hard concreteor rnortar.When the entire plant is running.the scale readingat cut-offshall not vary from the weight designatedby the Engineermore than one (1) percentfor cement. are authorizedby the Engineer. completethe castingof a sebtionup to a construction Equipmenthaving componentsmade of aluminum or magnesiumalloys.

In case of failureof the timingdevice. are in the mixer. lf ice is used to cool the concrete. The time device and dischargemechanismshall be so interlockedthat during normal operation no part of the batch will be dischargeduntilthe specifiedmixingtime has elapsed."js underweightby more than one percent or overweightby morethan three(3) percentof the amountspecified.All water shall be in the drum by the end of the firstquarterof the specifiedmixingtime. The discharge mechanism of bulk cement weigh hopper shall be interlockedagainst openingbeforethe full amountof cementis in the hopper. During the periodof mixing.the mixershallbe thoroughlycleaned. Cementshall be batchedandt.representativesamples shdll be taken and the moisturecontentdeterminedfor each kind of aggregate.dischargeof the mixer will not be permitteduntil all ice is melted.shallbe not more than thirty two (32) degreeC. further use of the mixer will be prohibiteduntil repairs are made.sand.When mixingis to stop for a period of one hour or more. or in accumulationof cement on surfaces of conveyorsor hoppers.charged into the mixer by meansthat will not result in loss due to the effect of wind. When the aggregatescontainmore water than the quantitynecessaryto produce a saturatedsurface-drycondition. The batch shall be so charged into the mixer that some water will enter in advanceof cementand aggregates. Aggregatesand water shall be cooled as necessaryto produce concrete within this temperatures limit.includingwater.the mixer shall operateat the speed for which it has been designed. the scale and weigh hopperfor Portlandcement shall be separate and distinct from the aggregate hopper or hoppers. to ensurethat the drum does not extract mortar from the mix changing its design characteristics. Allconcreteshall be mixedfor a periodof not less than one and half (1. The first batch of concrete material placed in the mixer shall contain cement. The temperatureof mixedconcrete.The discharging mechanismshall also be interlockedagainstopeningwhen the amountof cement in the hopper. The materials into the composinga batchexceptwater shall be depositedsimultaneously mixer. lf the timingdeviceis not repairedwithintwenty 'four(24) hours. 401-9 .When bulk cement is used and volume of the batch is one cubic meter or more.immediatelybeforeplacing.and water in excessto the requirementof mix.112) minutesafter all materials. provided he furnishes an approved timepiece equipped with minuteand secondhands. The entire contentsof a batch mixer shall be removedfrom the drum before materials for a succeeding batch are placed therein. or in other conditions which reduce or vary the requiredquantity of cementin the concretemlkture. Mixersshall be operatedwith an automatictimingdevicethat can be locked by the Engineer.the Contractorwill be permittedto operatewhileit is being repaired.

sizeof batchin truckmixersshallnot exceedthe maximum The maximum and stampedin ratedcapacityof the mixeras statedby the manufacturer.The mixingtime in the truck mixeror agitatorequippedwith adequatemixingbladesshallbe as specifiedfor truck mixing. batchesshall be dischargedfrom the weighing container hopperintothe mixereitherdirectlyby gravityor by an elevating largeenoughto containthe batch.normorethanten (10)rpm. or as established marrufacture. The including (50)revolutions afterall ingredients.in the judgmentof the Engineer. this limitshallbe reducedto temperature of the (15) in time betweenthe introduction fifteen minutes. The plastisizer. e) Partial Mixins at the CentralPlant When a truck mixer.c) PlantMixins At centralmixing plant.acceleratoror retarderor water reducingadmixture. reduced to thirty (30) seconds and the mixing completed in a truck mixer/agitator. d) TransitMixine shallbe of the by the Engineer. mixingspeedshallnotbe lessthansix(6)rpm.nor morethanninety(90)seconds.The truckmixershallbe equipped intothe drumat the proportioning with a deviceby whichthe quantityof wateraddedcan be readilyverified.The limitation may waived of the mixing be and the aggregate beginning cementto the free the aggregateis sufficiently when.Themixingtimeshallneitherbe lessthanfifty(50)second. O Stiff Concrete]|Iix For mixingconcreteof zero slump to be laid by pavers. Mixingshatl begin withinthirty (30) minutesafter the cementhas been butwhencementis chargedintoa addedeitherto the wateror aggregate. The mixingwatermay be addeddirectlyto the batch.Only force mixer of movingbladesshall be allowedto ensure homogenousmix.in casethe concrete batchis pouredwithintwentyfive (25)minutesof addingwater. mixer drum containingwater or surface-wetaggregateand when the is abovethirtytwo (32)degreeC.shall be fed separatelyat the rate recommendedby the by laboratory trials.unlessotherwise andso constructed thatthe concretecan be type. or an agitatorprovidedwith adequatemixing blades. for not lessthanfifiy metalon the mixer. 401-10 . revolving'drum the mass.gravitymixer shall not be used. Truckmixingshallbe continued water. The plantshallbe arrangedto ensure thatthereis no lossof cementduringtransferfromweighinghopperto the mixerdrum.if required.watertight. so thattherewill be no harmfuleffectson the cement. authorized Truckmixers. frommoisture.are in the drum.All of materials throughout mixedto ensurea uniformdistribution solidmaterialsfor the concreteshallbe accuratelymeasuredand charged plant. is the mixingtime at the stationaryplant mixer may be usedfor transportation.

Under conditions contributingto quick stiffeningof the concrete.will not occur at any time.dischargeshall be completedwithinone hour. after the introductionof cement to the aggregates.3. Truck agitators shall be loaded not to exceed the manufacturerlsrated capacity. Under conditionscontributingto quick stiffeningof the concrete.s) Hand Mixine Hand mixingof materialsshallnot be allowedin any case.or when the temperatureof the concreteis thirty (30) degreec or above. The rate of dischargeof mixed concretefrom truck mixer agitatorsshall be controlledby the speed of rotationof the drum in the dischargedirection with the dischargegatefullyopen.They shallmaintainthe mixedconcretein a thoroughlymixedand uniformmassduringhauling. No additionalwatershall be incorporatedinto the concreteduringhaulingor after arrivalat the deliverypoint. and they shallbe self-cleaning duringdischarge.dischargeshall be completedwithin one hour after the additionof the cementto the aggregates.or when the temperatureof the concreteis thirty(30) degreec or above. or beforetwo hundredfifty (250)revolutionsof the drum or blades.Howeverconcretehauledin open{op vehiclesshall be protectedduringhaulingagainstrain.4 Hauling and Delivervof Mixed Concrete a) Hauling Mixedconcretemay be transportedto the deliverypointin truck'agitators or truck mixers operatingat the speed designated by the manufacturer.the time betweenthe introductionof cement to the aggregatesand dischargeshallnot exceedfortyfive (45) minuteb. Bodies of non-agitatinghauling equipment shall be so constructedthat leakageof the concretemix. or exposureto the sun for more than twenty (20) minuteswhen the ambient temperatureexceedstwenty five (2S)degree C. concretewill be allowedto be hauledin open trucks. when non-agitatinghaulingequipmentis used for transportingconcreteto the deliverypoint. or any part thereof. 401-11 .whichevercomes first.a time less than one hour will be requiredexceptwhen retarderis used in which case it shall be one (1) hour. For zero slump concreteto be laid be paver. provided the consistencyand workabilityof the mixed concrete upon discharge at the delivery point is suitable for adequate placementand consolidation in place. 40r. when a truck mixer or agitatoris used for transportingconcreteto the deliverypoint.

5 Handlingand PlacineConcrete a) Generdl In preparationfor the placing of concrete all sawdust. or in any other way will have a deterioratingeffect on the concrete quality.In any case the Engineerwill rejectthe use of equipmentfor concretetransportationthat will allow segregation. water usedfor flushingshallbe dischargedclearoff the structure.placing.staysand bracesservingtemporarilyto holdthe forms in correct shape and alignment. 401. Concretethat has partiallyhardenedshall not be retemperedor remixed. 401-12 . chips and other constructiondebrisand extraneousmattershall be removedfrom insidethe formwork.chutes. No concreteshall be used that does not reach its final positionin the forms withinthe time stipulatedaboveunderltem 4O1.and pipesfor conveyingconcreteto the forms shall be permittedonly on written authorization of the Engineer.4"Haulingand Deliveryof MixedConcrete". All chutes.Thesetemporarymembers shall be entirelyremovedfrom the formsand not buriedin the concrete. Concreteshall be placedso as to avoidsegregationof the materialsand the displacementof the reinforcement.shall be removedwhen the concrete placing has reached an elevationrenderingtheirservicesunnecessary. where steep slopesare required. c) RetemDering The concreteshall be mixed only in such quantitiesas are requiredfor immediateuse and any concretethat has developedinitialset shall not be used.the chutesshallbe equippedwith bafflesor be in short lengthsthat reversethe directionof movement.3.and finishingof the concrete.pendingthe placing of concreteat their locations. Open troughs and chutes shall be of metal or metal lined.loss of fines. The rate of the deliveryof concreteduring concretingoperationsshall be such as to providefor the proper handling.b) Deliverv The organizationsupplyingconcreteshall have sufficientplantcapacityand transportationvehiclesto ensure continuousdeliveryat the rate required.and struts.troughsand pipesshall be kept clean and free from coatingsof hardenedconcreteby thoroughlyflushingwith water after each run.The rate shallbe such that the intervalbetweenbatchesshallnot exceed twenty (20) minutes. The methodsof deliveringand handlingthe concreteshall be such as will facilitateplacingwith the minimumrehandling and withoutdamageto the structureof the concrete.The use of long troughs.3.

d) PlacingConcreteUnderWater Concreteshall not be placedunder water exceptwhere inevitablein which case approvalmust be soughtfrom the Engineerand the work carriedout under his immediatesupervision. The equipmentshall be so arrangedthat no vibrationwill occur that mightdamagefreshlyplacedconcrete.In this case the methodof placingshall be as hereinafterspecified. After initialset of the concretethe forms shall not be jarred and no loadingof any kind shall be placed on the ends of projectingreinforcementbars. The concreteshall be placedas nearlyas possibleto its final positionand the use of vibratorsfor extensiveshiftingof the mass of fresh concretewill not be permitted. Where concreteis conveyedand placedby mechanicallyappliedpressure the equipmentshall be suitablein kind and adequatein capacityfor the work. Concretedepositedunderwater shall be classA concretewith a minimum cementcontentcf three hundredfifty(350)Kg per cubicmeterof concrete. it shall be conveyedthrough sheet metal or otherapprovedpipes. The dischargelinesshallbe horizontalor inclinedupwardsfrom the machine. The operationof the pump shall be such that a continuousstreamof concretewithoutair pocketsis obtained.the entire equipmentshall be thoroughlycleaned.the entire equipment shall be thoroughlycleaned.the concreteremainingin the pipeline. 401-13 .When placingoperationswould involvedroppingthe concretemore than one and half (1.When pumpingis completed. At the conclusionof placingthe concrete. c) Pu{npine The placingof concreteby pumpingwill be permittedonly if specifiedin the SpecialProvisionsor if arjthorizedby the Engineer.v2) meters. As far as practicable. The machineshall be located as close as practicableto the work. the pipe shall be kept buriedin the newly placedconcrete.shall be ejectedin such a mannerthat there will be no contamination of the concreteor separation of the ingredients. Where concrete is conveyed and placed by pneumatic means.The equiprnentshall be so arrangedthat no vibrationwill occur that might damage freshly placed concrete.if it is to be used. After this operation. b) PneumaticPlacing Pneumaticplacingof concretewill be permittedonly if authorizedby the Engineer. the equipmentshall be suitablein kind and adequatein capacityfor the work.

Theiintensityof vibration radius over a iuctr as'visiblyto affecta mass of ioncretewith a 3 cm slump numberof of at leasthalf a meter. Vibratorsshall be of a type. The bottom slowly and filled be completely shall bucket The outwardwhen tripped.or other bottom-dump a in iir nn"f positionlby-means of a tremie. When a batchis dumpedintothe hopper. Vibratorsshall be manipulated 401-14 . ?s. nii taitanceor other unsatisfactory will not the eiposed surfaceby scraprng. concrete in as except (30) centimeters thirty than more trorizontatlayers not .but always Oe'ihOuceC completed' work. Each layer initial set to placedand compactedbeforethe precedinglayer has taken separation of avoid surfaces br""L. to permitrapid loweringwhen so as to work of start the at closed be shall concrete.chippingor other means. cm.water being after disturbed be approvedmeans.. lt shall not be dumped until it rests discharged when and deposited be to is concrete the which .on"r"te. The Contractorshall providea sufficient placed in the is it after vibratorsto properlycompacteach batchimmediately thoroughly to so as forms.except lean concrete placed in be shall etc. dunng and immediately after placing shall be_ deposited concrete and footings under compacted.permitfree the work and movementof the dischargeend over the entiretop surfaceof the flow of or stop retard to necessary lo . iach layer shall be compactedso.the f|ow of concrete in the it keeping by slightlyraisingthe dischargeend. shall The compactionshall be done by mechanicalvibration. e) ComPaction thoroughly concrete. ov fi.the top and downward freely open shalt doors bucketshall be open. walls.'The dischargeend preventwaterenteringthetubeandshallbecomp|ete|ysubmergedin of the concreteat all times. and it shall not surface' concrete past fresh the mustnot be allowedto flow 25 cm A tremieshallconsistof a tube havinga diameterof not less than gaskets with a with constructedin sectionshavingflangedcouplingsfitted hopperatthetop.thick placed in one is layel complete a than less when provided. hereinafter shall be oput"tion. not taken has which preceding layer.lS pfaceO. joini with a formationof a construction an initialset.(10) and fifteen(15) The slumpof concreteshallbe maintainedbetweenten p|aced in a.it sha||be careful|y bucket. placed.compactmass.tie tremie tube shall be kept full to the bottom sha|l hopper. be shall and frequencyapprovedby the Engineer. To preventsegregation.lhe flo* shallbe continuousuntilthe of the when the concreteis placed with a bottom-dumpbucket.t injury to the greel concrete and to avoid the betweenthe-layers.]" Engineeror is providedherein. beams. under water. on the loweredto avoid backwash.rrf""" upon shallbe withdrawnslowlyuntilwell abovethe concrete' and Dewatertngmay proceedwhen the concreteseal is sufficientlyhard from removed be shall material strong. columns.it shall be terminatedin a verticalbulkhead.The concrete given is methods other of authorization spetiat unless be vibratedinternally design. which injurethe surfaceof the concrete.Thetremiesha||besupportedSoaSto.

Vibration srrari be appried direcry to the reinforcement or to sectionsor layersof concretethat have hardenedto the degreethat the concreteceasesto o" pr*ti.Jointsin the concretedue to discontinuity of workshailbe avoided.to retain it.oint. theconstruction jointmayoe''maoe at the . an insetformwork..3.or in the case of emergency.areas of grout are formed.. construction jointsshailbe pracedas directed.rf not detaireooir the prans..il. Ih"n the the concrete after fjp e.nouoh. not be discontinued. undervibration.ri"n"" inspected ano approvJ mJteriatfor the concreteis at hand' ?rd manpowerand equipmentare sufficientto comprete the partwithout interruption in thepracing'or the "on-"r"t".The vibrationshail be of sufficientdurationand intensityto"on"r"t" compactthe concretethoroughrybut shail not be continuedat any'onepoint to tre extentthat rocarized. shearKeysor inclinedreinforcement strbttbe used*n!r" necessary to transmit shearor bondthetwosections together.rt shailnot be used to make concretefrowin the forml over oistancesso greatas to cause segregationand vibratorsshail not be used to transport '!'u' 'svv' r vvr concrete rurEr neitherin the forms nor in troughsor chutes. be insertedinto and withdrawntromirre srowry. Appricaiionoi vibratorsshail be poinis uniformry spacedand not fartherapart than twice the 'notradiusover"twhich the vibration is visibty effective.wnen snearkeysor inclinedreinforcement are notprovided. suchjoints. to producean edge thicknes"oi not'ress than 15 centimeters in the succeedingrayer. 401..i be used ". as possibre.. untessprovisionhas been macre :::9".g creaned of raitance and otherobjectionabre materiar to a sufficient'depth to expose sound concrete.'shail be 9. and the oe arroweJio workon any such part unresssufficienfly "oi. construction jointsshailbe ailowedonrywhere specifiedon the pransor otherwiseapproved. The vibratorssha. 401-15 . pracing of concrete rstemporariry discontinued. p"rrii"o by the Engineer. shailbe constructed to meet the approvar of the Engineer.^": for a coprngressthan s0 centimeters thick. work sha..iil. in the stopedtop surfaceof a w-ng*uit."-"*i. where a "feathered edge"mightoe prooiceoat a constru"tion .n. fifty (50) gf th1lop of any face.in which. dr'ape.6 a) General The concrete in integrarpart of "r"lcontraciorwiit'not a structure shat be praced continuousry. theconcrete shailbe roughened as directed. .whennecessary.nc"rrii" oicoping.work the conirete aroundthe reinforcement and embeddedfixturesand into the corners and angresof the torms ano shail be appriedat the point of placingand in the a-reaof freshrypt""J"on"r"t". Vibrationshall be supplemented by such externalvibratoras is necessary to ensure smooth surfacesand dense concrete arong form surfacesand in cornersand locationsimpossibleto reach with the no"*"ruior"i-r.

alaul (Vtt ) layenb pue ouo spa^lncxoq Jo uollcrulsuocaql ul '1utoIuotlcrugsuoc 'luanald o1 se 'olqlssod se . pue peceld aq lleqs sya^lnc xoq Jo s6urloollo qels aseq aql 'Uanlnceq] stxe eq1o1selDue leclyon lq6tl le aq llellsslutoluot1cru]suoc ]o sFrin5mBTr 'aut1punolOoql a^oqe aq] llennbutrur pue pa]ecol os le]uozlJot1 lo ocej pasodxaaql ul alqlslnaq lllMlutofou ]eq] '{. r{.I t. arojaqlas ol pomollBpue paceldaq lleqssllPMaql ul olalcuoceq11q61eq ul aLll uollcrulsuoc sJalau (Vtt't):apenb pue ouo uelll aloul spanlncxoq lo 'Uallnc oql lo slxe er.eurpn1r6uol 'asec aql ol slle^opls eq1 Durpuoqlo. opeul oq lleqs uotstnold.punolb oq pasodxa aql ul olqlsl^ acel oLll aql o^oqe llervr6u6n Jo ll$ lutof ou leql 'slutofuol}cnJlsuo3 polecolos pue leluozuoL{ aq lleqs 'slqeploneunolaqn 'Iun slLl}louor.€ulnqe {Luoseu }o uol}cnllsuocaLllJa}lV lercadgur perllcedsse 'pauelssr alojcuocpasJolulalaql oJoJaql9s o] poMolle 'leleua6 u1 pue paceld aq lleqs uotiepunolaq] Molaq alal3uoc ueal oq) Sire^lr-5n-BISlQ' 'alalcuosaLll ocelns oql leou puoq io 'loa]s outctolute:aq] lo outueelc laols alajcum aLll lealq lo elnfut o1 lou eull 6uunp 'pospJaxoaq lleqs aleC oloJcuoolasun oql olut palppndeq 'panoulolaq lleqs sulo1 lo sacepns lou lleqslsnp pup sdttlclepou paPC eql pue laels butclolulol aql uodn paqselds lepotl Jo suollelnuncce {1e1etpeutuu1 lle aloJcuoo 6urceld Jo aouenulluocslp oql 6ur'no11o1 .llo] selDue]qbt:le pue leclyo^aq lleqs 'pesn sl uollcnilsuoc potllotll sltll uaLlM fuessecau uorlcnrlsuoc slurof lo 'lq6teq 'lrun crL{}rlouour e se polcnr}suo3eq deu qels dol pue sllerdoplsaq1 ul ssalJo s.lle sP palsrulsuoc aq qcea '.tot 'suolsl^old lepads eLllulJo sueldotli uo uMotlsaq llBqs 'suolleJaplsuoc ubtsap.tuto.runpelrsodepoq lleqs s:eptt6 ul a}ol3uo3 'spua aql piemol Jeluac oql uoJl butllom pue ueds eql ]o Jaluac oq] 'sueds alduts ro3 fq palrsodepaq Ilqerelerd 1leqsalalcuoo 1e Ouruur6eq (p sulunloJpuB'sq8IS'sJoprlc aut.tq pe:tnbetaJoqA alaieuoc eql acuanbos6urceld 'sueds snonurluocJoJ 'sJoIBl dn lqbno.ocladeql pasleJ}o sueou r(qIlqe-relard'eseqUa^lnc pelcruisuocos s{a1 .lectq1l.llnJeql :o.ean aq lleqsalqeproneun 'suolslnord palcru]suocaq lleqs sllem uteUncpue a1e1dpaq alelsuoo eqJ 'slleM y.ouoru 6utmut slutofuol]cnJ]suoC alaqM s1.rqpue lapll6 ul ^luona leluozlJoq aql lo q16ua.re1se eq1 q6no:ql rale/\Alo uotle.alqrssod11 lleqs llerrnoulM 'qelslanooeqlOutroqcuelo1sllemapls 'asec sltll ul 'peceldsl qels do1aql aql ur uel aq lletls sr{a) aleudoldde u.olqellns slql ul pelcnllsuoc sl ua^lnc aql lo lepuleulol aql alolaq las ol pa^Aolle '1e:auabu.

concrete in girder haunchesless than one (1) meter in height shall be placed at the same time as that in the girder stem. where the size of the poui is such that it cannot be made in one continuousoperation. 401-17 .verticalconstructionjoints shall preferablybe locatedwithin the area of contraflexure. In either case the bottom slab shall be placed first.to box girders.and the girder shall be placed in three successivestages.to the lower side of thb girder. and the column or abutmenttops shall be cut back to form seatsfor the haunches.each of which shall be continuous. but the spacingshall be not greaterthan thirty (30) cms centerto center. bond betweenthe top slab and webs shall be securedin the same manner as for T-beams. dond betweenthe bottom slab and stem shall be positiveand mechanical. In general.the haunch. Requirementsfor shear keys for T-beamsshall also apply. Unless otheruise permitted.The floors and girdersof through girder superstructuresshall be placed in one continuous operation unless otherwisespecified.lowerside of haunch. For haunchedcontinuousgirders. The load ol the superstructure shall not be allowedto come upon the bents until the test cylindersrepresentingthe bents have obtainedthe minimumcompressive strengthbut in no case in lessthan seven (7) days.suitablekeys may be formed by the use of timberblocks approximatelyfive (5) byten (10) cm in cross-settion and havinga lengthof ten (10) cms less than the wiotn orthe girderstem. concretein T-beamor deck girderspans may be placedon one continuous operationor may be placed in two separateoperations. The concreteshall be allowedto set ai least 24 hours beforethe caps are placed.to.the girder stem (includinghaunch)shall be placedto the top of stem. to the top' of the girder stems and second.ln the latter case.the concreteof columns shallhave been pouredat leastseven(7) days earlier. concrete in columnsshall be placed in one continuousoperation. ilre abutmentor columns.unless othenvisedirected. no concrete shall be placed in the superstructureuntil the column forms have been strippedsufficienflyto determinethe characterof the concretein the columns. These key blocksshall be spaced along the girderstems as riquired. to completion. concretein slab spansshall be placedin one continuousoperationfor each span unless otheruvise provided.second.whenever any haunch or fillet has a verticalheight of one (1) meter or more.in which case a special shear anchorageshall be providedto ensuremonolithicactionbetweengirderand floor.first.except that keys need not be deeperthan the depthto the top of bottomslab reiniorcement. when frictioncollarsare usedto supportcap forms. concretein box girdersmay be placedin two or three separateoperations. lf the webs are Pfaceoseparatelyfrom the top slab. the bond belween stem and slab shall be providedby suitableshear keys or by artificiallyrougheningthe surfaceof the top of the girderstem.first.and thirdto completion.The blocks shall be removedas soon as the concretehas set sufficientto retain its shape.

The stone for this class of work shall be placed carefullyso as to avoid damageto the forms or to the partiallyset adjacent concrete.to transmit shearor to bondthe two sectionstogether. The face edges of all joints.e) ConstructionJoints Constructionjoints shall be made only where shown on the Drawingsor called for in the pouring schedule.For walls of piers greater than sixty (60) cms in thickness.the forms shall be retightened. Shear keys or reinforcement shall be used.includingverticaland inclined surface.in a mannerthat will not leave loose particles of aggregate or damage concrete at the surface.unlessotheruvise specified.stone of such size that one man can handle it.largerstone(50 Kg or more) may be used. Before depositing new concrete on or against concrete.and no stoneshall be closerthan sixty(60) cms to any top surfacenor closerthan twenty(20) cms to any coping.The concreteshallbe mixedfor a periodof not lessthan2 minutes and the watercontentof the mixtureshall be chrefullycontrolledand 401-18 .construction of emergencyshall be placedto meet the approvalof the Engineer. When directedby the Engineer. g) ConcreteExposedto SeaWater provided. shall be used. unless otherwise approved by the joints. lf not detailedon the Drawings. Stone shall be washed and saturatedwith water beforeplacing. f) Rubbleor CicloneanConcrete Rubbleor cyclopeanconcreteshall consistof Class B concretecontaining large embeddedstones. The total volumeof the stoneshall not be greaterthan one third of the total volume of the portionof the work in which it is placed.For walls or piersgreaterthan one (1) meterin thickness. The clear distancefrom the face of the concrete to the nearest faceof reinforcement steelshallbe notlessthan10 cms.also in cases Engineer. Each stone shall be surroundedby at leastthirty(30) cms of concrete.' lt shall be thoroughlycleaned of foreign matter and laitance. which has hardened. Each stone shall be surroundedby at least fifteen(15) cms of concreteand no stoneshall be closerthan thirty(30)cms to any top surfacenor any closerthan fifteen(15) cms to any coping.the cleanedand wateredsurfaces.concretefor structuresexposedto Unlessotherwisespecifically sea water shallbe ClassA.to view shall be carefully finishedtrue to lineand elevation. Stratifiedstone shall be placed upon its natural bed. The surface of the hardened concreteshall be roughenedas requiredby the Engineer.which are exposed. The placingof concreteshall be carriedout continuouslyfrom joint to joint.the surface of the hardenedconcretewhich will be in contactwith new concreteshall be washed with water to ensure an excessof mortarat the junctureof the hardenedand the newlydeposited concrete. shall first be thoroughly covered with a coating of mortar of the same proportionof sand and cement as the class of concreteused against which the new concrete shall be placed before the grout or mortar has attainedits finalset.

duoclllun snonutluooaq lleqs burcegd.raqlo{ue Ourcnpo. lo uorlrppe{q :o slloc a6ueqcxaleaq {q ra}em o}arcuocJo bultttqC(l :suotleltutl s^oqe aLllA olaq alalcuoc1o a.la^allaleM ro punolb anoqe 'sLuc(gg) Iyll 1seelJe st alolcuoc aLllltlun lo uotlcasoLll 1o uotla.d ol uale] aq lleqs elec lelcads 'sposJo Jalemautlelle lo uotlce oql ol pesodxaaq Aeu aleJcuoColaqM ralBA\llB{lv ro slrosrlE)IIvol pesodxgalalruo3 (Q 'paqJnlstpun 'sulloJall] ulolJ ual aq lleLls 'aoe1.ie1 lo Jo atuu aql le C ae:6ap (Zg)orrnlr{ylq1peecxa}ou lleLlsalaJOUoc 1oelnletaduo}orll_ reqlEaiAloH u! IJOA\(!!! 'a3epnsalolouoc aql Jo rlsemJoMoll 6ur6euepJoJepou a3elns aql ol aOeutepluanaldot paprno:dsr uorlcelo:dalenbapessalunpaddolsaq aq} .ll!^]celuocut aq lou llellssltoslo leleM oullellv .{luenas }seel le 1o por:ad e lo.eur6r.JoljeaJaq] s:noq (72) onnl.rlur }noq}marnge:edue1 Ll6lq lo slcal.Joleel}uo3 oq} }e aq lleqs iaqleam p.aq relrsraleMaq]]".6L-LjV 'ruioJtun aq lleLlspaloosos ele0aJ66eaql Jo 'Duuelenn Iq e1e6e:66e ]ualuocJelemoq] ]eql papt^old os.d6uunp alajcuosaLllr.s{ep soruocalor3uocaql se (Oe)IUtLltueq} ssol }ou eq1 .uorlrpuoJIBluaruuoJrlutr uto{ aloJJuoJJo uorlJeloJdt .oc 6uunpto raqleamloq 6uunp paceldelercuoc.r1p$il:fY::ll*::.ro 1o poued e Jo] olalcuoc aLll rlltn loeluoc ut atuo3 lou lleLlslolem eas slanal aseql uaenlag ':eaur6u3or.r pue panoujaloq lleqsolalcuocpaberuep{ue pue Isu s. pue luaulace.ulelJo suo4tpuo3lapun lleqsio oclaululoclou lleL{sa}alcuoo1oOurceld f itssio-iETtriili! 'esuedxa s.lns .lnleledualeq1daal ol pasn eq IeLu 6urnnol.alqtssodJa^aJaqM utaJeq suotlecrlrcads Ll]lMocuepJocceut 1 ace.o1 eq1 'Ilr1enbuo ]oo1laleluaul:lap.eoc1o 6ur1oo3(rr ]o aurl aL*]e acruorl aar.llIq pauruJalapse lelem q6rq aureLlxopue ralemMol suaJlxo lo slanaluaer/Uaq pauloJ oq lleqs sluro[uorlcntlsuocoN 'poproneeq pue palceduoc slelcod lte Ilq6noroql eq lleqs alalcuoo lleqs al11 '{lrpqeeruladultunultxeu }o a}alcuoc ecnpold o} se os pa1e1n6eL .a leluotxulop aleutulla o1 'fuo1ce1stles aq o] leul alecs llnJpue s1selfuoletoqel^q umoLlsseq aq qctqMuotpodoldur pue aleu e 'Jaststlseld e xlu aLllut selelodlocurJolselluocaql ssalun'6ur.olcelluoOeql 1epacelda.tuy 'suorlelado6uunc pue 6urceld6uunp suot]tpuocleluauluoJtnua Jaqlo Jo laqleam ol anp a6etuepuol1 alaJcuoclcalold ol papoause ualel aq lleqs suotlne3aJd iffiuE$'1 .

Underno circumstances will the Contractorbe entiiled to ieceive any additionalpaymentfor complyingwith the requirementsof thisclause.or as requiredby the Engineerwhen the ordinarysurfacefinishdid not produce the requiredsmooth. Work in Cold Weather Exceptby writtenapprovalof the Engineer.No materialscontainingfrost shall be used.3.7 ConcreteSurfaceFinishing/Rendering O_General Concretesurface finishesshallbe classifiedas follows: BridgeDeckSurfaceFinish SidewalkSurfaceFinish OrdinarySurfaceForm Finish Class1 SurfaceForm Finish The bridgedeck surfacefinish shall be given to the surfaceof the bottom slabsof all box type underpassstructures. 401. iv) Night work provided that (i). nor more than twenty seven (27) degreec. at the time of placing. the mixing water and/or aggregatesshall be heatedto not less than twenty one (2i) degree c nor more than sixtysix (66) degree c. The ordinary surface form finish shall be the final finish applied to all surfacesafter removalof forms. The requirementsfor sidewalksurfacefinish apply to the surface of the bottom slabs in box culverts. 441-20 . priorto being placedin the mixer by an approved type of heating device so that the temperatureof the concrete shall not be less than ten ('10)degreec. The class 1 surfaceform finishshall be appliedonly wherespecified.except that the acceptablevariationfrom a three-meterstraightedge shallbe 10 mm. (ii) and (iii) are proved inadequateor unsatisfactory in their resultsand providingalso that the Engineerhas no otherreasonfor refusingpermissionfor nightwork.even surfaceof uniformtextureand appearances. iv. In such cases.iii) Reclaimingof aggregatefrom stock piles by the tunnel methodto avoid usingthe surfacelayerof the stockpilewith shadeand wind protectionof conveyorelevatingto batchingplant. nor resumed until an ascendingair temperaturein the shade and away from artificialheat reaches two (2) degree c.concretingoperationsshall not be continuedwhen a descendingair temperaturein the shade and away from artificialheat falls below five (5) degree c. and broomingshall be omitted. The Engineer shall have power to order the suspension of concrete productionin case of not taking precautionary measuresby the contractor as mentionedabove. unlessotherwisespecifiedor calledfor on the drawings. cement or fine aggregatescontaininglumpsor crustsof hardenedmaterials shallnot be used.

Railsor headersshallbe adjustablefor elevationand shallbe set to elevations. settlement 401-21 .true to the requiredgrade and cross-section.off. Railsor headersshall be adjustedas necessaryto correctfor unanticipated whichmay occurduringfinishingoperations. that fogging equipmentand all necessaryfinishingtoolsand equipmentare on hand at the site of the work and in satisfactoryconditionfor use. Rails for the supportand operationof finishingmachinesand headersfor hand-operatedstrick-off devices shall be completely in place and firmly securedfor the scheduledlengthfor concreteplacementbeforeplacingof concrete. Finishingof concreteplaced in bridge decks shall consist essentiallyof compactingand strikingoff the surface of the concrete as placed and floatsthe surfaceso struck. floatingwith longitudinal The placingof concretein bridgeroadwaydecks will not be permitteduntil the Engineeris satisfiedthat the rate of producingconcretewill be sufficient to complete the proposed placing and finishing operationswithin the scheduletime. conformingto the requirementsspecifiedherein for finishingbridge roadwaydeck concrete.b) BridseDeckSurfaceFinish A smooth ridingsurfaceof uniformtexture. that experiencedfinishingmachineoperatorsand concrete finishersare employedto finish the deck.shall be obtained on all bridge roadway decks. as requiredto obtain a bridge roadway deck true to the Rails or headersshall be of a type and requiredgrade and cross-section.and deflection of false work.camber.with allowancefor anticipatedsettlement. or deflectionwill occur under the that no springing be so installed sftall weight of the finishingequipmentand shall be so locatedthat finishing equipmentrnay operatewithoutinterruptionover the entirebridgeroadway deck to be finished. The Contractormay use hand tools. Unless adequate lightingfacilitiesare provided by the Contractor.the placingof concretein bridgedecks shall cease at such time that finishing operationscan be completedduringdaylighthours. or finishingmachinesor a combinationof both. Finishingmachinesshall be set up sufficientlyin advanceof use to permitinspectionby the Engineerduringthe daylighthoursbeforeeach Pour. Railsfor finishingmachinesshall extendbeyondbothends of the scheduledlength for concreteplacementto a sufficientdistancethat will perrnitthe float of the finishingmachineto fully clear the concreteto be placed. or deflection. The adjustmentand operationof deck finishingmachinesshall be verified by movingthe machineover the full lengthof the deck sectionto be placed and traversing the float completely across all end bulkheads before placementof concreteis begun.

with a second operator. Longitudinal finishingmachinethat is used for strikeoff providedthat the lengthof deck '10metersand unit being placedis not more than the strikeoff operationis completedfor said deck unit beforethe conditionof the concreterequires that longitudinal floatingbe started. cross-section Following strike off.and consolidated.one machine.5) meters.8 metersor less shall be followed by 2 separate hand-operatedfloat boards for longitudinal floating. The first float shall be placed in operationas soon as the conditionof the concrete will permit and the secondfloat shallbe operatedas far back of the first float as the workability of the concretewill permit. compacted. Unlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineer. the placingof concreteshall be discontinuedand a bulkhead installedat a location determinedby the Engineer.whicir in the opinion Shouldsettlementor other unanticipated of the Engineerwould preventpouringof bridge deck conformingto the requirementsof these specifications.5)metersnor more than three and half (3. floatboardor a finishingmachineequippedwith a longitudinal woodenfloaton the finishingmachineshall have a length The longitudinal of not less than two and half (2.eventsoccur.placing of deck concrete shall be discontinueduntil correctivemeasuressatisfactoryto the Engineer are provided. the surface of the concrete shall be floated longitudinally.In the eventsatisfactorymeasuresare not providedpriorto initial set of the concretein the effectedarea.or by a finishing machine operatingon rails.shall be used for strike off and a second machine. When both strikeoff and longitudinalfloatingare to be performed by finishingmachines. All the provisionsin this ltem pertainingto handoperated float boards shall apply to the 2 separate float boards for longitudinal floating. shall be used for floatingmay be performedwith the same longitudinal floating.the surfaceof the concreteshall be carefullystruck off by means of a handoperated strick board operatingon headers. In the eventthe strikeoff is performedwith a finishingmachine. two (2) separate hand-operatedfloat boards for longitudinalfloatingshall be provided.bridgedeck concreteshall be parallelio the bridgepier or bent placedin a uniformheadingapproximately caps.In the event strike-offis performedby means of a handoperated strike board. A uniformdeck sudace true to the requiredgrade and shallbe obtained. Finishingmachinesused for strike off havinga wheel base 1. After the concrete has been placed.with operator.All concretein placebeyondthe bulkheadshall be removed. The rate of placingconcreteshall be limitedto that which can be finishedbeforethe beginningof initialset exceptthat concretefor the deck surfaceshallnot be placedmorethanthree(3) metersaheadof strickoff.longitudinal floatingof the concreteshall be performedby means of a hand-operated woodenfloat. 401-22 .

0) meterslong.All high areas in the hardenedsurfacein excessof three (3) mm as indicatedby testingshall be removedby abrasivemeans. lmmediatefollowingcompletionof the deck finishingoperations. shall be used with the long axis of the ffoat parallefto the center line of the bridge roadway. ribbedand trussedas necessaryto providea rigid float and shallbe equippedwithan adjustable handleat eachend.the concretein the deck shall be cured as specifiedin ltem 401.S)to five (5) meters long.the surface of the concrete shall be texturedby broomingwith a stiff bristledbroomor by othersuitabledevices.the surfaceof the concreteshall not be smooth or polished.5)cms thickand from ten (10) cm to twenty(20) cm wide. not less than two and half (2. After grindingby abrasivemean has been performed. Ground areas shall not be of uniformtexture and shall presentneat and approximately rectangularpatterns.or other cover. The surfaceshall not vary more than three (3) mm from the loweredge of the straightedge.either hand-operated or machine-operated. Hand-operated float boards shall be from three and half (3. Not less than two (2) transversefinishingbridges shall be providedwhen hand-operatedfloat boardsare used. All finishingbridges shall be of rigid constructionand shall be free of excessivewobbleand springingwhen used by the operatorsof longitudinal floatsand shallbe easilymoved.3.5 cms or more in thickness. The floatshallbe wood. The float shall be operatedwith a combinedlongitudinaland transversemotion planing off the high areas and floating the material removedinto the low areas.8"Curing Concrete"hereinafter. In advance of curing operations. Hand-operatedfloat boards shall be operatedfrom transversefinishing bridges. 401-23 . which will resultin uniformscouring. The float board shallbe maintainedfree of twistand true at all times.Longitudinal floats. Adjustingscrewsspacedas not to exceed60 cms on centersshall be providedbetweenthe float and the rib. the surfaceof the concreteshall not vary more than nine (9) mm from the loweredgeof the three(3) meterstraightedge. When a finishingmachineis usedfor longitudinal floating.The operationshall be performedat a time and in a manner to produce a hardenedsurface havinq a uniform texture. one finishingbridgeequivalentto the transversefinishingbridgespecified hereinshallbe furnishedfor use by the Engineer.two and half 2. Where the concreteof the bridge deck is to be covered by bituminous surfacing. Each pass of the float shall lap the previous pass by one-halfthe lengthof the float. The finished surface of the concrete shall be tested by means of a straightedge three (3.earth. The finishingbridges shall span completelythe roadway area beingfloated& a sufficientnumberof finishingbridgesshall be providedto permit operationof the floats without undue delay. Floatingshall be continueduntil a smoothridingsurfaceis obtained.

l]aq lleqs loaulouf otll 'sa6lnqAllq6rsun aoll 'ecueleaddepue alnixal ullojlunlo sooe!ns uana Jo e ecnpoLdol peunbe:6ulqstugleuotllppe Jolunoue aLl]ulrolse]bullnquluoc pue sullo.\.lo saqsluslq]o aor] oq 'abpa1qbtells e ropunuu (9) xls lalaur-oalLl] lleqsocefns paqsluuaq] pue ut f.]o ]slsuocllells t1slu4ocefns L sselC rlsruu uirod aJBJrnSI ssBll (a 'polcalleeln]3nJls ol1lJo suorl.dal pue lenoual oql eltnbal pue anllcalop '}uaula3lo}ulal alarcuooaLllelelcap{eur aq lae}s aq} }o alll aql Labuepua oJn}onjlsaq} 1o q16ual1saql }cajJe o} se re}celeqc Jo o1 io {11et:aleuJ 'laautOu3eq1 uotutdooql ul seloqlo slalcod lcol . a:nlnJ uaqm l.ltoluoc {q palcerrpse leyou uMolqlte lo Jepoul pelced Jaq}let-llrmpslllJaq lleqs reqlg 'pues sped oml pue ]uaulac Ued auo ]o sle)cod pue suotsso.1euo Ouruuoolg oq le aq] ol aslo^suell lleqs lle pesn aq lleLlsloo] 6urOpapenorddeuV Luoolqe LlllmparlsluUpue 6ut1eo11 'pleoq a)llls e sueaul.aletpauLut ocue^pe $urLuoolq uel{}aJou {len 1oulleLlsacepns aql }o '{:essecau pue cUeJ}}o aull sl la}em parpdde aq lleqs1t acelns aLllol }! 'slulofuotsuedxe pue sa6pe.ol 'sqJncoL1] abptrg pue -rapunsocefns >1cap s6utltel apls lcnrls aq lleqslle^ . Outpltnq ul aleo ]o ut pasn sleueleutlo JalceleLlc aq lllM)lom r.rol paceld 1elar-u 'Pettnbalaq ]ou 'posolcuo Llclr''l^^ ale se Llsns slloc aq] xoq lslap:rb aq] Jo l|lMsurjJo le^ouat 'acejJnsro punolOlepun pollnqeq o] ale qslqM'saoepnsuO tlslugL sselC eq] o] {ro}eteda:dJo qslulJleulj e se laqila sa3eJjnsa}oj3uoc|1eo1parldde aq lleqs Llstut]acefns fueurpl6 s{ennpalanei}[!olJ alqtst^uol]elnolocslp 'aial3uoc aql pue surpls Outnouel 's1a1cod)3ol lle Outltedel Jo a3elns lo saloq 6ur1111 or.-ladut 'acueleaddepue olnlxo] txloJtun sooelns uo1oecnpoldo1fuessecause Jo arnlcrulsall] lo socefns oLli6utqstut.unlaqlo Jo soloq 6ut1.l]ul suotssa:dep 1o ]slsuoolleqs Llsluga3efns {:eutplg (p qsluldruroc aruJrns.sarn]3nJls ul palnc aq lleqsJeUolA leeut6u3 aql slueualrnbalaql q]tMacueu..vz-rjv lsadsalslLllul aOPn[ 'suollsafadr!l puB suolFseldop laqlo pue olos or.iq go 1cnrlseq lleqs Jo lroc ro uapooMe qllMpoleolJ olaJouocotl] pue palcedutocaq lleqs 1tpaceldueaq seLlala:cuocaLlllaUV I{sluld ecBJrns {lBAtepIS (J sue. ..d aues aq) ol $o paqrnlstpun Ieanpeo.IBtIIp.todotll Jo luauace.nsetaLlI pue slelcod lcot llv 'olaJcuocotll io acelns eq] A olaq suc (9 2) lleq pue oM] ]seol 1e1o qldap e ol ponouralaq lleqslo]seJluoCottr]Jo ecualuanuoc Iue pue slloq Lulo] lle'ulolaq paptnoLdse ldacx3 aql.lalaq ]ou peeu slaplt6xoq jo slloc oq] olul leuoul tlllm palll] pue peuealcaq lleqs uotssardep 6utlcefordslloq ulol panoulol aq lleLlg olalcuoo punos.l 1o ]ualxoue qcns]o ale (c) g e L0t uall ul 6utLn3.daql uo umoqsst OutuaPutn pue aql se aue.ulo1 'sa61nqIllq6tsun aa:] Jor.ilopue suotssaldep ]o aa:6op oq1 'suollJa.rdep eql jo ocepns aLl]LlllM lsrsuoclleqs seloq lloq lllj ol posn lefol^ alal3uot 'sllec aLl]olul papl^olosl qsnu pa^ouer oq lleqs s]loq Llcnsases qcltlMul ssaccelueueulad ssalunpo^ol.

3) meter berow finishedground. class 1 surfacefinish may be requiredto be appliedas the finat finish for the followingsurfaces.shall be appriedtwo coats of hot bitumenof approvedquarity. The use of power carborundumstones or disks'will be requiredto remove bulgesand otherimperfections. class '1surfacefinishshall not be applieduntil a uniformappearance can be obtained.5) meters or more for a distanceinside the barrel at least equar to the heightof the culvert.columnsand abutments. iv) All surfacesof pedestrianundercrossings.endwalls and retainingwalls.areas which do not exhibit the requireosmooth.3.spandrelcolumnsand abutment walls. b) Methodof Curine The curing method shail be one or more of the foilowingas described hereinafter.even surfacesof uniformtextureano appearanceare obtained. vii)Allsurfacesof railinqc fl SurfaceRendeIinE All faces cl concretewhichare to come in contactwith back fill or pavement materials. beforeplacingany materialaroundconcrete.unressotherwisedirectedby the Engineer: i) All form finish surfaces of bridge super-structures. vi) sur^faceinsideof culvert barrels having a height of one and half (1. iii) All surfacesof openspandrelarch rings. exceptfloorsand surfacesto be coveredwith earth. v) surface above finished ground of culvert headwalls.even surfacecif uniformtextureand appearance shall be sanded with power sanders or other approved abrasive means until smooth. ii) All surfacesof bridgepiers. j101.8 qutrclslsrsIg a) General All newly placed concrete shalr be cured in accordance with these specifications. except the under surfacesbetweengirdersand the insideverticalsurfacesof r girders.and retaining walls gb9y" finished ground and to at reast three tenth (0. 441-25 . unlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineer.After completionof the ordinarysurfacefinish.

the entiresurfaceof the concrete shall be kept damp by applyingwater with a nozzlethat so atomizesthe flow that a mist and not a sprayis formed.power operatedspraying equipment shall be equipped with an operationalpressure gauge and meansof controlling the pressure. The moisturefrom the nozzleshall not be appliedunder pressuredirecilyupon the concretein a quantitysufficientto cause a flow or wash the surface. In the event of any deray in tne ap[licationof curing 401-26 .may be used as a curingmediumto retainthe moisture. after which the entiresurfaceof the concreteshall be sprinkledcontinuously with water for a periodof not lessthan seven(7) days.untilthe surfaceof the concreteis coveredwith the curingmedium.The compounoshaltbe appliedwith a pressure spray in such a manner as to cover the entire concretesurface with a uniformfilm. cotton mats.Water Method CuringcompoundMethod ReinforcedWaterproofpaper Method if requiredby the Engineer.burlaps. The membrane-formingcompound used shall consist of a practically colourlessliquid.carpets.The amountof compoundappliedshall be ample to seal the surfaceof the concretethoroughly. At the expirationof the curingperiodthe concretesurfaceshallbe clearedof all curingmediums.rugs.or earthor sand blankets. Forms-in-Place Method SteamMethod Polyethytene SheetingMethod Water Method The concreteshallbe kept continuously wet by the applicationof waterfor a minimumperiodof seven(7) days afterthe concretehas been placed. and shall be of such characterthat it will harden within 30 minutesafter application.but beforeany drying shrinkageor craze cracks begin to appear.the entiresurfaceof the bridgedeck or slab shall be kept damp by the applicationof water with an atomiiing nozzleas specifiedin the precedingparagraphuntil the concretehas set. The curingcompoundshall be appliedto the concretefollowingthe surface finishing operation immediately after the moisture sheen begins to disappearfrom the surface. when concretebridge decks and flat slabs are to be cured without the use of a moistureretainingmedium.The use of any membraneformingcompoundthat will alter the naturalcolourof the concreteor imparta slipperysurfaceto any wearrng surfaceshall be prohibited. CuringCompoundMethod surfaces exposed to the air may be cured by the applicationof an imperviousmembraneif approvedby the Engineer.

Shouldthe film of compoundbe damagedfrom any causebeforethe expirationof seven(7) days afterthe concreteis placedin the case of structures. batch number.Containersshall be well sealedwith ring seals and lug type crimplids. An anti-settlingagent or combinationof anti-setilingagents shall be incorporated in the curingcompoundto preventcaking. and shallhavea labelwarningconcerning flammability.a shippinginvoiceshallaccompanyeachload. ILeinlbrcetl WaterproofParrerMethod The exposedfinishedsurfacesof concreteshall be sprayed with water. the compoundshallbe in a thoroughly mixedcondition. curingcompounds shallnot hardsettlein storage.Eachcontainer shallbe labeledwiththe manufacturer'sname.They shallnot be diluted or altered in any manner after manufacture. number of gallons. specificationnumber. It shall be composedof two sheetsof Kraftpapercementedtogetherwith a bituminousadhesiveand reinforcedwith fibre. 401-27 . The labelshall also warn that the curingcompoundshall be well stirredbeforeuse. applicationof water with an atomizingnozzle as specifiedunder "Water Method".compound.At the time of use. using a nozzle that so atomizesthe flow that a mist and not a spray is formed.and dateof manufacture. the Engrneermay requireadditionaltesting before use to determine compliance to requirements.The invoiceshall containthe sameinformation as that required'herein for containerlabels. The curingcompoundshallbe packagedin cleanbarrelsor steelcontainers or shallbe suppliedfrom a suitablestoragetank locatedat the job-site. shall be started immediatelyand shall be continued until applicationof the compound which shall not be applied over any free standingwatersurface.the damagedportionshall be repairedimmediately withadditional compound.The liningsof the containers shallbe of a character thatwill resist the solventof the curingcompound.onsite storageta.'ks shall have a permanentsystem designedto completely re-disperseany settledmaterialwithoutintroducingair or any other foreign substance.The paper shall remain in place for a period of not less than 72 nours. Curingcompoundmay be sampledby the Engineerat the sourceof supply and at thejob-site. afterwhichthe waterproofpapershall be placed. The waterproofpaper shall be formedintosheetsof such widthas to providea completecover of entire concretesurface. when the curing compoundis shippedin tanks or tanktrucks.untilthe concretehas set.which results in any drying or cracking of the surface. lf the compoundhas not been used within one hundred twenty (120) days after the date of manufacture. Reinforcedwaterproofpaper shall complywith ASTM c 171 specifications.

the edges of the sheetsor by othermeanssatisfactory Shouldany portionof the sheetsbe brokenor damagedwithinseventytwo (72) hours after being placed.all in in ltem401. by the curing compound method. The sheetsshall be securelyweighteddown by placinga bank of earth on to the Engineer. The joint seams shall have minimumlap of ten (10)cm.Adjoiningsheets shall overlapnot less than thirty(30) cms. The forms shall remainin placefor a minimumperiodof seven (7) days after the concrete has been placed.The edges of the sheetingshall be weightedsecurelywith a continuouswindrowof earth or any other means satisfactoryto the Engineerto providean air-tightcover. shall be cured by the water method. and the laps shall be securely weightedwith earlh. or."Methodsof Curing". or any other means satisfactoryto the Engineerto providean air-tightcover.8(b).Duringthe placingof concreteand application of steam.other than highway bridge decks. except that for members over five (5) the formsshallbe in placefor a minimumperiodof cms in leastdimension.All joints in the sheets shall be securelycementedtogetherin such a manner as to provide a waterproofjoint. the forms-in-place method.the concreteshall be allowedto attainits initial set beforesteamis applied. c) CuringStructures All newly placedconcretefor cast-in-placestructures.Woodenforms shallbe kept wet by wateringduringthe curing period StearnMethod After placingand vibrating. Method Polyethylene Sheeting The wet surfaceof fresh concreteshall be coveredwith white polyethylene sheetingas soon as possiblewithoutmarringthe suface and shouldcover all exposedsurfacesof the concrete. withthe requirements accordance 4A1-28 . as permittedherein. provisionshall be made to preventsurfacedryingby meansof a coating of approvedmaterial.The optimum curing temperatureshall not exceedsixtyfive (65)degreeC. five (5) days.which have lost their waterproofqualitiesor have been damagedto such an extentas to renderthem unfit for curingthe concrete shallnot be used.3. 1\llethod Forrns-in-Place Formedsurfacesof concretemay be cured by retainingthe forms-in-place.the broken or damaged potlions shall be repairedwithnew sheetsproperlycementedintoplace immediately Sectionsof sheets.

00a. untir the Engineei -t. water shall be applied to concrete surfaces being cured by the curing compound method o. To prevent moisture ross on exposed surfaces during the presteaming period. steam at jets shall be row pressureand in a saturatedcondition.he determinesthat a coolingeffectis no longerrequired. d) CuringPrecastConcreteMembers Precastconcretemembersshail be cured for not ress than seven (7) days by the water method or by steam curing for a period in which go% of strengthachieved. ""po.The curing compound sharl be applied progressivelyduring the deck finishingopurition immediately after finishingoperationsare completedon each lndividual portion of the deck. 401-29 ."d Enclosuresfor steam curingshall allow free circulationof steam about the memberand shall be constructedto containthe live steam with a minimum moistureloss. The curing temperature throughoutthe enctosureshail noi exceedsixtyfive losy oegi.and by the water method.membersshall be held for a minimumfour (4) hoursprecastingperiod. The water cure shalr be appriednot raterthan four (4) trours after completionof the deck finishingor. steam at Jets.contror cyrindersshail be covered to preventmoistureloss and shallbe placedin a location where temperatureis representative of the averagetemperatureof the enclosure. Duringapplicationof the steam.the followingmorning.test cyrinders. The top surfaceof highwaybridgedecks shall be cured by both the curing compoundmethod.The curingcompoundmethodmay be used on concretesurfaceswhich are to be buriedunderground.and surfaceswhere only ordinary surface Finish is to be appliedand on which a uniformcolouris not requireoano which will not be visiblefrom any publictraveledway.or forms.steam curingfor precast membersshallconformto the followingprovisions: After placemenlof the concrete.at the optionof the contractor. when deemed necessaryby the Engineerduring periodsof hot weather.providedtirey are kept in good repair and secured in such a mannerto preventthe loss of steamand moisture. The use of the tarpaulinsor similarflexiblecovers will be permitted.membersshail be coveredimmediatery aftercast'ingor-in" surfacesshallbe keptwet by fog sprayor wet blankets.the water cure be applied not laterthan8.e c and shall be maintainedat a constantleveifor a sufficienttime n'"""J""iy to develop the requiredcompressivestrength. for portionsof the decKs on which finishingis completedafter normalworkinghours.m.shall not impinge direcflyon the concrete. the temperaturerise within the enclosure shall not exceed twenty (20) degree c per hour.1ov forms-in-pracemethod.

PotentialAlkaliReactivityof Cement -AggregateCombinations (Morta-BarMethod). Production of PlasticFines. e) CuringPrecastConcretePiles All newly placedconcreteprecastpiles. .t01.lt shall be the responsibility of the contractorto designatethe sourceor sourcesof aggregateand to obtainthe necessarysamplesand submit them for testing at least thirty (30) days before actual concreting operationsare to begin.9 Testingof Aggreqates Samplesof fine and coarseaggregateto be used shall be selectedby the Engineer. PotentialReactivityof Aggregates (Chemical Methods) 401-30 T-2 T-27 T-11 r-21 T-71 T-104 r-112 T-96 T-84 T-85 T-210 T-27 T-17 ASTMC 586 A S T MC 2 2 7 ASTMC 289 .3.8(b)"Quring PrecastConcreteMembers"shall apply exceptthat the concreteshall be kept wet for at least seven (7) days includingthe holdingand steaming period.8(b) exceptthatthe concreteshallbe keptundermoisturefor at least fourteen(14) days.200sieve. FinenessModulus SandEouivalent PotentialReactivityof Carbonate Rocksfor ConcreteAggregate (RockCylinderMethod). curing of precastconcretewill be consideredcompletedafter a termination of the steamcuringcycle.3.3.A minimum of one temperaturerecordingdeviceper sixty(60) metersof continuousbed lengthwill be requiredfor checkingtemperature.Temperaturerecordingdevices that will provide an accurate continuous permanentrecordof the curingtemperatureshall be provided. At the option of the Contractorsteam curing may be used in whichcasethe steamcuringprovisions in ltem 401. samplesof aggregatesshall be obtainedand testedin accordancewith the followingstandardAASHTOmethods:i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) Samplingaggregates Sieveanalysis Amountof materialpassing the No. both conventionally reinforcedand prestressedshall be cured by the "Water Method"as describedin ltem 401. Organicimpurities MortarStrength Sodiumsulphatesoundness Friableparticles Abrasionloss SpecificGravity Absorption.

3 . concrere of that particularpour shall be rejectedand removedas directed by the Engineer. a) The minimumaverage28 days test resultof all samplestestedat any timeshallbe the specified twentyeight(28)daysstrength.at his expense.Further more contractorshall redesign the concrete mix for approvalof the Engineer. followingthe performance of the necessarytests. J 0 I .l 0 Testingof Compressir-e Strength concretecompressivestrengthrequirements consistof a minimumstrength at the age of twentyeight(28) days and the minimumstrengthwhich must be attainedbefore various loads or stressesare appliedto the concrete. which have been fabricated from concrete sampled and tested in accordancewith AASHTOT 23 and AASHTOT 22 A set of six (6) cylindersshall be taken from each fifty (50) cubic metersof each class of concreteor fractionthereofplacedeach day. The variousstrengthsrequiredare specifiedin Table401-1. three (3) of the six (6) cylindersto be testedafter seven (7) days and three (3) aftertwenty eight(28)days.No aggregatefor testingduringthe productionof concreteshall be sampled at the dischargegates of the bins feeding the weight hopper. the cores shall be obtainedand tested in accordancewith the specifications of AASHTOT-24. concreterepresented by any singletest cylindersthat failsto complywith the requirementunder(b) abovewill be rejectedunlessthe contractorat his expense. b) No individualsamplestested after28 days shall show a test resultlower thaneightyfive(85)percentof the requiredtwentyeight(2g)days.Engineermay stop furtherwork on that particularportionof concrete. Testresultsof the coresshallmeetthe followingrequirements:a) Averagetest resultof the coresshallbe lessthanthe minimumrequired twentyeight(28) days strength b) No individualcore shall show a strengthless than Ninety five (95) percentof the requiredtwentyeight(28)days strength. seven (7) days strengthshows less than seventy(70) percentof the twentyeight(28) days strength(in case of type-lcement). shall provide safe and suitable faciiitiesfor obtainingthe samples.providesevidencethat the strengthand quality bf tre concrete placedin the work are acceptable.No concretingwork on the projectwill be permitted untilthe Engineersignifiesin writinghis approval. 401-31 .lf such evidenceconsistsof tests made on cores taken from the work. Shouldthe abovetest resultsfail to complywith the requirements. The compressivestrengthof concretewill be determinedfrom test cylinders. In case. The contractor.unlesstwenty eight (28)days strengthgivessatisfactory results.on all the materialsinvolvedin makingconcrete.

but underseparateitems.etc.. The compressivestrengthof concrete determitredfor such purposeswill be tests.pipe culverts.etc.for Mix Productiotls T ri:rl B:rtches The placingof concreteshallnot beginuntiltrialbatchesof the mix design to be used have been producedby the Contractorand testedand approved shall be such that the average by the Engineer.teer volumeof concreteshall be made for the from the theoretical Deductiorrs volumesof drainingholes..weep holes. In measuringthe uoiurneof concreteic. wheretheircross-sectional of shallnot includeany concreteusedin the construction The measurement falsework.e in writing..-1. -10l."l UITEJ\{ENTAND PAYNIENT N{I.or chamfersten squarecentimeters when measuringthe area or less shall be disregarded In cross-sectional quantityof concreteto be Paidfor Concretefor railings. evaluatedon the basisof individual 10r.. Oe paid for. the dimensicnto be thoseshownon the Drawingsexceptwhereothersoroered appliedshall-. is not to be measuredunderthis item..TS -t01. in case areasexceed500 squarecentimeters.1.The trial mix proportions test cylindersshatlbe 20% higherthan the sirengthof five (5) consecutive testcylindershall twentyeight(28)daysstrengthand no individual speciiieci be belowthe specifiedstrength. or cofferdams The volumeinvolvedin fillets. surface finishing and/or jointsand any such work renderingas required.formationof construction worksthat are paid except item the necessaryto complete and incidentals pay items for underother 401-32 .].scorings.1 l'1e:tsrtre urcnt The quantityof concreteto be paidfor shallbe the numberof cubicmeters of concreteof the variousclassescompletein placeand accepted.2 Pavrnetrt The acceptedquantitymeasuredas providedaboveshallbe paidfor at the contractunit price respectivelyfor the pay items listed below that as per shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich prices and paymentshall be full compensationalso for such works as curing. by the Eng. When concrete compressivestrength is specified as a prerequisiteto applyingloadsor stressesto a concretestructureor member.test cylinders will be cured under conditionssimilarto those at the castingsite.pipes and conduits.

(i) UnderGround (ii) On Ground (iii) Elevated ConcreteClassB ConcreteClassC (i) Underground (ii) On Ground (iii) Elevated CM CM CM (i) ConcreteClassD1 (ii) ConcreteClassD2 (iii) ConcreteClassD3 ConcreteClassY Lean Concrete PrecastConcrete.no separatemeasurement or paymentshall be made for false work. 401a 401b 401c 401d 401e 401f 4 0 1g Description. .Class. centering...For all concretestructuresor portions. paymentfor all such temporaryworksshallbe deemedto be included in the contractpricepaid undervariousitemsof concretework.thereof.. CM CM CM CM CM CM 401-33 CM CM CM t. U n i to f Measurement ConcreteClass ....tvl .. Pay ltem No.formwork or any other temporary work to complete the concrete structure or portion thereof.

finishedto the linesand gradesindicatedon the plans or as requiredby the Engineer. Fieinforcrng steel if it is to be used for falseworkshall complywith the requirements of AASHTOM 3r .rTtM -r02 { 0 2 ..No falseworkconstruction shall start until the Engineerhas reviewed and approvedthe drawings.suppiyand construction of falsework whichwill providethe necessaryrigidityto supportthe roadsimposed. The contractormay revise the farseworkdrawingsat any time provided sufficienttime is allowedfor the Engineer'srevieir before construction is startedon the revisedportions. i i ) The entire superstructurecross-section. J02. exceptwhen in the o-pinionof the Enoirper a podionof the roadis carriedby girderspreviousty cast and ir::i.such time shall be proportionate to the complexityof the falsework designand in no caseshallbe lessthanone (1) week.. The Engineermay rcquirethe contractorto emproyscrewjacksor approved wedgesto jake up any settlementin the formworkeitherbefore or during the placirrgof .Ail farsewoik shail be designed arrd ccnstructedto provide the necessary rigidity and to supportthe ii-ieci.2 N. {02. Assumptionsused in designof the falseworkshall includebut not be limited to the following:i ) For designing falseworkand centering.except rairing. pIsc'lUPTtoN This work shallconsistof ihe desrgn.I F'ALSEWOITKAND CENTERINC FOR BITIDGES.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS {02. concretewhen usedshallconformto ltem'401 of these specifications. structuralsteelto be used for falseworkshall complywith the requirements of standardspecifications for StructuralsteetAASFiTo M 1g3.lATERIALREOUIREMENTS Timberand lumberto be used for falseworkshallbe of sound lumberand complywiththe requirement in AASHTOM 168. The contractorshall providesufficienttime for the Engineerto comptetethis review. per cubic meter shall be assumed for green concrete.ii1q aitaineda cerlainstrenqth. and producea structure.:j0ncrete.400 kg.r without appreciablesetflementor bero-rmaiion.l FalservorhDesignandDrawings Detailedworkingdrawingsand backupcalculations of the falseworkshallbe furnishedby the contractorto the Engineer.J. shall be con-qrdereci to he placedat one time.a weightof 2. 402-1 .82.

lllol Llcnsse peu6rsappue pue poJaprsuoc butpoddnsslutop(xt sqels sbueqrono aq aslej se lleqs )JoA 'sasroJ aql ^q pasnec speol palsnlpeelto peseoJoul{ue poddns Dursserlsard 'possallsaLdeq o] sl alalsuoc aql o1 pau0rsapoq lleqs IJoMasleJaql Jl(lllA 'suorlepueuluocalesaql 6ur.asqcre uo paceld eq lleLls 6ur:eluac 'sexoq aq] ropuaro] sraluac1o 6uuanno.eqs6utLeluacqcLy (tn alll uo paieclpulJo pa4lcads s6utnnetg (n reque3 aL{} 'ern}onl}s pallstuU aq1 anrD o} }os aq lleqs >1lo.Jarnlcejnueui ]ou lleLlssacl^ap polnlcelnueullaLllo pue 'slalcerq's1ce[uo pasnsuot]cagap 'suLunloc pue Dutpeol ulnlulxeulaql(!lA 'un6eqseq burceldaq)ralJelncco .ilra^elep JaLllolo san6olelecqsluln] 'reautbu3otl] ^q palsanbal suollepuaulLuooal Jl lleqs rojcerluo3aLll poacxa oLl] s.Z-ZOV laour6uf aql ^q Outlunn 'sueld ur penorddessalunuol1aloLllpeptulJadaq lllMuotletnapou lcelluoO 'uotlecol e aJoqMleql idacxe io] alnpeLl3s sr olarcuoc6utcegd orl] uo uAAoLls lurof uorlcnJ]suoopue ecuenbes 6urceld a]olcuoo pasodotd 6unnoqs e apnlout lleqs sOunnelpllomosleJ aqI uerberp 6urceld e:n1cn:1s:adns 'sroquraur6utlreL anticelold (69) slaquou {yrql aq sLuc Jeal3 fuerodLual lronnas.l]tmuuaql uodn pesodt-utspeol oqi {llec o1 paubtsap aq lleqss6utlool1ro^aslel sbutnnelp )ro^ asle. peltnbelale sOutuedollomosleJ lleLlsJolcerluoCaLll araLlMs. lenpel6aq] Jo] saslnoplaLllolo 'sa6pam pues alqe]rnsJo sueau Aq apeu oq lleqs suolsl^old sueld 6uualuacpeno:ddeaq1o16urploccepal3nllsuocaq .e3(ttt iseel }e lleqs Jo cqJer]ctlqndo1luecefpelo lano lenouloJpue uotlcnl]suoc lroMasleJ Jo sa6els lle 6uunp posn aq lleLls DutceLqelenbapy (tt '6uruuer1 :o dec llomaslej paroL{cue e ut labut..aq] uo lo]3elluoCaql ^q pue peleubrsap oq lleqs(I.arnces oq lleLtsueds aq] o] 6utnno11o1 eq] ol paltultlaq tou lnq apnlcullleLls urnuirurLU :suorsrnord aql pelrnberare s6uruedoptes alaLlmsuotlecolaLll]e u6tsap)JomasleJ 'salctqa^Aq llomasleJ lceduutol palcefqns]t alqe]saq ll1ltn eLll ]eql arnsua o] papoau )lom aql lo] soJnlealleuotltppe{ue aptnold 'ctgel] Dututeluteut to.tlslotJa}xaLlsef (t {.tnas.{ennpeor o1 luacefpe pue la^o lloMasle} Jo uol}cnj}suo3aL.e3 lo sanle^6ut:eeqllospoleulllsa alqemolle sluaulel]]as Ourpaacxalnol.tduo papoddns pue 'uanup'pecedsaq lleqsqcrqan ue ur pa^oLUaJ ')lo^ asle3 (lll '6utiooi e uo papunoiaq louues qslLl^ fuolce1st1es aq lleqs .rp lenn)suorllpuoc llospue sonle^Outleaqllos (^l apdLadsuo](0.) ual peecxaasecou ul pue sepdaqllo1anle^Outleeq oql lauueurpanoLdde oll] paecxe]ou lleqsseltd:aquutluo pesnOurpeol '6ut.{eu qctqan 'luaual]Ies panoldde lqbrps{ue }calJocpue dn ale} o} Japlo ul s>1cef 'polcalp uaqry1 6ulyoddns-1.

Deck slab forms between girders shall be constructedwith no allowancefor settlementrelativeto the girders Detailedcalculations by the Contractorshowingthe stresses. The Contractorshall provide tell-talesattachedto the soffit forms easily readableand in enoughsystematically-placed locationto determinethe total settlementof the entire portion of the structurewhere concreteis being placed. be discontinued untilcorrectivemeasuresare providedto entiresatisfactionof the Engineer. satisfactorymeasures are not taken to correctnessof excessivesettlements.The workmanship used in falseworkconstructionshallbe of such qualitythat the falseworkwill supportthe loads imposed on it without excessivesettlementor take-up beyondthat shownon the falseworkdrawings. and camber necessaryto compensatefor said deflectionsin all load supporting membersshallbe includedin the worktngdrawings.the pilesshall be drivento a bearing value.capableof supportingthe loads imposedon it. Anticipatedtotal settlementsof falseworkand forms shall be indicatedby the Contractoron the falseworkdrawings.the placing of concrete shall. equal to the calculatedpile toadingas shown on the falsework drawings.Anticipatedsettlementsover two (2) cms will not be allowedunlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineer.Theseshouldincludefalsework footingsettlementand joint take-up. 102. Suitablejacks or wedges shall be used in connectionwith falseworkto set the formsto theirrequiredgradeand to take up any excessivesettlement in the falseworkeitherbeforeor duringthe placingof concrete. When falseworkis supportedon piles.the Engineer will furnish to the Contractor the amounts of camber necessary to compensate for vedicalalignmentor anticipated structuredeflection.deflections.The falseworkdrawingsshall show any pedestrianopenings. Falseworkshall be foundedon footings.The total camber used in constructing falseworkshallbe the sum of the aforementioned cambers. Shouldeventsoccur.which are requiredthroughthe falsework.3.2 FalservorkConstruction and Dran'ings The falseworkshall be constructedto conformto the falseworr drawings.includingsettlementsthat deviatemore than + 2 cms from thoseindicatedon the falseworkdrawings.In the event. The materials usedin the falseworkconstruction shallbe of the quantityand qualitynecessaryto withstandthe stressesimposed. After approvingthe Contractor'sfalseworkdeflectioncamber.whichin the opinionof the Engineer would prevent obtaining a structure conforming to the requirementsof these specifications. 402-3 . the contractorshall not be relievedof responsibility for conformingto the requirements of thesespecifications. if this is not shown on the drawings.

In additionto the above requirement. the falseworkpiling within such areas shall be removedto atleastsixty (60) cms.-l MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT For all concrete structures. All falseworkmaterialsshall be completelyremoved. 402-4 . falseworksupportingany span of a simple span bridges shall not be releasedbefore 14 days after the last concrete..no falseworkfor bridges shall be releaseduntil the supportedconcretehas attaineda compressivestrength of atleasteighty(80) percentof the requiredtwentyeight (2g) days strength. 402.3. has been placed. Falseworksupportingdeck overhangsand deck slab betweengirdersshall not be releaseduntil seven (7) days after the deck concrete has been placed.excludingconcreteabove the bridgedeck. has been placed in that span and in the adjacentportionsof each adjoiningspan wherefalseworkis to be released.Falseworkpilingshall be removedatleastsixty (60) cms belowthe surfaceof the originalground or stream bed. Falseworkfor cast-in-placeprestressedportionsof structuresshall not be releaseduntilafterthe prestressing steelhas beentensioned. All debrisand refuseresultingfrom work shallbe removedand the premises left in a neat and presentablecondition. belowthe bottomand side slopesof said excavatedareas.All falseworkcosts shall be consideredas includedin the contractpricespaid (cost/cMor LM of structuralmembersor lump-sum) for the various items of concrete work and no additional compensation will be allowedthereof.3 ItemovingFalsc*'orlr Unlessotherwiseshown on the drawings. when falseworkpilingis driven within the limitsof ditch or channelexcavationareas.prestressedconcrete structuresor oortions thereof.Falseworksupportingany span of a continuousor rigidframe bridgeshall not be releasedbefore 14 days after the last concrete.or permittedby the Engineer.{02.no separatemeasurementor paymentshall be made for falsework supportingsuch structures.excludingconcreteabove the bridge deck.

The requirements for designof formworkare the sameas describedunder Item402. 403.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 403.r FormworkDesignandDrawines The contractorshall prepareworkingdrawings.to ensure easyremoval. 403. The use of ties consisting of twistedwire loopsto holdformsin positionwill not be permitted.shapeand surfacesmoothnessas to leave the finishedworkstrueto the dimensions shownon drawingsor requiredby the Engineer andwiththe surfacefinishas specified.etc.3.or maywiththe Engineer's permission.3. Formfastenersconsistingof form bolts.3.2 FormworkConstruction concreteforms shall be constructedand maintainedso as to prevent warpingand the op€ningof jointsdue to the shrinkageof the lumberand shallbe true to the dimensions. 403.Metalties or anchorage withinthe formsshall be so constructed as to permittheirremovalto a depthof at leastfive(s) cmsfromthefacewithoutinjuryto theconcrete.or otherapprovedmaterial.clampsor otherdevicesshall be used as necessaryto preventspreadingof the forms during concrete placement.fasteners. Formsfor exposedsurfacesshallpreferably be linedwith metal. be madeof dressedlumberof uniformthickness. erecting andremoving concrete formsof sufficientstrengthwith all necessarybracings.rigidity. linesand gradesof the structureand with the sufficientstrength.ITEM 403 403. and in conformity withthe requirements hereinafter specified.metalor otherapproved materials andshallbe built mortartightand of sufficientrigidityto preventdistortiondue to the pressure of theconcreteandotherloadsincidentto the construction operations.FalseworkDesignandDrawings. suchas girdersand copings.plywood.1 FORMWORK DESCRIPTION Theworkshallconsistof providing.2 MATERIALREOUIREMENTS Formsshallbe of wood.Forms shall be filled at all sharp corners(Minimum two (2) cms triangular fillets)and shallbe givena levelor draftin the caseof all projections. 403-1 .backupcalculationsand materialdatafor the formworkandshuttersto be submittedto the Engineer for approvalunlessotherwisedirected.1.

producea concretesurfacewith excessiveundulations. Portionsof concrete in excessof the limitshereinmay be structureswith surfaceundulations rejectedby the Engineer.All exposedsurfacesof similarportionsof a concretestructureshall be formedwith the sameformingmaterialor with materialswhich producesimilar concretesurface textures.form stiffeners.smooth.the cavitiesthat are leftwill be of the smallestpossiblesize.The cavitiesshall be filledwith cementmortarand the surfaceleft sound. satisfactoryto the Engineerhave been made.whichWillnot be completelyenclosedor hidden below the permanentground surface.colour and appearance. Formsfor all concretesurfaces. exceedingeithertwo (2) mm or 11270of the centerto center Undulations formfasteners. form oil priorto use.or waleswill distancebetweenstuds. 403-2 .The form oil shallbe a commercialqualityform oil or otherapprovedcoatingwhichwill permitthe readyreleaseof the formsand will not discolourthe concrete. all materials the forms has been constructing poured. Whenlumber Formworkfor concreteplacedunderwatershallbe watertight.Shouldany form or formingsystem.form fasteners. The insidesurfacesof formsshallbe cleanedof all dirt.formstiffeners.its use shall be discontinueduntil modifications. sq Formsfor exposedconcretesurfacesshallbe designedand constructed in any excessively does not undulate formed surface of the concrete thatthe directionbetweenstuds.whichwilllaterbe removed.even though previouslyapprovedfor use. hasinspected the Engineer The rate of depositingconcretein forms shall be such as to prevent permitted of theformsor formpanelsin excessof the deflections deflections Maximumdeflectionalloweddue to propsettlement by thesespecifications. shall conform to the hereinfor forms for exposedsurfaces.or wales. with Concreteshallnotbe depositedin the formsuntilall workin connection required be to completed. with 3 is 5 mm and due to bendingof shuttersis 3 mm. material.joists.joists. whenmeasured meterstraightedge. placed and to be been for the unit concrete have in the embedded andapproved saidformsandmaterials.Anchordevicesmaybe castintothe concretefor lateruse formsor for liftingprecastmembers. be consideredto be excessive.Interiorsurfacesof requirements undergrounddrainagestructuresshall be consideredto be completely enclosedsurfaces.upontheirremoval.Fittingfor metalties shallbe of suchdesignthat. is used.The useof driventypesof in supporting anchoragesfor fasteningforms or form supportsto concretewill not be permitted.thisshallbe planedandtonguedandgrooved.and uniformin colour.even.mortarand foreign coatedwith shallbe thoroughly Forms.

the following periods.columns. cement. lf field operationsare not controlledby beam or cylindertests.and surface smoothnessof reusedforms shall be maintainedat all times. for removal of forms and supportsshall be used as a minimum subject to the approval of the Engineer and to the requirements of ltem 402. 403. strength. Arch Center CenteringUnderBeams SupportsunderFlatSlabs FloorSlabs VerticalWallSurfaces Columns Sideof Beams Top SlabsR. unsatisfactory will order the work stopped until the defects have been Engineer the corrected.3.bendingshallremainin placefor at leastforty(40)hoursafterplacingconcretefor the members. may beginwhen the concreteis foundto have the required applicable) strength. RemovingFalsework.Forms shall remain in place for periods.C. the weather. lf highearlystrengthcementis usedor by the use of additional theseperiodsmaybe reducedas directed.Any warpedor bulgedlumber must be resized before being reused. For narrowwalls and columns. and other conditionsinfluencingthe setting of the concrete.or othermembers Sideformsfor cast-in-place wherethe formsdo not resistdeadload. either beforeor during the placingof concrete.Forms shall be set and maintainedtrue to the line designateduntil the concreteis sufficientlyhardened.rigidity.ter of the structure.wherethe bottomof the form is inaccessible. which shall be determined.3.Box Culverts 14 Days 14 Days 14 Days 14 Days 24 Hours 24 Hours 12 Hours 14 Days beams.girders.3. \Men fieldoperations of heatingand curing(where andthe discontinuance supports and housing. Forms that are unsatisfactoryin any respectshallnot be reused.providedin no case shall supportsbe removedin compressive lessthanseven(7)daysafterplacingthe concrete. are controlled by cylindertests.Sideformsfor precastmembersmay be removedthe next day after placingconcrete therein. the lower form boards shall be adjustableso that they may be removedfor cleaningout extraneousmaterialimmediatelybeforeplacingthe concrete.When forms appearto be in any way.as hereinspecified. 403-3 . The shape. considerationshall be given to the location and chara. and the materialsused in the mix.the removalof forms.3 Removalof Formwork ln the determinationof the time for the removalof falseworkand forms.exclusiveof days when the temperatureis below five (5) degree C.watertightness.

the insideof box girdersshallbe clearedof all loosematerialandsweptclean.prior to completionof formingfor the deckforms.This precautionis essentialin oiderto avoidjammingof the eipantionlointsjnd' variationsin alignment. In general.All formsshallbe removed. 403.the formssupporting the deckof boxgirdersand the formsin hollowabutmentsor piersmay remainin place.the forms shall be removedfrom the bottom upwards.the sequenceof strikingcentersshallbe approvedby the Engineer. In general.precast concrete elementsor portionsthereof. no separate measurementor paymentshall be made for formworksupportingsuch structures.exceptwhenno permanent accessis available to the cells.All formworkcostsshallbe considered as includedin the contractpricespaid (cosucMor LM of structuralmembersor lump-sum) for the variousitemsof concreteworliandno additional compensation will be allowedthereof. 403-4 .such portionsof the spandrelwalls shallbe leftfor construction subsequent to the strikingof centeis.Formsand theirsupportsshallnpt be removedwithoutapproval. . For filledspandrelarches. centersshall be graduallyand uniformlyloweredin such a manneras to avoidinjuriousstressesin any partof the structure. supportsshallbe removedin sucha manneras to permitthe concreteto uniformlyandgradually takethe stressesdueto its ownweight.In archstructures of two or more spans. prestressedconcrete structures.archcenteringor falseworkshall be struckand the arch made setf-supporting beforethe railingor coping is placed.as may be necessary to avoidjammingof the expansion joints.4 MEASUREMENT AIID PAYMENT For all concrete structures. Methodsof formremovallikelyto causeoverstressing of the concreteshall not be used.

OUIRE]UENTS All materials shall conform to the requirements hereinafter given. Test reports from approved sources shall be submitted to the Engineerfor all steel reinforcementused.E.areordered all order lists and bending diagrams shall be furnishedby the Contractor.1 STEEL REINFORCEMENT DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishing.The approval of order lists and bendingdiagramsby the Engineershall in no way relieve the Contractor of responsibilityfor the correctness of such lists and diagrams.2 IUATERIAL R. size.ITEM 404 404.for the approvalof the Engineer. fabricating and placing of steel reinforcementof the type. 404. shape and grade required in accordance with these specifications.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 4043.and in conformitywith the requirementsshown on the Drawingsand SpecialProvisionsor as directedby the Engineer.r Fabricationof Bent Bars Concrete a) Order Lists Before materials.Any expenses incident to the revisionsof material furnished in accordance with such lists and diagrams to make it comply with the drawingsshall be borne by the Contractor. These reports shall show the results of chemical and physicaltestsmade r) DeformedBilletSteelBars (Grades40 and 60) for Concrete AASHTOM-31(ASTM4-615) Reinforcement ii) Deformed Steel Wire for ConcreteReinforcement-AASHTO M-225(ASTMA-496) iii) WeldedSteelWire Fabricfor ConcreteReinforcement-AASHTO M-55(ASTMA-185) iv) Steel Bar Mats for ConcreteReinforcementAASHTO M-54 (ASTMA-184) v) Cold-DrawnSteelWire for ConcreteReinforcement-AASHTO M-32(ASTMA-82) vi) Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for Reinforcement-AASHTO M-221(ASTMA-497) vli) Structural Shapesfor ConcreteReinforcement ASTMA-36 404. 404-1' .

has easilyremovable and detrimental rust. grease. reinforcementshall be free from dirl. surface irregularities. c) Fabrication Bent bar reinforcementshall be cold bent to the shapes shown on the drawingsor requiredby the Engineer.or mill scale will not be cause for rejection.Reinforcementshall be free from injuriousdefectssuch as cracks and laminations.alternate intersections needto be tied. placedin positionas shownon the Drawings.5cm(1-3l8") 404. When placed in the work. b) PlacineandFastening Reinforcing steelshall be accuratelyplacedin the positionshownon the Drawings andfirmlyheldduringthedepositing andfinishing of theconcrete.Reinforcing steel barsembeddedin concreteshall not be bentafterthey are in place. 444-2 .or dust. cover.loosescale.b) Storinsand SurfaceConditionof Reinforcement Steel reinforcementshall be stored above the surface of the ground on platforms.3m)in each direction. approved bythe Engineer.1 1 bar) d>3. detrimentalrust.Bars shallbe tiedat all intersections with 16 gaugeblackannealed wireexcept that wherespacingis less than 1 ft (0.providedthe minimumdimensions. oil.All intersections shallbe tied in the top mat of pladedon bridgedecks and the top slabs of box culverts. reinforcement Abruptbendsshall be avoidedexcept where one steel bar is bent aroundtheother. or other foreign materials. and tensilepropertiesof a handwire brushedspecimenmeets the physicalrequirementsfor the size and gradeof steelspecified.shallbe as indicatedon th€ Drawings.cross-sectionarea. paint.5cm(1-3l8")(No.the distancebetweenthe externalfaceof the barandthe faceof the finishedconcrete. loose seals.When steel.Bars shall be bent around a pin havingthe followingdiameters(D)in relationto the diameterof the bar (d): Stirrups& columntie bars D=4xd Otherbarshaving d<3. or other supports and shall be protected as far as practicable from mechanical injury and surface deteriorationcaused by exposure to conditions producing rust.3.Surfaceseams.2 D=Sxd D = 10xd Placing and Fastenins a) Protection of Material Steelreinforcement shallbe protectedat all timesfrom injury. skids. it shall be cleanedby a satisfactory method.

rp". irrn. from steel .g. to condluct or spaced located bar Any bars."..t""ce steel.The Contractor steeland givenpermisJion in place are forms and reinforcement the tne enginlerfour hourstime after shallbe shape or length size.iO until the Engin6erhas inspectedthe shallallow to placethe concrete. whereshownon thedrawings. pieces of pebbles.exceptwhereshown unlessotherwisepermitted. with a Unlessotherwiseshownon the Drawings.""ur"fy attachedthereto.T"he Reinforcing permitted' be not will "lii"r"t" spacers as blocks r"t"r pip" or wooden foreign steefwn'enplacedin the workshailbe free fromflakerust.No concrete reinforcing placing the of J"p".and dimensionsand shall have 16"on"rJt" wiresembeddedin them.dirt and materialandbeforeanyconcreteisp|aced. All reinforcing forms.it. wired and placed in tontict barsshallbe to be permittedat locationswhere the concretesection is insufficient third and one of one bardiameteror one frouiO"a minimumcleardistance aggregatebetweenthe spliceand the_ coarse of size maximum ir_ila1 the if i""r"rt adjacentbar.'d.rupsand ties shallalwayspassaround. the bir (40) times . in the finishedstructureaftei tne "*p"i"O away from contactwith the forms shall be precast troiOingreinforcement blocksof approvedshape.r"i6. of use iS placed. ot"by buttweldingunlessotherurise 404-3 . oi"*ing. forms "f. E*""pt as mentioned steel galvanized fromthe formsby meansof templates.The precastconcrete g""g" br"il annealed'tie strengthequalto that specifiedfor the class blockshallhavea compressive by of concreteto be placedin the work.Not except on! tnirO(1/3)ofthe barsmay be splicedin the samecross-section. incorrect of bar Any the inspection.bars shall.Layersof bars shallbe separated approvedmetalchairsor bolsters.be lapped the splices' lapped In diameter.not splice-s Lapped together. before Any brokenor damagedconcretespacerblocksshall be removed brick.concreteb|ocksor be will which surfaces. or stone broken.ini*rrn overlapof forty will.anymortarwhichmaybe shall be aoneringto the reinforcingsteel shall be removed. -drawings.. shallbe securelyheldat the steel .in ihe by detailedon the Drawingsor if-authorized shallbelplicedby lappingai leastoneand one half(1-112) reinforcement shownon the Drawings...Att ieinforcing in place by means of remain which forms.the outsideof mainbarsand be stir..All concreteplacedin violationof these shallbe rejectedandremoved' c) Splicine shall be furnishedin the full lengthsindicatedon the All reinforcement splicingof bars. SptiJeisnattbe staggered morethan seiarationof not less than fort' (aO)times bar diameters. correct wi*i ilmoueo and replaced given is permission before correctly spaced or relocated shallbe incorrectly the be at and correctionsshall to placetoncreteand such replacements provisions contractor'sexpense. withoutthe writtenapprovalof the permitted be not will on the as far as possibleandwitha minimum . the placed on or chairs latvanizeosteel bars proper distance at the held securely be shall above.Weldingof reintorclngsteel shall be done only Spiral writing' Engineer. Metalchairsshallnotbe usedagainstformed Blocks for are stripped.

n* covenng shallbe 10 cm.1 Measurement The .853 6. 404. In work exposedto the action6f sea waterine mini.888 1.0cm 3.d) Lanningof Bar Mat sheet of mesh or bar-matreinforcementshall overlapeach other sufficienfly to maintaina uniform strength and shall be secureiy fastened at the ends and edges. ot "i The weight of prainor deformed bars or bar mat wiil be computedfrom the theoreticalweight of plain round bars of the same nominal size as shown in the followingtabulation: Size mm 6 8 10 12 13 16 Weightin Kilograms perMeter 0.553 9.865 clips.313 7.rf barsare substituted yreiojrtcalcutated upon the contractor'srequestand as a resultmoresteeris used than specified. on|ytheamountspecifiedsha||bemeasuredforpayment 404-4 .5cm In the_footings of abutments.0cm 3.616 0.222 0.042 1.reinforcemenJin praceand structurar steershailnot be incruoedin thJ for paymentunderthis item.395 0.tiesseparators.5 cm. be not ress than s cms except as follows: Top of slab Bottomof Slab Stirrupsand ties in T-beams 4.984 3..quantity-to be paid for shail be the carculatedtheoreticarnumber of metric tons of reinforcementsteer bars. 20 22 25 32 35 40 Weight in Kilograms per Meter 2. unress otherwise shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer.The overlapshall not be lessthan one mesh in width.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 404.andretainingwailsthe minimumcovering sharl be 7.exceptwhen reinforcementis paid foi under pay-it"rs.measuredfrom the surface of the concrete to the face of any reinforcement bar shail.466 2.578 Size mm. mesh or mats as determinedfrom the approved bar bending diagrams and incorporated in the concrete and accepted. e) Covering The minimum covering.4. and othermaterialusedfor positioning andfastening the.

404. Pay ltem No. For bent bars. equipment and incidentals necessary to comoletethe item.otherthan those shownon the Drawingsor required by the Engineerand for convenienceof the Contractor.When laps are madefor splices. When continuousbarsare shownon the Drawings.withoutthe splicesbeing shown the necessarysteel in the spliceswill be paid for on the basisof the individualbarsnot beingshorterthan twelve(12)meters.the lengthalongcentre-lineof bar will be paid.the extra steelshallnot be measurednor paidfor. labour. Ton 404a 404b 404-5 . Description.4.2 Payment The acceptedquantitymeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit prices respectivelyfor the pay items listed below and shown in for the Bill of Quantitieswhich priceand paymentshall be full compensation furnishing materials. Unitof Measurement as perAASHTOM 31 Reinforcement Grade40 Ton Reinforcement as perAASHTOM 31 Grade60 Ton 404c as perAASHTOM-225 Reinforcement Ton 404d as perAASHTOM-55 Reinforcement Ton 404e as perAASHTOM-54 Reinforcement Ton 404f Reinforcement as perAASHTOM-32 Ton 4049 as perAASHTOM-221 Reinforcement Ton 404h (Structural Shapes) Reinforcement as perASTMA-36.

7 percentextensionunder loadmethodshallbe notlessthan Minimum mgdulusof elasticity Minimum elongbtion in 20 bardiameter Diameters afterrupture Diameters tolerance 16.placingand tensioningof prestressingsteel in accordancewith detailsshown on the plans.1 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of prestressingprecast or cast-in-placeconcrete by furnishing.cm ' 4 percJnt . and as specifiedin these specificationsor as directedby the Engineer.0. This work shall also include the furnishing and installationof any appurtenantitem necessary for the particular prestressingsystem to be used.Material. anchorageassembliesand grout usedfor pressuregroutingducts.5T0Kg/sq.cm.cm g. Relaxation for prestressing steelshallbe measured overa periodof thousand (1000)hoursstressed at seventy(70) percentof its ultimatetensilestrengthgivingless than six (6) percent elongation.7 PrestreSSinE ReinfoicementSteel Prestressing steel shall be hightensile wire conforming to ASTM Specification 4-421 or AASHTO Designation M-204. 405-1 .100Kg/sq.25mm The steelshallbe free from injuriousdefectsand shall have a smooth surface.75mm . measured bythe 0. Anchorageassemblies to be shipped shallbe likewise identified.100 Kg/sq.or barsto be shippedto the siteshallbe assigneda lot numberandtaggedfor identification purposes.which shows injuriesdefectsduring or prior to its installation in thework. The Engineermaycallfor a relaxation teston prestressing steelin case.cm 1.After cold stretchingthe physicalproperties shall. includingbut not limitedto ducts.ITEM 405 405.be as follows: r) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Minimum Ultimate tensilestrength Minimum yieldstrength.75x 10 Kg/sq. 405.0. wire and strandshallbe suppliedin coilsof sufficient diameterto ensure thattheylieoutstraight.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 405.2. strand or rope conformingto ASTM specificationA-416 or AASHTo DesignationM-203 or hightensilealloybarsas follows: High{ensile-strength alloy bars shallbe stressrelievedand cold stretchedto a minimumof 9.shallbe rejected.strands.he is not satisfiedwith the sourceof manufacture. a) Testins All wires.

The selectionof samples shall be plantby the Engineeror his representative' made at the manufacturer's PretensioninqMethod Samplesat least 2.one and half (1.5)M lengthshallbe furnished. The concreteshall be Class D as shown in table 401-1 unless otheruvise shownon the Plans.completewith distributionplates.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS General Unless otherwiseordered by the Engineer.tendon or the jack in the eventof a breakoccurring.the Contractorshall certify for the Engineer's approval that a technician skilled in the approved prestressingmethod will be availableto the Contractorto give aid and instructionin the use of the prestressingequipmentto obtainthe required results. The tensioningprocess shall be conducted so that the tension being suppliedand the elongationmay be measuredat alltimes. The contractorshall furnishfor testingthe followingsamplesselectedfrom each lot as ordered by the Engineer.2.3 Steel Reinforcement of item404.standingbehindor underjack will not be Duringthe prestressing allowedin orderto ensurethat no one is injuredby the flyingspindle.2 Concrete The materialsfor concreteshall conformto the requirementsof item 401.A sampleshall be takenfrom each and everycoil' Post-Tensioninq Method Samples of the following lengths shall be furnished: For wires.one and half (1.of the lot to be furnished.5) M betweenthreadsat ends.For strands.2. For bars to be furnishedwith threadedends and nuts. operations. 405. All samplessubmittedshallbe representative All of the materialsbpecifiedfor testing shall be furnishedfree of cost and shall be deliveredin time for teststo be made well in advanceof anticipated time of use. steelshallconformto the requirements Reinforcement 405.5) M long consistingof the same number of wires as the cable to be iurnistred. Anchorage Assemblies Two anchorage assembliesof each size of anchorageto be usedshall be furnished. sufficientlengthto make up one parallel-laycable one and half (1.10 M long shall be furnishedof eachwtrepr strandsize. 405. 405-2 .

(ii) Thatthe actuallossesdueto frictioncoincidewiththe calculated onesforthe prestressing.The prestressing systemchosenby the Contractor shallhavebeenindicated in the tender.f t!" anchorage of the prestressing tendonsand their suitability for the transmission of forcest6 tne concrete underall loadswhatsoever.wherethe prestressing. providedhe introduces no changein the positionof centroidof the total prestressing forceover the lengthof the memberand in the magnitudeof the final effectiveprestressing force as prescribedin the Drawings.3 . The contractormay electto. (iv) The lengthof transmission of the forceto the concreteand the minimumstrengthof the ratternecessaryfor prestressingin systems.incrudingthe proposedarrangementto the of the prestressing unitsin the members.type of encrosures..provingringsor otheripproved devicesshallbe usedin 405.ln thatcase.3. (i) The safety.g. 405. t Prestressing Method Themethodof prestressing to be usedshallbe optional withthe contractor.and ail oirrei data p"rtrining prestressingoperation. The contractorshailsubmitwell in advanceto the Engineerfor approval complete detailsof the methods.2 PrestressingEquipment Hydraulicjacks shail be equippedwith accuratepressuregauges.40s.3. anchoring stresses.materials. (iii) The suitability of the proposedsteelfor the chosenprestressing system. lndependently from the prestressing systemto be applied. An agreement certificate for the prestressing systemshallbe submittedand approvedby the Engineerbeforeany structurilmemberto be prestressed may be tensioned. suchdetailshailouflinethe methodand sequenceof stressing.the foilowing pointshaveto be ensured.All rulesrgferrlng to this agieementcertificatehere in afterare subjectto theapproval of the Engineer.This optionshail be subjectto arr requirements hereinafter specified.completespecifications and details of the prestressingsteer and anchoringdevicesproposed for use.substitutescrewjacks or ot'hertypes ior nyoraulic jacks. (v) Thesuitability of measurestakento protectprestressing tendons fromcorrosion untirthefinartensioning is carriedout. and equipmEnt he proposes to usein the prestressing operations.erementi are fuily or partiaily anchoredto the concretethroughbondandfriction.this agreemenicertificatemust ne issrleo by an authorisedtestinglaboratoryotherwisethe Enginee."y oioer such an agreementcertificate lrom a laboratoryof hislnoice at'tfre cost of the contractor.

mixed.5 PlacingConcrete Concreteshall be controlled. A certified calibration curve shall accompanyeach device. 405-4 .conduits. strand or group of wires.or both. avoiddisplacement of reinforcement.3. Woodenblocksshallnotbe leftin theconcrete.whether hydraulicjack gauges or otherwise. 405.ties. coresor ductsshallbe providedwiththe pipesor other suitable connectionfor the injection of grout after the prestressing havebeencompleted.Blocksfor holdingunitsfrom contact with the forms shall be precastmortar blocksof approvedshape and dimensions. Suitable to hold in theenclosure.Where pressure groutingin specified.blocks. operations 405.Theyshallbe six (6) mm. and handled as specified in other articlesof this sectionunlessotherwisespecifiedherein. largerin internaldiameterthan the bar. Safety measuresshall be taken by the contractor to preventaccidentsdue to possiblebreakingof the prestressingsteel or the process. which they enclose.anchorages. cable.connectionwith the jacks.as orderedby the Engineer. by stays.The vibratingshall be done with care in such a manneras to conduits.4 Pl?cine Steel All steel units shall be accuratelyplacedin the positionshown on the andfirmlyheldduringthe placingand Drawings or required by the Engineer settingof theconcrete.3 Enclosures steel shall be accuratelyplacedat locations Enclosuresfor prestressing by the Engineer. thewiresin placein trueposition 405. Concreteshall not be pouredin the forms untilthe Engineerhas inspected the placingof the reinforcement. equallysuitable if required.3.3. All devices.may form the enclosuresby meansof coresor ductscomposedof rubberor othersuitablematerialwhichcan be removed priorto installing Enclosures shallbe s[rong reinforcement.and prestressing steeland has givenhis approvalthereof.at his option. Layersof unitsshallbe separatedby mortarblocksor other devices. shownon theplansor approved shallbe of ferrousmetallicmaterialand shallbe completely All enclosures with the exceptionthat the contractor.All equipmentsshall be slippingof the gripsduringthe prestressing thoroughlywashed with clean water at least once every three (3) hours duringthe groutingoperationsand at the end of use for each day. shall be calibratedso as to permitthe stressin the prestressing steel to be computed at all times. The concreteshallbe vibratedinternallyor externally. or Distancefrom the forms shall be maintained hangersapprovedby the Engineer.or wires. horizontal andverticalspacersshallbe provided. the prestressing theirshapeundersuchforcesas will be imposedupon enoughto maintain them.with the mortar-tight approvalof the Engineer.

lmmediatelybefore tensioning.6 Pretensioning The pretensioningelements shall be accurately held in position and stressed by jacks.as shown by cylindertests.i. of at least two hundreds and eighty(280) kg/sq. observed elongation of theelementwhentheforce at thejackis F. the prestressing reinforcementshall be stressed by means of jacks to the required tension and stresstransferredto-the end anchorage(s).405..3.= -t Observed tensionat thejack a= cross-sectional areaof theprestressing element.3. if necessary. to permit access for cutting after the concrete has attained the required strength. the differencebetweenthe tensionat the jack and the minimumtensionin the prestressingsteel shall be determinedby the formula: F..manufacturedof the same concreteand cured under the same conditions.indicatethat the concreteof the particularmemberto be prestressed has attained a compressive strength of at least 280 Kg/sq. 405.cm.Stressingshall be from both ends unless otherwiserequired in the Contract or agreed by the Engineer. The friction loss in the elements.=2(Fn-acE) d Where tI tr - - totalfrictionloss p . After the concrete has attained the required strength.7 Post-Tensioning Tensioningshall be carriedout only in the presenceof the Engineeror his representative unless permission has been obtained to contrary. Sufficientspaceshall be left betweenends of units.cmand as approvedby the Engineer.until the concretehas attaineda compressivestrength.. A record shall be kept of the jacking force and the elongationproducedthereby. No bond stress shall be transferredto the concrete.Severalunits may be cast in one continuous line and stressedat one time.nor end anchoragesreleased. The tensionihgprocessshall be so conductedthat the tensionbeingapplied and the elongationof the prestressingelements'maybe measuredat all times. 405-5 .The elements shallbe cut or releasedin such an orderthat lateraleccentricityof prestress w i l l b em i n i m u m .e. Tensioningof prestressing reinforcement shall not be commenceduntiltests on concretecylinders.the contractorshall prove that all tendons are free to move between jacking points and that members are free to accommodatethe horizontaland verticalmovementsdue to the applications of prestress.

A recordshall be kept of gauge pressuresand elongationat all times and submittedto the Engineerfor his approvalwith in twenty four (24) hours of each tensioning operation. the exact proportionsto be adjustedto form a shall the grout havingthe properconsistencyand under no circumstances. Commercial plasticisers used in accordance with the manufacturer'srecommendationmay be used provided they contain no ingredientsthat are corrosiveto steel. .8 Groutins of BondedSteel Post{ensioned prestressed bridge' members preferably shall be of the bondedtype in which the tensionedsteel is installedin holes or flexible metal ducts cast in the concreteand bondedto the surroundingconcreteby fillingthe tubes or ducts with grout. The groutshall be fluid (consistencyof thick paint)but proportionedso that free water will not separateout of the mix.45. For long memberswith drapedstrandsan open tap at the low point of the duct may be necessary. The tendons shall be maintained in such a condition that they can be re-stressed until the Engineer has given final approvalafterinspectingthe tensioninglog. when making preliminarytrialsfor quality.The ducts shall be blown out with compressedair until no water comes throughthe duct. The compressivestrengthof the hardened groutshall not be less than one hundredand seventy(170) Kg/sq.Wherejackingis donefrom one end only.Wherejackingis donefrom bothends of the members.the pointof minimumtensionis the centerof the member. Any surpluslengthof tendonshall be cut off by an approvedmethodwhich will not affect the strengthof the stressedtendon. dirt or any other foreign substance.The grout shall be mixedfor a minimumof two (2) minutesand untila uniformconsistencyis obtained. Unpolishedaluminumpowder may be added in an amount per sack of cement as approved by the Engineer. All prestressingreinforcementto be bonded shall be free of dirt.Beforegrouting. grease. water cement ratio exceed 0. 40s.d is the distanceto the otherend of the member. loose rust.30 sieve) in the approximateproportionof one part cementto 0.cmafter seven (7) days at a temperatureof eighteen (18) degree C.75 part sand.or otherdeleterioussubstances. with particularcare if the use of spark erosion or oxyacetylene burning methods of cutting are approvedby the Engineer. care being taken that rupturingof the ductsdoes not occur.E = secantmodulesof elasticityof the elementfor the stress F1 as determinedfrom the stress-strain diagramof the element.3. The grout shall be a mixture of cement and fine sand (passiriga No.the ducts shall be free of water. Sufficientpressureshall be used in groutingto force the grout completelythroughthe duct. d = distancefrom the jack to the point of lowesttension in the element.

cross-sectionand straightnessin BS code of PracticecP116(1969).castingof membersand transferof stresswill be undertakenfor the first time for each type of beam.of stress.10 Manufactureof Prestressed Membersoff the Site i) The details of the method of manufactureshall be approved by the Engineerbeforework is started.405.3.The structuraluse of precastconcrete.3. a certificateshowing the force and strain in the tendons immediatelyafter they were anchored. 405.Unitsdamagedby improperstoringor handlingshall be replacedby the Contractorat his expense. 40s.the strengthand age of the test cubes cast in accordancewith specified procedure and the minimumage in hoursof the concreteat the time the stresswas applied to the member. A copy of all twenty eight (28) days cube test results relating to the work shall be sent to the Engineer as these become available. no beams to which the test relateshall be dispatchedto the site until the tests have been satisfactorilycompleted.Records shall be kept so that the identityof those who stress the tendons.hoisting. Prestressedstructuralmembersshall be constructedin conformrtywith the drawingsgoverningthe particulirtype of structureto oe ouittor as required by the Engineer. no changesshall be madewithoutthe consentof the Engineer.9 Handlins Precast prestressedconcrete members shall be transported in an upright positionand the points of support with respect to the member shall be approximatelythe same during transportationand storage as when the member is in its final position. ii) The contractor shall inform the Engineer in advance of the date of commencementof manufactureand the dates when tensioningof tendons. 405-7 .3. care shall be taken duringstorage.cast the concreteand transferthe stress on any memberor line of memberscan be traced.where beamsare laidside by side in a deck: (i) The differencein soffit level betweenadjacentunits beforethe in situ concrete is placed shall no-where exceed five (5) mm for unitsup to five (5) metersnor ten (10) mm for longerunits. iii) The contractorshall send to the Engineernot more than seven (7) days after the transfer.and handlingof the precasting unitsto preventcrackingor damage.When the methodhas been approved. iv) where the Engineer'sRepresentativerequirestests to be carriedout.ln addition.In the event that the contractor deems it expedientto transportor store precastgirdersin other than this positionit shouldbe done at his own risk.1r ComnositeSlabBridses a) The manufacturingtolerancesfor the precast membersshall no-vrhere exceedthose given for the length.

(ii) The beam shall be supportedat its designpointsof bearing. the test loading shall be repeated. c) Beamsshallbe preventedfrom movinglaterallyduringthe placingof the in-situconcrete. The Contractorshall not proceedwith a load test until he has obtained the approval of the Engineer to the detailed arrangements. or prestressing b) The in-situ concrete shall be placed in such a sequence that the advancingedge of the freshly depositedconcreteover the full width of joints is approximatelyparallel deck or betweenlongitudinalconstruction to the deck supports. (iii) (iv) 405-8 . the continuityof line of the outside beams shallbe maintained.5) millimeter. The maximumload shall be sustainedfor five (5) minutesand then removed in not less than five (5) approximatelyequal stages. 405.12 Samplinqand Testins a) Testing of PretensionedBeams (i) Any beam requiredby the Engineerto be subjectedto a load test will be selected after transfer and wherever possible before the beam has been removedfrom the castingyard to the storage area.The specifiedtest loads shall be appliedequallyat the third pointsof the span in not less than ten (10) approximatelyequal stages. The alignmentof transverseholesshallpermitthe reinforcement tendonsto be placedwithoutdistortion. graphshall be plottedfrom these valuesand The load-deflection shall show no appreciablevariationfrom a straightline. In adjacentspans. the load test shall be carriedout not less than twenty eight (28) days after casting.The beam shallbe consideredto have failedthe test if the recoveryfive (5) minutesafter removalof the test load for the secondtime is not at leastninety(90) per cent of the maximum deflectionrecordedduringthe secondtest. Loadsshall be measuredwith an accuracyof + two (2) per cent or 50kg and deflectionswith an accuracyof + decimalfive (0.(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The width of the deck soffitshallbe withinplustwentyfive 1+25.Exceptwhere otherwiseagreed by the Engineer.The cost of the load test shall be born by the Contractor. lf after five (5) minutesof removalof the loadthe beam does not show a recovery of at least ninety (90) per cent of the maximum deflectionrecorded during the test. mm of that describedin the Contract.3. The width of the gap betweenindividualbeams shall not exceed twicethe nominalgap describedin the contract.The mid-spandeflectionrelativeto a straightreference line joining the points of supportshall be measuredfor each valueof the load and five (5) minutesafterremovalof the load.

shuttering and centeringif required. plates.2. loads.load-deflectioncurves and calculated value of Young'sModulesof Elasticity(E). b) Method of Curins The curingmethodsshallconformto thosedetailedunderitem401.13 CuringConcrete a) General For all prestressedconcreteoperationsthe curing proceduresshall be well established and properly controlled. as per drawingscompletedand accepted.3.Members shall be keptwet duringthe entireperiodof curing.4.the recordsheets suppliedby the contractorto the Engineershall show the temperaturesof the top and bottom surfacesof the beam measuredat the time of the test. Curing shall be commenced immediatelyfollowinginitialset or completionof surfacefinishing.g. 405. 40s.and othersuch materialcontainedwithinor attachedto the unit. nuts. the characteristic valuefor anchoraqe efficiencyshall be not lessthan ninety(90) percent.as depictedin the drawings. deflections.reinforcementand prestressingsteel. b) Testingof Prestressing Anchorages Anchoragesfor post-tensioningshall be tested in accordancewith the proceduredescribedin 854447 or as approvedby the Engineer.constructedand installed in place.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 405. 405.2 Pavment 405.r Measurement Measurementand paymentsfor the various items in prestressconcrete work shall be made in accordancewith appropriateitems of relevant sections.4. 405-9 .For each anchoragesystemusedin the works. In addition.(v) (vi) (vii) The result of the test shall be deemed to apply to the other beamscast in the same productionline but in the eventof failure any additionalbeam may be separatelytestedat the contractor's option.3.Each member shall includethe concrete. The contractorshallsupplyto the Engineerrecordsheetsof the test showingthe age of the beam at the time of the test. anchorage.1 The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of prestressedconcrete structuralmembersof the severaltypes and sizes. formwork.4. enclosuresfor prestressingsteel.

anchorages plates. nuts and other such material deemed necessaryto completethe work. enclosures. Descriptionand Unit of Measurementfor PrecastPrestressed Concrete Members and Castin-Place Prestressed Concrete will be covered. Steel reinforcement. Ton.includingSheets.401and404 respectively.under specifiedBOQ item numberprovidedin specialprovisions.concrete.. as per drawingsand otherrelateddocumentsfor followingitem separately.. spacers. Ton. Size . and formworkwill.falsework. 405-10 CM. Pay item No.. Ton. (a) (b) (c) (d) ConcreteMember(includinggrouting) Prestressedropes/strands... PrestressedHardware.be measuredand paid for accordingto item No.405.2. Male/FemaleCone and Anchorsetc. . Prestressed Wire Size .2 Prestressed Cast-in-Place Concrete work as The work to be paidfor underthis item will be only the prestressing specifiedhere and shown on the Drawingsor requiredby the Engineerand shall include supply and installationof prestressinQsteel..4.. unless otherwiseprescribed..

PreformedExpansionJoint Filler Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer preformed joints filler shall conformto the requirements of AASHTOM-213.ITEM 406 406. materials and labour in performing all operations in connection with furnishingand placing(in concretestructures)all deck expansionjoints and seals. NeonreneRubberSheetwith BitumasticSeal Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 406.2 Steelfor DeckExnansionJoint Seals Plates.to the requirementsof AASHTO M-160 and shall be hot zinc sprayed (galvanized)with the exceptionof the nuts and washerswhich shall be in stainlesssteel. neoprene rubber sheets six (6)mmin thickness.the Drawings. at the option of the Contractor. 406.1 ConcreteJoint Filler a.1 JOINTS AI\D BEARING DEWCES FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURES DESCRIPTION The work coveredin this item shallconsistof furnishingall plant.2. 406. b. 406.anglesor otherstructuralshapesincludinganchorboltsrequiredfor the expansionjoint seals shall conform.3 Elastomerfor DeckExnansionJoint Seals Elastomershall be of the componentas neopreneor of polyvinylchloride (PVC). 406-1 .and or as requiredby the Engineer.2. unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. Part B.meetingthe requirementsof ltem 406.3.equipment.2.shallbe used as a joint fillercoveredwith a bitumasticseal as shownin the Drawings.Neopreneshall be manulactured from a vulcanizedelastomericcompoundcontainingneopreneas the sole elastomer and shall have the following physical characteristicsin accordancewith ASTM MethodD15.2. metal bearingpads and elastomericbearing pads completeand in accordancewith the specifications.

ASTM D 470 120percentmax.DurometerA.Hardness. d) AASHTO M 160 for galvanizedsteel bearings. 127 Kgs/squarecentimeter Elongationat Break 400 percentmin. specifications the Special and 406-2 . ElastomericBearinsPads General Elastomericbearingsas herein specifiedshall includeplain bearings (consisting of layers bearings(consisting only)and laminated of elastomer by bondedlaminates.Exposureto 100 PPHMOZonefor 70 hoursat 38 degreeC. therequirements in these Elastomeric bearingpads shall conformto the requirements Provisions. 20 percentmax.5 a) AASHTOM 107 for bronzeueai-iirg. ASTM D 2240.the requirementsfor metal bearings shall conform to the following: 406. b) AASHTOM 108 for rolledcopperalloy bearings. ASTM D 412 min. of elastomerrestrained at theirinterfaces for bearingpads shall conformto The reinforcing steei plateslaminations of AASHTOM 183. Notbrittleat 40 degreeC.4 45 + 5 points TensileStrength.2. CompressionSet. 22 Hoursat 70 degreeC. 406. ASTM D 395. Metal BearinsDerices Unless othemrisedirected by the Engineer or provided in the Special Provisions. Sampleunder 20 percent. ASTM D 746 Low Temperature. 3 for 70 hoursat 100 degreeC.ASTM D 1149. No cracks .Volumeincrease Oil Deterioration aftersoakingin ASTM oil No. MethodB. c) ASTM B 438 for sinteredmetal powder bearings. OzoneResistance.2.

Pads twelve (12) mm'and less in thicknessmay be either laminatedor all elastomer. When laminatedpads are stacked. The total overallthicknessof a pad shall not be less than the thickness shown on the plan nor more than six (6) mm greaterthan that thickness. Pads over twelve(12) mm in thicknessshall be laminated. The thicknesscalledfor an elastomericbearingpad is deemed to be the totaleffectivethicknessof the elastomericlaminations. The lengthand width of a pad shall not vary more than three (3) mm from the dimensionsshownon the Drawings. Laminatedpads shall consist of alternate laminationsof elastomerand metalor elastomerand fabricbondedtogether.Pads of all elastomeror with fabric laminationsmay be cut from large sheets. The edges of the steel reinforcingplates of the bearing pads shall be carefullytreatedto preventnotch effects. Laminationsof elastomershall be 12 mm + 3 mm thickness. Cornersand edges of molded pads may be roundedat the option of the Contractor. Steelplatesshallbe fullyenclosedin elastomerso that thereis no dangerof corrosion.their contactsurfacesshall be cleaned prior to stacking and an approved method shall be used to hold the individualpads in the stack in proper alignment. Where elastomericbearing pads over twelve (12) mm. Variationof total thicknesswithin an individualpad shall not exceedthree (3) mm. or at the optionof the Contractor.such pads may be manufactured as a moldedlaminatedpad. in thicknessare shown on the Drawingsor requiredby the Engineers. Cutting shall be performedin such a manner as to avoid heating of the materialand to producea smoothedge with no tears or otherjaggedareasand to cause as littledamageto the materialas possible.The outsideedges of metal laminationsshallbe coatedover with elastomernot morethan three (3) mm in thickness. The outsidelaminationsshall be metalor fabric. may be madeup by stackingindividuallaminatedpads. 406-3 .Variationin thicknessof an individualelastomerlaminationshall not exceedthree (3) mm withinthe width or lengthof a pad and the variationin thicknessof all elastomerlaminationswithin a pad shall be such that each metal or fabric laminationwill not vary by more than three (3) mm from a plane parallelto the top or bottomsuface of the pad.Radiusat cornersshall not exceed ten (10) mm and radius of edgesshallnot exceedthree(3) mm.

100 hrs. Tear Strength.Fabriclaminations ottrrepaoandeitherdoub|ep|yordoub|estrengthwithinth-epad' and shall The sole potymerrn the elastomericcompoundshall be neoprene compound' be not lessthan sixty(60) percentby volumeof the total Thee|astomer.000. of width in both breaking ltrength of not less ihan 125 Kg' per cm' bottomsurfaces and.Kgs/sq. Percent(MethodB) D 395 25 Max. than twenty(20) synthetic polymer Fabric laminationsshall be either.eric e s t e r f r o mamid e t h yfrom |eneg|yco| have a shall ply fabric of Each frexametnyenediamineand adipiCacid. Compressionset.Kgs Percmt D 2240 Hardness(ShoreA) Ozoneresistance20% strain. at 67 degreeC.cm D412 1 6 0M i n . ply top ai single be shall directions. Young'sModulusat 35 degreeC 5 Low temPeraturebrittleness' C degree 40 at hours 406-4 Kgs per cm (2) D 797 350Max.urpr" is testedfor not betweenthe elastomerand metalor fabric' Metal laminationsshall be rolledmild steel sheetsnot less gaugein thickness.Percent D412 350Min.asdeterminedfromtestspecimens. (1) a long chain "uno o n t i"r"inthalic .when a The bond betweenelastomerand metalor fabricshall be elastomerand the within occur shall failure separation. D 736 Passed .22 hrs.at 38 degreeC 1 1001 20 parts I degreeC 6015 points (exceptNo Cracksper 100. i n i n g a t | e aacii s t e i girh tQ) y f i vi etong (85)p chain e r c esynthetic n t o f p o | y po-lym. Elongationat break.such that. D 624(DieC) 1 3M i n . .sha||conformtothe following: ASTM Test Requirements tion Tensilestrength.000) D 1149 Low temPeraturestiffness.

The Engineerwill take a sample of not less than 15 x 30 cm in size for testing from each lot of pads or batch of elastomer to be furnished. samples taken at the job site shail consist of completepads as detailedon the plans. whicheverresults.points +10 ShearTest (withoutverticalload) 7 Kg/sq.50 (but not less than 300% total elongationof the material) Hardness. 406-5 . the elastomershall not show deteriorationchanges in excessof the following: Tensilestrength.when removingthe material.I OnenJoints open jointsshall be constructedat the locationsshown on the Drawingsor requiredby the Engineerusing a suitablematerial.3. at the option of the contractorat the job site.percent .3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS 406.inthe greater number of samples.and fabric (if used).which is subsequenily removed.pads shall be available'forsamplingthree (3) weeks in advance of intended use.percent + 15 Elongationat Break. and the contractorshall furnish additionalcompletepads to replacethose taken for testing.unlessshownon the Drawings.cm(Min) sampling.Reinforcement shall not extendacrossan openjoint.the filler shall be placed in correct positionbeforJ concreteis being placedagainstthe filler. 406.preformedFillerwith holes and cracks shall not be permittedand shallbe reiected. The certificationshall be supported by a certified copy of the results of tests performedby the manufacturerupon samplesof the elastomerand fabricto be used in the pads.The sampleswill be selectedat random at the point of manufactureor.shall be performedin accordancewith AASHTO M2s1-74 as appropriatefor the tests requiredduringor immediately aftermanufacture. The contractor shall furnish to the Engineer a certificationby the manufacturerthat the elastomer.After acceleratedaging in accordancewith ASTM DesignationD s73 for 70 hoursat 100 degreec. 106. in the elastomeric bearingpadsto be furnishedconformsto all of the aboverequirements.2 Filled Joints when joints of preformedtype are requiredon the Drawingsor by the Engineer.3.care shall be exercisedto avoid chippingor breakingof concrete. All samplepadsfor testingshall be furnishedby the contractorat his expense.

Reinforcing bars provided to support the water-stops shown on the Drawingsor as requiredby the Engineershall be securelyheld in position by the use of spacers.and the concretereplaced.assemblies. Water-stopsshall be furnishedin full lengthfor each straightportionof the joint.supportingwires.Methodsapprovedby the Engineershall be employedin placingthe jointsto keep them in correctpositionduringthe placingof the concrete. to conformto the sectionof the concretefloor as per drawings.1 Water Stops{JointSeals) Water-stopsshall be furnishedand installedin accordancewith the details shown on the Drawings or where required by the Engineer and in accordancewiththe provisionsin thesespecifications.3.The openingat expansionjoints shall be that to avoid impairment of the clearancein any manner.Care shall be taken to ensurethat the surfacein the finishedplane is true and free of warping. after placing concrete. bars.anglesor other structuralshapesshall be accuratelyshapedat the shop.at the option of the Contractor.or mechanical.usingstainlesssteel parts. lf..and other expansionor fixed devicesshall be constructedin accordancewith the detailsshown on the plansand shallbe hot-dipgalvanizedafterfabrication.406. without field splices Manufacturer'sshop splices shall be fully vulcanized.The fabiicationshall conformto the requirementsin Special Provisions. Water-stopswhen being installedshall be cut and spliced at changes in directionas may be necessaryto avoid bucklingor distortionof the web or flange.106. 406=6 .3.3.such reinforcingbars shallbe considered. .for paymentpurposes. Field splices for neoprene water-stops shall be either vulcanized. be used to make all splices.All finished splicesshall have a full size tensilestrengthof eighteen(18) kg per cm of width. rockers.the waterstop reset.5 Metal BearingDevices steel bearing plates. or other approveddevices.as a part of the water-stop. -t06. Field splicesfor polyvinylchloridewater-stopsshall be performedby heat sealing the adjacent surfaces in accordance with the manufacturer's controlledelectricsourceof heat shall A thermostatically recommendations.the surroundingconcreteshall be removed.3 SteelJoints Plates.all at the contractor'sexpense.The heat shall be sufficientto melt but not char the plastic. water-stops are materially out of positionor shape.or made with a splicingunionof the same stock as the water-stop.

406-7 .6 Elastomeric BearingPads when elastomericbearingpads are shown on the Drawings. c) Water Stotrs The quantityto be paid for shall be the numberof linear meters of waterstop placedin the work.Bronzeor copperalloy plates. The finishedplane shall not vary more than three (3) mm from the elevation shownon the Drawingsor that requiredby the Engineer. d06. the concretebearingarea shallbe constructed slightlyabovegradeand shallbe finishedby grinding or other approved means to a true level plane which shall not vary perceptibly from a straightedge placedin any directionacrossthe area. when bearingassembliesor masonryplatesare shown on the Drawingsto be placed (not embedded)directlyon colcrete.the concrete surfaceson which pads or packingare to be placedsrrait be wood float finishedto a levelplanewhichshallnot varymorethanone and a half(1. d) BearingDevices The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic centimeterof bearingdeviceseithersteel bearingor elastomericbearingpads installedin the work completedand accepted.shallconformto the requirements of the SpecialProvisions.5) mm from a straightedgeplaced in any directionacross the area. completedand accepted.1 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 106.1.eEngineer. b) SteelJoints The quantityto be paidfor shallbe the numberof kilogramsof steelfor steel joints fabricated.completedand accepted in work.3..The finishedplaneshall not vary more than three (3) mm from the etevation shownon the Drawingsor that requiredby th.if specified.galvanized and placed in the work completed and accepted. 406. The bearingplatesshall be set level and the rockersor other expansron devicesshall be set to conformto the temperatureat the time of erectionor to the settingspecified.r Measurement a) Filled ConcreteJoints The quantityto be paid for shall be in square metersof either expansion joint preformedjoint filleror expansionjoint with neoprenerubbersheet -with six (6) mm thick and coveredwith bitumasticseal.

ifing coat/paintcoat and flood coat of special as approvedby the Engineer. 406.e) AsphalticFelt The quantityto be paid shall be in squaremeterof 3 ply rating-Fibre/Fabric naseo asphalticfelt weighingforty one 41 kg to forty five (45) kg per 20 square meter includingltr. SM 406c SteelExpansionJoints. 406f AsphaltFdlt (3 Ply) SM 4069 SteelormetalBearingDevices Each 406a 406b 406-8 . Kg 406d WaterStops6" Size M 406e ElastomericBearingPads (Accordingto size and thickness) Cubiccm.1.laid in industrialbitumenand sand OtinOing placeas directedbYthe Engineer.labour.2 Payment The acceptedquantitymeasuredas provideda-boveshall be paid for at the contractunit pricerespectivelyfor the pay items listedhrelowand shown in for the Bill of Quantitieswhich priceand paymentshall be full compensation any and incidentals and furnishingall materials. equrpment. Unitof Measurement PremouldedJointfiller 12 mm thickwith Bitumastic JointSeal. Description. SM NebpreneRubberJoint Filler 12 mm thickwith Bitumastic JointSeal.tools tOjoints and bearingsand which is not paid for separately' work pertaininE necessaryto comPletethe item' Pay ltem No.

when test piles and load tests are requiredin conformancewith sub-items 407. These proposalsshall include full details of materials.9and 407.ITEM 407 407.No alternatetypes or kinds of piling shall be used.detailedpropos.equipment and methodto be used in the construction of piles. The contractor shall provide an oufline of his proposed method for: constructinglarge diameterpile when submittinghis tender.the proposed methodof boringbeingstated.9 respectively.cuttingoff and loadtestingof pilesto obtainthe specified bearing value complete in place and stricfly in accordancewith these Specifications and as shownon the Drawinos.The Engineerwill not preparethe itemized'iistof piies for any portionof the foundationarea until all loadingtests represeniativeof that portionhave been completed. lf it is proposedto use bentoniteslurry.showingthe numberand lengths of all piles.3.driving.whichwill be providedby the Engineer. The kind and type of piles shall be as shown on the Drawingsand/or as specified.an itemizedlist showingthe numberand lengthof piles. the Engineerwill not furnish the contractor.this shallalso be describeo. work on piling shall not commenceuntil the contractor. Strict compliance with these requirements will not relievethe contractorof the responsibility for adopting whateveradditionalprovisionsmay be necessaryto ensure the successful completionof the work.1 PILING DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of performingall operationsin connectionwith furnishing.alfor the piling shall be deiiveredto the Engineer.sproposalshave beenapprovedby the Engineerand communicated to the contractor. Not less than two weeks before the contractor proposes to commence piling. The requirementsherein are minimum. exiept with the writtenapprovalof the Engineereachtime.the data obtainedfrom suchtest loadswill be used in conjunctionwith otheravatilable subsoil informationto determinethe number and lengths of piles to be furnished.when cast-in-place concretepilesare specifiedon the orawiigs. 407-1 . The contractorshallfurnishthe precastpilesin accordancewith an itemized list.3.

"Unless otherwise calledfor on the drawings.as shownon the drawing.Steel Reinforcement.2 MATERIAL 407. weightand shape calledfor on the Drawings.407. Prestressedconcrete piles shall conform to ltem 405 ConcreteStructures. d.1 Types of Piles REQUIREMENTS a Untreated Timber Piles Untreated timber piles shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 168. andmayor maynothavepermanent Reinforcing Steelshallconformto the requirements underltem 404 . ReinforcingSteel shall conformto the requirementsunder ltem 404 . PrecastConcretePiles Concretefor piles shall meet all the requirements for the specifiedclass as providedunder ltem 401 . AmericanWood-Preservers c. exceptthat to the requirements processshallnotbe used.The concreteshall be of Class-Dl unlessotherwisespecified. Concreteshall meet all the requirements for specifiedClass as provided underltem401andshallbe of Class-Dunlessotherwise specified.2. e. Reinforced Concrete Cylindr Diameter of reinforced concrete piles shall be as shown on the Drawings lining. b. StructuralSteelPiles Structuralsteelpilesshall be rolledsteelsectionsof the type.The piles shall be structuralsteel conforming of ASTMA 7 and ASTMA 36.Steel Reinforcement. the timberpiles shallbe treatedwith creosoteaccordingto the StandardAWPA Pl of the Association. unlessotherwise specified.Concrete. by theAcid-Bessemer steelproduced The steelpilesshallbe coatedwithred leadpaintconforming to AASHTO M 72 as instructed by the Engineer. Treated Timber Piles of AASHTOM 133 Treatedtimberpilesshallconformto the requirements and M 168. 407-2 Prestressed .

. 407-3 .1 Driven Piles a. plywood. Piles shall not be moved until the tests indicatea compressivestrengthof eighty (80) percent of the design twenty eight (28) days compressive strengthand they shall not be transportedor drivenuntilthe tests indicatea compressive strength equal to the design twenty eight (28) days compressivestrength When concretepiles are lifted or moved.ConcreteSurfaceFinishing. Piles cast in tiers shall be separatedby tar paper or other suitable separatingmaterials.2. Forms shall be watertightand shall not be removedwithin twenty four (24) hours after the concreteis placed.2.Piles shall be given a surface finishaccordingto ltem 401.8(e) .and reinforcement shall be placedaccuratelyand securedrigidlyin such manner as to ensureits properlocationin the completedpile.CuringPrecastConcretePiles. 407.7.shall be of the same qualityand characteristics as the materialsused for the pile itselfand shall followthe requirementsgivenon the Drawingsunlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineer. if alternatepiles are cast in a tier. if not so shown.3.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 407.2 Pile Shoes Pile shoeswhen requiredshall be of the designas calledfor on the Drawings or by the Engineer. The completedpilesshall be free from stone pockets.Precast piles shall be made in accordance with the Drawings.3.and shall be straightand true to the form specified.when splicingis allowed. Locationand SitePreparation Piles shall be used wherq. the intermediatepilesshall not be cast untilfour (4) days afterthe adjacentpiles have been poured.3.A two and half (2. they shall be supportedat the points shown on the Drawingsor. porousspots.5)cm chamferstrip shallbe formedon all edges.The concretecoveras measuredto the outsideface of ties or spiralsshall not be lessthan five (5) cm. as instructedby the Engineer.The forms shall be true to line and built of metal. Pilesshallbe curedin accordance withthe requirements of ltem401. or other defects. The pilesshall be cast separatelyor.indidatedon the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.3 Pile Splices Materialsfor pile splices.The concrete in each pile shall be placedcontinuously.or dressedlumber. 40'7. 407.

The plantand equipment furnished for steam 407-4 . unless otherwise specified or approved by the Engineer.000 Kg. c.leaving clean solid surfaces to receive the concrete for foundations.or five (5) metersin soft materials.the piles shall penetrateto hard materialupto a sufficientdistanceto fix the ends rigidly.Gravityhammersshall not weigh less than sixty (60) percentof the combinedweightof the pile and drivinghead and not lessthan 2. Pilesshall be used only in placeswhere a minimumpenetrationof three (3) metersin firm materials. The fall shallbe adjustedso as to avoid injuryto the pileand shallin no caseexceedone (1) m for timberand steelpilesand one half (0.that the bearingloads indicatedon the Drawingsare obtained. 3) Piles shall be driven to refusalon rock or hard layer when so orderedby the Engineer. Where a soft stratumoverliesa hard stratum. The Contractoris responsiblefor sufficientweightand efficiehcyof the hammers to drive the piles down to the required depth and bearing capacity. tr.the bearingvalue shall be controlledby the appropriatepiledrivingformulaif calledfor by the Engineer.All pilespushedup by the drivingof adjacentpilesor by any othercauseshallbe drivendown again. The piles shall be driven to such depths. PileDrivins All pilesshall be drivenaccuratelyto the verticalor the batteras shown on the drawings. 2) Piles in clay shall be driven to the depth ordered by the Engineer. All pile driving equipment is subject to the Engineer's approval.5) M for concretepiles unlessotherwisespecifiedor approved by the Engineer.However.All excavationsfor the foundationin whichthe pilesare to be drivenshall be completed before the driving is begun. The criterionfor pilelengthmay be one of the following: 1) Piles in sand and gravel shall be driven to a bearingvalue determinedby use for the pile drivingformulaor as decidedby the Engineer.Each pile shall. single acting steam or pneumatic hammersor diesel hammers. be withinfifteen(15) cm from the theoretical location underneath the pile cap or underneath the superstructure in the case of pile bents. all loose and displaced materials shall be removed from around the piles by hand excavation. Determinationof Pile Length The criteriafor pile length and bearingcapacitywill be determinedby the Engineeraccordingto the resultsfrom test piles and load tests. Hammers shall be gravity hammers. After driving is completed.atterOrivingj. The contractorshall be responsiblefor correct pile lengths and bearing capacitiesaccordingto the criteriagivenby the Engineer.can be obtained.

and the piles driven solely by hammer to final penetrationas requiredby the Engineer.if consideredby the Engineerto be excessive. pilesshallbe continuously d. \A/hen diesel hammersare used. under working The conditions. When water jets are used. The pile tops shall be protectedby driving heads.All drivenunlessotherwiseallowedby the Engineer. and shall be so designedas to permit proper placingof batter piles.3. Pile Drivins Formulae Pile driving formulasmay be used to determinethe number of blows of hammerper unit of pile penetrationneededto obtainthe specifiedbearing capacityfor pilesdrivenin the sub-soilsat the site.or deformationof the steel.Splicingof piles when permittedshall be in accordancewith the provisionsof ltem 407. The jets shall be shut off at a depth not less than three (3) M beforefinaltip elevation is reached. gauge pressure an accurate boileror pressuretank shall be equippedwith and anothergaugeshall be suppliedat the hammerintaketo determinethe drop in pressure between the gauge and the hammer.will not be permitted. The method used in drivingpiles shall not subjectthem to excessiveand undue abuse producingcrushingand spalling of the concrete.The drivingof piles with followersshall be avoided if practicableand shall be done only underwrittenpermissionfrom the Engineer. Water jets shall be used only when permittedin writing by the Engineer.5.they shall be calibratedwith test pilingand/ortest loads in accordancewith ltem 407.9.The leadsshall be of sufficientlengthto make the use of a followerunnecessary. of the hammerand to the satisfaction providedto maintainthe axis of the pile in line with the axis of the hammer and providea drivingsurfacenormaltothe pile.the numberof jets and the nozzlevolume and pressureshall be sufficientto erodethe materialadjacentto the pile freely.the pressureat the hammerspecifiedby the manufacturer.hammers shall have sufficient capacity to maintain. caps or cushions in from the manufacturerof the pile accordancewith the recommendations The drivinghead shall be Engineer. Pilesshall be drivento a final resistanceas indicatedon the plans determinedby the following formula: 407-5 .and shall be held in positionby guys or steel bracesto ensurerigid lateralsupportto the pile duringdriving. Pile driving leads shall be constructedin such a manner as to afford freedomof movementof the hammer.Manipulation of pilesto force them into properposition. Full-lengthpiles shall be used where practicable. Piles shall be supportedin line and positionwith leads while being driven.injurious splittingand broomingof the wood.3.

25(WDM/S)}] (Usewhen driven weightsare larggrthan strikingweights) In the aboveformulas: Qatt = pileloadin Kilograms. or dieselhammer.For drop hammer Qatt = WH/[6(S+2. Qarr = E46{S+0. Modifications of basicpiledrivingformula: 407-6 .and for diesel Hammershavinqunrestrictedreboundof rams.5)] For single-acting steamor air hammers.25)j (Usewhen driven weightSare smaller than strikingweights).25)] Qa. WS = Weightof strikingpartsin Kilograms.and air hammers.and the observedaverageheightof fall in centimeters. H The heightof fall in centimeters for steam.or for thelast15centimeters of drivingfor a drophammer. The actualenergydeliveredby hammerper blow in . S per blow in centimeters Averagenet penetration for the last 10 to 20 blowsof steam. Allowable IA' vv Weightof striking partsof hammerin Kilograms.25(WDA /S)}l (Usewhen driven weightsare smaller than strikingweights) (Usewhen driven weightsare largerthan strikingweights) Fordouble-acting steamor airhammers dnddieselhammers havingenclosed rams Qall = E/[6(S+0.air. Kilogram WD Drivenweightsin Kilograms Note: Ratioof drivenweightsto strikingweightsshouldnot exceed three. of blowsusedto determinepenetration for dieselhammers withunrestricted reboundof hammer. Qatt = wH/[6(S+0. = WH/[6{S+0.centimeter.

bailing buckets.slurry pumps. other recognizedformulafor determinigrg pile bearing power may be used when given in special specification. Detailsof any requiredloadtests. circuldteand desandslurry.2 Cast-in-Place Piles Piles.casingetc. c) For pilesinto limitedthin bearingstratum: Driveto predetermined tip elevation. ii.details of the method proposedto mix. vii. iv. cast-in-place. List of proposed equipment to be used includingcranes.an installationplan for the constructionof drilledshafts.3. When slurry is required. Detailsof concreteplacement. Otherinformation shownon the plansor requestedby the Engineer. Woriring i)rawines At least 4 weeks before work on shafts is to begin. Detailsof shaftexcavationmethods. Detailsof overallconstructionoperationsequenceand the sequence of shaftconstruction in bentsor groups. samplingequipment. Detailsof methodsto cleanthe shaftexcavation. augers. final cleaning equipment.The submittalshall includethe following: i.and determineallowableload by load test. iii. vi. drills. the contractor shall submitto the Engineerfor reviewand approvgl.driventhrough stiff compressiblematerialsunsuitable for pilebearingto an underlfingbearingstratum: Add blows attained before reaching bearing stratum to required blowsattainedin bearingStratum.curingand protection.it shall be understoodthat the relativemeritsand reliabilityof any of the pile formulacan be judged only on the basis of comparisonswith the resultsof loadtests. b) ' For piles. shall mean eitherpilesor shafts. viii. The bearing power as determined by the appropriateformula in the foregoing list will be considered effective only when it is less than the crushingstrengthof the pile.However. Re-drive open end pipe piles repeatedlyuntil resistancefor refusal is reached withintwo and half (2. tx. 407.625 centimetersof driving).The tbrm shaft whereverused in this section.a) For piles driven to and seated in rock as high capacity-endbearing piles: Drive to refusal (approximatelyfour (4) to five (5) blows for the last 0. Details of reinforcement placement including support and centralization methods.tremiesor concrete pumps. shall consistof one of the types either shown on the drawingand/ords specified. 407-7 . a.5)centimetersof additionalpenetration. desanding equipment.

eqs pelcafag'pelcelaroq llfvran.l oN e0t9 'S g qlnn Dufildruocr{p1ereue6 splom llno uotle:1auedllnJ ^q polcauuooeq lleqs se1eldpa1loraq1 egrd paurlunaql ur aloLlralatilBrpeld alrsrnbalaql Molleol sE ralauerp io q16ua1 :e6re.u LUul (Ot.l}tM pelcefey ':eeurbu3 aLll ^q panoldde ro parlnads ostmloqlo ssalun 'sburnnergoql uo umor.ls 6urur1 luaueu:ed e aprno:dlleqs lopeJluoc otl] ]l 8u-.lcnseq lleqs poqlaLuaq1 'asuadxe pollgoq lleLlssalol{eJoq srLlle rolcerluocr{qololouocueal L. qcns :o ald or.lluo umorlsse) :apeq :o {lrlecryan'r{llttqepsuteluteulqctqMauo aq Oursecifue:oduel 'poqlaul lam lleLlspoLlloruOursecluaueurad Jo poL{}aul 'poqlourr{rp aq1:eqgter{.rdpue uonrJp6uraq.1] ur uorlrsodur oq llgr.ronn Ll3rqMroJ sueLlspolllJpjo uorlcnJlsuoc aql uels lou lleqs rolceJluoc aLlI .iltlqrsuodsal]o JolceJluoCaLlla atlar)ou llln .eraueb6uuoq 1o lueuldrnbapue poqlaut aqf slnp-eco-IfEu1roi1[ aloqaro{-lllr(I u! }ssl salld 'r 'esuedxa 'pa^oual srLl]B Jol3ertuoSaql rtq elercuocueal qltM pelluoq lleLls oq lou 'sedrd..lcrr{M ol luacefpe uenup eq ggeqs adrdro llaqs Meu e ro 'pace.rd:eq1oJo sactruos'saln}cnlls luecelpe o1 :o se.l]aloJcuocpue laals 6urc.dr"uoc ppr.ro.ure.to{celncce leuorsuaLutp aql 'Xau aL{} pue q16ue1 pe.ls sple^ qcns puB uorlcas-ssoJc auo r{ue ur peAoldueaq lleqs splaM ueas peutpnlr6uol (e) ee:ql ueql alou.s altuoluaqJo/pue6ursec fierodue] Jo osn oLlt Iq aloqaloq Io aseq pue llem alll lo (6urrrre.enOuueaqslr asearcap{.leue1euol se }uo]xa ue.rd palelduoc l..lerped lo palalduoc o1 abeuep ut 6u11.de:pue panouialaq lleqs sadrd..ro slleLlspalcoleg 'euo pelcafe.ro sllaqs leats aLll 'utolot.ros.l1o Aue ro s6unne:p asoLll jo esn {q paure}qo s}lnsal ro} .{}Jo Jolou.lcLlm 'adtd.ocleryed smorlslo ualorq ro uanup {pedordur st r.letpleutuou aql ueql ssal }ou lalauerp rouur aql ol pallor pue lno oq lleqs se1e1d aql '090t 'S'g qlnn 6ur[.) uel lo paulo] {1qe1rns 'sbunnelpalll uo umor.rdeq1 '{pedo.ro 'lurodr{ue JolotuetppecnpeJlo esdelloclo} poutuexo }e 1leqsAuy aq lleqs sedrd .lsuorle^ola dll eqt o] polltJpoq lleqs seloq llv 'Illn.r butcepdogror.re66e1s auo uaomlaquorloos-ssorc or.8-10' leql alrdoq] oprslnoposJo burueyos"ro buruesoollnJuJeqasne3 ol se qcns aq lou lleLlse:npeco.nse: suorlerqrA osnecol se qcnsaq lou llBqssuotletedoleqlo pue eloqoroqJo uorlnooxaur pasn alnpecordTpoqlaul otlf 'suotleledo6uuoq '1se1 Jo peoqeio 6ur:np lno pauec eq o1 (palrnber1r) ltos alts ut pue uolel oq o1 seldues lros smolle ]eLll r.Llcnso1 esde.eno:ddeqcng '-raeut6u:l aql {q penorddeuooq oneq s6urnnerp Llcnslr}unpe:rnbere:e sbunnerp6ur>1.raL{l uec r.rq or.ti e1e1dlaals ssau)crql unultul.roslloqs loals Jo osec aql ul 'sbunne:p pelels aLl]uo sB aq lleLlsOurur1 eq1.q1@ 'lcerluoooql Jopunsarlrlrqrsuodsa: lalllo srr.raye'sadrd.

When called for on the Drawings or by the Engineer.if used in drillingoperationsshall be removedfrom the hole as concreteis pouredunlessotherwisespecified.untiltemporarycasingis extracted. ii) TemnorarvCasinsMethod The temporarycasing of appropriatediameterfor locatingthe pile and pilotingthe boreholeshall be pitchedat the exact locationsas given on the drawingsto ensurethat the casingwhen sunk is withinthe specified tolerances. circularor fluted.The coating shall not cause any hindrance while assemblingthe pilesectionduringweldingoperations.@! if calledforshallconform Reinforcement to therequirements under item 404. Separation of the concrete during withdrawal operationsshallbe avoided. b: Concretingof the pile.000 psi).Casing.plain. .The depth shall be at least sufficientto preventthe ingressof alluviumor otherloose materialsinto the bore when executedbelowthe bottomlevel of the casing.The steel may be either cylindricalor tapered.The equipmentused for executionof boreholeshall be adequateto ensure that each pile penetratesto the requiredfoundinglevel.The bottomof the casingshall be maintainednot less than fifty (50) cm belowthe top of the concrete duringwithdrawaland pouringoperationsunlessotherwisepermitted by the Engineer. the steel shells/pipesshall be factorycoatedon both interioror exteriorsurfaces by red lead paintconformingto AASHTOM-72 or as statedin the special specifications. The minimum averagetensile strengthof steel shall be 3500 Kg/sq. .the depth shall be such as the contractor considers nepessary for the stability of the casing and/or temporaryworks system during constructionin general and for the followingconditionsand operationsin particularduringall conditionsof rivercurrentwhichmay occurduringthe periodof works: a: Opentemporarycasingto ensureagainstblow-inof soil.has to be filled with concrete. All types shall conform to the correspondingASTM standards.cm(50.The casing shall be sunk to sufficientdepthby approved methods. 407-9 . The steel shells/pipesshall be of sufficientstrengthand rigidityto permit driving to the required bearing value or depth withoutinjury. In addition. Use of Casinq Suitablecasings shall be furnishedand placed when requiredto preventcavingof the hole beforeconcreteis poured.step tapered or a combination.

lf full penetrationcannot be attained. overturned. c..Theseshallincludeinter-alia: a.the Engineermay requireeither excavationof materialwithin the embeddedportionof the casingor excavationof a pilothole aheadof the casing until the casing reachesthe desired penetration. iii) BentoniteSlurrv Where the use of bentoniteslurry is approved for the purpose of maintainingthe stabilityof the walls and base of bore.viscosity.the water level in the boringshall be maintainedbetweenone (1) meter and two (2) metersabovethe the engineerdirectsotherwise. The sourceof the bentonite of the slurry. externalwaterlevel. After the installationof the casing and the excavationof the shaft is complete. PermanentCasinsMethod The permanentcasingconstructionmethodshall be used when required by the plans.Unliss shownon the plans. This method consistsof driving or drillinga casing to a piescribeddepth beforeexcavationbegins. During concretingthey shall be free from encrustedconcreteor any internal projections which mightpreventthe properformationof the piles.which could lead to excessive removal of soil and water and disturbanceof the surroundingground and when boringthroughany permeablestratum(includingsilt). Where the use of temporarycasing is approvedfor the purposeof maintainingthe stabilityand over-rapidwithdrawalof the boringtools . The casing shall be continuousbetweenthe elevationsshown on the plans.casing is not disturbed. Safetv of Casinq The contractorshall take all such measures and provide such and bracingas is necessaryand to the approvalof the strengthening enginLer to ensure that the temporary. over-stressedor under-eroded in any condition of temporarycasingshall be such that it will not disturbthe freshlycast concreteand/orpermanentlrningand/orreinforcement.unleSS The temporarycasingsshallbe free from significantdistortionand of uniform cross sectionsthroughouteach continuouslength.sheerstrengthand PH valueof slurry' 407-10 .the use of temporarycasingin lieu of or in additionto the permanentcasing shall not be used except when authorizedby the Engineerin writing.In some to the outside diameter of the casing may be cases. b. the contractor's proposalsin accordaniewith (sub clausevi) hereofshall includedetails of the slurry. ovrer-reaming requiredin orderto advancethe casing. The constitution Specificgravity.the casingshall be cutoffat the prescribedelevationand the reinforcingsteel and shaft concrete placed within the portion of the casingleft in place.

and The provisionof stand-byequipment.referenceAPI RP29.d.minimumand maximumvalues. ll and Vl.Proposalsfor the constitution and physicalpropertiesof the slurryshall includeaverage. Tests shall be carriedout to ensurethat the proposedconstitutionof the slurryis compatiblewith the groundwater.After use it shallbe disposedin a mannerrothe approvalof the Engineer.the stability of the excavationshall be maintainedby methodsacceptableto the Engineer.irrespectiveof the number of time it has been used by new bentonite slurry of correct physical properties. Independenttests shall be carried out at labbratory approvedby the Engineeron samplesof bentonitefrequenfly. The frequencyof tests shall be that which the contractor considers necessaryto ensure that the bentoniteslurry is in accordancewith his proposalsand as such othertimes as the Engineermay direct.beforeusingslurryin the works.shear strengthand pH tests.Section-l. iv) ExcavationFrom Boreholes The soil and debrisfrom insidethe pile boreholesshall be removedby bucket. Adequate time shall be allowed for proper hydrationto take place. Testson BentoniteSlurrv The contractorshall carry out tests during the course of the piling to checkthe physicalpropertiesof the bentoniteslurryin the works. removal and recirculating the slurry.inter-alia. Precautions The contractorshallcontrolthe bentoniteslurryso that it does not cause a nuisanceeitheron the site or adiacentwatenvaysor other areas. storing. shouldthe physicalpropertiesof any bentoniteslurrydeviateoutsidethe agreedlimits.auguror circulatingbentoniteslurryprovidedthat no jettingat the 407-11 .viscosity.These tests shall include. placing.The specificgravityof the slurryshall not be less than one and three hundredth(1. The level of the slurry in the bentoniteshall be maintainedso that the internalfluidpressurealwaysexceedsthe externalwaterpressure.density. ManufacturersCertificate A manufacturer'scertificate showing the properties of the bentonite powder shall be delivered to the Engineer for each consignment deliveredto site.03)in any case at any time. New York City. lf chiselingis used when boring through hard strata or to overcome obstructions. The contractor shall use additives where necessary to ensure the satisfactory functioningof the slurry.such slurry shall be replaced. e. consistentwith the methodof mixing.1957. The methods of mixing. The test apparatusand test methods shall be those given in "RecommendedPractice" standard by American petroleum lnstitute.

requirements vi) Limitationsof Boring Sequence Piles shall be constructedin such a mannerand sequenceas to ensure that no damage is sustainedby piles already constructedin adjacent positions.5) meter interval. Excavationshall be carriedout as rapidlyas possiblein orderto reduce to a minimum the time in which any strata are exposed to the atmosphere.bentoniteslurry or water.The costs of tests and collectionof samples shall be deemedto be includedin the unit rates quoted by the Contractor.31:'3 aftercompletion The materialsfrom pile excavationshall be disposedso that the same does not interferewith any part of the permanentworks of this project.lt shall be approximately immediately container air tight weight and shall be placed in a strong as soon be sealed shall container The aftei its removalfrom the sampler.foot of the boreholeshall be permitted. Limits Atterberg and content grading.which in the opinionof the Engineermay damagethe permanentliningof the pile.The Contractorshall submitto the Engineerfor his approvala programmeshowingsequenceof constructionof variouspiles' 407-12 .be truly representative without is taken.Methodsof excavation. and ahead of boreholeon the line of verticalaxis of the pile at these locationsafter one and half (1.. (exceptinsofaras any such provisionsmay conflictwith other of the contract).as far as possible. the Contractorshallremoveall such sub of the Engineerand shalllengthenthe pile soil stratumto the satisfactton lengtheningshall be paid as per this such any of if necessaryand cost contract.unsuitablefor supportingthe loadsthat will be imposedon it. grading of insitu soil at the point from which it five (5) Kg in 6ontaritnationby other material. a pile shall not remain unfilledwith concretefor period exceedingeighteen(18) hours of0". Shouldthe excavationrevealany soil stratumbelowthe bottomof a pile which.in neat and workmanlikemanner.Each Af the disturbedsampleshall. the site to taken be shall placed and in as the sample has been tests.is.in the opinionof the Engineer. shallnot be emPloYec. moisture laboratoryfor Test shall be The apparatusand procedurefor the StandardPenetration in accordancewith the provisionsof ASTM D 1586 PenetrationTest and split-barrelsamplingof soils and/orASTM D 1587 thin-walledsampling oi soils. v) Samplesand Tests The Contractorshalltake soil samplesas given belowor as directedby the Engineerto the designedtip elevationof the pile and shall carry ou{: insitu StandardPenetrationtests within. In any case.

the top of the ieinforcing steel cage shalr be no more than 6 inches above and no more than 3 inchesbelowplan position. The Engineershall inspectthe soil samples and test results thereon.All other plan dimensionsshown for the bells may be varied. 407-13 . The contractor shall under no circumstancesproceed with the placing of -first reinforcementor with the subsequent concreting without having obtainedthe authoritysignedseparatelyfor each ind every boreholeby the Engineer. g.when casingis not used. c. when approved. and not more than 1 inch less than the diametershown on the plantsfor diametersgreaterthan24 inches. to accommodatethe equipmentused.the contractorshallso informthe Engineer. The bearingarea of bellsshall be excavatedto the plan bearing area as a minimum.or outof-plumbhavingsatisfiedhimselfon theseand on any other pointswhich he may consider relevant shall sign permission authorizing the contractor to proceed with the placing of the reinforcement. as requiredby the'Engineer. The top elevationof the shaft shall be within 1 inch of the plan top of shaftelevation. b. the minimumdiameterof the drilledshaft shall be tne diameter shown on the prans for diameters24 inch6s or ress.vii) Tolerances Followingconstruction tolerancesshallmaintained a. d. viii) Inspection After the borehole has reached its final stipulated positions. The drilledshaft shall be within 3 inchesof the plan positionin the horizontalplaneat the plan elevationfor the top of the shaft. f. e. The verticalalignmentof the shaftexcavationshail not very from the plan alignmentby morethan 1/4 inch per foot of depth. ix) Pile Reinforcement The reinforcement for each pile shall be assembledand securelytied by of binding wire and by weldedreinforcementrings of twentyfive TgSns (25) mm diameterbar as shownon the drawings. by whichthe top of the casingis out of position. and the boreholehas been completelycleanedof all loose mattei and othenrvise made ready to receivethe reinforcementand thereafterthe concrete. The bottomof the shaftexcavationshall be normalto the axis of the shaft within 3/4 inch per foot of shafl diameter.in sucii a manner as to form a rigidcage. its outsidediametershall not be less than the shaftdiame_ter shownon the plans. when casingis used. check the elevation of the bottom of the borehole and the amount and direction.if any. after the samples have been taken out. After all the shaft concrete is placed.

b.shall be maintainedby The requiredconcretecover to the reinforcement suitablespacerssecurelyattachedto the reinforcementand of sufficient cage into strengthto resistdamageduringhandlingof the reinforcement the pile. The Contractorshall submitthe detailedproposedadditivefor approval.3 Concretingof Piles In general.he may do so providedthe same lapping requirementsas for assemblyon the ground are followed. 407.namely.The dosing of retardersshall ensure initialsettingtime of not less than five (5) hours correspondingto the ambient temperatureat which the concretingis proposedto be carriedout. !) Cleanliness of the borehole. Suitableretarder.plasticisermay be addedas approvedby the Engineer. shall be removed. Spacers maintaining concrete cover shall be located immediately below and absvethe laps at 4 pointsspacedaroundthe cage. which shall be approvedafter laboratorytrial mix results. shallbe observed.which could impairthe free flow of concretefrom the tremie pipe. The Contractorshall not proceedwith the concretingof the pile until the Engineergivesspecificpermitto do so aftersatisfyinghimselfof the: !f Adequacyof the Contractorsequipmentand arrangement. r-f Proficiencyof his personnel. 407-14 .3. item 401 of the General Specificationsshall be followed. of Concreting ii) Commencement Priorto placingany concrete a.the shall be lappedas shownon the drawingsand reinforcement longitudinal the spiral reinforcementshall be doubledover the lap zones. The distance between the spacers shall be such that the required cover is maintained throughout and that there is no displacementof the reinforcementcage in the course of the concreting operation. Any loose or soft material/watersoil shall be removed from the bottomof the bore by methodsacceptableto the Engineer. cage assembly Shouldthe Contractorpreferto lower the reinforcement into the boreholein sections.the followingparticularrequirements i) Materials Compressivestrength of concrete in piles shall be of class 43 as prescribedin ltem 401. Any heavycontaminatedbentoniteslurry. exceptif otherwiseindicated. however.

pipeor hole beforeplacingthe reinforcingsteel or concrete. when the next batch is placed in the hopperthe tremie shall'be slightlyraised but not out of the concreteat the bottom. The contractorshall take precautionsto ensure that the concreteis free of voids and shall preventthe entry of water and/or collapseof soil into concrete. iii) Placingof Concrete The tremie shall be of not less than two hundred and fifty (250) mm diametermade of watertight constr0ction. The depth of the concrete in borehole shall be measured at intervalsto keep a constant check that the tremiepipe bottomis immersedin concrete.5) meters below the top of the concretein the borehole. concretingshall continueuntil the concretehas reaehedan elevation five hundred (500) mm higher than the designatedpile cut off level shownon the drawings. and fills the bottom of the borehole. This operationshall be controlledby calculatingthe volumeof concreterequiredto fill one linear meter of pile and then by measuringthe rate of withdrawalof the tube corresponding to the volume of the batch in the hopper.lf any soil or other deleteriousor extraneous materialsfall into any pile excavationpriorto or duringconcreting.so as to preventwater or bentoniteslurry enteringthe tube and mixingwith the concrete. which shall be placed at the top of the pipe before chargingthe tremie pipe with concrete as barrier between the concrete and water or bentoniteslurry.The tremieshall be carefullylowered into the borehole so that the end of the tube shall rest at about one hundred and fifty (150) mm above the bottom of the borehole. until the batch dischargesto the bottom of the upper. The tremie pipe shall be fitted with travelling plug.it shall be removedimmediately. concreting shall cease immediatelyand such remedialmeasuresas the Engineermay accept or directshall be carriedout. the rate of withdrawalof the tremieshall be gradualso as to ensurethe end of the tremie pipe is always one and half (1. The means of supportingthe tremieshallbe such as to permitthe free movementof the dischargeend in the concretein the pile.The flow shall then the retarded by lowering the tube. concretingin each pileshall be carriedout in a continuousoperationwithout stoppagesuntilthe pile has been completed. 407-15 .An allowanceshall be made for the top five hundred (500) mm of qoncretein borehole during concretingbeing unsatisfactory.lt shall be slighflyraisedso that when the concretereachesthe bottomit flows out of the lower end of the tube.with reinforcementin the borehole.and the hopper end of the tremie tube shallbe filledwith concreteas aforesaid. lf the bottomof the tremie pipe ceasesto be immersedin the body of the concrete in the pile and the seal is broken.sampleof slurryshall be takenfrom the baseof the boreholeusingan approvedsamplingdeviceand its specific gravityshall be determined. Thereafter.Contractorshallhave a suitablelightingarrangementsat all timesfor inspectingthe entirelengthof the shells. Priorto the concretinga pile.or as othenr'uise directedby the Engineer.

whicheveris greater.tic i) PrecastConcretePiles For precastconcretepiles. J07. 407. 2) By cuttingaway the concreteat the end of the pile. The methodof placingthe concretearidthe consistency(slump)shall of the of ltem 401 or to the satisfaction conformto the requirements Engineer. The withdrawalof the temporarycasing shall be carried out before the adjacentconcretehas taken its initialset.pipesor piles within a radius of three (3) M or five (5) times the pile diameter. characteris.shall be made as shown on the Drawingsor as specifiedwith materialshaving same quality and as for materialsused for the pile itself.in which case the provisionof the clause herein which refers to "DefectivePiles" shall apply. The final cut of the concrete shall be perpendicular of the same to the axis of the pile. No shellor pipeshall be filledwith concreteuntilall adjacentshells.5 Splicineof Piles Splicingof piles.1 Withdrawal of TemporaryCasing lf the methodof constructioninvolvespartialwithdrawalof temporarycasing as concretingproceeds.The joints shallbe of the designand type as shownon the Drawings.have been drivento the requiredresistance. After a shell or pipe has been filled with concrete.when permittedby the Engineer.Reinforcement 407-16 . The methodand timing of withdrawalmust be such as to ensure that the space betwe'enthe pile and the surroundingground shall be filled with concrete. lf such entry or collapseshould occur.no pile shall be driven withinseven(7) metersthereofuntilat leastseven(7) days have elapsed.the splicingshallbe done accordingto one of the specified. the temporarycasing shall be redriven before the concrete has set and all defective concrete shall be removedor the constructionof the pile shall be abandoned.3.The concreteshallbe plaied in one continuousoperationfrom tip of cutcjff elevationand shallbe carriedout in such a manneras to avoidsegregation.3. leavingthe reinforcementsteel exposedfor a length of forty (40) times steel bar diameters.' followingmethodsunlessotheruuisp 1) Using prefabricatedjoints mounted in the forms and cast togetherwith the pile sectionsand joined togetheras specified by the manufacturerand approvedby the Engineer.a sufficienthead of concreteshall be maintained above the bottom of the temporary casing to ensure that no voids are formed within the pile and to preventthe entry of ground water and to preventthe collapseof soil intothe concrete.

tf approvedby the Engineer. Concretepiles shall. care being takento preventleakagealongthe pile.size as that used in the pile shall be welded to the projecting steel and the necessaryformworkshall be placed. 407-17 . cut-offs of structuralsteel pilesshall be made at right anglesto the axis of the pile. or other suitable bondingmaterialto the satisfactionof the Engineer.Piles bent or othenrrrise injuredshall be rejected.pipe or for a cast-in-place concretepile is belowthe elevationof the bottomof the pile cap. The longitudinal reinforcementof the piles shall be embeddedin the structureabove to a lengthequalto at least (40)times the diameterof the main reinforcingbars.the top of the pile shall be wetted thoroughlyand covered with a thin coating of neat cement.when approvedby the Engineer. the pile may be built up from the butt of the pile to the elevationof the bottom of the cap by means of a reinforcedconcreteconstructionaccording to ltem 401.The forms shall remainin placenot lessthan seven (7) days.6 Cuttins of Piles Tops of piles shall be embeddedin the concretefooting as shown on the drawings. The cuts shall be made in clean.3.steelshell. Just prior to placing concrete.be cut off at such a level that at least five (5) cm of undamagedpile can be embeddedin the structureabove.splices shall be made by butt-weldingthe entirecross-section to form an integralpile using the electricarc method.The sectionsconnectedshall be properlyalignedso that the axis of the pile will be straight. 407. an extension of same cross-sectionshall be spliced to it.the contractorshall repair the pile to the satisfactionof the Engineer. ii) SteelPiles. pipe. or shell is insufficientto obtain the specified bearing value. when the cut-offelevationfor a precastconcretepile.The concreteshallbe of the same qualityas that used in the pile.straightlines and any irregularity due to cutting or burning shall be leveled off with deposits of weld metal priorto placingbearingcaps.The pile shall not be drivenuntilthe28-daysdesignstrengthis reached. lf a pile is damagedbelowthis level.the splicingshallbe as under: lf the orderedlengthof the steel pile. Unless otherwiseshown on the Drawings.Shellsor pipes For steelpilesshellsand pipe. 3) Any other methodshown on the Drawingsor approvedby the Engineer. The distancefrom the side of any pile to the nearestedge of the footing shallnot be lessthan twenty(20) cm.

Test piles driven by the Contractorfor his own use in determiningthe lengthsof pilesto be furnishedmay be so locatedand they may be cut-off and-becomea part of the completedstructureprovidedthat such test piles conformto the requirementfor pilingin thesespecifications.incapableor partiallycapable of permanentlycarryingthe load which it is intendedto carry. 407-18 .or due to any cause by one of the expense contractor's at the corrected to deteiminesfrattUe Engineer:the by approved followingmethods a) The pile shall be withdrawn and replaced by a new and when bYlongerPile.due to the immature of the borehole settingof the concretein the pile or due to caving/collapse be sole judge shall Engineer of which fully o-rpartially.7 Piles Defective Any pile deliveredwith defects such as damaged during driving or cast insitu'.9shall be driven in locationsdeterminedby the Engineer. in the opinionof the Engineeraffectsthe strength.or life of th'epile.These piles shall not be utilizedin the structureunlessotherwisedirected.101. the Contractor.3.which.3.placed out of its proper location. b) A secondpile shallbe drivenor cast adjacentto the defectivepile.extendingaroundthe four sidesof the pile. or any defect. at his expense. A concretepile shall be considereddefectiveif it has a visible crack or cracks. necessary.3. c) The pile shall be splicedor builtup as otherwiseprovidedhereinor the undersideof the footingloweredto properlyimbedthe pile' as the Engineer The contractorshallundertakesuchadditionaltests/works the defective to supplement foundations provide additional to may specify pile! and so modifythe structureto be supportedas to ensurethat loadwill be transferredsafelyto the additionalfoundationsof existingpile'The contractorshallbe responsiblefor the cost of such additionalfunctionsand to the testsand/orof the extrawork carriedout in such modification structure.shall enlarge the footing as deemed necessaryby the Engineer. When a new pile is drivenor cast to replacea rejectedone.drivenbelowthe elevationfixed by the Drawing or by the Engtneer. 407. Test oilesto be load tested in accordancewith ltem 407.8 TestPiles Test piles which are shown on the Drawingsor ordered by the Engineer shall conformto the requirementsfor piling as specifiedand shall be so located that they may be cut-off and become a part of the completed structure.

Unlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineer. Loadtestsshallbe madeby methodsapprovedby the Engineer.The apparatusshall be so constructedas to allowthe variousincrementsof the load to be placedgradually withoutcausingvibrationto the test piles.the Contractorshallin advancecarry out test pilingor load teststo determinethe energydevelopedbv the hammer. b) By drivingtest pilesto a depth determinedby the Engineerand loadtestingthe same pilesin accordancewith ltem 407. steel shellsor pileswhosewallsare not of adequatestrengthto withstandthe test loadingwhen empty.the load tests shall be completedbeforethe remainingpiles in the same structureare drrvenor cast.The Contractormay elect one of the followingmethodsfor the calibration: a) By test drivingthe same type of piles successivelywith diesel hammerand gravityor singleacting hammer.Any pile. Test piles shall generallybe drivenwith the same equipmentthat is to be used for driving foundationpiles. When required.shallbe of a designand drivento a depth satisfactoryto the Engineer.the contractor may use high early strengthcementin the concreteof the loadtest pile and the tensionpiles. The contractor shallsubmitto the Engineerdetailedplansof the loadingsystemand apparatus he intendsto use at leastthree (3) weeks in advance.9.or if approvedby the Engineerit shall be cut-offbelowthe ground line and footings.3.providedthat the calibrhtion data is acceptedby the Engineer.shall havethe requiredreinforcement and concreteplacedbeforeloading. The load test shall not be started until the concretehas attaineda minimum compressivestrengthof ninetyfive (95) percentof the designtwenty eight (2g) days compressivestrength.9Load Tests A load test shall consistof the application of a load equalto a minimumof 2 times the specifiedbearingcapacityor as otherwiseprovidedfor hereinor as directedby the Engineer. or friction piles where the bearingcapacityshall be checked by pile driving formulas. When diesel hammers are to be used for driving end bearing piles. c) Calibrationtestsshall be made at leastat two differentsites until the resultsare satisfactory to the Engineer.Loadtestsshallbe made where specifiedand/orwhere calledfor by the Engineer. but such approval does not in any way relieve the Contractorof his responsibilities.lf he so elects. Calibrationof dieselhammersmay not be requiredif the hammerhas been previouslycalibratedundersoil conditionsand for the same size and type of pile. 407.shall be removed if so ordered by the Engineer.3.or by drivingtwo differentpiles with diesel hammer and gravity or single acting hammerrespectively. 407-19 .the ground shall be excavatedto the elevationof the bottomof the footingbeforethe test pile is driven.Tensionanchorpilesif used.whichafterservingits purposeas a test pile is found unsatisfactory for utilizationin the structure.

in order that a more closely controlledfailure curve may be plotted. is observedfor a 1S.A copy of the recordshall be givento the Engineerwithintwo (2) days after each pile is driven. increment.measuredat the top of the pile. 407.such as level. 407.3.10 Backfilling EmntyBorine When each pile has been cast.Suitableapprovedapparatusfor determiningaccuratelythe load on the pile and the settlementof the pile undereach incrementof load shall be supplied The apparatusshall have a working capacityof three by the C.the load incrementsshall be reducedbyfifty (50) percent. All pile load settlementsshall be measuredby adequatedevices. on the following: The pilerecordsshallgive full information 407-20 .has causednot more than 6 mm of permanentsettlement. The pile may be consideredto have failed when the total permanent settlementexceeds(6) mm.1)mm shallbe addeduntila settlement increment intervalunderthe previouslyappliedincrement. of the piledesign loadand the firstincrementshallbe up to the pile designload by applying A minimumperiodof 2 hours additionalloads in three equal increments. When directedby the Engineerload tests snall then be continuedbeyond the doubledesignload in 1O{onincrementsto failureor a maximumof three (3) timesthe designload. Reference points for measurementof pile settlementshall be sufficientlyaway from the test pile to precludeall possibilityof disturbance.3.r1 Pile Records The Contractorshall keep recordsof the pilesdrivenor installed.ontractor.The full test load shall remainon the test pile not less than forty eight(48)hours.and shallbe checkedby meansof an Engineer's deflectionshall be read just aftereach lgad incrementis appliedand at 15minuteintervalsthereafter. after48 hours of continuousapplication. The firstloadto be appliedto the test pile shallbe 50%.except that no of each application between the shall intervene of lessthan one tenth(0. times the design load for the pile being tested.The fulltest loadshallthenbe removedand the permanent settlementread. the empty bores remainingshall not be back{illed unless required by the constructionproceduresand activities followingthe completionof pilingwork.The recordform to be used shall be approvedby the Engineer.-minute lf thereis a qu'estionas to whetherthe test pilewill supportthe test load.The safe allowableload shall be consideredas 50 percentof the load which.Increment of gauges.at'the directionof the Engineer.

0 0 1 . Any otherrelevantinformation. Detailsof any interruption in driving Detailsof Reinforcement. Levelof piletop immediately after driving. Time interval between boring or drivingand concreting. Drivingequipment. Dateof casting(forconcrete piles)and driving.and the levelwhen all pilesin the groupare driven. ground Strata and water encounteredwith levels.consistencyand othertest resultson concrete.weight. Dia of borehole. Detailsof re-driving. Finalset for last20 blowsfor every 10 pilesand when the Engineerso requiresthe penetration alongthe wholedrivendepthshallbe recorded. S . Test resultson concrete Length of finished pile and tip elevation Depthdriven& tip elevation. P2. theoreticaland actual quantitiesof concreteused in pile. Date of boring commenced. For doubleactinghammers:the frequencyof blows. Soil samplestakenfrom pileboring operationand soil test results. Piletype and nominaldimensions.Driven Piles Cast-in-PlacePiles Piletypeand dimension. For gravityand single-acting hammers:the heightof drop. 407-21 . C . reach-andefficiencyof hammeretc.level reachedeach day and date of casting.description shall be in accordance with B . Detailsof Reinforcement. Lengthsand diameterof temporary casingand permanentliningand the elevationof the tip of temporary casingand of permanent lining. Elevationof the bottomof borehole. Quality. Detailsof penetration duringboring operation or driving of steel shell (drivingrecordsas for drivenpiles). type. Dateof placingconcrete. Anv otherrelevantinformation.

3.Any additionalpile lengthsthat may be necessaryto suitthe contractor'smethodof operationor for any otherreasonshallnoi be includedin the measurements.whether or not utilizedas service piles in the structureshall not be inctuded in the above measurements.L is done as that of columh.The boringshallextend to a depth of at least three (3) meters below the pile tip elevationas indicatedin the drawings. footings or bottom of concretesuperstructure in the caseof prlebents.1 Measurement The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the numberof linear metersof piles.s. Test piles when ordered by the Engineer. Measurementshallbe madefor permanenilyplacedpile casings shown on drawings. Acceptedtest pileswill be measuredseparatelyas the numberof linearmeters. Diameterof boreholesshall be twenty(20) centimeterscasedthroughout its length and shall be down to the designatedelevation.4.In case the bottomof pilecaps or footingor bottomof pile bent is aboveN. Undisturbed samplesshall be takenfrom substratum.the same shallnot be measured whetherleft at site or withdrawnaftercompletingthe boreholes. For cast-in-situpiles.lf the contractor likes to use temporarycasing for the convenienceof preparingof boreholes.s.helicaland verticalsteelwill be measuredin Tons.5) meters interval from designatedtop elevationto the bottom of the hole.the same shall be measuredas concreteand steel for column. 407. At leasttwo boringsare requiredat each bridgesite. when undisturbedsamplingis required.On completionof the pilingfor each structure.measuredfrom the pile tip elevationto the bottom of pile caps.Additionally.lf clay is encountered. Pile casing where ever providedwill be measured in linear meters.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 407.No allowanceshallbe madefor cut-offsor the requiredlengthof concreteor reinforcement steel placedinto the concretestructureas called for on the drawings. 491. completedand accepted.In-situ standard penetrationtest shall be carriedout at one and half (1.Thin walled samplingof soil. the procedureshallconformto ASTM D 1587. Boringshall be carriedout with ASTM D 1s86 penetrationTest and split barrelsamplingof soil.L2 ConfirmatoryBoring The contractorshall carry out confirmatoryboringat bridgesite at locations indicatedby the Engineer. 407-22 .undisturbed sampleswill be takenat intervalof three(3) meters.L and methodof fabrication is suchthat the work aboveN.the Contractorshall deliverto the Engineera drawingrecordingthe exact locationand the final depth (tip elevation) of all piles.

407.9. Test piles whetheror not used in the completedstructureor constructed adjacentto structureas per requirementsof the contractdocumentshall be paidfor at the contractunit pricefor pile installation. Paymentfor tubular steel piles left in place shall includethe cost of the concretecore of the specifiedclass of concreteand the steel reinforcement of the said concretecore. Additionalquantitiesof concrete.2 Payment The quantitiesof pilingleft in place in the acceptedstructuremeasured as providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price per linear meterof pilesof the differenttypes listedbelowand shown in the Bill of Quantities. Load tests shall be countedas the number of completeand acceoted foadtestsas describedin ltem 407. eitherone and half (1. 107.rate per linear meter will includeall items except for helicaland verticalreinforcement. Load tests shall be paid for at the contractunit price for pile load Tests. Concretefootings or pile caps shall be measuredand paid for as providedunder ltem 400 "Structures".which will be paid as per steel reinforcement item404. Pile casing will be paid at the contractunit price per linear meter for pile casrng.3.4. .9. The quantityto be paidfor confirmatoryboringshall be the numberof linear metersof the boringcompletedand accepted. reinforcementand formwork caused by incorrectlocationof piles or additionalpiles necessaryto replace defectivepiles shall be to the Contractor's exoense.the cast of steel shall be includedin the rate per linearmater.The unit pricefor test loadingto three (3) timesthe designload shall includethe total loadtestwithall loadincrements as describedin ltem407. For cost-in-situpiles.23 . For pre cast piles.Pileshoeswhen calledfor on the Drawingsor by the Engineershallbe measuredby the numberacceptedin place Splicingof pilesif not shown on the drawingswill not be allowedexcept that the lengthof reinforcement is to exceed 12 meterin which case the splicingwill not be measuredor paid directlybut the cost thereofshall be consideredas includedin the unit pricefor piling.3.5)times or two (2) times the designload.

type_ M 407h PileLoadTeststo 1. labour. welding.type _- M 407f PileShoes. Description.caging providingcovers etc. Each 407k Boring Confirmatory M 4071 Permanent PileCasing. 407i Each Each Pile LoadTeststo 3 timesthe designload.if needed and other incidentalexpensesincludingsplicing.type_ Each 4O7g Test Piles. Pay ltem No. performingstandard penetrationand all other relevantlaboratorytests. necessaryto completethe item as directedby the Engineer.Such prices and payment shall be considered full compensationfor furnishing all materials.equipment.tools.5timesthe designload 407i Pile LoadTeststo 2 times the designload. fuel.type_ M 4O7m TemporaryPileCasingtype_ M 407-24 .type M 407e StructuralSteelPiles. Unit of Measurement 4O7a UntreatedTimberPiles M 407b TreatedTimberPiles M 407c PrecastConcretePilestype M 407d Cast-in-place ConcretePiles.

-{08.3 SteelSheetPiles steel Sheetpilesshall be of the type and weightindicatedon the Drawings.lt shall be sawn or hewn with squarecornersor with tongueand-groovejoint as directed by the Engineerand shall be free from holes. reinforcement.the contraetor shall be solely responsiblefor the design and constructionof the bracing. 408-1 .sheet pilingshall be a separatepay item only when stated in the Bill of Quantities.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 408.4 Bracine Bracings or anchors for sheet piles shall be made of wood or steel accordingto the Drawingsor as designatedby the Engineer.2.2. The steel shall conform to AASHTO M 223 or AsrM A s7z.of sheet piles in accordancewith the Drawings.driving. unless otherwisedefinitelynoted on the Drawingsor in the special Provisions. if required.but such approval does not in any way relievethe Contractorof his responsibility. decay or unsound portions.and manufactureof concrete sheet piles shall conform to the specificationsgoverningPrecastconcrete piles under ltem 407 . permanent steel sheet piles shall be coated with red lead paint conformingto AASHTo M 72 as instructedby the Engineer.ITEM 408 408.which will satisfactorily standdriving.cutting off and removal. loose knots. wing shakes. 408. 408. 408. or other defects whichmightimpairits strengthor tightness.may consist of any species.2.Piling.1 SHEET PILING DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of furnishing.r Timber Sher!-Piles The timber.sheet piles for cofferdamsin connectionwith foundations for structuresshall be included in the unit price for ltem 1O7-Structural Excavation.Jointdetailsshall be as indicatedon the Drawings.2 ConcreteSheetPiles concrete. For temporarysheet piling like cofferdamsfor excavations.or as designated by the Engineer.2. The Drawingsshall have the approvalof the Engineer.

3.sheetpilingwill be measuredby the square meters of sheet piling or as a Lump Sum as shown on the Drawingsor directedin writing by the Engineer.3. However. 408. shall be includedin the contractprice. bolts.completein place and accepted.beforegrantingsuch permissionthe Engineershall investigateto ascertain that the Contractor has adequate equipment for the required drivingand that the pilescan not be drivento the elevationshownwith the properuse of this equipment.11.2 Removal Temporarysheet pilingshall be removedor cut off at the streambed or the originalgroundwhen directedby the Engineer.2 Payment Paymentof TimberSheetPiles.1 Installation Timberand concretesheetpilesshall be sharpenedat theirlowestends.4.Where it is impossibleto drive to the elevation shown on the Drawingsdue to sub-surfaceconditions.the Contractorand the Engineershall agree on an equitable price.4 MEASURET{ENTAND PAYMENT 408.the piles may be stoppedat a higherelevationwith the written permissionof the Engineer.labour.ConcreteSheet Pilesand SteelSheetPiles as determinedundermeasurementshall be made at the contractunit price per square meter or as a Lump Sum for the pay items listed below and 'the Bill of Quantities.3.3and 407. 408. The tops of a permanentsheet pilingshall be driven or cut-offto a straight lineat the elevationindicatedon the Drawings. equipment. The requirementsgoverningthe installationof sheet pilingshall conformto thosegoverningpilesas set forthunderltem 407. All sheet pilesshall be drivento the elevationshown on the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.3 CQNSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 408.Such prices and payment shall be' shown in consideredfull compensationfor all materials.408. 408-2 . Wales and incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item.whether shown on the drawings or not.1 Measurement When statedas a separatepay item in the Bill of Quantities.Measurementof piling. which has been delivered accordingto Drawings and cannot be driven to the directed elevation becauseof subsurfaceconditionsshall be measuredb the drivenelevation.4.tools paint. All necessary bracings.3. 408. In case when the Engineerorderssheet pilingto be left in placefor erosion protection.

Unit of Measurement 40Ba TimberSheetPiles SM 40Bb ConcreteSheetPiles SM 408c SteelSheetPiles SM 408-3 .3.The undermentionedpay itemsand pricesshallnot applyto the equitable rate for sheet piling left in place for erosion protectionaccordingto ltem 408. Pay ltem No. Description.2.

2. 2) the proper in kerb well sinkingof the erectedkerb and well steeningto the requiredelevation 4) the pr6perpluggingof the well. 109.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS 409.1 WELL FOUNDATION DESCRIPTION This item shall consistof performingall operationsin connectionwith the constructionof a well to be used as a foundationfor a pier or abutment'The 1)the castingof work shallbe comprisedof five separatemain operations: by stages3) the steening well of erection position..2 ReinforcingSteel Reinforcingsteel shall conformto the requirementsunder item 404 Steel Reinforcement. 409.2.2. 409. 409-1 . and 5) the constructionof the transomslab and the Drawingsor as directedby the all in accordalcewitlrspecifications.1 EquiPment Construction All equipmentto be used in constructionshall be on the Site in first class and shall have been approvedby the Engineerbefore working'condition is started.5 Fill Sand Fill sand shallconsistof naturalsand free from deleteriousmaterialssubject to the approval of the Engineer and as specified and shown on the Drawings.the sizes.of all equipmentshallbe adequateto ensurecompletionof the work withinthe time specifiedin the Contract.etc.1 StructuralSteel of AASHTOM 183 (ASTM Structuralsteelshallconformto the requirements specified)' otherwise unless A 36 DESIGNATION: 409.3 StructuralConcrete Structuralconcrete shall conform to CIaSSA concrete requirementsas specifiedunderltem 401-Concrete.2.4 Brickworh Brick work shall conformto the requirementsas specifiedunder ltem 410BrickMasonryof thesespecifications. construction The numberof units. Engineer.2. 409. 409.ITEM 409 409.3.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 409.

rn casethese requirements arenotmet. NJ materiatsnarr'be roiled or fabricatedbefore the Engineerhas been notitieJ v*rere-it.op. inspector shallbe allowedfree accessto the necessarypartsof "nJ "no the premises.op.Engineerottre neginningoiin" *oirlt ihe miil and 9h. The fitting togethershall be checkedat the site of fabrication work by the assembryof at least two compretecuttingedges.2 StructuralSteelWork (a) Notice of Ro'ing jrn4 Fabrication The contractor shail give ampre advancenoticeto the. n". 409. 409"3.rn bridge. Ail structurar steerworksshariconform to l"liy"-y. ofF .Thecuttingedge of the well kerb will be structural steel pre-fabricated and suppriedin segmentsconvenientfor siie assembry by boltingtogetheras per rinesand d'imensionsshown on ttre Drawings. nru" been placed."t.ioi"g tr 'otherwise deforming the metar.9o . 409-2 .wellKerbs. toors and machinery used shail be maintained in a satisfactory workingconditionthroughoutthe requiredperiodof therr use.iion-ofthe work exposed to viewshallbe neaflyfinished.r.l'oro"r. formed of segments at random beforetheseare acceptedfor dispatchto the site of work.3 SnecialConstructionOperations (a) casrting.og. (d) rfandlinsMembers The fieldassembling of the component partsof the structureshail be done by the use of iwistint. All equipment.the materiarthus fabricated shailbe iejected. the applicable ASTMrequirements as shownunder item 413. for The contractorshail furnishail faciritiesfor the fbl :Irittttes Inspection of materialsand workmanshipin the miil .11 "^s]9. (g)Finish.. No memberssrighilybent6r twisted"shattoe put in placeuntiltheirdefectsarecorrecteo a'ncany membersseriously damaged in handling willbe rejected.3. The segmentsof the cutting edge shail be interchang"ror"...\ el\/vr I rro of structure.of structuralSteelwortr Theworkmanship andfinishshallbe first classand equarto the bestpractrce in mode.sn""ring and ""rr clippingshallbe done neaflyand accurately and po.No equipmentshall be removedfrom the site without the writtenapprovalof the Engineer.?!.r.or"n None of the steel work is to be paintedand no surfacepreparationis calledfor otherthan the removalof the rust and looseadheringmillscale. Reinforcing steerworkin the cuttingedge wiil be properryborted to the steel work and placedand assembledas shownon the Drawinos.that inspectionmay be providid.

(4) Dewaterins:The Contractorwill be requiredto pump out the water from insidethe wells in such a way as shall be approvedby the Engineer. reavyweightsis permissiblein well sinkingand in correctingerror of tilt and horizontaldisplacement. (2) Surrrrort: Well kerb shall be adequatelysupportedto preventshift.ortilt duringthe initialoperationand on excavationand sinkingwhetherthe well has beenstartedon made up groundor in waterin excavation. (3) Excavation of Sinhins:The soil from insidethe well shall be removedby mechanicalgrabbingor by otherdevicesas approvedby the Engineer.But the Contractormudttake care not to damagethe well in the process.the Contractorwill be requiredto adopt measuresto overcome the adverseaffectsof such shiftsand tilts. (6) CorrectineTilt etc: lt will be entirelythe responsibility of the Contractorto keep the tilt and shiftwithinthe specifiedtolerances.the safetyof plantand labourwill remain the responsibility of the Contractor.but notwithstanding any dewateringaid that the Contractormay use to assistin the operationof sinkingthe wells.' (b) Well SteenineWell steeningshall be made eitherof brick work in (1:3) cementmortaror Portlandcementconcreteof the requiredstrengthand of the form and dimensionsas shownon the Drawings. ln any case maximumpressure at the baseof foundationsafteraccountingfor all shiftsand tilts shallremain withinthe specifiedlimits. Reinforcingsteel work will continuefrom the cutting edge into the well steeningwith spacersmade of structuralsteelwork consistingof mild steel platesof the size and dimensionas shownon the Drawings. (1) Positionins:Each well kerb shall be correctlypositionedin place and approvedby the Engineerbeforecommencement of furtherwork. (7) Kentledse: The use of railsand other .The measurestakenshallbe allowedonly afterits approvalhas beenreceivedfrom the Engineer.lf the above limitsare exceeded.and in any case he mustobtainthe approvalof the Engineerfor his proposedmethod.' (c) Well Sinking:Well sinkingincludesall operationsrequiredto sink the wellin positionand to the yequired elevation.The accuracyof the sinkingwill be the rbsponsibility of the Contractor. The maximumhorizontaldisplacementof any well away from its correct positionshallnot exceedtwenty(20) cm. 409-3 . (5) Limits of TiIt and Shift: The limit of departurefrom true vertical position of any well shall not exceed one unit measuredhorizontallyin a vertical distanceof sixtyunits.Structuralconcretefor the cuttingedge will be of the requiredstrengthand shallbe finishedto the form and dimensionsshownon the Drawings.

the bottomof the well will be pluggedby the depositingconcreteof the requiredstrength.and reinforcingsteel work. The contractorwill also be requiredto obtainthree samplesof the natural soil at the elevationat which the well kerb has been stoppedand another samplethree(3)metersbelowthat elevationbeforehe is allowedto plug the well.4 SAMPLINGAND TESTING The contractorwill have adequatearrangementsto the satisfactionof the Engineerto collect disturbedsamplesof soil at every one and half (1. The quantityto be paid for shall be the original plan quantity measured as provided for respectiveitems.(8) Limits of Well Sinkine:Each and every well shall be sunk to the level indicatedon the Drawings.The concreteshallbe placedunderthe supervisionof the Engineer.The sand shall be free from deleteriousmaterials.bracings.kenfledgeor pumping. 409-4 .falseworks. No measurementsfor or otherallowanceswill be made for work or materials for forms. (d) Plueeineof Well: When the well has reachedthe final elevattonto which it is to sink and has been approvedby the Engineer.5. (e) SandFiiline:When the well bottomhas been plugged.5 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 409. (1)ConcreteUnderWater: The concretedepositedunder water shall have ten (10) percent excess cement.But in no case shall the Contractorstop well sinkingunlesshe has firstobtainedthe approvalof the Engineer.supports. To prevent segregjationit shall be carefullyplacedin the final positionby meansof a dump bucketor other approvedmethodand shall not be disturbedafter being deposited. measurement shall be made as narratedunderthe respectiveitems.exceptwhere changeshave been made by the Engineer and order has been given in writing. (0 TransomSlab:When the well bottomhas been plugged.the well hole will be filledwith sand as specifiedand shown on Drawings. (2)Continuous Placing:The concreteshail be placed in one continuous operation. all accordingto the lines.r Measurement a) General For the various items of work constructedunder this ltem.5) meterelevationand at everychangeof soil strataand to deliverit in proper bagsto the representative of the Engineer.109. . -r09. dimensions and form shownon the Drawinos.the welltop will be providedwith a transom slab made of structuralconcreteof required strength.

No deductionsfrom the computedweight of rolledsteel shall be made for caps.The unitof measurement 409-5 .drillings.The unit of measurement shallbe one linearmeter. concreteshall be measuredand paid for accordingto the requirements under ltem 401. c) ReinforcingSteel For well kerb.all accordingto the requirements 409.bars. platesand pipe railingshall be computedon the basis of nominalweight as given in the manufacturer's shownon the drawings. clips.kentledge.4.shearededges. The weightsof the rolled shapes.punchingborinEs. sunk belowthe bed level shownon the Drawings.The weightshall hand books.and acceptedby the Engineershall be the computed weightin metrictons of this materialenteringintothe completedstructureof item of work.pluggingof well and transom slab construction. s) Fill Sand The well hole shall be measuredas the volumeof well hole requiredto be shallbe in cubicmeters.supports. The unit rate includesthe cost of ten (10) oercentextra cementto be usedwhere required. measuredand paidfor accordingto the requirements d) StructuralConcrete For well kerb. The unitof measurementof structuralsteelwork shallbe metrictons. steening and transom slab reinforcingsteel shall be of ltem 404. filled. steening.pumping.3and soil samples.3. e) BrickWork ln (1:3) cement mortar for steening shall be measured and paid for of ltem410.bracings. millingor planingand no allowanceshall be made for the weightof weld metalor for overrunin weight.usingthe dimensions be computedon the basis of dimensionsand orderedoveralllengthsfor all structuralshapes.tilt correction given in ltem 409.b) StructuralSteel The quantityof strueturalsteel enteringinto and becominga part of the completedstructure.The unit ratefor sinkingtwin or singlewell shall includeexcavation. accordingto the requirements fl Well Sinhine For any item of work carried out under this head. measurementshall be made per linearmeter of twin or singlewell of specifiedexternaldiameter.

specifications and shallconstitutefull compensation for furnishingall material.equipment. Pay ltem No. handling and storage and all incidentalsshall be includedin unit pricesfor variousitems.5. Description.and labour and for performingall operationsnecessaryto completethe work.. Provision delivery of materialsto site.409.2 Payment Payment will be made in accordancewith the unit prjcibin the Bill of Quantitiesfor the various items in accordancewith the. Unit of Measurement 409 a Structural Stdel Ton 409 b Reinforcing Steel Ton 409 c Structural Concrete CM 409 d Brickwork CM 409 e WellSinking CM 409 f FillSand CM 409-6 .

2.regularin shapeand size with sharp and squarecorners and parallelfaces.2. 410-1 .They shall be of uniformcolour. 410.2 Sand Sand for mortar used in brickworkshall conform to the requirementfor the fine aggregatespecifiedin item 401.62 cm.They shallnot absorbmore than 1/6thof theirweightof water afler beingsoaked for one hour.62 kg/sq. 4t0.2.equipmentand labour required for constructing brickwork as shown on the drawings and in accordancewith thesespecifications.1.2except that the grading shall be accordingto AASHTOM 45. organicmatter.They must be homogeneousin textureand emit a clear ringingsound when struck.ITEM 410 410.cm(2000psi).3 Water The waterused in the preparationof mortarshall be free from objectionable quantitiesof silt.No water shall be usedwithoutthe approvalin writingof the Engineer.They shall be free from flaws and cracks.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 410.43 cmx7.2.1 BRICK MASONRY DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishingall materials.ofone (1) part of Portlandcement to three (3) parts of sand by volume and of sufficientwater to producethe properconsistencyfor the intendeduse. They shall be well-burntwithoutbeingvitrified.5 Bricks The size of the bricksshall be standardsize (9"x4 112"x3")22.saltsor other impurities. 410.2.4 Mortar The mortarfor all brickwork''shall consist.1 PortlandCement Portlandcement shall conform to the requirementsset forth under item 401.86 cm x 11. Compressivestrengthshall not be lessthan 1j0. 41o.2.2. and shall show no signs of efflorescenceon drying. 410.

except the full amount of water.exceptwhere otherwiseshownon the Drawings. All bricks to be used in brickworkwith mortarjoints shall be immersedin waterfrom three (3) to four (4) hoursbeforeuse. 410-2 .3.lf a mixeris used. All bricks shall be skillfullylaid with level courses.3.J Curing All brickworkshall be cured for at least seven (7) days after laying. r Mixingof Mortar Methodsand equipmentused for mixingmortarshall be such that each ingrediententeringinto the mortar shall be subjectto the approvalof the Engineer.shallbe not lessthan two minutes.J. Retemperingof mortar will not be allowed. J l0. 1r0.plumbverticalsand true surface. Mortar already spread. square corners.it shallbe of approveddesignand the mixing time after all the ingredientsare in the mixer.shall be struck pointed to give a good workmanlikeappearanceand to sealthe cavitiesin mortarjoints. All surfaces exposed to weather. diluted by rain shall be removedand replacedbeforerestoringthe work.Mixing troughs and pans shall be thoroughlycleanedand washed at the end of each day'swork.{10. Mortar shall be mixed only in sufficientquantitiesfor'immedrateuse.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENIS -l10. Unless otherwiseshown on the Drawingsor directedby the Engineer.the weep holes shall be placed at the lowest points where free outlets can be obtainedand shall be spacednot morethan two (2) meterscenterto center. uniformjoints.2 Brick Layins Brick work shall not be placedduringheavy or prolongedrain to wash the mortar from the bricks. All walls and abutments shall be provided with weep holes. All mortar not used withinthirty(30)minutesafter additionof the water to the mix shall be wasted.The curingmethodshallbe to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

-110.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

410.4.1

Measurement
Measurementof brickworkshall be made to the lines of the structuresas
shown on the Drawingsor as modifiedby the Engineerfor the appropriate
itemsin which such brickworkis incorporated.
The quantitiesto be measuredshall be the number of cubic met'ersof
brickworklaidand accePted.

410.4.2

Pavment
The quantitiesmeasuredas providedaboveshall be paid for at the contract
unit orice listedbelowand shown in the Bill of Quantities,which pricesand
payment shall be full compensationfor furnishingall materials,labour,
equipmentand incidentalsfor performingall the work involvedunder this
item:

Pay ltem
No.

410

Description.

Unit of
Measurement

Brickwork

CM

410-3

ITEN'I ,lI l
4l l.l

B4NDUM AND DRESSEDUNCOURSEDSTONEMASONRY
DESCRIPTION
The item shall consistof Randomand Dresseduncoursedstone Masonry
with or without mortar. Dimensionsof such masonry may vary as per
drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

4tL.2

MATERIAL REOUIRENTENTS

1rt.2.l

Stone
Randomor dressedstoneshallbe of approvedquality,soundand durable,
free from segregation's,seams, cracks and other structuraldefects or
imperfectiontendingto reduceits resistanceto weather.lt shallbe free from
roundedor weatheredsurfaces.

111.2.2

Mortar
Mortar for laying stone and pointing shall be composedof one part of
Pottland cement and .four parts of sand unless otherwiseshown on the
drawings.Portlandcement shall meet the requirementsof MSHTO M-gs
and sand shall meet the requirementsof AASHTO M-45. water used in
preparationof mortarshall conformto the requirementset forth under item
401.2.7.

-tI 1.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

-111.3.r

StoneSizeand Shape
lndividualstones shall have a thicknessof not less than twenty (20) cms
and a widthof at leastone and a half(1.1/2)timesthe thickness-and
length
of atleastone and a half (1 1/2)timestheirwidth
shape of stonesmay be irregularin randommasonry,howeverfor dressed
uncoursedmasonry,stones shall be cut in such a way that a well locked
masonrycan be laid.The size and shape of ring stonesfor archesshall be
as shownon the drawinqs.

. f1 1 . 3 . 2

Dressingof Stones
For 'A-class" Masonry,stones shall be dressedio exactsizesand shapes
and cut to lay on beds with top and bottomtruly parallel.Hallowbeds shall
not be permitted.Beds of face stoneshall be fine finishedfor a depthof not
less than thirty (30) centimetersVerticaljoints of face stone shall be fine
finished and full to the squarefor a depth of not less than twentyfive (25)
centimeters.
Exposed surfacesof face stoneshall be accordingto the plans,with edges
pitched to true lines and exact batter,chiseldraftJfour (4) centimeters
wide
shall be cut at all exteriorcorners.
41 1-1

Stonesfor B-ClassStoneMasonryshallbe roughlysquaredon joints,beds
and faces.Selectedstones,roughlysquaredpitchto lineshallbe usedat all
arrglesand endsof wall.
I r1.3.J

Stretchers
Stretcher
shallhavea widthof bed not lessthan one and a half(1.1/2)times
theirthickness,and lengthof bed not less than twice nor more than three
and half (3.112)times their thicknessbut in no case less than ninety
Stone masonrvin cementmortarshall be cured for at least
centimeters.
seven(7) days.

Jl1.3.1

Hcaders

I I r.J.5

Header,placedin each course.shallhave width not less than one and a
'1.2rneters
or
half (1 1/2)timestheirthickness.ln wallshavingthicknessof
less,the headersshallextendentirelythroughthe wall. In wallsof greater
thickness,
the lengthof headersshallbe not lessthantwo and a half(2112)
is fortyfive(45)centimeters
or lessin
timestheirthicknesswherrthe coLrrse
height,and not less than 1.2 metersin coursesof greaterheight.Header
shall bond with the core or backingnot less than thirty (30) centimeters.
Headershallhold in the heartof the wall spacednot furthera partthan2.5
meters center to center.There shall be atleast one header to everv two
streichers.
Coresand Backing
Coreand backingshallconsisteitherof roughlybeddedandjointedheaders
and stretchers,as specifiedabove or concreteas may be specified.When
of the stoneshall
stoneis usedfor coresof backing,at leastone-half(1.112)
as the face stoneand with parallelends.
be of the samesizeand character
No courseshallbe less than twenty(20) centimeters
thick.Concreteused
for coresand backing shall conform to the requirementsspecifiedin
Item 401. The headersand stretchersin walls,havinga thicknessof one
meteror less shallhave a widthor lengthequalto the full thicknessof the
wall.No backingwill be allowed.

ll1.3.6

[-avingStone

{r r.3.7

as specifiedin ltem 41?-.2.g.
lt shallconformio the requirement
Arches
R e f e tr o l t e mN o . 4 1 2 . 2 . 1 4

ll LJ

l\l EASURF-NtENl' Air-D PA\' \l EN'I'

-tr l.-1.I

Lfeasurcnrent
The quantityof stonemasonryto be paidfor shall be the numberof cubic
metersmeasuredin the completedwork and the limitingdirnensions
shall
not exceedthan those shown on the drawingsor fixed in writingby the
Engineer.

411-2

as per dimensions
ClassC or leanconcreteshallbe measuredseparately
shown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.No separate
measurementshall be made for stuck pointingwhich is deemed to be
included in stone masonry with rnortar, however roll pointing shall be
measuredseparately
in squaremeter.

lr l.{.2

Pav!nent
The quantitiesdetermlnedas providedabove shall be paid for at the
contractunit price respectivelyfor each of the particularpay items listed
below and shown in the B.O Q., which price and paymentshall be full
to complete
equipmentand incidentals
compensation
for labour,materrals,
the item as describedabove

Pay ltem
No.

Description.

U n i to f
Measurement

4 1 1a

StoneMasonryRandomDry

CM

4 1 1b

StoneMasonryRandomwith mortar.

CM

4 1 1c

StoneMasonryDressedUncoursedDry C M

4 1 1d

Stone'MasonryDressedUncoursed
with mortar.

CM

4 1 1e

ConcreteClass-C.

CM

4 1 1f

Leanconcrete

CM

4 1 1g

RollPointing

SM

411-3

ITEM J12

lt2.l

DRESSED COURSED STONE MASONRY

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of Dressed coursed stone masonry with mortar.
Dimensionsof such masonrymay vary as per drawingsor as directedby
theEngineer.

J12.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

"|2.2.1

StoneSize
Theyshallnot be
stonesshallbe largeand well proportioned.
The individual
(50)
in
thickness.The
cms
less than twenty (20) nor more than fifty
to top of
from
bottom
diminish
regularly
if
varied,
shall
thicknessof courses,
plans.
on
the
be
as
shown
arches
shall
stones
in
size
of
ring
wall.The

112.2.7.

Mortar
set forth under ltem 411.2.2.
Moriarshallconformto the requirement

112.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIRI MENT

{ 12.3.1

SurfaceFinishesof Stone
For the purpose of this specificationthe surface finishes of stone are
definedas follows:Havinga surfacein whichthe variationsfrom the pitchline
Smooth-finished:
d o n o te x c e e d0 . 1 5c m .
Havinga surfacein whichthe variationsfrom the pitchline
Rough-finished:
do not exceed1.25cm.
Scrabbled:Havinga surfacein which the variationsfrom the pitch line do
not exceedtwo (2) cm.
Rock-faced:Having an irregularprojectingface without indicationof tool
marks.The projectionsbeyondthe pitch line shall not exceed seven and
half(7.5)cmand no partof the face shallrecedebackof the pitchline.

112.3.2

DressingStone
Stones shall be dressedto exact sizes and shapes before being laid and
shall be cut to lie on their naturalbeds with top and bottomtruly parallel
The bottombed shallbe the full size of
Hollowbedswill not be permitted.
the stone and no stone shall have an overhangingtop. In rock-face
constructionthe face side of any stone shall not present an undercut
contouradjacentto its bottomaxis givinga top-heavy,unstableappearance
when laid.
412-1

Beds of face stone shall be fine-finishedfor a depth of not less than thirty
(30)cm.
Verticaljointsof face stoneshall be fine-finishedand full to the squarefor a
depthof not lessthanfifteen(15)cm.
Exposed surfaces of the face stone shall be given the surface finish
indicatedon the plans,with edges pitchedto true linesand exact batter,
Chiseldraftsfour (4) cm wide shall be cut at all exteriorcorners.Face stone
forming the starlingor nosing of piers shall be rough-finished
unless
otherwisespecified.
Fiolesfor stonehooksshallnot be permittedto show in exposedsurfaces.
I12.3.J

Stlctchers

Stretchersshallhave a widthof bed of not less than one and halt (1.112)
timestheirthickness.
They shallhavea lengthof bed not lessthantwicenor
more than three and hal'f(3.112)times theirthickness,and not less than
ninety(90)cm
J1 2 . 3 . {

Headcrs
Headersshallbe placedin each courseand shallhave a widthof not less
thanone and half(1 112)timestheirthickness.
In wallshavinga thicknessof
1 2 meters or less. the headersshall extend entirelythr-oughthe wall. In
wallsof greaterthickness.
the lerigthof headersshallbe not lessthan two
and half (2.112)
timestheirthicknesswhen the courseis fortyfive (45) cm.
or less in height,and not lessthan 1.2 metersin coursesof greaterheight.
Headersshallbond with the core or backingnot less than thirty(30) cm.
Headersshallhold in the heartof the wall the same size shown in the face
and shall be spacednot furtherapart than 2.5 meterscenterto center.
Thereshallbe at leastone headerto evervtwo stretchers.

I r2.3.s

C ores and Baelti

Cores and backingshall consist either of roughly bedded and jointed
headers and stretchers,as specified above. or concrete, as mav be
specified.
Whenstoneis usedfor coresof backing,at leastone-halfof the stoneshall
be of the samesizeand characteras the face stone,and with parallelends.
No courseshallbe lessthan twenty(20) cm. thick.
Concreteused for cores and backing shall conform to the requirements
specifiedin ltem40'1.
The headersand stretchers
in wallshavinga thicknessof one meteror less
shall have a width or length equal to the full thicknessof the lryall.No
backingwill be allowed.

412-2

lTEi\{ J12

1L2.1

DRESSEDCOURSEDSTONEMASONRY

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of Dressed coursed stone masonry with mortar.
of such masonrymay vary as per drawingsor as directedby
Dimensions
the Engineer.

1r2.2

MATERIAL REOUIRENTENTS

412.2.1

StoneSize
Theyshallnot be
stonesshallbe largeand well proporlioned.
The individual
(50)
(20)
fifty
cms
in
thickness.The
more
than
nor
less than twenty
to top of
from
bottom
shall
diminish
regularly
if
varied,
of
courses,
thickness
wall.The sizeof ringstonesin archesshallbe as shownon the plans.

t12.2.?.

Mortar
Mortarshallconfonnto the requirementset forth underltem 411.2.2.

1t2.3

CONSTRUCTION R.EQUIREMENT

J 1 2 . 3t .

SurfaceFinishesof Stone
For the purpose of this specification the surface finishes of stone are
defined as follows:-

Havinga surfacein whichthe variationsfrom the pitchline
Smooth-finished:
do not exceed0.'15cm.
Havinga surfacein whichthe variationsfrom the pitchline
Rough-finished:
do not exceed1.25cm.
Scrabbled:Havinga surfacein which the variationsfrom the pitch line do
not exceedtwo (2) cm.
Rock-faced:Havingan irregularprojectingface without indicationof tooi
marks.The projectionsbeyondthe pitch line shall not exceed seven and
half (7.5)cm and no partof the face shallrecedebackof the pitchline.
1L2,3,2

DressinsStone
Stonesshall be dressedto exact sizes and shapesbeforebeinglaid and
shall be cut to lie on their naturalbeds with top and bottomtruly parallel.
The bottombed shallbe the full size of
Hollowbedswill not be permitted.
the stone and no stone shall have an overhangingtop. In rock-face
constructionthe face side of any stone shall not present an undercut
contouradjacentto its bottomaxis givinga top-heavy,unstableappearance
when laid.
411-l

1r2.3.6

Miring l\'lortar
The mortarshall be hand or machinemixed,as may be requiredby the
mortar,the sand and cement
of hand-nrixed
Engineer.In the preparation
clean,
tight mortar box until the
in
a
sfrattOe thoroughlymixed together
shall be added in such
water
clean
which
after
colour,
mixtureis of uniform
quantityas to form a stiff plastic mass. Machine-mixedmortar shail be
preparedin an approvedmixerand shall be mixed not less than one and
minutes.Mortarshallbe usedwithinfortyfive (45)minutesafter
half ('1.1/2)
mixing.Retemperingof mortarwill not be permitted.

tr2.3.7

LavingStonc
(a)General
Stone masonryshall not be constructedin freezingweatheror when the
stone contains frost. except by written permissionof the Engineerand
subjectto such conditionsas he may require.Stone Masonryin Cement
mortarshallbe curedfor a minimumperiodof seven(7) days.
(b) FaceStonj
Stoneshallnot be droppedupon.or slid over the wall,nor will hammering,
rolling,or turningof stoneson the wall be allowed.They shallbe carefully
set wrthoutjarringthe stonealreadylaid and they shall be handledwith a
thatwillnot causedisfigurement
Lewisor otherappliance
Each stone shall be cleanedand thoroughlysaturatedwith water before
being set and the bed, which is to receiveit, shall be cleanedand well
moistened.All stonesshall be well bedded in freshlymade mortarand
settledin placewith a suitablewoodenmaul beforethe settingof the mortar.
Wheneverpossible,the face loints which can not be so pointedshall be
preparedfcr pointingby rakingthem out to a depthof five (5) cm. beforethe
mortarhas set. The face surfacesof stonesshall not be smearedwith the
mortarforcedout of the jointsor that used in pointing.No pinningup of
stoneswith spawlswill be permittedin beds.
Jointsand beds shallbe not lessthan one (1) cm. nor morethan one and
quader(1.114)
cm. in thicknessand the thicknessof the jointor bed shallbe
uniformthroughout.
The stonein any one courseshallbe placedso as to form bondsof not iess
than thirty (30) cm. with the stonesof adjoiningcourses.Headersshall be
placed over stretchersand, in general,the headers of each course shall
equallydividethe spacesbetweenthe headersof adjoiningcourses,but no
headersshall be pla(Obover a joint and no joint shall be made over a
header.

412-3

(c) StoneBackingand Cores
stone backingshallbe laid in the same manneras specifiedabovefor face
stone,with headersinterlocking
with face headerswhen the thicknessof the
wall will permit.Backingshall be laid to break joints with the face stone.
stone cores shall be laid in full mortar beds so as to bond not less than
thirty(30)cm. withface and backingstoneand with each other.Bedjoints in
cores and backingshall not exceed 4.5 cm and verticaljoints shall not
exceedten (10)cm. in thickness.
(d) ConcreteCoresandBacking
The operationsinvolvedin the handlingand placingof concreteused in
cores and backingshall conformto the requirementsspecifiedrn ltem 401.
However,the puddlingand compactingof concreteadlacentto the ashrar
masonryfacingshallbe done in a mannerthat will eniure the fillingof all
spacesaroundthe stonesand securefull contactand efficientbond with all
stonesurfaces.
412.3.8

LevelingCourses
stone coresand backingshall be carriedup to the approximatelevel of the
face coursebeforethe succeedingcourseis started.

412.3.9

The conskuctionjoints produced in concrete cores or backing by the
intermittentplacingof concreteshall be located,in general,not less
than
fifteen(15)centimetersbelowthe top bed of any
of masonrv.
"orri"
Resetting
ln case any stoneis movedor the joint broken,the stoneshall be taKenup,
the mortarthoroughlycleanedfrom bed and joints,and the stcne reset in
fresh mortar.

412.3.10

Dorvelsand-llramps
where required,copingstone,stonein the wingsof abutments,and stone in
piers shall be securedwith wrought-ironcrampsor dowelsas
indicatedon
the plans.
Dowel holesshall be drilledthrougheach stone beforethe stone rs placed
and, after it is in place,such dowel holes shall be extendedby dr-illing
into
the underlyingcoursenot lessthan fifteen(.15)cm.
cramps shall'be of the shapes and dimensionsshown on the plans or
approvedby the Engineer.They shall be insetin the stoneso as to be flush
with the surfaces.
cramps and dowelsshall be set in lead. care beingtaken to completelyfill
the surrounding
spaceswith the moltenmetal.

412-4

1r2-3.6

Mixing l\{ortar
The mortarshall be hand or machinemixed,as may be requiredby the
mortar,the sand and cement
of hand-nrixed
Engineer.In the preparation
tight mortar box until the
clean,
snitl Ue thoroughlymixed togetherin a
water
shall be added in such
which
clean
after
mixtureis of uniformcolour,
mortar shail be
quantityas to form a stiff plasticmass. Machine-mixed
preparedin an approvedmixerand shallbe mixednot less than one and
half(1.1/2)minutes.Mortarshallbe usedwithinfortyfive (45) minutesafter
of moftarwillnot be permitted
mixing.Retempering

1r2.3.7

LavingStone
(a)General
Stone masonryshall not be constructedin freezingweather or when the
stone contains frost. except by written permissionof the Engineer and
subjectto such conditionsas he may require.Stone Masonryin Cement
mortarshallbe curedfor a minimumperiodof seven(7) days,

(-!t)-Ease-Dlqle
Stoneshallnot be droppedupon.or slid overthe wall,nor will hammering,
rolling,or turningof stoneson the wall be allowed.They shail be carefully
set withoutjarringthe stonealreadylaid and they shall be handledwith a
thatwill not causedisfigurement
Lewisor otherappliance
Each stone shall be cleanedand thoroughlysaturatedwith water before
being set and the bed, which is to receiveit, shall be cleanedand well
moistened.All stones shall be well bedded in freshly made mortar and
settledin placewith a suitablewoodenmaul beforethe settingof the mortar.
Wheneverpossible,the face jointswhich can not be so pointedshall be
preparedfcr pointingby rakingthem out to a depthof five (5) cm. beforethe
mofiar has set. The face surfacesof stonesshall not be smearedwith the
mortarforcedout of the joints or that used in pointing.No pinningup of
stoneswith spawlswill be permittedin beds.
Jointsand beds shallbe not less than one (1) cm. nor more than one and
quarter(1.114)
cm. in thicknessand the thicknessof the jointor bed shallbe
uniformthroughout.
The stole in any one courseshallbe placedso as to form bondsof not iess
than thirty(30) cm. with the stonesof adjoiningcourses.Headersshall be
placed over stretchersand, in general,the headersof eaCh course shall
equallydividethe spacesbetweenthe headersof adjoiningcourses,but no
headersshall be pla6|ddover a joint and no joint shall be made over a
header.

412-3

4r2.3.11

Copings
sha|lbe carefu||y
Stonesfor copingsof wa|l,pier,and abutmentbridgeseats
than two stones
more
piers,
not
selectedand fuliy dimensionedstones.on
The copings of
coprng'
of
shall be used to make up the entire width
at leastten (10)
extend
to
width
abutmentbridgeseatsshali be of sufficient
cm.underthebacK-wal|.Eachstepformingthecopingofwingwa||shaiIbe
formedbyasing|eStone,whichsha|lover|apthestoneformingthestep
immediatelybelowit at leastthirty(30) cm'
T o p s o f c o p i n g s s h a | | b e g i v e n a b e v e | c u t a t | e a s t f i v ejoints
( 5 ) c m . w ibe
de,and
shall
The vertical
beds, bevelcuts,and tops"shallbe fine-finished.
joints not more than
smooth-finishedand the coping shall be laid with
shall
preferably'
copings'
projecting
of
The undersides
0.6 cm in thickness.
havea driPbead.
less.thana thitly
Joints in copingsshallbe locatedso as to providenot
that no loint will
so
OonOwitn the stonesof the under courseand
i3gl
plates'
masonry
"..r
directlyunderthe superstructure
come

4r2.3.r2

Arches
be as shownon the
The numberof coursesand the depthof voussoirsshall
p|ans.Voussoirssha||bep|acedintheorderindicated.shal|befu||size
the
dressedtrue to templaie,and shall have bond not less than
itrrougtrout,
mortar
and
thickriessof the stone. Beds and joints shall be fine-finished
jointsshallnotexceedtwo(2)cm.inthickness.Exposedsurfacesofthe
indicatedon the
intradosand arch ring shall be given the surfacefinish
plans.
stonesshapedio fit
Backingmay consistof concreteas specifiedor of large
thearch,bondedtothespandrels'and|aidinfu||bedsofmortar.The
be given a finishing
extradosand interiorfaces of the spandrelwalls shall
shall be trawled
which
mortar
sand
(1:3)
cement
coat of one ratio three
waterproofing'
smoothto receivethe
drainage,and fillingshall be as specifiedfor
Arch centering,waterproofing,
concretearches.

412.3.r3

Pointins
pointingshallnot be done in freezrngweathernor when the stone contains
frost
wet wth
Jointsnot pointedat the time the stone is laid shall be thoroughly
shall be
mortar
ct"an water and filledwith mortarafter properraking.The
The
pointing
tool'
well driveninto the joints and finishedwith an approved
wa|lsha|lbekept*"t*nit"pointingisbeingdoneandinhotordryweather
and kept wet for a
the pointedmasonryshall be pro[ectedfrom the sun
periodof at least3 days aftercompletion'
Afterthepointingiscomp|etedandthemortarset,thewa||sha||be
and left in a neatand workmanlikecondition'
thoroughly'cleaned

412-5

which price and paymentshail be furl compensationfor labour. Unit of Measurement StoneMasonryDressedCoursed with mortar. 112. SM 412-6 .o. equipment and incidentals to complete the item as described above. however rolr pointing shalr be measu-red separatelyin square nreters.tools.2 Pavrncnt The quantitiesdeterminedas providedabove shall be paid for at.J.112. CM 4 1 2b ConcreteClass-C.e. Dowels and cramps shall be consideredas subsidiaryitem.1. the contractunit price respectivelyfor each of the parlicularpay items listed below and shown in the B. CM 4 1 2c Lean Concrete CM 4 1 2d RollPointing.1 M [ASUIIEIVIENT AND PAYMENT ll2.t Mcasurcment The quantityof stone masonryto be paid shall be the number of cubic metersmeasuredin the completedwork and the limitingdimensions shall not exceedthan those shownon the drawingsor fixed oy tne Engrneer. tto separate measurementshall be made for stuck pointing.No separatemeasurementwill be madefor dowelsand cramps.. materials. 4 1 2a Description. concrete class-c or lean shail be measuredseparatelyas per dimensions shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engine"i.wrrich is deemed to be included in stone masonry with mortar. Pay ltem No.

Structuralmetalswill includerivet.This work will also includeany incidentalmetalconstruction not otherwiseprovided for.1.and iron castings. The workwillincludeall labour.constructedin conformitywith the lines. 4tJ-l . Suchtime shallbe proportional to the complexity of the work.The Contractorshall notifythe Engineerwhen materialshave been deliveredto the fabrication site and shall give the Engineerat least ten (10) days notice before commencingthe fabricationof any structuralsteel.2 Drarvings The Contractorshall submit to the EngineerworkingDrawingsfor steel structuresfor approvalpriorto use in construction. Such workingDrawings shall be submittedsufficientlyin advanceof the start of the relatedwork to allowtime for reviewby the Engineerand correctionby the Contractorof the Drawingswithoutdelayingthe work. steelforging. The workingDrawingsshall show detailsof any permittedoptionsproposed in the work.IThNI {13 STEELSTRUCTURES J1 J . specialand alloysteels.weldingseluencesand procedures.materials and equipmentrequiredto furnish. Substantiating camber calculationsshall be submittedwith the working Drawrngs. grades and dimensions shownon the drawingsor as established by the Engineer. {13. 113.the directionof rollingthe plateswhere specificorientationis required.l.erectand paint structuralmetalscalledfor in these Specifications or as shown on the plans.and castings.3 I nspcction Structuralsteelwill be inspectedat the fabricationsite.l General This work shallconsistof steelstructuresand the steelstructureportionsof compositestructures. I DESCRIPTION Jl3. but in no case shallsuch time be less than six (6) weeks.the sequenceof shopand fieldassemblyand erection.the locationof any temporarysupportsthat are to be used and the verticalalignmentof the girder at each stage of the erection. detailsfor connectionsnot dimensionedon the plans. all in accordancewith these specifications.metallicelectrodes. welding.1. fabricate. Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. the locationof all buttweldedspliceson a layoutDrawingof the entirestructure.

In handlingand shippingof the steel work.Copiesof mill orders shall be furnishedat the time. the test reportshallincludethe grainsize. All pieces bent or otherwiseinjuredwill be rejected."Unidentified Stock Material".the resultsof CharpyV-notch impact tests.{ Shipping. certifiedmill test reportsand a Cerlificateof Compliancefor all structural steelto be used in the work otherthan steel which is to be used underthe provisionsin ltem 413. {13.Certifiedmill test reportsfor steelswith specificimpactvaluesshall include.test results.Materialto be storedshall be placedabovethe groundupon platforms.scraping.5 Falsework Falseworkused for the erectionof structuralsteel shall conform to the provisionsin ltem 402. 4r3.6. 413-2 .'transporting. and other foreign materialand properly drainedand protectedfrom corrosion.2. Certifiedmilltest reportsand Certificatesof Complianceshall be furnishedpriorto startof fabricationof materialcoveredby thesereports. orders are placed with the manufacturer. The Certificates of Complianceshall be signed by the manufacturer and shall certify to the Engineerthe specificationsto which the materialhas and tested.1.Handlingand StoringMaterials Membersweighingmorethantwo and one half (2.1.and that the materialis in conformancewith been manufactured and test requirements.Long members.in additionto other.or othersupports.suchas columnsand chords. said specifications Materialto be used shallbe madeavailableto the Engineerso that the each piececan be examined.or overstressingthe pieces.The Engineershallhavefree accessat all timesto any portionof the fabricationsite where said materialis stored or where work on said materialis beingperformed. and unloadingof structuralmaterialshall be so conductedthat the metal will be keot clean.and shall be kept free from dirt.shallbe supportedon skids placednear enoughtogetherto preventdamagefrom deflection.Girdersand beams shall be placed uprightand shored.exceptthat dead loads shall consistof the weight of the structuralsteel and any other portionsof the structureswhichare supportedby the falsework. grease. When fine grainsteelis specified. every care shall be taken to avoid bending. The loading.skids.5)metrictons shallhave the weightmarkedthereon.The Contractorshall furnishto the Engineera copy of all mill orders. "Falseworkand Centeringfor Bridges".

the structureshall.Furnishingand erectingthe in thisltem.l DescriDtion of ASTM as listed The variousmaterialsshall conformto the specifications in the following tabulation with certain modificationsand additions as specified. no additional Contractor"and 113. or higherstrengthsteels requiredto accommodatethe methodof erection selected shall be consideredto be made for the convenienceof the paymentwill be madetherefor.as determinedby the structure. lf erectionproceduresare to be used which will result in steel girdersnot for dead loadassumedin design. the continuity attaining have a load carryingcapacityat least equal to the designed erection. 113.in sufficientdetail to substantiatethat girder capacityand geometrywill be correct.the Contractor shall furnish to the Engineer for review a statement of steel erection procedureswith calculations. after structureshown on the plans.Falseworkand forms supportingthe concretework on steel structuresshall so that any loadsappliedto girderwebs shall be applied be constructed in a (15) cms. of a flangeor stiffenerand shall be distributed withinfifteen Temporary struts produce the web. The Contractormay increase the crosssectionalarea or changethe steel gradesto providethe specifiedload Any additionalsteel carryingcapacitysubjectto approvalby the Engineer.6 Members Continuous Unless otherwisenoted on the plans. girdersshallbe subjectto the requirements lf erectionproceduresare to be usedwhich will providethe designedgirder in for dead load. of the capacity carrying Bridges '1967or as specifiedby the for Highway of Practice Code Pakistan Engineer.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS lr3. the adiacent form and of deck betweenthe edge Loads imposedon existing.memberswithfieldjointsshallbe pre-assembled continuity positions. 413-3 .1. distortion of local mannerthat will not to resistlateralloadsappliedto the and tiesshallbe providedas necessary prevent relative vertical movement appreciable girder flanges and to steelgirders.new or partiallycompletedstructuresby the methodsand equipmentshallnot exceedthe load construction Contractor's or portionsthereof.The Contractormay designedfor continuityin supporting for at his optionerectthe girdersin sucha mannerthat the girdercontinuity dead load is or is not as assumedin design.2. an upright or a no-loadconditionin a horizontal lf erectionproceduresare to be used whieh will result in steel girdersnot attainingthe continuityfor dead load assumedin design. structuralsteel girders have been girderdead load.

:n LUllquTJ:c {o.ud rsa(J l4ll)^v-slEtrelE I4l ssru)lcrqJ.eanolq16ue..Lwv u u!f r. aql ol ulloluoolleLlslaals q6rqse sueld eqguo pauOtsaploals lelnlcnlls lernpnrlsIolle nnolq16ue.rv '.aa1sIogly slallorpue surd'6ur0lo1 lo.lpue 'so6ueu sJeqa{a oql lo} pasn aq }ou lleqs o}eld loa}s polloC lo uotlectJqeJ v pue Lw v 'gt 'laals paddec pou. laals .zlgv '. .:Y.l]6uatls pgall{-q6rg 889 V gzt.19 V 09 aperc 'zlg IVF V 9ev uotleu8rsall 6115V ' v .r1s 'pailtIS .lrxlj lo uer.zLgv 889V :09eperc'.ro1.. Jo t'eLt uell lo sluaujoltnboleql Lllt^ setldruocuotleluoljooleld aql leql os lnc aq lleqsa]ts uotlecuqelaql ]e leAlJJe ol loud ]ncaJdlaols lejnlcnjlsllv '0 'sleqalo pue sobueuioJJousoleldla6upr.11p..1 ' '' suoiJeolldde JoJspoJ Jetauab pepeorq]pue 'spnls 's]loqlaals qlDuallsrl6rH Ourplean loJ alqeltnse1eldlaa1sIol1e peredual pue paqcuanb'r.r1s q6rp ''' ' laelsuintpeue^ aseueOueu q6rg mo1q16ue..soleld uotleluatjo.lllaqlo oq lleLlsz/g y\lIsv :suotleuolsac o] ourLtroluoclaals lprnlcnrtsllv v sruc0t ot g srlc g o] z srucz o] 0 889V gB9V :09aperc '.V 6rvv .Llos raqlre0Z0f q6norql g 1 9 gs a p e : 6' g 0 t V 'S ro pnls sJolcauuoc g apetc '6e aperC tV '9 0 tl o : g o p e r c v:8 (zitdde crlelsotp{g) elrdlae1g lou llt^ 6ur1sa1 '99 y :l ad{1 r09 ro g opere'009v 0tgzt aperc'/t '8t v 900ssetS v 9t-99aperc'/z v 9tv '899 c ssetc'899 v c ssetc v /0e v 0urqnllernlcnllslaals uoqJeC sbullsecuolt alqeelley! '' '''''''" ' 's6utlsec uo:r{et9 sOurlseclaals-uoqieC slnu utd 6urOtol.-t. -:DutMollo.ittnlJo -l.relElAI .r1s lelnlcnllsr{o11e laals lBrnl3ntls ler. leals uoqJe3 " slnu pue sllo8 nnolq16uatlsqOrg leaisleinpn:1sAolge " sJaqseM pue slnu 's)loqlaalslelnlcnJlsq16ua4sqOr.

injuriouslaps.000psi (4569. Sampling proceduresshall conform to the provisionsin ASTM Designation. the temperaturefor the CVN impactvaluefor acceptabilityshall be reducedto 15 deg.cm) above65. in accordance shallbe determined Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact values shall conform to the following minimumvalues:(Note:all metricvaluesin this test are roundedto closest decimal). The P (Piece)frequencyof te:.cm). Nlaterial .twists. seams.5Kg/Sq.lf the yieldpointof the mater:alexceeds65.All structuralsteel plate used for the fabricationof tensionflanges.Tensilestrengthof stud connectors shall be determinedby test of bar stock after drawingor of full diameter shall finishedstuds at the optionof the CcntractorStrenothrequirements conformto the followinq.eyebars and hangerplatesand for spliceplatesof tensionflangesand eyebarsshall meet the longitudinalCharpyV-notchimpact value requirementsspecified herein.Studs shallnot have cracksor burstsdeeperthan one half (112)the thicknessfrom the peripheryof the head to the shaft. Stud connector'sshall be producedby cold heading.A 673. C) for each incrementof 10.A 572 and structuralsteelsconformingto ASTM Designations: A 588.000psi (703 KgiSq.5Kg/Sq. (-9. The H (Heat) frequencyof testing shall be used for A 36.tingstrallbe used for structuralsteel A 514. A 441.45deg.000psi (+569.bends or other dbfects. 413-5 . withASTM Designation'.cm). F. fins. CharpyV-notch impactvalues conformingto ASTM Designation: E23.cracks.cold rolling or cold Finishedstud conneciorsshallbe of uniformoualityand free of machining.

r lJ. 0 0 0p s i ( 4 2 1 8K q / S q .5) percentoverweight and hammeredovertheirentirearea.No Largecastingsshallbe suspended cracks.widthand averagethicknessshallbe at leastequalto those for the shapeor sectionshownon the plans.The radius of curvatureof the exposedsurfaceof a fillet shall definethe size of the fillet. When stud type shearconnectorslcngerthan twenty(20) cms.For continuousgirders.which involvechangesin locationsof butt welds betweendifferent thicknessof flangeplates.the flanges shall be welded to the web with continuousfitletweldson each srdeof the web.25)cms. are to be used. All weldingshallconform in ltem413. Castingsshall not be more than seven and half (7.Min.shallbe approvedin writingby the Engineerprior to fabrrcation. The dimensionsof the finishedcastingshallnot be less than the specified. 4 tJ-O .increasesin lengthof girder flange plates.2. togetherwiihfull penetration on the plansconnected Rolledshapes may be substitutedfor the welded sections.3 Castings ironcastingsshallbe providedwithadequate Steel.and may be increasedin lengthprovidedthat the changecjoesnot involvea decreasein detailedthicknessof any portionof said plates. conform to shapesand barsshall girderflangeplatesshownon the plansmay At the optionof the Contractor. be increasedin thickness.grayiron. c m ) (."Welding".and welded sectionsmay be substituiedfor the rolled shapes shown on the plans. b) For welded sections.flawsor otherdefectsshallappearaftersuch hammering. providedthat the shapesand sectionsto be substitutedcomplywith the followingprovisions: a) The depth. Unlessotherwisespecifiedor shownon the plans.2.2.all structural ASTM Desiqnation: A 36.l StructuralSteel steelplates.8mm) Reductionof Area (Min. The sizeof filletsshallnot be lessthan one-half(112)of the thicknessof the thinnestadjoinedmembernor lessthanone and one quarter(1.7.) 50% Stud connectorsshall be lurnishedwith arc shields (ferrules)of heatresistantceramicor othersuitablematerialfor welding.)20% in 2 inches{50.and malleable continuousfillets cast in place in all re-entrantangles.6 ) 0 . to the provisions of the materialshall not be reduced c) The strengthclassifrcation -ll J.Elongation TensileStrength ( M i n .they may consistof two (2) or more shorterstudsof the type shown welds.

2.consistingof materialwhich cannotbe identified Unidentified with certifiedmill test reports.. specified the as to be such compressionloads pads with-stand shall finished The vulcanizing. movements. AASHTOM 108for rolledcopperalloybearings. PreformedFabricPads The preformedfabric pads shall be composed of multiple layers of two and hundredand seventy(270)gms/SM(8-ounce)cottonduck impregnated materials suitable of equivalent rubber.the materialsfor metalbearing requirements: shallconformto the following AASHTOM 107for bronzebearings.1 Pads B.2.00-1.5. and shall be composedessentiallyof compressedwhitechrysotileasbestosfibresboundtogetherwith a synthetic rubberbinderand fillers. ASTM B 438 for sinteredmetalpowerbearings steelbearings. bearingpadsshallconformto the requirements Elastomeric Pads". of not lessthan sevenhundred perpendicular to the planeof the laminations in thicknessor extrusion. Where asbestossheet packingis shown on the plansto be placedin joints in the concrete. or natural boundwith high-quality The numberof ply shall padsof uniformthickness.cmshall be not more than fifteen (15) percent.25cm. reduction (7OO) Kg/sq.cm. The deformationof the sheetpackingundera load of three hundredand fifty (350) Kg/sq.5 Joints) SheetPacking(Concrete Asbestos fifteen(15) mm thickunless Asbestossheetpackingshallbe approximately otherwiseshown on the plans. 413-7 .the sheet packingshall show a static coefficientof frictionless than 0.earing :r.may be used subjectto the requirementsin this item.4 after 1.113.Mctal BearingDevices Unlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineer. Elastomeric in ltem 406.2. intoresilient compressed after compressionand produce thickness.6 UnidentifieclStockMaterial stock material. {r3.the bottomlayer of the packingshall be firmly attachedto the concreteusingwater-proofcement.cmwithoutdetrimental BearingPads c. AASHTOM 160for galvanized b. "Elastomeric Bearing -113.2.when tested between planed steel plates under a load of fifty five (55) Kg/sq.

the materialsfor metalbearing shallconformto the followingrequirements: AASHTOM 107for bronzebearings.2. natural boundwith high-quality The numberof ply shall intoresilientpadsof uniformthickness. bearingpadsshallconformto the requirements Elastomeric "Elastomeric Pads". m o v e m e n t s .PreformedFabricPads The preformedfabric pads shall be composedof multiple layers of two and cottonduck impregnated hundredand seventy(270)gms/SM(B-ounce) matertals suitable equivalent or of rubber.1 .consistingof materialwhich cannotbe identified Unidentified with certifiedmill test reports. AASHTOM 160for galvanized tr.earing Pads a.The finished pads shall with-stand compressionloads of not lessthan sevenhundred perpendicular to the planeof the laminations in thicknessor extrusion. 113.2.2. Where asbestossheet packingis shownon the plansto be placedin joints in the concrete.When tested betweenplaned steel plates under a load of fifty five (55) Kg/sq.5 Joints) SheetPacking(Concrete Asbestos fifteen(15) mm thick unless Asbestossheetpackingshall be approximately otherwiseshown on the plans.may be used subjectto the requirementsin thisitem.cm. Bearing -113. compressed produce after compressionand thickness.the bottomlayer of the packingshall be firmly attachedto the concreteusingwater-proofcement.113. Metal Bearing Devices Unlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineer.the sheet packingshall show a static coefficientof frictionless than 0. AASHTOM 108for rolledcopperalloybearings ASTM B 438 for sinteredmetalpowerbearings steelbearings. of the sheetpackingundera loadof three hundredand fifty The deformation (350) Kg/sq.cmshall be not more than fifteen(15) percent.{ l].cmwithoutdetrimental BearingPads c. and shall be composedessentiallyof compressedwhitechrysotileasbestosfibresboundtogetherwith a synthetic rubberbinderandfillers. 2c5m . 413-7 . Elastomeric in ltem 406.6 ed StockMaterial Unidentifi stockmaterial.4 after 1 .5.2. reduction (700)Kgisq. specified the as to be such vulcanizing. 0 0 .

Galvanizingof tapped holes will not be required.shallnot be chemically treated aftergalvanizing and priorto cleaningand painting 413-8 . Componentsof boltedassemblresshall be galvanizedseparatelybefore assembly. at his discretion. welding. Not more than fourteen(14\ metrictons of unidentified stock materialmav be used on one contract Unidentified stockmaterialshallbe segregated from all othermaterials to be usedin the work.Correction of weld faultsshall be carriedout in the presenceof the Engineer.7 Weldins Weldingmaterials.The number of such test specimensshall be entirelyat the discretionof the Engineer.welderqualification.2. Fabricationshall not be commenceduntilthe materialsinvolvedhave been approvedby the Engineer.8 (ialvanizing When galvanizing is showrfon the Drawings.bars and strips three (3) mm thick or thicker.pressedand forged steel shapes. All weldedareasshallbe thoroughly cleanedpriorto galvanizing to remove all slag and other materialthat would interferewith the adherenceof the zinc When it is necessaryto straighten any sectionsaftergalvanizing. Test specimensfrom unidentified stock material.including thoserequiredfor retest.shallbe furnished.mono metaland similar corrosionresistantoarts.such galvanizing of products fabricatedfrom rolled.selectrandomtest specimensfrom each piece. machinedand got testedby the Contractorfrom approvedlaboratoryat his expense.exceptthat completeseal weldingof tightly contactingsurfacesof such productspriorto galvanizingis requiredonly where seal welding is shown on the plans Except for pre-galvanized standardpipe. and inspectionof welding shall conform to the requirementsof the American Welding Society Structural WeldingCodeor otheracceptedcodesas shownon the plansor as approvedby the Engineer.whichare specifiedto be painted.2. plates. 113. J13. Galvanizing will not be requiredfor stainlesssteel. Test specimensshall be cut and machined in accordancewith ASTM requirements. such workshallbe performetl withoutdamageto the zinccoating.When unidentifiedstock materialis proposedfor use the Engineermay.shall conformto the specifications of AASHTOM 111 (ASTMA 123).Galvanized surfaces.galvanizing of materialthree(3) mm thickor thrckershallbe performedafterfabricationintothe largestpracticalsections.

c) SecondFieldCoat(FinishCoat) The paint to be used for the second field coat shall be field mixed and conform.9 Cleaning All steel works shall be blast cleanedafter fabricationin accordancewith the Drawingsand to the satisfactionof the Engineer. The ninetyseven(97) % gradeshallbe specifiedfor dry pigment. per litreof linseedoil. Red lead pigmentin the dry form or as a pastein oil shall conformto ASTM D 83. 413-9 .or when in the opinionof the Engineer. Red Lead Ready-mixedPaint(Tintedwith Lamp blackas directedby the Engineer).dirt and grease.10 Painting a) ShopCoat (PrirUglQqaD The shop or prime paint coat for metal structuresincludingedges. The colour shall be as specifiedor determinedby the Engineer. M67 M68 M69 M70 M71 M72 d) Numberof Coatsand Colour steel shall be paintedwith one shop or prime coat and with not less than two field coats. bolts.steel work which is to be in contactwith concreteshall be. 413.2.2.to one of the following MSHTO Specifications: FoliageGreenBridgesPaint. wire brushedand cleaned to removeall looserust.conditions are otherwiseunsatisfactory for the work. AASHTO M-72.413. tintedlightbrownas requiredwith lamp blackin an amountnot to exceed30 gms. Red Lead (Dryand Paste-inOil). b) First Field Coat (2nd nrime Coat) The first field coat shall be a red lead paint as specifiedfor the shop coat. nuts. AluminumPaint(Paste-Mixing Vehicte) Whiteand TintedReady-MixedPaint(Lead and Zinc Base). afterfabrication. BlackBridgePaint. e)WeatherConditions Paintshall not be appliedwhen the steelis damp. shall be a factory mixed red lead Ready-Mixedpaint.the air is misty.unlessspecifiedotherwiseon the Drawings.coats shall be differentin colourto permitdetectionof incomplete application.etc.

the air is misty. Red Lead Ready-mixed Paint(Tintedwith Lamp blackas directedby the Engineer). The colour shall be as specifiedor determinedby the Engineer.to one of the following AASHTOSpecifications: FoliageGreenBridgesPaint. BlackBridgePaint. etc.113.wire brushedand cleaned to removeall looserust. .Steelwork which is to be in contactwith concreteshallbe.10 Paintins a) ShopCoat(PrirUqCoat) The shop or prime paint coat for metal structuresincludingedges. tintedlightbrownas requiredwith lamp blackin an amountnot to exceed30 gms. 413-9 . nuts.dirt and grease. M67 M68 M69 M70 M71 M72 d) Numberof CoatsandColour steel shall be paintedwith one shop or prime coat and with not less than two field coats. bolts. AluminumPaint(Paste-Mixing Vehicle) White and TintedReady-Mixed Paint(Lead and Zinc Base). shall be a factorymixed red lead Ready-Mixedpaint.2.unlessspecifiedotherwiseon the Drawings.or when in the opinionof the Engineer. b) First Field Coat (2ndrrrimeCoat) The first field coat shall be a red lead paint as specifiedfor the shop coat.9 Cleanins All steelworksshallbe blastcleanedafterfabricationin accordancewith the Drawingsand to the satisfaction of the Engineer.conditionsare otheniruise unsatisfactory for the work. afterfabrication. per litreof linseedoil.2. Red lead pigmentin the dry form or as a paste in oil shall conformto ASTM D 83. AASHTo M-72. c) SecondFieldCoat(FinishCoat) The paint to be used for the second field coat shall be field mixed and conform. Red Lead (Dryand Paste-inOil). The ninetyseven(97)% gradeshall be specifiedfor dry pigment. e) WeatherConditions Paint shall not be appliedwhen the steel is damp.413.coats shallbe differentin colourto permitdetectionof incomplete application.

3. and splice plates for flangesand eyebarsshall be cut and fabricatedso that the primarydirection of rJting is parallelto the directionof the maintensileor compressivestress in the member. g) Inaccessible Surfaces All surfaceswhich wilt'be inaccessible'dfterfabricationor erection.2 StraishteningMaterial Rolled material before being laid out or worked shall be straight' Subassembliesand completed members shall be straight before being it shall be done by is necessary. 413-10 . eyebars.Aluminumpaint shall prefera-ntyne applied by spraying.3.3 CONSTRUCTIONAND FABRICATION REOUIREMENTS 413.{13.3.1 General The Contractorshall submit as soon as possibleto the Engineerfor his prior approval. Workmanshipand finish shall be equal to the best general practicein modernbridgeshoPs' 41J. By either method the coating appliedshall be smoothiyand uniformlyspread so that no excess paint will collectat any Point. 413. hangar plates.3 Oiientationof Plates steel plates for flanges. h) Insnectionof Cleaninsand Paintins The cleaning and painting of all structural Steel parts shall be subject to detailed inslection and ipproval of the Engineer. into the work.f) Application Paintingshall be done in a neat manner and may be appliedwith hand brushei or by spraying(withoutthe additionof a thinner).full details of their proposedfabricationand erection procedures together with details and calculationsof any temporary wo-rls which the contractor proposesto install for the purposesof erectionof the structural steel work. . which for accessible surfaceswould be appliedsubsequentto erection. to the acceptable methods prior to their use' sirallbe submittedin writingto the Engineer straightening cause for be will After-straighlening. Contractor shall be responsiblefor all defects or faults and the correctionthereof at his own exjense during fabrication..erection or subsequentlydiscovered before or duringthe Periodof Maintenance.with the exception of contact surfaces shall prior to assembly receive the full protectivetreatmentspecifiedfor the componentof the structure including any additional priming coat and finishing coats. lf straightening incorporated proposed for for methods Details Engineer.evidenceof fracture or other damage rejectionof the material.

6) mm.5)mm throughoutthat portionof the plateat whichthe bendingis to occur.the platesshall be bent hot.3.3. measuredfrom the concave face of the metal shall be as specifiedin the Manual of Steel Constructionpublishedby the AISCor equivalent. Steel slabs where not in contactwith other metal bearingsurfaces may be hot-straightenedin lieu of machiningat the option of the Contractor.the cornersof the plateshall be roundedto a radiusone and five tenths(1. lf a shorterradius is essential. 113.3.4 Cuttine with Torch for preparationof materialto Torchcuttingshallconformto the requirements Code or equivalent.8 End Connection Anqles Floor beams. Localclearancesbetweenthe end of the stiffenerand the girderflangeshall not exceed one and six tenths (1. c) Beforebending.3. local clearancesbetweenthe end of the stiffenerand the girderflange which are too greatto be sealedby the paintfilm shall be caulkedpriorto painting. stringersand girdershaving end connectionangles shall be builtto exact lengthback to back of connectionangles. the finishedthicknessof the angle shall not be less than that shownon the detailedDrawinqs.lf end connections are faced.413. 413-11 .6 Fit of Stiffeners Girder stiffenersdesignatedon the Drawingsas bearing stiffenersshall be welded in accordancewith detailsshown on the Drawings.5 Facingand BearingSurfaces Surface of bearing and base plates and other metal bearing surfacesthat are to come into contactwith each other or with ground concretesurfacesor with asbestossheetpackingshallbe flat to withinthreetenths(0. providedthe abovetolerancesare met.the end of the plate shall be so fitted that it bears on the girder flange with at least point bearing. 413. and to withinone and six tenths (1. 413. the AmericanWeldingSociety'sStructuralWelding 413. Except where stiffenersare cut back. b) The radius of bend.3.Surfaceof bearing and base plates and other metal bearing surfaces that are to come in contact with preformedfabric pads. elastomericbearing pads or Portland cementmortarshallbe flat to withinthree (3) mm tolerancein thirty(30) cm and to withinfive (5) mm toleranceoverall.7 BentPlates rolledsteelplatesshallconformto the following: Cold-bentload-carrying a) They shall be so taken from the stock platesthat the directionof bending will be at rightanglesto the directionof rolling.Where the end of a stiffeneris shown as "Tight-fit"on the plans.3)cm.6) mm toleranceoverall.

flame cutting.wherever practicable.1. 413.drilledfull size. or by tighteningand using direct tension indicators.81 cm (1.9 FinishedMembers Finishedmembersshall be true to lineand free from twists. exceptthat for pin ends of diametersgreaterthan 3.t Bolt Hotes Boltholesshallbe eitherpunchedfull size.3."Assembly".and detailsshown on the Drawingsfor connectionswhere drillingor reamingis requiredafterthe joint is assembled. 413.bendsano oDen joints.10 ScrewThreads Screw threads shall make close fits in the nuts and shall be American StandardForm.3. checkingof bolt tensionshall be done by the contractorin the presenceof the Engineerand in such a mannerthat the Engineercan read the torque wrenchgaugeor directtensionindicatorduringchecking. Shearing. Nuts or bolts that will be partiallyembeddedin concreteshall be locatedon the side of the member that will be encasedin concrete.on the side of the member.54 cms (1 inch). which will not be visiblefrom the traveledway. and a diagramshowingsuch marksshallbe furnishedto the Engineer.112inches)they shallbe made with six (6) threadsto 2.Markins Connectingparts pre-assembled for the purposeof settingup for weldingor for drillingor reaming holes for field connectionsshall be match-marked.{r3. and edges that are marred. 413-12 .sub-punchedand reamed.12 Finish Portionsof the work exposed to view shall be finished neafly.13 BoltedConnections Boltedconnectionsunlessotherwiseshownon the Drawingsshall be made with high-strengthsteel bolts conformingto ASTM DesignationA 325. whicheveris the elementturnedin tightening.3.17.or sub-drilledand reamed.3. 413. All boltsshall be installedwith a hardenedwasher under the nut or bolt head. Boltsmay be tightenedto the requiredtensionby use of a calibratedmanual torque wrench.3.and chippingshall be done carefullyand accurately.The torque value or the direct tension indicatorgap needed to develop the bolt tension will be determinedby the Engineer. Nuts shall be located. the turn-of-nutmethod. Attentionis divertedto the provisionsin ltem 419.All sharp corners and edges.1I Match . 413. 413.3.3. cut or roughened in handlingor erectionshall be slightlyroundedby grindingor other suitable means.

65)cm lessin diameterthan that of the finishedhole. withouttorn or ragged edges.or sub-drilledhole may be passedthroughthe holewithoutdriftingin at leastseventyfive (75) percentof the holesfor each connection. Drillingthroughtemplatesshall be performedonly after the templateshave been accuratelyplacedand firmlyclampedor bolted.The finished holes shall be cylindrical. Holessub-punchedfor reamingshall be sub-puncheddecimalsix five (0.65) cm less in diameterthanthat of the finishedhole.the parts shall be held securely togetherwhiledrillingis beingdone. they shall be sub-drilled decimalsix five (0. lf members are drilledwhile assembled.or sub-drilledshall be locatedwith sufficientaccuracyso that after assembling(beforeany reamingis done) a cylindricalpin three (3.sub-punched.The Engineermay requirea proof assemblyto checkthe fit of majorfieldconnections. will not be permitted. All burns.0) cm.Punching or sub punching of high-strength structuralsteel where the materialis thickerthan two (2.All holes shall pass a pin four and a half (4.25) cm.drillingand reamingshallconformto the following: a) Punching Punching or sub-punchingof structural steel conforming to ASTM DesignationA 26 wherethe materialis thickerthan two and a quarter(2.Holesshall be clean cut. Mis-punchedor mis-drilledholes shall not be correctedby weldingunless approvedby the Engineer. fins.5) mm smallerin diameterthanthe nominalsizeof the hole.sub-punched. Punching. sharp edges and hole irregularitieswhich would preventsolid seatingof the partsshall be removed. 413-13 . Where bolt holes are sub-drilledfor reaming.0) mm smallerin diameterthan the nominalsize of the punched. will not be permitted. b) Drilline Drillingfull size shall be done with the parts assembledon to'a steel template with hardened bushings or may be performedwith gang drill equipmentif approvedby the Engineer. Stock drillingof plate partswith precisiongang drills will be permittedif atl parts are firmly clamed during drilling and if the drill bits remain perpendicular to the work duringdrillingoperations.5)mm largerthanthe nominaldiameterof the bolt. All holes punchedfull size.perpendicularto the plane of the connection and shallnot be morethan one and half (1.

Holes for pins shall be bored true to the specified diameter.or decimal eight(0. Reaming templates shall have hardened steel bushings and holes accuratelydimensioned. Templates used for reaming shall be properly located on the materialand shall be firmly clamped or bolted in position. for largerpins.5) mm for pins thirteen(13) cm.or the oppositefaces of one member.8)mm. shallbe exactduplicates.The final surface shall be produced by a finishingcut.and beforebeingannealed. in diameter shall be bored full length along the axis after the forging has been allowed to cool to a temperature below the critical range under suitable conditions to prevent injuryby too rapidcooling.The pieces shallbe takenapart beforebolting.15 Pin Connections Pins shall be accuratelyturned to the dimensionsshown on the plans and shall be straight. The distanceoutside-to-outsideof holes in tension members and inside-toinsideof holes in compressionmembersshall not vary from that shown on the plansby morethan decimaleight(0.3. The diameterof the holesfor pins shall not exceedthat of the pins by more than half (0. smooth. in diameter.75) cms.Templates used for the reamingof matchingmembers. Machinedsurfacesfor pins and holes shall be coated with a rust inhibitor that can be easilyremoved.lf it is necessaryto take the membersapartfor shippingor handling. Pins and rollers shall be forged and heat-treatedin accordance with the designationshownon the plans.Templates shall have reference lines. 413. The final surface shall be producedby a finishedcut. at right angels to the axis of the member an{ parallel with each other unless otherwise required. and free from flaws.8)mm. 413-14 .c) Reamins Reaming shall be done after the pieces forming a built-up member are assembledand are firmly bolted together so that the surfaces are in close contactor after templatesare securetylocatedover the member. or less in diameter. a hole not less than four decimal seven^five (4. which will permit accuratelocation of the templateon the member or members to be reamed.the pieces reamedtogethershall be so markedin order that they may be reassembled in the same position.and shavingsremoved. smooth and straight.Reamedpartsshallnot be interchanged. Holesthrough assembledmaterialthatare to be reamed shall not consistof bothsub-punchedor sub-drilledholesand holespunchedor drilledfull size. lf pins are larger than twenty three (23) cms.if necessary.

Holes cast in the masonryfor swedgedbolts shall be formed with removable round sleeves sealed at their lower ends.providedproceduresapproved in advance Oy itre Engineerare followedwhich resultin such holes being positionedto the same degree of accuracyas would be obtainedif the holes were bored after assemblY. Slotted holesin expansiondevicesshall remainunfilledto allowfree movement.the holes aroundthem shall be completelyfilled.The nuts and washersused on anchor bolts shall also be galvanizedand shall not be painted. bolts bolts shall be carefullyset to proper elevation. Bolts shall be accuratelypositionedby means of templates set to correct locationand alignmentso as to ensure proper span lengths. After the masonry plates or shoes are set.and tops of noted. When anchorbolt holes are drilled. Mortarusedfor groutinganchorboltsshall be composedin accordancewith one of the following: 413-15 .The size and lengthof boltsshallbe as indicatedon the Plans.Unlessothenruise shall be installedplumb or normal to the finished bearingsurface of the masonry. Anchor bolts for steel stringers for all bridges (weathering steel and/or paintedsteel)shall be A-36 galvanizedsteel and shall not be painted.effectivemethodsshall be used to preventthe freezingof water in anchor bolt holes' After anchorbotlsare finallyand correctlypositioned. ln field assembling.and the drilledor cast holesshall have a diameter at least one 1 inch (25 mm) in excess of the diameterof the bolt. Bolts set in holesdrilledor cast in the masonryshall have the portionbelow the bridgeseat swedged. During cold weather. 413. or may be bored prior to assembly.a templateshall be used to locatethe bolts accuratelyand permit reinforcingsteel bars to be shiftedclear of holes before pouring concreteto prevent cutting these bars during drilling. Pins shall be so driventhat the memberswill take full bearingon them. hangarplatesshall be boredin pairsor in stacksfirmlybolted Pin-connected or clampedtogetherso that each pair of hangarplatesis matched.3.Pilotand driving nuts shall be used in driving pins.16 Anchor Bolts No anchorboltsshallbe cast in the concrete. Anchor boltsshaltbe set in round holes drilledor cast in the masonry.Holes for pins in built-upmembers shall be bored after assemblyof the member.the pin nuts on pin connectionsshall be tightenedand the threadsburredat the face of the nuts with a pointedtool. the space between the bolts and the round holes through fixed plates or shoes shall also be filled with the same material.No groutingof anchor boltswill be permitteduntil all structuralsteel is set in its final position. The drillingshallbe done priorto the erectionof structuralsteel. and they shall be completely removedafter the hole is cast.

the holes shall first be checked for depth by inserting and withdrawingthe bolts.a) one part Portland cement and one part mortar sand by dry loose volume. 1 7 Assemblv and ErectionProcedures a) GenerAl The contractorshallsubmitas soon as possibleto the Engineerfor his prior approvalfull details of their proposed erection proceduretogether with details and calculationsof any temporary works which the contractor proposesto installfor the purposesof the erectionof the structuralsteel work.The non-shrinkgroutshall have a minimumexpansionof 0. masonry plate or shoe as the case may be. Boltsshallbe set to projectapproximately half (0. the bolt thread shall also be burred immediately underthe nut to preventit becomingtightagainstthe moveableparts.5) inch (13 mm) clear of moveableparts. b) Non-shrinkgrout shall be used when specified. 413-16 .The grout shall have a minimum compressivestrengthof 350 Kg/sq.the bolts and suiroundingmasonryshall be kept at a minimumternperatureof four (4) degree C for a periodof three days.5)inch (13 mm) betowthe nut in its finalposition. when air temperatureis below four (4) degree c.All anchor bolt threadsshall be burredwith a sharp pointedtool at the top of the nut.cm (5000 psi) in seven days when tested in accordancewith AASHTO r 106 except that the cube mouldsshall remainintactwith a top firmlyattachedthroughoutthe curing period. when nuts are set hatf (0. 1 1 3 .o percentafter seven days when tested in accordancewith AASHTO T 160. lf anchor bolts are mortaredin place during cold weather. They shall then be partiallyfilled with mortar into which the bolts shall be forced by uniform pressure or light blows from a hammer(floggingand runningwill not be permitted)so that excessmortaris pushedout at the top of the hole. . Rockersor expansionplateswith slottedholes shall be set with the proper tilt or offsetas determinedby the temperatureprevailingat the time and'so that they will be in their midway positionat twenty (20) degree c or as indicated on the Drawings. Nuts shall be drawn up tight except over the slotted holes of expansion devicesin whichcasetheyshallbe positioned half (0. when mortarfillingis used for bolts insertedin holes drilledor cast in the masonry. The excessmortarshall be removedand finished off flush with the top surfaces of the masonry. 3 .5)inch (13 mm) clear of the moveableparts. the contractor shall provide adequate cold weather protectionto maintain a minimum air temperatureof four (4) degree c around surface of mortar for a period of threedays.5)inch (13 mm) abovethe nut and shallbe threadedto approximatety hatf(0.

equipment.Membersshall not be permanentlyconnecteduntil the structure has been sufficientlyaligned. f) TemDorarvConnections Connectionsfor temporarybracingand additionalholes.plant.includingthose due to the erection equipmentand its operation.b) Stoiaseat SiteandHandling The structuralsteelworkafter arrivalon Site shall be laid out in the area allocated by the Contractor. materials.No steelworkshallbe storeddirectlyon the ground.All temporarybracingshall be left in position until such time as erectionis sufficientlyfar advancedfor it to be no longer required. Each part of the structureshall be alignedas soon as possibleafter it is erected.which -doesnot weakenthe permanentstructureor impairits serviceability. or other appliance. 413-17 .Etc The Contractorshall provideand shall be deemedto have includedin his ratesand pricesfor providinga suitablerangeof steelerectionpacks. e) SecuritvDurine Erection fastenedand Duringerectionthe work shall be securelyboltedor othenryise where necessarytemporarilybraced. g) ErectionPacks.and carefullystacked on timbers and subsequentlyhandledfor erection in such a manner that no distortionor damage is done to the variousmembers.lt shall be unloaded by crane.so as to make adequateprovisionfor all erectionstressesand conditions. g_lErectionGenerallv The works on site shall comply with the requirementsstated in these specificationsand the Contractorshall be responsiblefor providingall and all supervision skilledand unskilledlabour.membersor cleats used to facilitatehandlingor erectionshall be providedin a manner. The Contractorshall ensurethat suitableplant and equipmentof adequate capacityis usedon the Site. d) Supervision The erection of the steelwork shall be under the direct charge of a competentSupervisorwho has had sound experiencein the erectionof structuralsteelworkand who shall work full time on the Site from start to completionof the work.leveled. other things necessaryfor the erection of the steelworkon the Site as specifiedin the ContractDocumentsand shownon the Drawings.shims and wedgesto be used as necessaryto ensurethe accurateadjustmentof line and levelof the steelworkerectedon Site and for the temporaryworks referredto in the previoussub-item.plumbedand temporarilyconnected to ensurethat they will not be displacedduringthe erectionor alignmentof the remainderof the structure.

. Burningholes in the steelwork willnotbe permitted. i) SiteConnections The contractor shall make all site connectionsin accordancewith the details shown on the contractor's detailedfabricationdrawings. k) ContactSurfaces All steel to steel contact surfaces shall be thoroughlycleaned and painted with two coats of primer as described in clause No 413. i) Work on Site Allwork on Siteshallcomplywith the following: 1) The steelwork after erection and fixing complete shall comply with the followingmaximumpermissibledimensional tolerances: i) Departurefrom overall plan dimensionsat any level . ii) Departurefrom theoreticalcentres of adjacent beams or girders in any flooror roof .five (5) mm. five (5) mm. Driftingshallnot be usedto correcta bad alignment..10 in this specification. plumbingand alignmentof all steelworkand the accurateplacingof every part of the steelwork in accordance with the Drawings and his own fabricationdrawings.five (5) mm. 413-18 .levels. The surfaces shall be brought together while the second coatingis stilltacky... v) Departurefrom the specifiedlevel of ilre top of any beam .which shall complywith the requirementsof these Specifications. No steelworkshall be finallyconcreteduntilthe positioning.2.... iii) Departurefrom the true alignmentof any plate girder relativeto the associated setting out geometry shown on the Drawing . iv) Departure from the true vertical centre line or any girder throughoutits lengthof height.....ten (10) mm. Any additionalholes requiredin the steelwork(which must first be approved by the Engineer)shall be drilledon the site. five (5) mm...leveling.h) SettineOut The contractor shall be responsiblefor the final positioning.plumbing and alignment of the steelwork (or part of the steelwork if agreed by the Engineer)has beenfinallycheckedby the Contractor..

The Contractor until inspect"ionas aforesaidduring the progressof the site works and of the contract' the comPletion 413-19 .wire-brushed primer.l) SiteWeldine Sitewe|dingwi|lon|ybepermittedwhereshownontheDrawingsandwith priorconsentof the Engineer. at. twenty-four The second priming coat shall be allowedto dry for at least hoursbeforeapplicationof the finishingcoat' o) Insnection Engineer' 1) The structuralsteelworkshall be subjectto inspectionby the Contractor's the at out carried possible be as far as witt That inspection of workshops.The duringthe shall afford all facilitiesand assistancefor inspection Contr""to1. grease and |oosesoundPaint. or partsrejectedshallbe remediedor replacedby Materialsor worKmanship the time for the contractor without extra charge and without affecting comoletionof the contract. dirt.least twenty The contractorshall wheneverpossible. back to and c|eanedto remove a|l rust. The contractorand his suppliersshall inspection places for at all requisitefacilitiesat all reasonabletimes and and testingto be carriedout by the Engineer' by 2)' All parts of the works done on the site will be subject to inspection for assistance and facilities all afford shall the'Engineer. painting.give the Engineer be ready for will steelwork parts of the or four hours noticeof when materials inspection.but the Engineermay at his discretiondefer inspection been parts have any parts of the structJral steelwork until after those afford the deliveredto the site. the contractor lnspectionas aforesaidby the Engineershall not absolve be discovered may that fault or error from being responstblefbr any Works' the of accuracy and for the final subsequenlly n) Paintingafter Erection manufacturer's 1) All paints shall be applied in accordancewith the 413'2'10' clause under specified as and instructions 2) Damagedareas of paint-worksha|lbe thorough|yscraped. progressof the works. mi Inspectionof SiteWorks AlIparlsofthesteel-workwiIIbesubjecttoinspectionbytheEngineer. All surfacesshallbe thoroughlycleanedpriorto further cleaning and Damagedareas shall then be treated as describedin the paintingsection..

draw-upcteats ani the like. assemblingand pre-heating. washersand protectivecoatings. splice plates and all incidentals. d) Welding. 113.ll3. fillets.nuts and washersrequiredto fabricatethe steerwork and to completethe erectionand installationof steelworkon site.marking off.shear connectors.No deduciionsshall be made for notches. I Measurement The quantityto be paid for shalr be the carculatedtheoreticalnumber of kilogramsof differentshapesof members.boltingas the case may be. c) Cutting..form fitting.4.2 PaYment The pay item shall include fabrication. bolts. e) Bolts. drilling.drifts. cleats.nuts.packs. 413-20 .riveting. togetherwith spares and serviceborts.necessaryto comptete the item.holes and the like each less t[an 0. b) Examining and checking steel plates for segregation. cracks and surface fraws and carryingl o.machining.3) Materialsor workmanshipor parts rejectedon inspectionas aforesaid shallbe remedied. Marking members for identificationand dblivery in matching sequence.withoutallowancefor tolerancefor rollingmarginand other permissible deviationsfrom standardweights.and excludingthJ weightsof wetds.stiffeners.erection and protective coating (painting). edge preparationand cambering.1.ii rny remedialmeasuresrequiredby the Engineerin reipict of such defects. welding shear connectorsto steermemberseitherat the prace of fabricationor on Siteand prehedting. rolled sections.jl MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT -t13.The measurementshall be the total weight of the finished member comprisingplates.notching.01 squaremeter measured in area. h) Productiontests of welding during fabricationincluding non destructivetesting.orreplacedby the contractorwithoutextrachargeand without affectingthe time for completionof the whole or any part of the Works. g) Approvaltestingof welders. . Fabrication shallinclude: a) Preparationand supplyof shop drawings. laminations.

Complyingwith any specialrequirementsin respectof ambient conditionsfor the applicationof protectivetreatment and for intervalsbetweensuccessiveoperationsand applications. 413-21 Unit of Measurement Kg . d) Testing. Pay ltem No. d) testing' Productiontestsof Siteweldingincludingnon-destructive Protectivecoatingshallinclude: a) Specimenpanelsof blastcleaning. 0 Jointfillersand sealingof boltedjoints. b) Approvaltestingof welders. s) Preparingmaterialsfor application.Permanenterectionshall include: a) Temporarybracing or stays to prevent displacementincluding the provisionand removalof temporaryattachments. b) Paintsamplesand dispatchingto testingauthority. c) Paintapplicationproceduretrials. StructuralSteelwork. c) Permanent bolted and welded connectionsrequired on Site includingthe provisionof preheatand sheltersfor welding. e) Masking and other measures to protect adjacent untreated steelwork. 413 Description. h) Preparationof surfacesand paintingof steelworkat the placeof fabricationand on Site. Stripcoats.

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DRAII{AGE AI{I) EROSIOI{ WORKS .

500-1 . is properlyprovidedfor. adequatemeans of protection.bothduringand after construction. the Contractorshall provide To avoiddamageto works in courseof construction. Drainagestructuresshown on the Drawingsand their estimatedtotal quantities are not to be taken as final.DRAINAGE AND EROSION WORKS ITEM 5OO GENERAL The Contractorshall so schedule the constructionof drainage works that the dischargeof runofffrom rain or othersources. obstructions shallbe met withoutadditionalpaymentand all coststhereof Theserequirements shallbe includedin the bid pricesfor any itemsunderthe contract.The Engineer.includingall necessarytemporaryoutlet ditches. dams or diversionchannels.who will informthe Contractorof them in writing.will decidethe finalquantities.culverts.'ditchesor other drainageworks for the dischargeof runoffwater-duringconstructionand which shall be kept clear of all that mightimpedethe flow of water.

ITEM 5[I1 501 REINFORCEDCONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the construction.reconstructionor repair of culverts and water drainage structures in accordance with these specifications. Rubber ring gaskets for rigid pipe. The contractorshall not order and deliverthe pipes for any work until the Engineerhas approveda listof sizesand lengths. The work shallalso includethe removaland disposalof existingculvertsand structuresexcept such portionsas may be requiredor permittedby the Engineerto be left in place. exceptthat the gradingof sand shall meet the requrrements of AASHTOM-45. if required. The Engineerreservesthe rightto inspectand test the pipe after its delivery to the work. and in conformitywith the lines.I70. The work shall includethe furnishingand laying of the pipe. 501. and the constructionof such joints and connectionto other pipes.3 MANUFACTURINGREQUIREMENTS Reinforcedconcrete pipe culverls shall conform to the requirementsof AASHTO M-. steel reinforcement shallconformto the requirements specifiedin ltem 404 of thesespecifications. 501-1 .2 NTATERIALRf QUIREMENTS The pipesshallmeetthe requirements of the AASHTo M-170. Injuriousdefects revealedsubsequentto acceptanceof pipe and priorto its installation in the work shallbe causefor rejection. 501.or other structuresas may be requiredto completethe work as shown on the Drawingsor as requiredby the Engineer. grades and dimensions shownon the Drawingsor orderedby the Engineer. sand and watershallconformto the requirements specifiedrn item 401-concrete.catch basins. cement.class ll and lV as calledfor in the Billof Quantities. shall conform to the requirements of AASHTOM-198.

The Engineer. adequatemeans of protection. the Contractorshall provide To avoiddamageto works in courseof construction.includingall necessarytemporaryoutletditches. shallbe met withoutadditionalpaymentand all coststhereof These requirements shallbe includedin the bid pricesfor any itemsunderthe contract.culveds.willdecidethe finalquantities. is properlyprovidedfor. 500-1 .DRAINAGE AND EROSION WORKS ITEM 5OO GENERAL The Contractorshall so schedulethe constructionof drainageworks that the dischargeof runofffrom rain or othersources.bothduringand afterconstruction.'ditches dischargeof runoffwater-duringconstructionand which shall be kept clear of all obstructions that mightimpedethe flow of water. or other drainageworks for the dams or diversionchannels.who will informthe Contractorof them in writing. Drainagestructuresshown on the Drawings and their estimatedtotal quantities are not to be takenas final.

lmleq] u6rsep qcns ]o pue sadfi ]oloos jo spuaeql pue lo0rdsro ea6o aLllaq lleqssadrdUanlncalaJcuocpeclo1utal siErof f 'r'los 'uJLu(g) xts edtdaql lo sacepnslalno T 1oacuelolo]e urLlltm pue rauuraql uaamlaqIennprupalecoleq lleqsluatuacroluroJ letlualajuncltO aq] ]o aq1 Luc 0L paacxa ]ou lleqs (Llcttd)luauraoroJura.ro bS I l6y (OOZ'g) puesnoqlaoJqlueql ssal lou ]o rjlOuellsapsuale dolanepllells uot]3asJalul ro acrlds papleM e Joq]rale Jaqureuraq] 'poplaM Jl arm uMerp-plo3 roj sJalourelp0t pue sreq ro] sJolauerp0t uell] ssal ]ou paooelaq lleLls 'paplaM lou aJe sacrldsaq111 tirol eLl] utqlnnuotytsod )uauracrolulaloq] loaroc pue adeqs loexa ur IlprDuluaulacroluroraq] urelureuro1edtd aq11o uteluoc burpueyasraquauiro sJeq1eurpnl6uo1 ]uororgns lareq aq] qOno.rgs Jelncltc1o Altluenbaql 'ssaulclql llalls aq] pue lueuJacrolurar sfuerueJlnDau lsal qltsuarls puB suolsuowlq rf 't0s .tep(t L) ueeUnollo por.rql 'a6ec e olur palquosse aq qce= qcrLlm outl ]uauleclolutal ]o lleLls llells tu5tuS5lquteU z'g'I0s 'uoruppe lsalel0/ t-y\ OIHSW :ad se €lqel palelalut palstlsluaulaltnbal urnururul aqt o] r..uralopse lqbtamfup aq11o paacxa (g) aq] jo uotldrosqeralemaqI :ed adtd e1a:cuoc lou lleLls luac tq6le tritfitKw s't'I0s 'suorlecrlced. lalau teoutl rad qlOua. lerluaJa1rlnolto petpunqua^as s6uu luacefpe]o sarluacOurcedsaql u.l] ]ou llBqsssaulcrql lleM pue ralourerpleuJalulul suollellen seJuEJoloI t'f 't 0s 'acelns JoualuluiloJlunpue qlooLuse qlm llnpuocsnonulluoc e uroJ 11eqsslurol eL]] plel uar.rad e urqlm pesn aq 11eqs 'a^rleluasaidags.reaur6u3aq] Aq penordde 'sllnsarfuo1celsr1es anr611rr'n leq] 'spoilleur uorleurquroc 6utnno.sacueralolalqeMollvrol alqeL.Z-LOq '6urgsec alep al{l LlllMpolreu eq lleLlssadtd11y 6uunc Jo edrdou ]eql paptnold reye s.rJoJuoc 1leqsadtd lo sozts snoue^ elll lo.S aseq]ut sadtd pacro1uror alaJcuoc ro1..po1 aq1 ro poqleu raqlo Iue o1.rosqde:Oered ]o ur paqucsap6uuncJo spoqlaLuaq] Jo euo Aue o1 palcafqnsaq gleqssadt6 Euilnj 9 ' f' r 0 s 'ge-I uorleubtsap glpgw ur poul.]uenalerut petitceds paacxo llrx!l or.

i) SteamCuring Pipesshall be placedin a curingchamber.the processof manufactureand the finished pipes shall be subject to inspection.large or deep cracks. open texture.The ends of the pipesshallbe so enclosed as to preventthe free circulationof air throughor around the pipe.and for the time specified above.8 Insrrection The qualityof all materials. The interiorsurfacesof the curing room or canvasjackets and the surfacesof the pipes shall be entirelymoist at all tlmes. ii) WaterSpravCurine Under the conditionsof enclosureprescribedin (i) above.The ends of the pipesshall be so enclosedas to preventthe free circulation of air throughor aroundthe pipe. or such additionaltime as may be necessaryto meetthe strengthrequirements. 50r.maintainedat a temperaturebetweenthirty eight (38) and fifty four (54) degreec by the injectionof steam for a period of not less than twenty four (24) hours or. The enclosureshall be so erected as to allow full circulationof steam aroundthe entire pipe.spellsand sudace roughness. for such additionaltime as may be neededto enablethe pipe to meet the str-ength requirements. pipes may be cured by subjectingthem to a continuousor freguenflyappliedfine sprayof water in an enclosuremaintainedat a temperatureof not less that twenty one (21) degreec for a periodof not less than seventytwo (72) hours. the curing period shall be increased as may be necessaryto meet the strength requirements.strength requirements.and cured in a moist atmosphere.test and approval at the place of manufacture. lf the temperatureof the water is less than twentyone (21) degreec.3.free from outsidedraughts. The planesof the ends of the pipe shallbe perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. iii) SaturatedCoverCurinq The sidesand top of each pipe may be coveredwith heavyHessianor other suitablematerial. 501. when necessary. honeycombing.saturatedwith water before applyingand kept saturated with water at a temperatureof not less than twentyone (21) degree c for seventytwo (72) hours. When a curing chamber is not available.3 .7 WorkmanshipandFinish All pipes shall be substantiallyfree from fractures.The contractorshall make the necessaryarrangementswith the manufacturerto set aside in a separatearea all pipes for which he desiresapproval.or such additional time as may be necessary to meet the .pipes may be placed in an enclosureof canvas or other closely woven material and subjectedto saturatedsteam at the temperature. s01.J.

noupue Outxttu slcola6 alPclpulleLl] lcapedr"ul (rt 'palca[a. slueuaoue:le fuessecaualll e)eu lleLlslolcelluoc oql 'leaut6u3 jo lutod aql le olqellene lou ale selllllsel 6ullsel eql ]l aql Aq peyeubrsaptolcedsul oq] ]o ecuaseld aql ul palcnpuoo slse] pelrnba:oqt a^eq o1sluauaouelle{:essecaueq} alPtu lleqslolcel}uoc otl} .l seq lajnlseJnueur iteuiil.-ro9 'sodld aLl] 'Ja^a^Aoq 'palcafareq lo ]uoc lleqs sadld a^llcojapaq] rod (0f ) uol ueql alou ul lslxa ocuololulncrtcotll punoleLuc(gt) uol ueq] aroul ]ou 0utpuayaLo lulof arll Jo.t ol llel a^oqe ( r.to 6utquoclauoq BullectpulslcaJapace.roqel e ol lolcedsuleql Aq '6unsel 6utqstu:n1 're^oldru3 aq] ol ]so3 ou le po]3alassuotlcasaord aq1 B 'alnlceJnueul to.6uts e lelll ldacxa 'llaqs aql qbnorql butssed s)celc lo solnlcell a1oqeaLl} -:6urano.o1 uol}eculcods aq11o{ue Jo}unocceuo lo s}uorua:tnbel aq o] uo uol1cefel 1.roeled ul palsll sluaulaltnbe.lleqauo ueql ladaep aql punole Luc(0t) ual ueql oloul lou s11eds ll aoualo1ulncitc qldop aq1Jleq auo ueql -redaepslledg Ourpueyero lutol oq] ]o (nt 'lanocalalcuocolenbopeul r{q pasne3 s)Jeu lsnl 6urpnlcul}uauloclo}ulallo a:nsodxa pue aJnXaJuado .slueulelrnbar rtluo q10uellsot1l}eaulsuaurcedspo}sa}elaseLl}aLll1.tue o] uroruoc ol alnlteJlo lunocce ftlFa-Eii 6'€'I0S .euaqan 'polteJ qcea sueutceds rol a..t 'rono^Aoq'palcadsut sedtd eql Jo aq lletls sadtd entlcelep oL1l eq] 1o qldep alll poacxa luac rad (Ot.rnb'iits5llii 'suotlectltcads asaql 'palcalos oq lllm azts fuene jo auo ]seol o] ruroluoclleLlsslsel lo1 sedt4 ldacxeluecrad(z) oru ueql aroruaq ]ou llrMlso] tol pe:tnba:suollsas le ]eL.) ual ueql oJotr.1 1leqslurofaql1o qldapoq] poecxalou saup lBql )cerc pua a.qeldacceeq ll$ adrd eq1 pue ]eLlluorutcods |euo|}|ppeoM}uolsa}-aJepaMo||eaq||$lo}3eJ}uocaql.t aLl] tlym acuBplocce ul peprnold suarutcedslsal aql 1o {ue plnoLls tSeF5ETli 'leaut6u3aql Aq penolddeA.tse]Ll]ouells6urqsnlcaq] burlcnpuocjo} lueuudrnba aql .S}UaLUallnbeJ lsa] aLl] loieu.lul lslxa slurof 'uotlcafal loJ osnec aq lou lou saop ler.lns (!!! 'f)urp...{})ceJc pua e16urse .role.ll jo raqurnueq1 :eeutbuf eql Aq uopuel le polsalosaq ll$ pue Jolselluo3 aLll Aq ]soo ]o eall poqsluln] aq llells slsa] 1o asodlnd aq1 to1 sadt6 ilaruJ-ta6jsSlli .eqssadt6 icehns 1o.) qde.

This excess depth shall be refilledwith approvedmaterialand thoroughlycompacted. Recesses shall be excavatedfor any bells involved. The mortar shall be placed so as to form a durable.shall be capableof transferring the r. All joints.whichis not true in arignment or whichshowsany unoue settlementafter being laid. includingany connections.mulch.All joints. such materialshall be replacedby a layerof suitable material.After each sectionof pipe is laid and beforethe succeedingsection is laid the lower portion of the bell shall be plasteredthoroughlyon the inside with mortarto such depthas to bringthe innersurfaceof the abuttingpipe flush and even.watertightjoint aroundthe whole circumferenceof the pipe. Any pipe.)is encountered at or below invert elevation during excavation.v) Misplacedreinforcement alreadyexposedor verifiedby checking with an approvedconcretereinfor^ement covermeter.shall be taken up and relaidor replacedwithoutextra payment. and true to the elevationsand grades given.The bottomof the trenchshallbe shapedto conformto the shape of the pipe for at leasttwenty(2O) percentof its outsidediameter.beil up-grade. 501-5 . 501.2 PlacinePipe The pipe shall be laid carefully. unless othenvise specified. After the initialset.to permit satisfactory jointingand thoroughtampingof the'beddingmaterial specified in item 502 under and around the pipe.etc..where an unsuitable material(peat. proper facilitiesshall be providedfor loweringthe sectionswhen they are to be placed in a trench. where rock or hardpanis encountered.{. the trenchshall be excavatedto a depthat least (30) centimetersbetowthe grade establishedfor the bottom of the pipe.The insideof thejointshallthen be wipedand finished smooth.4. the remainderof the joint shall be filled with mortar and sufficientadditionalmortar shall be used to form a bead aroundthe outsideof thejoint. the naturalfoundationsoil is suchas to requirestabilization. Each section shall be securelyattachedto the adjoiningsectionsby the method specifiedfor the type of joint used.a lion A trench shall be excavatedto the depth and grade establishedby the Drawings.1 Excar. or is damaged.ends fully and closery lointed.1 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 501.The width of the trench shall not be greaterthan two(2) times the pipe diameter. where in the opinionof the Engineer.the necessary subsurface explorationand analysisshall be made and correctivetreatmentshallbe as directedby the Engineer. the mortar on the outside shall be protectedfrom the air and sun with a cover of thoioughlywetted earth or burlap.equired shearacrossthe point.shall be filled with stiff mortar composed of one part porfland cement and two parts sand. 541. After the sectionis laid.

roqel e o1:olcedsulaq1[q '6ut1sa1 6u. a^oqe ( l) qde:Oered ul pelsll slueulallnbe.leq auo ueql ladeep 'acuelaluncJlsotll punoJeLUc(0t) ual ueql oJol'll 1ousl1edsjl 6urpuelxa.)ual ueLllaloul ul lslxo slutol 'uotlcafa: oq lou lol asnec e 11 lou soop lell] )ceJc pua a1Outs pue al6uts paacxo ]ou saup ]BLl])cel3 1leqslurofeqg1o qldapaql 'llaLlsaLll qOnolql butssed slcelc lo selnlcerl e ]eql ldecxa a1oqeaLl} -:6ulnno..o lutof aq] Jo qldep eq1JleLlouo ueql redeep s1ledg (nl 'JanocalolcuocelenbePeut l.t aLll qlm aoueptocce ul pepno.o a:nsodxe pLrearnlxol uedo ..qstu:n.o1 uotlect.ro1slueLue6uel:efuessecauaql o)eu lleLlsJolselluoc aql ':eautbul lo ]uroo otl] ]e alqeltene]ou oJe solllllcel burlsal aql jl palcnpuoc slsel aql Aq paleu6rseptolcadsul oql lo ecuesald aql ul lolseJ}uocaq} pelrnbalaql a^eq ol slueuaouelle {ressecauoq} a)PLUlleL.rd sueupads ]sol oL{} 1o Aue plnoqs tsaFsifm ':eaut6u3aq] Iq penoldde{ro}e.q pasnec sIJeul lsnJ 6ulpnlcut luauaclolulel . 'iaAoldru3 aql o] ]soc ou 1e palcolassuotlcosadrd arl] i 'aJnlcplnugrl .eueqm{1uo 'pollel elqeldacceaq lln adrd eq] pue leql uaulcads qcea lo1 suewtceds 'sluaue:tnbel poMolle aq lllm JolceJluoCeq1 leuorlrppeoM] uo lsa]-al E lso] alli loour ol lle.)uel ueql alou u! lslxo acuoloJulnolls ual ueLlloroul ]ou 6utpuelxa:o lutof aql ]o .-iadut (l 'Pelcefe.{:ena ezts aq }seal sadr6 tol slsal lo o] tt.tcads arl]lo {ue Jolunocceuo lo s}uaulelrnba: sodld aq uo uotlcefel oi ol oJnllei uloluoc ]ce[qns lleL{s Jo lunocce 1oIue ol ffiii-ni 'sluaLualtnba: q16ual1s oq] laoul sueulpadspolsolalasoLl]oql 1.ls ']se] r.-109 'Ja^oAoL1'sedtdeql 'palcafaraq Jo}uac lleqssodtda^l]cs1apeL{} aql punoleulc (0t) red (g.tJoluoc ll$ lleqs peltnba: suollsos eq (Z) aJoul oMl uBtll lsal:o1 ]ou lllM ]e ]eq] ldacxeluac:ed pue ro}3elluoC ]o roqurnueq1 teeut6uf aq] {q LuopuerlE pa}calasaq llyv\ oql Aq ]soo Jo aorJ paqsluln1aq lleLlsslse] 1o asodlnd aq1 ro1 sedt6 suatu-i5td$dlli 6'e'r0s .to Dulquoc.llouarls seq laJnlcejnueulaq] Jl 6urqsn:ceq] ourlcnpuocto1lueuudrnbe tu-iru--finbiilsqtli! 'suotlectltceds esoLll 'polgolas auo .l 'palcadsut 'lo^amoq sedld aq] ]o aq lleqs sedrd entlcalapalll qldep aql paacxa aq] 1o luac red (Ot.teuoqbutlectpulslcalap ocelns (rrr 'Ourp1nou pue Outxttu olBclpulleqlspeia6 1ce..

.1 item under specified as densities the to iron tampers with heavy withcommon Material.the ends of the pipe shall be neatlyCutoffflushwith the outsideface of the headwalls' 501.Pte*and. 501.accePted.for excavatingtrenchesand backfilling' and for all other iosts necessaryor usual to the proper completionof the work prescribedin this item. When construction above (20) cms elevationol twenty over the pipes.shallbe the number of linear metersof piaced. eryrent shall be full compensationfor furnishingand placing all materialsincludingmortarfor joints.shall be paid for at thei contractunit price respectively.Eachlayershallbe moistened.1. wnen headwallsare constructed.over a culvert shall be at the placedat the contractor'srisk. Any pipe injuredtherebyshaflbe repairedor contractor'scost.s01.This methodof fillingand of Embankment Formation until the embankmenthas reachedan continued be shall compacting the top of the pipe.2 Pavment The quantities. T-191 per AASHTO as determined maximumdry density at least material compacted thoroughly be pipe shall there each side of the undisturbed as pipe insofar except the of diameter as wide as the external if dry.and materialobtrudesuponthiswidth.wing-wallsand apronstogetherwith paid for the beddingfor the concretepipe culverl.as measuredabove.Headwalls. payment shall be made separatelyunder ltem 502 for furnishingand or concretein the bed of the culvertas shownon insiallinggranularmater:ial the Drawings.6..1 Plant Construction Movement of construction equipment. shall fitling back of regardingthe method 501.the ends of the pipe culvertsshall be protectedby concreteor masonryheadwallsconstructedas shown on the brawings. tamping hand by or hammers mechanical with tamping by then compacted 108. contPl.3.5 Headwalls Where indicatedon the Drawings.4. 501-6 .r Measureqrent pipe The quantitiesto be piid'fdr:.6 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 501.3 Backfilline joints sufficientlyset' After the pipe has been installedand the mortar roadwayexcavation from material selected / or (sand) and granularmaierial pipes exceedingtwenty not in layers the placed alongside 6r borrowshallbe percentof the (90) ninety minimum to compacted (20) cms in depth and so thaton Method.specialinstructions embankment high placing a calls for be givenby the Engineer. 501.for each of the particularpay items listed below in the boo.6.will be measuredand separately.

Pay ltem No.Glass ll Reinforced Concrete pipe. Description Unit of Measurement AASHTOM 170. 5 0 1j 5 0 1k 5 0 1| 501 m 501 n 501 o 501 p 501 q 5 0 1r Diameter 310mm Diameter 380mm Diameter 460 mm Diameter 610mm Diameter 760mm Diameter 910mm Diameter 1070mm Diameter1220mm Diameter 1520mm 501-7 M M M M M M M M M . 501 a 501 b 501 c 5 0 1d 5 0 1e 5 0 1f 501 g 501 h 501 i Diameter310 mm Diameter380 mm Diameter460 mm Diameter610 mm Diameter760 mm Diameter910 mm Diameter1070mm Diameter1220mm Diameter1520mm M M M M M M M M M AASHTOM 170.Class lV Reinforced Goncretepipe.

placed.1 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT s02. 502-1 .2.or concreteClassB.1and 502.1 GranularMaterial Granularmatenalshallbe sand or selectedsandysoilall of whichpassesa 3/8 inch (9.{. MethodD.2 Concrete ConcreteClassB shallbe as specifiedin ltem401.the top surface of which shall be accuratelyshaped by templateto fit the surfaceof the concretepipe culvertfor at least twenty (20) percentof its outsidediameter. 502. 200 sieve. placedand accepted. 502.2. sand saturationmethodfor compactionwill be allowed. Granularmaterialshallbe depositedin layersnot exceedingtwenty(20) cms and shall be compactedto at least Ninety-five(95) percentof maximumdry densityin accordancewith MSHTO T-180. finished and cured all in withltem401.1 BEDDING OR ENCASEMENT OF CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of furnishingand placing granularmaterialor concreteas specifiedin beddingand aroundconcretepipeculverts.2.1 Measurement The quantitiesto be paidfor shall be the numberof cubic metersof granular material. Howeverin case of sand. Concrete Class B shall be mixed.ITEM 502 502.2 shall be laid to the dimensionsshownon the drawingsfor the typesspecifledor directed by the Engineer.2.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS s02. accordance 502. 502.5 mm) sieve and not more than fifteen('15)percentpassesNo.and density shall be approvedby RelativeDensityTest Methodvide ASTM-D 2049.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUTREMENTS The beddingmaterialas specifiedin ltems 502.

1.2 Pavment Quantitiesmeasuredas providedaboveshall be paidfor at the contractunit price. for each of the particularpay items listed below.502.equipment. labour.tools and incidentalrequrredfor completionof the work prescribed in thisitem. Pay ltem No.which onces and paymentshallbe full compensation for furnishingand placingall materials. Description Unit of Measurement 502 a GranularMaterialin Beo to ConcretePipe Culvert CM 502 b ConcreteClassB in Beddinq and Encasement of ConcretePipeCulvert CM 502-2 .

2. but the joint shall not be closedto allow infiltrationof water. 503.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 503. 503. 503-1 .7 to 1.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS r 503.Unlessshown othenviseon the Drawings.2.as determinedby the Engineer.2.it shallbe requiredthat the ratio: Drs (Sub-base) Des (Surrounding Earth) shallbe lessthan5 s03.2 PorousConcretePiDe This pipe shall conform to the requirementsof AASHTO M 176 for the specifieddiameters. 503.2 .ITEM 503 503.3. earth In orderto avoidintrusionintothe sub-baseof the in placesurrounding material. TrenchandBedding Trenchesshall be excavatedto the width.ten (10) cm thick.3 Granular Backlill Granular backfill for bedding and surrounding underdrains shall be aggregateconformingto the requirementsof ltem 201. cross-sections 503. ends fully enteredin the adjacentbells and spot mortaredto providefor centeringof the pipe.1 PerforatedConcretePiDe of AASHTOM 175 or to ASTM This pipeshallconformto the requirements C 444 for the specifieddiametersand strengthclasses. line and grade as shown in the Drawings.the depth shall vary from 0.GranularSubbase. and to depths required for proper drainage.bellsupgrade.GradingC.A bed of granularbackfill.2 PlacinsPipeand Backfiliine The pipe shall be embeddedfirmlyin the beddingmaterial. and compacted in the bottom of the trench throughoutits entirelength.3.4 metersbelowthe bottomof a gutteror ditchwhen underdrain is situated under a gutter or ditch. shall be spread.1 UNDERDRAIN DESCRIPTION completein The work shallconsistof furnishingand installingunderdrains on the typical width shown and to the accordancewith these specifications or drawings.

3shall be placedaround the drain for a thicknessof at least thirty (30) cm and care shall be taken that no pipe is displaced. Diameter 200mm Perforated ConcretePipefor Underdrain.for excavatingthe trench in which the underdrainis laid.2 (1) The number of meters of underdrain. Diameter 200mm Granular Backfill to Concrete PipeUnderdrain. 503a 503b 503c 503d 503e 503f Description Perforated ConcretePipefor Underdrain. shall be paid for at the contractunit pricefor the pay itemslistedbelow. Pay ltem No. and accepted. Diameter 380mm PorousConcretePipefor Underdrain.in placeand accepted.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT s03. Payment The quantities. for granularbackfill used.to the satisfaction of the Engineer.2.granuiar backfillas specifiedin ltem 503. Diameter'150 mm Perforated ConcretePipefor Underdrain.in place.comrnonor borrowexcavation. All filling materialshallbe thoroughlycompacted.4. 503-2 Unitof Measurement M M M M M CM . (2) The number of cubic meters of granularbackfill.for the backfilland all othercostsrelatedto the work prescribedin this item. These pricesand payment shall be full compensationfor furnishingand placingthe underdrain.1 Measurement The quantities to be paidfor shallbe: s03.The upperportionof the trenchshallthen be filledwith approveci fine soil selectedfrom structural.of the kind mentioned below.determinedas providedabove. Diameter 150mm PorousConcretePipefor Underdrain.Perforatedpipe shall be laid with the perforatedlength of the pipe on its underside.4. 503. After the pipe has been placed and approvedby the Engineer.

1 Formwork Formworkshall be in accordancewith the requirementsof design or as directedby the Engineer. APRONS AND SIPHON INLETS/OUTLETS DESCRIPTION This ruorkshallconsistof constructionof sectionsas mentionedin the ltems above in concrete.4 Brickwork Quality of brick and other materials shall be in accordancewith the of ltem410.3.ITEM 50. 504.3 Concrete for Concrete of ClassA.1 504.2.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 504.2. material requirements of withthe accordance 504. 504. 504-1 . Class of all materials Qualityrequirements on the Drawings and shallbe in concrete as specified C.1 Excavation Excavationshall be in accordancewith ltem 107. 412.2.5 StoneWork Stonework shallbe in conformitvwith item No.3 COIISTRUCTIONREOUIREM 504.brickworkor stone work for concretepipe and other culvertsand bridgesshownon the Drawings. APPROACH SLABS. requirements 504.1 HEADWALLS.2. requirements 504.2 SteelReinforcement with the material shall be in accordance Qualityof Steelreinforcement of ltem404.2. ClassY or lean ltem 401. WING-WALLS.3. PARAPETS.1and in conformitywith the Drawings. ClassB. 504.

s04. 412.finishedand cured.2 (lranular Backfill Granularbackfill. 50. placed.l Measurement Excavationand Backfillshallbe measuredas specifiedin ltem 107.3.bent and fixed where shown on the Drawings.1.7 StoneWork Stonework shallbe constructedin cohformitywith item No.placedand finished as specified in ltem410. steel reinforcement in placeand acceptedshallbe measuredas specifiedin Item404.1.3. 504-2 .{ SteelReinforcement steel reinforcementshall be furnished.3 Formn'ork Formwork shall be supplied and fixed in the positionsrequired for the concreteto be cast as shown on the Drawingsand shall be erectedand removedas directedby the Engineer. 504.Furnishing. as per concreteclassspecified.50-r. Granularbackfillin placeand acceptedshall be measuredas specifiedin I t e m1 0 7 . B.1. 50.3.t.3.3. 50-1.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 50.6 Brickwork Brickworkas shown on the drawingsshall be supplied.shall be furnished.3. bendingand fixingshailbe in accordancewith item 404.3.if orderedin writingby the Engineer.. concretein placeand acceptedshallbe measuredas specifiedin ltem 401. The formworkin placeand acceptedshallnot be measuredfor paymentand shallbe deemedto havebeenpaidunderotheritems. c or Y shown on the Drawingsshall be supplied.J.as specified in ltem401. placedand compactedin accordance with ltem j07. 501.5 Concrete concrete class A.

-1. 504-3 .Brickworkin placeand accepted shall be measured as specified in ltem 410.2 Pavment Excavationand Backfillshall be paid for under differentltem of 107 as the case may be. Granularbackfillin place and acceptedshallbe paidfor as specifiedin ltem 107 Brickworkin placeand acceptedshallbe paidas specifiedin ltem 410.1. The formworkin placeand acceptedshall not be paid and shall be deemed to have beenpaid underotheritems. 50. Steel reinforcementin place and acceptedshall be paid for as specifiedin Item404.as per concreteclassspecified. Stone work in placeand acceptedshallbe paidas specifiedin item 412. Stone work in placeand acceptedshallbe measuredas specifiedin item 412. Concretein placeand acceptedshallbe paidfor as specifiedin ltem 40'1.

carbon steelcastingshall conformto the requirementsof MSHTO M 103. Gray iron castingsshall conformto the requirementsof AASHTo M 105.and to allowfor at leasttwo cylinders for each test.Gratesand Covers. Greyiron itemsshallconformto MSHTO M 10S.2.elevations and designshownin the Drawings. The precast units shall be cured in accordancewith AASHTO M 170. cracks in units.1 PrecastConcreteUnits.and failure to meet strengthrequirements will be causefor rejection. 505.honeycombedor patchedareas in excess of two hundred (200) square centimeter. Reinforcementshall be used as per design drawings. structuralsteel shall conform to the requirementsof AASHTo M 1g3 or ASTMA 283. These units shall be cast to the dimensionsshown on the drawings. lf the strengthrequirementis met at seven (7) days. Gradeshallbe optionalunlessotherwisespecified. lf the strengthrequirements are not met at 28 days.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 50s.excessivewater absorption.ITfNr 505 505. A sufficientnumberof cylindersshall be cast to permitcompressiontestsat seven (7) and twenty-eight(28) days. structural concrete shall be class-A in accordance with ltem 4ol.all unitsmade from that batch will be rejected. 505.r MANHOLES DESCRIPTION The work shallconsistof the furnrshingand erectingpre-castor cast in situ concretemanholesof sizes shown in drawingswith the necessaryframes and covers constructedin accordancewith these specificationsand the specifications for the other work items involvedand in conformitywith the dimensions. Strengthclassshallbe optionalunlessothenvisespecified. 505-1 .the units will be certifiedfor use fourteen(14) days from date to casting.2 SteelReinforcement steel reinforcementshall be in accordancewith the requirementsof ltem 404.2.and LadderRunqs Metalunits shall conformto the dimensionsshown on the Drawingsand to the followingrequirements for the designatedmaterials. s05. lines.2.3 Frames. water absorptionof individualcorestakenfrom such unitsshallnot exceedseven(7) percent. GradeB or better.

4 SteelReinforcement Bendingand fixingof steelshallconformto the requirements of ltem 404 505. 50s-2 .3.by volume unless otherwisespecifiedand sufficientwater to make the mortar of such consistencythat it can be handled easily and spreadwith a trowel.2. All otherspecifications shallbe followedas per item 401. Malleableiron castingsshall conform to the requirementsof AASHTO M 106.2 Backfill Backfill shall conform to the requirementsof ltem 108.concreteshall be of Class A unlessotherwiseshownon the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.and shall conform to the requirementsprescribedfor that particularclass of concretein ltem 401.1 Excavation Excavationshallconformto the requirements of ltem 107.5 Pre-cast Concrete Units Pre-castconcreteunits shall be erectedin the positionsshownon the Drawings. Duringerection of the unitsoutsideof the manholeshallbe finishedsmooth andthejointsflushedfullwithmortar.-l Mortar Mortarshallbe composedof one part Portlandcementand two partsof fine aggregate. or as required bythe Engineer.3.Galvanizing. 505.EQUIREMENTS 505.whileroughform work may be allowedfor outsidefinish.3. shall conform to the requirements of AASHTOM 111.3.2.where specified for these units. Gradeshallbe optionalunlessotherwisespecified. 505.or is specifiedin writingby the Engineer.2. unless where granularbackfillas specifiedin ltem 107 is requiredby the Drawings.3 Concrete Concreteconstruction shallconformto the requirements of ltem 401. s0s.3 CONSTRUCTIONR. 505. 505.5 Concrete ln case of cast in situ concrete manholes.3. Forms of approvedquality shall be used to give reasonablefair finishfrom inside.Aggregatefor mortarshallconformto ltem 401.2. 505.

3.or foreignmatterof any kind and shall be kept clear of such accumulationsuntilfinal acceptahceof the work.7 Metal Frames Metal frames shall be set on full mortar beds or otherwisesecuredas shown on the Drawingsand the frames.505.in positionand greaterthan3 meterin depth. 505.3. (3) The nurnberof concretemanholes. fromone(1) meterto two (2) metersdeep. accepted. 505.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 505.completewith framesand covers and all other relevantcomponents.4.in positionand accepted. 505.6 Cgnnections SectionsoJ connectionpipe shall be incorporatedinto the constructionand placedat the elevation.8 Cleaning Upon completion each manhole shall be thoroughly cleaneo of any accumulationof silt.'direction and grade required.and gratingsshallbe accuratelyset true to the line and elevationrequiredto fit the adjoiningsurfaceas apprwed by the Engineer.r Measurement The quantitiesto be paidfor shallbe: (1) The numberof concretemanholes.3.in positionand accepted. In the determination of the depthof a manholethe distanceshall be measuredfromthetop surfaceof the manholecoverto the undersurfaceof thefoundation of themanhole. (2) The numberof concretemanholes.completewith framesand covers'and all other relevantcomponents. 505-3 .completewith framesand covers and all other relevantcomponents.covers.morethantwo (2) metersand up to three(3) meters deep. debris. The innerends of the pipe shallbe flushwiththe innerfacesof the walls.

4. for as specifiedin ltem Description Unit of Measurement 505 a Manhole1 M to 2 M Concrete deep Each 505 b ConcreteManholemorethan2 M to 3 M deeP: Each 505 c ConcreteManholegreaterthan 3 M.as the case may be' paid Granularbackfill.505.which for furnishingand placingall materials.and for all other costs necessaryor usual to the propercompletionof the work prescribedirf this item. 505-4 .2 Payment The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove sha]Jbe paid for.for each of the pay items listed belowthat is shown full compensation be payment shall prices and the Bill of Quantities.at.deep.which is in place and acceptedshall be measuredand 107. Each Pay ltem No.the contract in unit price respectively. Excavationand backfill shall be measuredand paid for as specified under Item 107 or 108.

2.xcavation and Backfill Excavationand backfillshallconformto the requirementsof ltem 107 or 10g as the case may be.2.placedfinishedand cured as specifiedin ltem 401.gratesand lids.3 Masonry When so indicatedon the plans or approved by the Engineer. of the class indicatedon the Drawings.2 ConcreteConstrueltion concrete of the specifiedclassshall be supplied.elevationsand designshownon the Drawings.2. "BrickMasonry".lI'EN. 506-1 .1 SteelFrames.and drop inlets includingthe furnishingof metalframes.1 SteelReinforcement Qualityof reinforcingsteelif used in constructionof catch basinsshall be in accordancewith the materialrequirements of item 404.gratesand lids shallconformto the requirements of AASHTO M-105.Gratesand Lids Steelframes. 5$6. s06.J.brick or concrete block masonry may be used in lieu of concrete for the walls of catch basinsor drop inletsas specifiedin item 410.!506 506.1.1 Fl.2 Concrete concrete shall be as specifiedin ltem 401.and the necessary excavation and backfill in accordance with these specificationsand the specificationsfor other work items involved and in conformity with the dimensions.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 506.r DROP INLETS AND CATCH BASINS DESCRIPTION This work shallconsistof constructing concretecatch basins. 506.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 5{)6. 50(r.2. 506. 5t)6.

EMENTAND PAYMENT 506. 506.or foreignmatterof any kind.1 Measurement The quantitiesto be measuredshallbe: 1) The number of drop inlets of the type specified in the constructionof Drop inlets. The frames. sewer pipe.3. clearof such accumulations s06.3.and accepted. 506-2 .5 Cleaning All catch basins and drop inlets shall be thoroughly cleaned of any of silt.Gratesand Lids All frames shall be set on full mortar beds or otherurisesecuredas shown on the Drawings. Gratesand lids shall be fitted or securedto the frames so that rockingor chatteringwill be eliminated.4 MEASUR.506. and conduit with which connectionsare made and shall conform to the pertinentrequirementstherefor. grates and lids shall be accuratelyset so that the complete installationwill be at the correct elevation required to fit the adjoining surface. z) The number of catch basins of the type specified.type and class as the tile. Pipe placedin concretefor inlet or outletconnectionsshall extendfrom the inside surface of the walls and beyond the outside surface of the walls a minimum distance of forty five (45) centimeters distance to allow for connectionswith conduits or sewers.4.completein place and accepted. 506.the grates and lids shall not be in place while the adjoiningconcrete is struck-offand finished. and the concrete shall be carefully constructedaround them so as to prevent leakage around their outer surface.3 Connections Inlet and outlet tile.complete in place.debris. and shall be kept accumulations untilthe finalacceptanceof the work. sewer pipe and conduit for connections with such structuresshall be of the same size.4 Frames.3.

and for all other costs relativeto the propercompletionof the work prescribed.2 Payment The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove qhall be paid at the contractunit price for each of the pay items listed below.Type Each 506b CatchBasins.4. Description Unitof Measurement 506a Droplnlets. Such prices and paymentshall be full compensationfor furnishingan( placingall materials.Type Each 506-3 .506. Pay ltem No. Granular backflll in place and accepted shall be measuredand paid for as specifiedin ltem 107.

Thetensilestrengthof the wireshallbe in the rangeof fourthousand(4. otherwise of the gabionandheightsshall width 4 times the or of 2.coversgabionsused jetties.lf not Drawings.25Kg/Sq. and shallhave an elasticityto permit elongationof the mesh equivalentto a minimumcif ten (10) % without reducingthe gaugdor tensilestrengthof thewire.whichshall be Gabionsshall be enclosedby galvanized suppliedfoldedflatto facilitatetransportandhahdling. such as bank revetments. with the linesand conformity in and the locations at and workitemsinvolved.M) of uncoated wire.1 General steelwlre mesh.scourprotection 507.000) to six thousand(6000)kg. withthe variouslengths.2.3). gradesshownon the Drawings. for river and streamstabilization structures. 507-1 .Wire mesh srlall in salt spray test part to a when subjected failure by rusting of any accordancewithASTMB 117.of wire-meshgabions. or as the by required heights and gabions meter in width.1 GABIONS DESCRIPTTON This work shall consist.3 multiples be shall (1) (0.5) meter.widths Gabionsshallbe furnishedin accordance direciedby the Engineer. with AASHTO Test in accordance (Galvanized) lron or Zinc Coated Dip) on PreeceTest (CopperSulphate before hours of exposure 220 withstand SteelArticles". / sq. cm.2 Wire All wire shatlbe a goodcommercialqualityof steeland size as per Drawtngs coatedwitha prime westernspelleror equal(AASHTOM 120)appliedat a rateof notlessthan0.ITEM 507 507. (0.2. dipsby the Preece of coatingshallwithstandten (10)one-minute Uniformity "Uniformity Coatingby the of T-66. work. or one half one tenth bethree 507. The lengths be one shall all required.8ouncespersquarefoot (0. andretaining groinsdeflectors.The work in general.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 507.furnishedand placed in for the other and the specifications accordancewith these specifications.

507. durable rock pieces that will not deteriorate when submerged in water or exposed to severe weather conditions.2.4 Rock Fill Fill for gabions shall consist of hard.The minimumsize of the wire used in fabricationof the gabionbasketsshall be as follows:- Diameter mm BodyWire Selvedgeor PerimeterWire Tyingand ConnectingWire 507. and eight (8) cross-connectingwires shilt be providedin each cell havinga heightgreaterthan one halfthe width.e5) US Steel Wire Gauge 11 . The rock shall meet the requirementsof AASHTO M 63 except that the Sodium SulphateSoundnessLoss shall not exceed nine (g) o/oafterfive (5) cycres. When the gabion length exceeds its width. Diaphragmsshall be of the same materialand manufactureas specifiedabovefor the gabions.values aJrdfigures given in the above specifications are subjectto the toleranceof plus or minus five (5) percent. The edges shall be formed into securely connected selvedges adequate to prevent raveling. Filledgabionsshall have a minimum densityof one thousandthree hundredsixty (1. it shall have securely tied diaphragmsconnectedat all edges to form individualcells of equal iength and width.7 Fabrication Gabions shall be in the form of rectangular baskets of the requtred dimensions and shall be manufacturedfrom wire as specified above. Gabions shall be made of steel wire triple twisted forming a uniform hexagonatmesh patternwith openingseight (s) am by ten (10) cm or by twelve (12) cm.Rock piecesshall be generallyuniformlygradedin sizesranging from ten (10) cm to twenty (20) cm. 507-2 . Individual basket ties and connectionsshallbe made by usinga quantityof wire not lessthan 8 percent of the weight of each basket. Void spacesshall be evenlydistributedand shall not exceeda maximumof thirty(30) percent. All the characteristics. Four cross-connecting wires shall be providedin each cell havinga heightof one half the width or less.3) (2 8) (1.2.360) kg per cubic meter.3 (2.l .

Pay ltem No. Gabionsforming elements of structuresshall be securely connected along the complete length of top contact edges by means of the above specifiedtying and connectingwire. 507.breadthand lengthof the gabionconstructed.alignment Rock fill for exposedfaces of gabionswalls shall be parefullyselectedfor uniformityor size. Description Unitof Measurement 507 a SteelWireMeshfor Gabions Kg 507 b Rock Fillin Gabions CM 507-3 . The verticaljoints of gabionbasketsshall be staggeredas in runningbond brickwork.4. and compaction as will permitpropershape. Beds for gabionsshall be suitablylevel.507.4. and the piecesshall be hand placed to providea neat appearanceas approvedby the Engineer. ii) Rock Fill The rock fill shall be the numberof loosecubic metersof rock placedin the gabionwith an allowanceof maximumthirty(30) % voids and acceptedand measuredby the width. furnishingand placingof materialsand all other costs relatedto completion of the work.1 Measurement The quantitiesshall be measuredfor paymentas below: i) Wire Mesh The galvanizedsteelwire mesh furnishedplacedand acceptedshall be the theoreticalnumberof kilogramscalculatedfrom the weightper squaremeter of mesh certifiedby the manufacturerand approvedby the Engineer.The area of meshto be measuredshallbe the net area of the Gabionin position. Beforethe rock fill is placedthe gabionsshall be stretchedin such manner of fill.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS shall be performedin a workmanlikemanneras approvedby the Installation Engineer.2 Payment The quantitiesdeterminedas provtdedaboveshallbe paid for at the contract unit price.d MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 507. which shall be full compensationfor all necessaryexcavation. s07.

3. 508.1 BRICK PAVING DESCRIPTION This item shallconsistof one or more layersof brickslaid over thin layerof spread sand and ihe joints filled with sand with suitable bonding.at least1" (25 mm) in thicknegs.EM4NTS s08.1 Bricks Qualityof bricksshall meet the MaterialRequirementsas specifiedin ltem 410 or as approvedby the Engineer.2 Sand Sand used in thiswork for bed or jointsshallbe mediumto fine sand.3. courseis to be laidthe jointsin the successivecourseswill be staggered.3.4 Placineof Bricks A thinlayerof sand.2. 508. lf morethanoneit.2 EmbankmentSlopes These shall be cut and dressedto dense slopes accordingto specifiedline and grade as per ltem 108. neat dressingof bricks.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 508.ITEIU 508 s08.3 Stackingof Bricks The bricks shall be deliveredat site in stacks of ten courses high and two bricksthick for the convenienceof proper inspection.2. 508.1 Shoulder The shouldersshall be properlyleveledas directed by the Engineerbefore commencementof work on this item.over preparedshoulderor embankment slopes. 508-1 . s08.3.The bricks shall be laid closelypackedin parallelrows transverseto the centerline and/oras directedby the Engineerat site. 508. shallbe spreadover dressedshoulderor slopeto facilitate. or as directed by the Engineer before commencementof this item.2 MATERIAL REQUE. The bricksshallbe laidon edge. Eachcourseshallbe properlyrolledandjointsfilledwith sandor approved localsoilbeforelayingthenextcourse. in one (1) or two (2) coursesas calledfor in the plans. 508.

bfunstablematerial.and incidentals in this ltem.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 508.fillingthe voidswith sand or approvedlocal soil.labour. Desbription Unitof Measurement 508 a Brick Paving(SingleCourse) SM 508 b Brick Paving(DoubleCourse) SM 508-2 . necessaryto completethe work prescribed equipment.provisionand layingof the sand bed and bricks. replacement. Pay ltem No.wateringand rolling the whole width for proper compaction. The unit of measurementwill be squaremeter.4.4.also including material. 508.tools.2 Payment Paymentshall be made as measuredabove and shall be full compensation for preparing and shaping the shoulders and embankment slopes.1 Measurement Brick pavingwhen laid and finishedto the requiredthicknessand grade line shall be measuredby in superficialarea.508.

ITEM 509

509.1

RIPRAP AND REINFORCED CONCRETE SLOPE
PROTECTION
DESCRIPTION
This work consistsof furnishingand placinga protectivecoveringof er.osion
resistantmaterialas riprap or reinforcedconcreteslope protectionon the
locationsshown on the plans for slopesor pier foundationprotection.The
work shallbe done in accordancewith the specifications
and conformitywith
the lines,grades,thicknessand typicalcross-sections
shownon the plans.
The areasto receiveriprapor slope protectionof any kind shall be dressed
smoothto the slopesor shapescalledfor on the plansand shallbe free from
stumps, organic matter, or waste material. A filter blanket should be
providedwhere it is anticipatedthat there may be migrationof fines through
the riprap.Toe trenchand/orfilter blanketis to be constructed,as directed
by the Engineer.
All materials,regardlessof type or kind, shall be placed as per lines and
levelscalledfor on thd Drawings.

s09.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

s09.2.r

Stones
stone for riprapshallconsistof field stoneor roughunhewnquarrystone as
nearly rectangularin sectionas is practical,except that riprap of class A
shall consistof round naturalstones. The stones shall be sound, tough,
durable,dense,resistantto the action of air and water, and suitablein all
respectsfor the purposeintended.samplesof the stoneto be used shall be
submittedto and approvedby the Engineerbeforeany stoneis placed. The
minimum apparentspecificgravity shall be two and half (2.5) and water
absorptionshall not exceed six (6) percent for stones to be used in riprap.
The stoneshallnot havean abrasionfossgreaterthan fortyfive (45) percent
when subjectedto five hundred(500)revolutionsin a LossAngelesAbrasion
test.
stones for riprap shall be one of the followingclassesas shown on the
Drawingsor determinedby the Engineer:
class A: stones rangingin weightfrom a minimumof fifteen(15) Kg to a
maximum of twenty five (25) Kg, with at teast 50 percent by weight of the
stonesweighingmorethantwenty(20) kg.
class B: stones rangingin weight from a minimumof thirty (30) kg to a
maximum of seventy(70) kg, with at least fifty (50) per:eentby weight of the
stones weighingmore than fifty (S0) kg.
Class C: Stones ranging in weight from a minimum sixty (60) kg to a
maximumof one hundred(100) kg, with at leastso percentby weightof the
stonesweighingmonethan eighty(80) kg.
509-1

Sound pieces of broken concrete obtained from the removal of bridges
culverts,and otherstructuresmay be substitutedfor stoneupon approvalby
the Engineer.
509.2.2

Filter Material
The gradingof the filtermaterialshall be as specifiedon the drawingsor in
the SpecialProvisions.lf not otherwisespecified,it will be requiredthat D15
of the filter is at least 4 times as large as D15 for the underlying
embankment materials,and not more than 4 times the D85 for the
materia'.
embankment
to fifteen
Where: Dl5 and D85 are the particlediameterscorresponding
(by
in
passing
weight)
(15) percentand eightyfive (85) percentrespectively,
a grainsize analYsis.

509.2.3

PortlandCement
of AASHTOM 85.
Porflandcementshallconformto the requirements

509.2.4

FineAggregates
Fineaggregatesfor mortarshallconformto the requirementsof AASHTOM
45.

509.2.5

SteelReinforcement
Steel reinforcementshall be furnished,bent and fixed where shown on the
drawings. Furnishing,bending and fixing shall be in accordancewith ltem
404.

509.2.6

Concrete
Concrete of specifiedClass shown on the Drawings shall be supplied,
in item401.
placed,finishedand usedas indicated

509.2.7

Water
Water for concreteand mortarof ratio1:3 shallconformto ltem 401.2.7.

509.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

509.3.1

Excavation
The bed for the riprap shall be excavatedto the required depths and
compacted,trimmedand shapedto the entiresatisfactionof the Engineeror
as shownon the Plans.

509-2

The riprapshall be set in a toe trenchas shown on the Drawings. The toe
trenchshallbe filledwifh stoneof the same classas the one specifiedfor the
riprap,unlessotherwisespecified.All toe trenchesand excavationsshall be
approvedby the Engineerwith firm sub-gradeor base prior to placementof
stones.Stonesshall be placedso as to provideminimumof voids. Larger
stones shall be placedin the toe trench and on the outsidesurfaceof the
slooe.
509.3.2

Placins
Stones placed below water line shall be distributedso that the minimum
thicknessof the riprapis not less than that specified.
Stonesabovethe waterline shall be placedby hand. They shall be laidwith
close,brokenjointsand shall be firmlybeddedintothe slopeand againstthe
adjoiningstones. The stones shall be laid perpendicular
to the slope with
ends in contact. The riprapshall be thoroughlycompactedas construction
progressesand the finishedsurface shall presentan even, tight surface.
Intersticesbetweenstones shall be chinkedwith spallsfirmly rammed into
Place.
Unless otherwise provided, riprap shall have the following minimum
thickness,measuredperpendicular
to the slope:

ClassA:
Class B :
ClassC :

20 cm
45 cm
60 cm

The surfaceof riprapplacedabovethe waterline shallnot vary from the
theoretical
surfaceby morethan8 cm at anypoint.
509.3.3

Loose RipraD

The loose riprap shall be placed in layers manuallyor other methods
approvedby the Engineer,
all to securea stablemass. Surfaceirregularities
of'theslopeshallnotvarymorethaneight(8) centimeters
alongthe intended
slope. After the completionand approvalof the riprap placement,the
surfacevoidsof the riprapin the footingtrenchand on the lowerportionsof
the slope shall be filled with excavatedmaterialand dressedto the
satisfaction
of the Engineer.
509.3.4

GroutedRiprau
Stone for this purpose shall, as for as practicable,be selected of the size
and shape so as to secure fairly large, flat-surfacedstone which will lay up
with a true and even surfaceand a minimumof voids. The stonesshall be
placedfirst and roughlyarrangedin close contact, the larger:stones being

509-3

placednear the base of the slope. The spaces betweenthe largerstones
shall be filled with stones of suitable size, leaving the surface smooth,
reasonablytight, and conformingto the contour required. In general,the
stone shall be laid with a degree of care that will ensurefor plane surfacesa
maximum variationfrom a true plane of not more than three (3) percent.
Warped and curved surfaces shall have the same general degree of
€ccuracy as specifiedabovefor plane surface.
As each of the largerstonesis placed,it shall be surroundedby fresh mortar
and adjacentstonesshall be shoved into contact. After the largerstonesare
in place,all of the spacesor openingsbetweenthem shallbe filledwith grout
consisting of one (1) part of Portland Cement and three (3) parts of fine
aggregptes,and one-fifth(1/5) part of hydratedlime with suffictentwater to
producea plasticmix and the smallerstones then placedby shovingthem
into position,forcingexcess mortarto the surface,and ensuringthat each
stone is carefullyand firmly beddedlaterally. Mortarshall not be placedin
temperaturelower than five (5) degree C. During hot, dry weatherthe work
shall be protectedfrom the sun and kept moist for a minimumof 3 days
after placement.Stonesshallbe kept wet duringplacingof the mortar.
After the work has been completedas above described,all excess mortar
forced up shall be spread uniformlyto completelyfill all surface voids. All
surfacejointsshallthen be roughlypointedup eitherwith flushjointsor with
shallow,smoothrakedjoints.
Weep holes shall be providedthrough the riprap cover as shown on the
plansor as directedby the Engineer.

s09.3.s
The slopes with suitable material shall be prepared with appropriate
compactionto form a sub-grade approved by the Engineerand formwork
shall be completedaccordingly.
After furnishingand fixingthe steel reinforcement,reinforcedconcreteslope
protection'shall be constructedafter light spray of water at the locations
shownon the plansor wheredirectedby the Engineer.Placingand finishing
of concreteshall conformto the requirementsspecifiedin ltem 401.
509.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

509.4.1

Measurement
The quantitiesto be measuredfor paymentshall be the number of cubic
meters of completedand acceptedwork placedto the designatedthickness
on slopesineludingthe toe-wallas shownon Drawings.
A filter layer of granular material, when required, shall be measured
separatelyby the cubic-meters,in place and accepted.

509-4

The computationof the quantitieswill be based on the volume within the
theoreticallimitingdimensionsdesignatedon the Drawings.
These items shallincludethe furnishingof all material,placingand grouting
stone riprap, mixing and placing concrete including reinforcement.
Excavation,backfillingand slope preparationshall not be measuredfor
paymentbut will be consideredsubstdiaryto the items of "Riprap"or "Slope
Protection".
509.4.2

Payment
The quantities,measuredas providedaboveshallbe paidfor at the contract
unit price,for each of the pay items listed below and shown in the Bill of
Quantities.Paymentshallbe full compensation
for furnishingall materials,
labour,equipment,toolssuppliesand all othercosts relatedto completionof
the work.
Pay ltem
No.

509 a
509 b
509 c
509 d
509 e
509 f
509 g
509 h

Description

Riprap, ClassA
Riprap, ClassB
Riprap, ClassC
GroutedRiprap,ClassA
GroutedRiprap,Class B
GroutedRiprap,ClassC
ReinforcedConcreteSlope
Protection
FilterLayerof granular
Material

509-5

Unit of
Measurement

CM
CM
CM
CM
CM
CM
CM
CM

ITEM 510

510.1

DISMANTLI.NG OF STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTIONS

DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of dismantling,removal, wholly or in part and
satisfactorydisposalof broken materialfrom buildings,fences, bridges,
culverts,drainagefacilitiesat differentlocationsand any other obstructions
which are not designatedor permittedto remain on those sections of
existinghighwaysexceptfor the obstructionsto be removedand disposedof
under other items in the contract. lt shall also includethe salvagingof
designatedmaterialsand backfillingthe resultingtrenches,holes, pits and
ditches.

510.2

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS
General
Engineershall specifythe extent of dismantlingfor each structureand the
contractorshall raze, remove and dispose of all remains of all those
dismantledstructuresand otherobstructionsany portionof whichare on the
right of way, exceptutilitiesand those for which other provisionshave been
made for removal. All designateduseable material shall be removed,
without unnecessarydamage,in sectionsor pieces,which may be readily
transported,and shallbe storedby the contractorat specifiedplaceswith in
the projectlimits. Unusableperishablematerialshall be destroyed. Nonperishablematerialmay be disposedof outsidethe limitsof view from the
projectwith writtenpermissionsof the propertyowner on whose propertythe
materialis placed. Copiesof all agreementswith propertyownersare to be
furnishedto the Engineer. Basementsor cavitiesleft by structuralremoval
shallbe filledto the levelof the surroundinggroundand, if withinthe prismof
constructionshall be compactedto the required degree of compaction
designatedon the plansfor roadwayembankmentand as specifiedin ltem
108.3.1.
Salvagedpipe culvertsor otherstructuresshall be storedat designatedand
accessiblepointson the projectas approvedby the Engineerand shall be
the propertyof the client. Dismantlingshall'becarriedout eithermanuallyor
with approvedequipments.Structuresto be dismantledmay inclpdeplainor
reinforced concrete, brick, stone masonry or any other such construction
item.

5 10 - 1

510.2.1

Removal of Bridges. Culverts and other Drainage Stnictures

concrete Bridges, culverts and other drainage structures in use by traffic
shall not be removed until satisfactoryarrangementshave been made to
accommodate traffic. Unless otherwise directed, the sub-structuresof
existingstructuresshall be removeddown to the natural stream bottom and
those parts outside of the stream shall be removed thirty (30) centimeters
belowgroundsurface. where such portionsof existingstructuresare wholly
or in part within the limits for a new structure,they shall be removed as
necessary to accommodate the construction of the proposed structure.
Steel bridges and wood bridges as designatedon the plans, shall be
carefullydismantledwithoutunnecessarydamage. steel membersshall be
match marked,unlesssuch match markingis waived by the Engineer. All
'salvagedmaterialshallbe storedas previouslyspecified.
Blastingor other operationsnecessaryfor the removalor dismanflingof an
existingstructureor obstruction,which may damagenew construction,
shall
be completedpriorto placingthe new work.
510.2.2

Removalof Pines
Unless otherwise directed all pipes shall be carefully removed and every
precautiontaken to avoid breakingor damagingthe pipe. The contractor
shall be held responsiblefor the satisfactoryremovalof such structuresin a
usable condition. In case these provisionsare violated, due to the
Contractor'snegligence,all materialto be salvagedwhich is damaged in
dismantling/ removal to impair its future use will be charged to the
contractorat sixty (60) percent of the current quoted price, deliveredto the
project,of an equalamountof new material.This amountof moneyshallbe
deductedfrom any moneydue or to becomedue to contractor.

510.2.3

Fences.Boulders.StonePiles
Stones,fences,pilesof stonesor bouldersof size greaterthan one-quarter
(1/4) cubic meter in volumewhich lie withinthe limitsof the work as shown
on the plans, or which fall within the approvedcross sections shall be
removedand disposedof as directed.
when fences enclosingpastureland or farm land are to be removed,the
contractor shall notify the propertyowner sufficienflyin advance to permit
the owner reasonabletime to constructsupplementalfences or make other
arrangements.

510-2

570.2.4

Wells
Existingwells,abandonedor active,whichlie withinthe limitsof the Work as
shown on the plans,or which fall withinthe approvedcross sectionsor as
directed by the Engineershall be dismantled,backfilledand compacted'
The Contractorshallcarefullyremoveall salvageablematerialand store it at
a locationon site designatedby the Engineer. Unlessotherwisenoted or
directed,all salvageablematerialshall become the propertyof the Client.
Wells shall be filledto the level of the surroundinggroundand, if withinthe
shall be compactedto the type of compactionwithin
Drismof construction,
the moisturerange designatedon the plans for roadwayembankmentand
as specifiedin ltem 107.No dismantlingor backfillingof a well shallbe done
by the Contractorwithoutthe priorapprovalof the Engineer.
No separatepaymentfor dismantlingor backfillingwells shall be made,the
costs being consideredsubsidiaryto other items listed in the Bill of
Quantities,exceptthat the compactedbackfillrequiredfor wells will be paid
for as per applicableitem of backfillmaterial.

510.3

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

510.3.1

Measurement
The quantityof dismantlingthe structureto be paidfor shall be measuredin
shallbe agreed
cubic meterof structuredismantled.All such measurements
work starts.
the
dismantling
before
.Engineer
Contractor
the
and
by the
for such
prepared
the
contractor
by
will
be
Necessary shop drawings
purpose.

510.3.2

Payment
The quantityas measuredabove shall be paid for at the Contractprice per
for dismantling,
cubic meter. The paymentshallconstitutefull compensation
removal and disposalof materialas directedby the Engineerand for all
toolsand incidentalsnecessaryto completethe work.
labour,equipments,

Pay ltem
No.

510

Description

of Structures
Dismantling
andObstructions.

510-3

Unit of
Measurement

CM

ITEM 5II

5 r1 " 1

STONE PITCHING
DESCRIPT{ON
where shownon the Drawings,this work shallconsistof furnishinghand-set
pitching laid dry or grouted to stabilizeslopes or as a protectionagainst
water or other erosion to form a flat or cured surface as directed by the
Engineer.All materialsregardlessof type or kind shall be placedas per the
linesand levelscalledfor on the plans.

5r1.2

MATERIAL REOUIR.EMENTS

511.2.1

Stones
The stones shall comprise good, hard and durable broken bouldersor
piecesof rock. These shall be sound,dense,resistantto the actionof air
and water and suitable in all respectsfor the purpose intended. stones of
class I or ll shall be used in pitching,shall conform to the following
specifications.
The depthof the stonesand theirweightshallbe as under:ClassI
stones rangingin weightfrom a minimumof fifteen(15) Kg to a maximumof
twenty five (25) Kg with at least fifty (50) percent by weight of the stones
weighingmore than twenty (20) Kg. The depth of the stones shall generally
be from twenty (20) cm to twenty five (25) cm and shall be used for heavy
pitching to culvert or bridge ends and approaches, wadi diversions.
protectionfor structures,revetmentto slopesand where directed.
ClassII
stones rangingin weightfrom a minimumof ten (10) Kg to a maximumof
fifteen (15) Kg with at least fifty (50) percent by weight of the stones
weighingmore than twelve (12) Kg. The depth of the stones shall vary from
fifteen(15) cm to twenty (20) cm and shall be used for lighterpitchingwhere
directedto ditches,beams, dykes etc.

5r1.2.2

PortlandCement
Portlandcement shall conformto the requirementsof AASHTO M g5.

511.2.3

FineAggregates
Fine aggregatesfor mortar shall conform to the requiremdntsof AASHTo
M-45.

511.2.4

Water
Water for cement sand mortar shall be as specifiedin ltem 40,1.
511-1

511.3

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS

511.3.1

Drv Pitchins
The bed upon which pitchingshall be laid, shall be firm or compactedof
approvedgranularmaterialof specifiedthicknessand to the requiredgrades
and lines as shown on the plans or as directed and approved by the
Engineer. The stonesshall compriseroughlydressedand shaped,set on
their edgeswith their longestdimensionat rightanglesto the flow of water.
These shall be securelybedded, breakingbond closely packed with any
intersticeslocked and filled by selectedstone spalls hammeredin. The
loose pitchingspecifiedin plans shall be placedby dumpingand spreading
in layersby hand or other methodsapprovedby the Engineerall to securea
stable mass. The ends of pitched areas shall be protected from
underminingby the use of edge stones at least twice the generalsize and
weight set on end. ln large or slope areas of pitching,key stones shall be
providedat the rate of one per square meter, at least one and a half times
the generalsizeand weight,set on end.
The pitchingto the batters of the earth works and diversionsof waterways
shall be carrieddown in trench to such a depth as will ensure a sound
footing for the lowest course. Subsequentto pitchingthe trench shall be
backfilledto normal ground level with approved, well compacted suitable
material.

511.3.2

GroutedPitchins
Specifiedstones shall be arrangedin such a way that the largeststones are
at the base of the slope. The surfaces of the rock shall be cleaned of
adheringdirt and clay and shall be moistened.Stonein the bottomcourses
and to a vertical height and thickness as per plans shall be carefully
arrangedby hand to inter lock and so as to yield true and even surface with
minimum voids and conformingto the contour required. Pitchinglaid in
cement mortarsof 1:3 shall be furnishedin panels with weep holes, the
joints between panels being approximatelytwo (2) cm in thickness and
extendingthe full depth of the pitching the joints shall be filled with sand
bitumen mixture consistingof approximatelyone part by weight of bitumen
heated as necessaryto two parts by weight of a clean sharp sand' The
two meterssquare but the
dimensionsof the panelsshall be approximately
precisedimensionsin any instanceand the spacingof the weep holes shall
be as requiredby the Engineer. ln layingthe pitchingthe lines of the panel
joints shall be picked out with a straight fillet laid on the face of the earth
works and the stonesset up carefullyto the edge of the fillet. Subsequentto
layingthe pitchingthe fillet shall be removedand the joint caulkedwith the
sand bitumen mixture as above. The exposed surface of the stones shall
project not less than four (4) centimeters and not more than eight (8)
centimetersof the grout surface. The groutedstone pitchingshall be cured
by an approvedmethod for a minimum period of four (4) days and afier
expirationof the curing period,the exposed surfaces shall be cleared of all
curingmediums.

511-2

5l1.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

511.4.1

Measurement
The quantitiesshall be measuredby the square meter of completedand
acceptedwork placedto the designatedthicknessof slopesincludingthe toe
walls as shown on Drawing. Toe walls shall be measuredby the height
times the length,and no additionalpaymentwill be made for the additional
thickness of the toe walls when compared to the slope thickness.
Measurementshall be bdsed on the dimensionsshown on the plans or as
otherwise authorised by the Engineer. These items shall include the
furnishingof all material,placingand groutingstone pitching. Excavation,
backfillingand slope preparationshallnot be measuredfor payment,but will
be consideredsubsidiaryto the item of "Stonepitching".

5r1.4.2

Pavment
The amountof completedand acceptedwork as measuredabove shall be
paidfor at the contractunit pricefor each of the pay items listedbelowand
specifiedin the Bill of Quantities,which priceshall be full compensationfor
furnishingall materials,for all labour,equipment,tools, supplies,and all
otheritem necessaryfor the completionof the work.

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

5 1 1a

Dry StonePitching

SM

5 1 1b

GroutedStonePitching.

SM

5 11 - 3

1 Excavation excavatedto a The sub-gradefor the ditch liningor wash checks shall be to a depth and smooth surface parallelto the [roposed finishedsurface on the as shown sufficientfor the full thicknessof the liningor wash checks with replaced and drawings.1 DITCH LINING AND WASH CIIECKS DESCRIPTION ditch and/or This work shall consist of the constructionof stone or concrete with in conformity and specifications the with wash checks.shallbe a" speJifiedin ltem509 for Riprapand reinforced slopeprotection. by the Engineer."no 512. 512. .2 ConcrgteDitch Linins and Wash checks of class A concrete ditch lining and wash checks shall be constructed mixing' and concrete. in accordance or as directed drawings the on shown cross_sections i.ii". The c6mposition.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS specifiedin the followingitems' Materialshallconformto the requirements 512..3."0"..2.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS 512.2 ReinforcineSteel steelshallbe as specifiedin ltem 404' Reinforcing 5r2..3 Stoneand Mortar Stoneandmortarforgroutedstoneditch|iningorgroutedstonewash concrete checks.2. consistency.1 Concrete in item 401' concretefor ditchliningand wash checksshallbe as specified 512.ITEM 512 5t2..2. proportioning' protectionof the concreteshall conform to the requirementsof item 401' end of the Flacementof concretefor ditch lining shall begin at the lower end' upper the progress toward and lined be portionof the ditchto 512-1 .3.Unstablesub-gradematerialshall be removed suitablematerialsas approvedby the Engineer' 512.

in Item 509. The stones shalrbe placeowith ends and sides abuttingand the joints betweenstones in each row breakingwith the joints in the precedingrow. 512-2 . The sidesand ends of the stonesshall be rn contacts much as the sizes and shapes of the stones wiil permit.3. constructedby.shown on the prans. stone wash checks may be substituted with concrete wash checks. Grout After the surface has been inspectedand approved. lmmediatelyafter the frnishingoperationsare compreted. The grout shail be cured in the manneras providbd for'.lmm"o or compactedto give them firm bearingand stability b. the spaces between stones shalr be compreteryfiiled with a grout composedof one (1) part of Portlandcement and three (3) parts ot ri"neaggregate mixed with sufficient water to produce a plastic mortar..3 Stone Ditch Linins and Stone Wash Checks a. if approved by the engineli at no extra cost to the coniractoror client.lf . The largerspaces betweenstonesshall be filledwith spails. StoneWash Checks The stones for wash checks'shail be raid to form a structure of the dimensionsshown on the plans.the concreteshail be reinforcedwith the type of reinforcementand in the manner indicated.GroutedRiprap.. The surfaceshallbe finishedwith a woodenfloat.crass A concrete. The grout shall be brushed or broomed intothe spacesto ensureproperfilling. The stonesshail be .. c. Joints between stones in one row shall break with joints between stones in the adjacentrows. StoneDitch Linins The stonesshall be placedin rowstransversely to the centerlineof the ditch in the mannerindicatedon the prans. "Riprapand ReinforcedConcrete Slopeprotection. contraction or construction jointsshallbe spacedand formedas indicated in the plans.Bridges for workmen shall be used io avoidwalkingin the freshlylaidconcrete. spails shall be rammed into the larger spaces between stones to form a soridwall. the concretesharl be protectedand curedin a manneras approvedby the Engineer s12.

backfilling.512. b.for all labor."which price(s)shall be full compensationfor all excavation. Pay ltem No. and all other items necessaryfor the proper completionof the Work.will be paid for at the unit price(s)bid per squaremeteras specifiedin the Bill of Quantities for "ConcreteDitch Lining"or "GroutedStone Ditch Lining"which price(s) shall be full compensationfor furnishing. 5t2.for all excavation.transporting. Ditch Linine The amountof completedand acceptedWork as measured.4.r Measurement a.backfilling materials.for all materials.and placing all if required. Ditch Linine Ditch lining shall be measured in square meter by multiplying the exposed face width to the length of ditch and accepted in place as measured along the finished surface as shown in the plans or authorized by the Engineer. WashChecks Wash checks shall be measuredaccordingto the linear meter of wash checks complete and accepted in place.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 512"4.includingreinforcement. tools. and for all labor. b.toolsand all otheritems necessaryfor the propercompletionof the Work. WashChecks The amountof completedand acceptedWork as measuredwill be paid for at the unit price(s)bid per linear meter as specifiedin the Bill of Quantities for "ConcreteWash Checks" and "GroutedStone Wash Checks.equipment.2 Payment a. Measurementshall be made perpendicularto the ditch centerlinealong the top surface and at the upstreamedge of each wash check. Description Unit of Measurement 512 a DitchLiningtypeConcrete SM 512b GroutedStoneDitchLiningtype- SM 512 c ConcreteWashCheckstype- M 512 d GroutedStoneWashCheckstype-- M 512-3 .

.

ANCILLARY WORKS .

.

600-1 . side walks. traffic control devices. specification Metalguard-rails.detours.guard rails. and other such fixtures shall meet the requirementsof ISO . This section deals with those items of work in which small elementsof constructionemployconstructionitems such as concrete.brickwork..grades sectionsdimensionsand locationsin the plansor as requiredby the Engineer.steel reinforcementor structuralsteel. in accordancewith these specifications conformitywith the lines.000 for which certificatesof manufacturersand suppliesshallbe produced.pavementmarkings.reflectors.trafficsigns.trafficroad signsand safetydevices. precast concrete posts and markers.9.pavementmarking. and in fencingand brickedgingetc.ANGILLARY WORKS ITEM 600 GENERAL This sectionshallconsistof itemsof work whichare ancillaryor incidentalto the other parts of the General Specifications. stone masonry.These items of work have been separatelyquantifiedso that contractorcan price them by assessing size of each elementand extra effort which is essentialin additionto the requirementof the parentitem. reflectorised pavement studs.Such works shall include general items.

constructedof the followingmaterialsand in accordance with the specificationsat the locationand of the form. dimensionsand designsshown on the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.channelor in combinationmay be constructedby one of the following methods. iii) Extrudedconcretekerbing.shall be addedduringmixingan amountto producefive (5) to eight (g) percentair by volumein the mixedconcrete. Expansionjoint filler shall be either the performed type conformingto requirementof AASHTO-M153 or shallbe precastfiber boardpacking.guttersand channelsshallbe either class 'A' or class 'c' or as indicatedon the Drawingsand shall conformto the requirementsof that particularclass prescribedunder item 401.shape and other details shown on the Drawings. gutter. The mortarshallbe usedwithinthirty(30) minutesafterpreparation. i) Cast in placeconcretekerbing.The kerb.1.steel Reinforcementif requiredshall conform to item 404 "steel Reinforcement". Formsto hold the concreteshallbe builtand set in placeas describedunder item 403-Formwork. Precastconcretekerbingunitsshallconsistof class 'c' concreteconforming to the requirementof item 401 and to lengths.channel. Joint filler shall consist of one part cement and two parts of approvedsand wjth sufficientquantityof water necessaryto obtainthe requiredconsistency. 601-1 ."classes of concrete".ITEM 60I CONCRETE KERBS. 601.Kerbingwhich shows surface irregularitiesof more than five (5) mm when checked with three meter straight edge or surface pits morethan fifteen(15) mm in diameterwill be rejected. GUTTERSAND CHANNELS 601.1 DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof kerb.An air entrainingagent. gutter.or combinationof kerb and gutteror channel. The Bondingcompoundwhen usedshallconformto AASHTOM_200.1.if required. Formsfor at least sixty metersof kerb or combinationof kerb and gutteror channelsshall be in place and checked for alignmentand grade before concreteis placed.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS The concretefor cast in placeconcretekerbs.curved sectionsshallhaveforms of eitherwood or metal and shall be accuratelyshaped to radius of curvature shown on the Drawings. ii) Precastconcretekerbing.

on the approvalof the Engineer. b) PlacingConcrete Concretemay be placedin the gutterto the full depth required. Expansionjointsshall be formedin the kerb and gutterat intervalsof six (6) to ten (10) meters in order to coincidewith the expansionjoints of cement concretepavementor as shown on the Drawing.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 601.The use of a separatemortarfinishingcoat or the practiceof working dry cement into the surface of the concretewill not be permitted.1 Cast-in-Place a) Excavationaud Bqllli4g Excavationshall be made to the requireddepth and the base upon which the kerb or combinationof kerb and gutteris to be set shall be compactedto a minimum density of ninety (90) percent of the maximum dry densityas determinedby AASHTOT-191 Method. Templates shall be set carefully and held firmly during the placing of the concrete and shall be allowedto remain in place untilthe concretehas set sufficientlyto hold its shape.When pre-cut fiber-boardpackingis used in the expansionjointsit may be used in placeof the sheettemplatereferredto above.but shall be removedwhilethe forms are still in place.the surfaceof the gutter shall be tested with a three (3) meter straightedge and any irregularitiesof more than five (5) mm in three (3) meters shatl be eliminated. or other approvedporousmaterialhavinga minimumcompactedthickness. Where directedby the Engineer.The top of the kerb or combinationof kerb and guttershall be floatedsmooth and the edges roundedto the radii shown on the Drawings. of fifteen(15) cm shall be placedto form a bed forthe kerb or combination of kerb and gutter.In finishingconcreteonly mortarnormallypresentin the concrete shall be permittedfor finishing. 601-2 . c) Joints The kerb and gutter shall be constructedin uniform sectionsof not more than twenty five (25) meters in length except where shorter sections are requiredto coincidewith the locationof weakened planes or contraction joints of the concretepavementor for closuresbut no sectionshall be less than two (2) meters long.of the same width templatesshall be approximately as that of the kerb or kerb and gutter and not less than five (5) cm greater than the depth of the kerb or kerb and gutter.a layerof cindersor cleansand and gravel.The templatesset perpendicular five (5) mm in thickness.601.ln this event the fiber 6oard shall be pre-cut to the shape of the kerb so that its outeredgewill be flushwith the abuttingkerb.All soft and unsuitablematerialshall be removedand replacedwith suitablematerialacceptableto the Engineer. The sections shall be separated by sheet to the face and top of the kerb and gutter.3.Before finishing.

rd oq llpr.lsslurofuollcel]uoc aql 'slalou.o1 BElm5rc 'rllooursa:e {eq1 ltlunaoe. aqgur pesodxeaq llrn qctqMsocepns lM uotlesuadruoc leuotltppelnoqym paceldalpue panou..e qJa) aLllo1 agbue]q6r:le aJnlcru]sjo acepns pue ocej aql ur sanoot6 6urru.alelncce }es oq lleqs laMopqce3 's6unne:6 lo ace1-tns aLl] uo polectpurse aq lleLlssJeq leMop aql 1o burcedspue azts aql 's6unnelqalll uo ul or.tns eq1 0urqqnlpue leog ]o loolq poo^ e Ourgann {q .ro.d seLlelolcuooJoUestnoq (y7) lnol r{1uem1 ulrl}tmpo^outal aq lleqs sulo1 aql dulqsluldpuBsruJodJo lB^orueug 'qldeppue 'uealc qlpm paurcadsio pue leau uel oq l1eqsslurofaql pue paloo]aq llBqs slutoleq11o sebpa aLlj 'slauueqc]o ocelns all] ut pue sleuueqcpue qla) ed{ oqllouoru Jo ocelns lauueqceq} ut pue qlol }o acel {ervrpeolpesodxe aql ur pue sqJal lle 1o do1aq] ul peulol aq lleqs senoolbaql 'apm Luc(9) entlr{qdeep uc (g) enU'uot}cas-ssolcur te.0-r09 pallulceqaq lleqsslauueqsJo sJalln6 'sqrol lo uotle^e3xaeLlJ 'parJrcads se potncuaoq seq eloJcuospue pa^ouJajueoq seLl sullol Jauv .lt 'aoe1.rd:e1emLl}tMlo spunoduoc Ourrurolprnbtl qlrrn .n6ue}catsq lleqssanooJ6ar.suell peol e se peprnotd eq lleqs anaolsdrls qlrm sJeq lo/v\oppelured'{llecrq1louoru }llnq louueqs puP sqje) jo uotuod lauueqc alll ul pue slauueqcur slurol uorsuedxe}y slauuBqJ ur slurof uofsuBoxl lB sle^roo (p .rdaq lleqs s:apnb pue slauuBr. st alaJouoo llt}s aql otrLlm'paqsru4aq lleqs tapnb pue qlel ar.{q pue s}eul uetssoHlo uol}ocalqe}tnsqlnn6uuanoc r{q 6uftp ernleua:d lsure6e palcelo.Er..tns qJaI pue luauubr.eqs6ur_re1se16 ou4 oql 1o syed o Al pue luauloc pueluod1o yed euo burureguoc JeUouJ qlnn perredaleq lleqs s]3alop.Ja}eM qtrn 6url1uuds luanba:..rouryl edeqs slt plorl o1{lluercrgnsles seq olaJcuooaql se uoos se penoual aq lleqs regn6 pue qJaI io uotleutquloc e ur qJaI aLll to oce] aql lsurebe posn uJoJ €rll leLll ldacxa pece.11llr1cuflq Joourouforl]^q pa^oidde pue elaJcuoc '6urrn3-g'g1.lssuotle3olle untpau la.r(q peprno.taloq lleqs lepnb . (g) rnol lo unutxeut e o1peceds 6unne:6 aLll uo umoLlssuollecolJoqlo pue lueuaned alalcuoc 6urpnqe ur slurol uorlcerluoc.uear6.97 uotlcos Llt pauotluau se poqlal! leqlo {ue Iq :o :aded loo.r le Agalelncce do1aq1o1 la11eled {..1eo1 aysoddo pepno:d aq lleqs slurol uorlceJ]uoc aslonsueJf Sturpf uo-itiErtm5re pue :agnb eq1 lurofuorsuedxoaqt o1se16ue]qOl.lc 'sqro) aql 'olarcuoc s:noq (71) om1ftuanas 6ur:n6 1o burceld6umno1.ro qlay palcafeJlle pue :apn6 pue 'ale6er66e qral Jo qrol e lo ocel aLll uo peprul:edaq ]ou .l]Jo uorlcrulsuocpaqstut.

filled with water with a brush T-heformingtube portionof the extrusionmachineshall be readilyadjustable verticallyduringthe fonrvardmotionof the machine. All soft and unsuitablematerial shall be removed and replaced with a suitablematerialacceptableto the Engineer.3 EstrudedConcreteKerbingand Channels and Bedding a) Excavation Excavationand bedding shall conform to the requirementsas described u n d e ri t e m6 0 1 3 .3. 6{11. shallmeetthe requirements Backfilling 60r.with suitableearth or granularmaterialtamped into place in layers of not morethan fifteen(15) cms each untilfirm and solid. c )J o i n t s Jointsbetweenconsecutivekerbsshallbe three (3) to five (5) mm wide and filledwith cementmortarto the full sectionof the kerb. 1 ( a ) b) Placine Concreteshall be fed to the machineat a uniformrate.2 Pre-Cast a) Excavation and Bedding Excavationshall be made to the requireddepth as shown on the D. of Beddingshallconsistof ClassB Concreteconfoimingto the requirements Item401 and shallbe to the sectionand dimensionshownon the Drawings. level and grade as shown on the Drawingsor as directed by the Engineer.3.3.1(h). b) Placine The precastconcretekerbs shallbe set in 1:3 of cementsand mortarto the line. 601-4 .rawings. d) Baclifillins of ltem601.A grade line gauge or pointershall be attachedto the machineso that a continualcomparisoncan be made betweenthe kerb beingplacedand the establishedkerb gradeas indicatedbv an offsetquideline. The concreteshall it will maintainthe shape of the be of such consistencythat after e'xtrusion contain the maximum amount of and shall without support kerb section permit result. The machine shali be operated under will this water that produce a well compacted to to forward motion restraint sufficientuniform lightbrushing finishing other than no further which requires mass of concrete only.

4.free from bumpsor surfacepits iarger than fifteen (15) mm in diameter.the surfaceshall be first thoroughlycleanedof all dust. Where adhesiveis used to bond the kerb to an existingpavement.The widthof the cut shallbe such as to admitthe joint fillerwith a tight fit.the surface shall not be more than five (5) mm from the edge of the straightedge exceptat gradechangesor curves. 60'1-5 .or combinationof kerb and gutter.3. pre-cutjointfillersshallbe permittedto be placedat the location Alternatively of the expansionjoints prior to the placingof the extrudedkerb with the approvalof the Engineer.or surfaceof the gutter. loose materialand oil. Measurementwill not includeany area in excessof those shown on the Drawingsexceptfor any area authorisedby the Engineerin writing. lf sawing is performedbefore the concrete has hardened. 3 .or extrudedkerbs and channelsshall be measuredby the linear meter along the front face of the section at the finishedgrade elevation. d) Curins and Backfillins Curing and backfilling shall be as describedin item 601. Preformedjoint fillershall conformto the provisionsof ltem 601.channel.2 and shall be insertedand mortaredin place. gutter. c) Joints Expansionjointsshall be constructedby sawingthroughthe kerb sectionto its full depth. the cost of whichshallbe includedin otheritemsof work.When a straight-edgethree (3) meterslong is laidon the top or face of the kerb.the adjacent portionof the kerb shallbe supportedfirmlywith closefittingshieldsand the operationsof sawingand insertingthe joint filler shall be completedbefore curingthe concrete.The top end face of the finishedkerb shall be true and straightand the top surfaceof the kerbshallbe of uniformwidth. 1( h ) .Deductionin lengthwill be made for drainagestructureinstailedin the kerbingssuch as catch basinsand drop inletsetc. 601.1(g)and ltem 6 0 1.J MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 601.The joint fillers shall be set firmly in place in a verticalpositionto the lineand gradeof the kerb profile.1 Measurement The unit of measurementfor concretekerb.

601.2 Pavment Measuredand acceptedquantitiesshallbe paid for at the contractttnitprrce per linearmeterfor each of the particularpay item listedbelowand shownin the Bill of Quantities which prices and payment shall constitute full compensationfor furnishingand placing all materials for concrete.for reinforcingsteel if requiredon the Drawingsfor expansionJoints' materlal' form for drainageopening.-1. Concreteand mortar requiredfor beddingof precast concrete kerbs as shownon the Drawingsshall not be paidfor as separateditem.tYPe-- M 601f ExtrudedKerband Channel.in Place.tyPe-- M Combinationof kerb and Channelin place. equipment. Description Unit of Measurement 60'1a ConcreteKerb.type- M 601e ConcreteChannel. type-- M 601c 601-6 . Paymentfor expansionjoint fillermaterialused in transverseexpattsionand contractionjoints in kerbsand channelshallbe understoodto be includedin the pricetenderedper linearmeterfor the kerbs and channelsand shallnot be paidfor seParatelY.tYPe-- M 601b Combinationof Kerb and Gutterin place.excavation.tool and incidentals necessaryto completethe item. but the cost shallbe includedin the contractunitpricefor precastconcretekerb' Pay ltem No.backfillingand dumpingand disposal of surplus material and for all labour.type-- M 601d PreCast kerb in place.

602-1 . plain portland cement concrete. 602.2 AsphaltCohcrete Asphalticconcreteshall conformto the requirementsof ltem 305 . drawingsand in accordance 6112.n'E\t 602 602.3 Expansion Joint Filler Unlessotherwisedirectedthe joint fillershallhave a thicknessof five (5) mm of ltem 601. slag.5 BedCourseMaterial Bed course materialshall consist of cinders.6 Asphallre Jrunc_egAl of ltem 301 Asphalticprimecoat materialshall conformto the requirements for Cut-backAsphalt. grade.crushed stone or other approvedmaterialsof such gradationthat all particleswill passthrougha 112"(12.2.2.2.2.All forms shallbe straight. and conformto the requirements 602.2.1.1 CementConcrete The Concrete shall be either Class A or Class C as indlcatedon the with ltem4O1.2. gravel. 602.free from warp and of adequatestrengthto resistbending.1 Forms Forms shall be of wood or metal as approvedby the Engineerand shall extendto the full depthof the concrete. 602.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 602.Asphalt ConcretePavement.1.sand.for ClassB mixture. 602. or precast Portland cement concreteslabs (450x450)inm or smalleror interlockingconcreteblocksall in accordancewith these specificationsand to the line. levels and dimensionsshownon the Drawingsor as requiredby the Engineer.I ASPHALT CONCRETEAND CEMENT CONCRETE SIDEWALK DESCRIPTION This work shallconsistof the constructionof sidewalkswhichcan be asphalt concrete.2.5m) sieve.

1(a).the surfacingshallbe of the thicknessand sectionshownon the Drawings.3.3. shall be removedand the shouldersshapedand compactedto the requiredsection.After rollingwith a handoperatedrolleror a type satisfactory compaction.Each courseshall be smoothedby rakingor screedingand shall be thoroughlycompactedby to the Engineer.1(b).1 AsrrhaltConcreteSidewalk aalExcal'ation Excavationshall be made to the requireddepth and to a width that will permit the instattationand bracingof the forms.2 CementConcreteSidewalk (al Excavation of ttem 602. (c) Priminethe BedCoufseMaterial The preparedbed coursematerialshallrecetvean applicationof primecoat in accordancewith the requirementsof.Forms. if used. to the depth shown on the drawingsand to the line and grade of the finishedsidewalksurface.shallbe smooth. 602-2 . in the opinionof weatherconditionsare suitable. (d) PlacingtheAsnhaltConcrete The asphaltconcreteshallbe placedon the previouslyprimedpreparedbed :the Engineerthe bed is sufficientlydry and only when. (b) Placineof BedCourseMaterial The bed coursematerialshhllbe compactedin layersnot exceedingten (10) cm. ltem 302 and approved by the Engineer.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS 602.J.The surfaceshallbe even densityas determined shownon the drawings.All soft materialshall be section to the conforming rernovedand replacedwith acceptablematerial. Excavationshallmeetthe requirements (b) Placinsof BedCourseMaterial Where indicatedon the drawingsthe bed coursematerialshall be placedin accordancewith ltem 602. 602.evenand of a denseand uniformtexture.3. The foundationshall be shapedand compactedto minimumninety(90) percentof the maxtmumdry by AASHTOT-191Method.The mixtureshall be placedon one or more coursesof uniformthicknessas shownon the Drawings.602.

The edges of the sidewalkand the transversecuts shall be shapedwith a suitabletool so formedas to roundthe edgesto a one and half (1.duringor aftererectionshall be removedfrom the works and replacedby the Contractorat his own expense.placing.The joint fillershallbe placed5 mm belowthe top surfaceof the finishedsidewalk. elevations.grooves.All pre-castunits shallstrictlyconformto the approvedsample.pockets. All pre-castunits shall be smoothlyfinishedto the requiredlines.in straightlinesperpendicular to the edge of the sidewalk.(c) Formsand ExnansionJoints All forms shall be staked securely in position at the correct line and elevation.5)centimetersradius.Curingof allthe pre-castunitsshallbe done in accordancewith i t e m4 0 1 . The surfaceshall be cut throughto a depth of one (1) cm with a trowel at intervalsof one (1) meteror where required.The surfaceshall then be brushed. grades anglesetc. 602-3 . Before the concrete has set.and curing of concreteshall be as provided under ltem 401-Concrete. Expansionjoint filler shall be set in the positionshown on the Drawings beforethe piacingof the concreteis started. The concreteused for pre-castunit shall conformto the specifications laid down in item 401-Concrete. (d) Placingthe CementConcreteMaterial The mixing.hooksshallbe providedas shownor as directedby the Engineer. Precastconcreteunitsshall be fair faced cast to the sizes and dimensions as indicatedon the drawings. The unitsshallbe properlystackedon a platformwithoutcausingany cracks or damage. the surface of the concrete shall be trawled until it is of uniformsmoothnessand is true to the lines. (e) PrecastElements Precast concreteslabs or interlockingconcrete blocks shall be set on the bed course materialwhere indicatedon the drawingsor as directed by the engineerto providea smoothtop surfacewithoutridgesor lumpsat joints.and surfacerequired.finishing. A pre-castunit crackedor damagedbefore.The Contractorshall be requiredto submit a sample of pre-castunit for the approvalof the Engineer. Holes.

for asphalticconcrete.1. for furnishingand placingfor forms.r Measurement The quantityto be paid for shall be the numberof squaremetersof asphalt concrete or cement concretesidewalkcomplete in plaCeand accepted.which price and paymentshall constitutefull compensationfor furnishingand placingall materials. and for all labour. Pay ltem No. equipment. 602.Portlandcement concrete.1.toolsand incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 602. expansionjoint material.2 Pavntent The quantityas determinedabove.shallbe paid for at the contractunit price per square meter for the pay items listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantities. measuredin the placeof the sidewalksurface.602.for excavatingand compactingthe foundationbed. Description Unit of Measurement 602 a AsphaltConcreteSidewalk SM 602b CementConcreteSidewalk SM 602 c PrecastConcreteSlab Sidewalk SM 602 d PrecastConcreteInterlocking SM BlockSidewalks 602-4 .

so that top of the brick becomesflushedwith the top of road pavementand to ensurethat one face of the brickremainsin contact with the pavementstructure.4.compactedbackfillof cavitiesand dressingof bermsincludingmaterial. 603.2.labour.I Bricks Quality of Bricks shall meet the materialrequirementas specifredunder i t e m4 ' 1 0 .equipment.1 MEASURE I\.MATERIALREOUIREMENTS 603.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS A trench of appropriatedimensionsshall be excavatedto accommodate brick on verticaledge. toolsand incidentals necessaryto completethe item. 603.watering. 603.lt shall be ensuredthat bricksare installedin verticalpositions.2 ..-1.r BRICK EDGING DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of brick installedon vertical edge between the oavementstructure and shouldersin such a mannerthatthe brickis laidon compactedshouldersand top of brick is flushed with the slope of road pavement 6{f3. The brick shall be laid in accordancewith the line and grade of the road pavement. Description Unit of Measurement 603 BrickEdging M 603-1 .t'I't_NI60-l 603. Pay ltem No.IENTAND PAYMENT 603.tamping.installation of bricks.2 Pavment The quantity as measured above shall be paid per linear meter for excavationof trench.r Measurement Brick edgingwhen laid and finishedto the requiredgrade and line shall be measuredper linearmeterinstalledand approvedby the Engineer.The cavitieson the otherface of the brickshall be refilledwith the excavatedshouldermaterialand properlycompacted.

A shall be galvanizedas specifiedin ASTM two hundred a two thousand post shall withstand the rail elementto the seventy(2270)kg pullat rightanglesto the lineof the railing. (Minimum) Elongation not lessthan 12 percentin a 2 inch(5.08cm) gaugelengthwhen testedin accordancewith ASTM E 8.J and Srrlices Connections All connectionsor splicesshallbe formedwith oval shoulderbutton headed guard. and nuts for All bolts the of boltsto minimizeprojectionson the side A 307 and ASTM of requirements beams shall conformto or exceed the of connection The bolted 153. (Minimum) TensileStrength 4900kg i sq.7.2. two and half (2.2.the rail shallwithstanda cold bendwithoutcracking of one hundredeighty(180)degreearounda mandrelof a diameterequalto timesthe thicknessof the plate.1 METAL BEAM GUARD-RAIL DESCRIPTION This item shall consistof metai beam Guard rail constructedin accordance with these specificattonsat the locations and in conformitywith the dimensrons.1 VletalBearnGuardRail The rail elementsshall be galvanizedcorrugatedsteel beam conformingto of AASHTOM 180 of the designatedtype and class. In additionto the above. cm.2 End or BufferSections The end or buffer sectionsshall be formed from open hearth. 604-'1 .2 i\'IATERIALREOUIREMENTS 60J. 6tl{. electric furnaceor basicoxygensteel. the requirements The mechanicalpropertiesof the base metals for beams shall conformtc the followingrequirements: YieldPoint 3500kg / sq.|TIIM 601 60{.and desrgn shown on the Drawings or as ordered by the Engrneer 60-t.The sectionshall be of the same or superior classand type usedfor the beamto which it is attached. cm.112) 601.

1. In order to facilitatethe removalof posts damagedby vehicleimpact.posts shall be set in galvanizedtubularsteel socketscast into foundationblocks.in layersof not exceedingten (10) cm and each layer shall be moistenedand thoroughlycompacted. 604. 604.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS All posts shall be set verticallyin the positionshown on the Drawingsand whereembeddedin a concretefoundationblockshallremainundisturbed for a minimumof forty eight (a8) hours.They shall conformto the requirementsof AASHTOM 183for the gradespecified.exceptat junctionsbetween bridgesand approachembankments.1. Followingerectionof guardrails. All barsshallbe of the deformed type.1 Erectionof Rail All metalwork shallbe fabricatedin the shop and no cuttingor welding shall be done in the fieldunlessotherwiseorderedby the Enginelr.1.1. The space around the post or post foundationblocksshall be backfilledto the groundline. b) Precastreinforcedconcreteposts shall be of a sectionand length as specifiedor as shownon the Drawings.5 WoodenSoacerBlocks wooden spacerblocksbetweenthe Guard rail and the postsshall conform to AASHTo M-133and M-168and be constructedto the sectionand lenoth specifiedor as shownon the Drawings.3.6 PostFoundationBlocks where requiredor as orderedby the Engineer.with selectedearth containingno rocks.post foundationblocksshall be constructedin class A concreteas specifiedin ltem 401.only one type of post shall be usedfor any one continuousGuardrail. 604. The socketsshall be of internaldimension(s) after galvanizingsuch that thereis a clearanceof 3 to 5 mm betweenthe socketano tne guardrail post.1 GuardRail Posts Postsshall be of eithersteel or concreteas specified.where steelpostsare driven intothe groundno buckledpost or deformedhead shallbe acceoted. Reinforcement shall conform to the requirements of AASHTOM 31 or M 53.Railelements shall be lappedso that the exposedends will not facJ approachingtraffic. Terminalsectionsshall be installedin accordancewith the manufacturer's recommendation.2.The concreteshallbe class c as specified in ltem 401. a) steel postsshallbe galvanizedand of the sectionand lengthspecifiedor as shown on the Drawings.the space betweenposts and socketsshall be filledwith epoxymortar.2.to the sectionand lengthspecifiedor as shownon the Drawings. 604.conformingto AASHTOM 31 or M 42.604. 604-2 .2.

for installationand fastening.1 VIEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 60. Unit of Measurement Pay ltem No. 6(fJ.and for all costs includinglabour..for provisionand erectionof posts for excavationand backfill. Description 604 a MetalGuardRail M 604 b GuardRailEnd Pieces Each 604 c ConcretePostfor GuardRail Each 604 d SteelPostfor GuardRail 604-3 Each .2Pavment The quantitiesdeterminedas prescribedabove shall be paid for at the contractprice per unit of measurementfor the pay item listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich price shall be full compensationfor furnishingplacingall materials.1 Measurement The Guard rail shall be measuredby the linearmeter from centerto center of end posts for each completedsectionfastenedin place and accepted.60-t.J.1. Post for Guard rail shall be measuredby the numbererectedin place and accepted.4.tools and incidentalsnecessaryto completethe work orescribedin this item.for foundations. Guardrail end piecesshall be measuredby the numbercompletedin place and accepted.

Reinforcingsteel shallbe providedat the rate of one hundredtwenty(120)kg per cubicmeter.shall be constructedin concretgclass c as specifiedin ltem 401. nuts.1of these Specifications.2 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 605. The concreteshall be class A as specifiedin ltem 401.1 ConcreteBeamGuardRail The rail shall be of concrete class A as specifiedin item 401. All bars shall be of the deformedtype.1.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 605.1.3 Guard Rail Posts Post shall be of concreteclass A as specifiedin item 401.1 "structures'1. 605. 60s. where as reinforcingsteel shall be provided at the rate of one hundred twenty(120)Kg.LReinforcement shall conformto the requirementsof MSHTO M 31 or M 53.2.ITEt\I605 605. 605.and shall be supplied. 605-1 .2.125mm x 300 mm.. and designshownon the Drawings. 605. washers.3.1. Reinforcingsteel shall conformto requirementas specifiedin item 404. Concretebeam Guard rail shall be of size .erected and removed as specified'in Item403.2 Connections andSplices Bolts.r CONCRETE BEAM GUARD RAIL DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of concrete beam Guard rail constructed in accordancewith these specifications at the locationsand in conformitywith the dimensions.2.2.post foundationblocks.1 Formrr'ork Formwork shall be supplied and fixed in the position required for the concreteto be cast as shown on the Drawings.1to the sectionand lengthspecifiedor as directedby the Engineer.1. Precastreinforcedconcreteposts shall be of a section250 mm x 250 mm. per cubicmeter.sleevesand other fittings shall conform to ASTM Designation A 325 (AASHTOM 614) and shalt be zinc coated in accordancewith the requirementof ASTM Designation A 153 (AASHTO M232) 605.{ PostFoundation Blocks where requiredor as orderedby the Engineer. conformingto AASHTO M 137.or as required by the Engineer.

making and transportation. Unit of Measurement Pay ltem No. Description 605 a ConcreteBearnGuardRail.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 605.tYPe-- M 605 c ConcretePostfor GuardRail and GuardRail End Pieces.tYPe-- M 605 b GuardRailEnd Pieces..3.1. filling of holes.J Concrete concrete class D1 as shown on the Drawings or as required by the Engineer shall be supplied.2 SteelReinlbrcement Steel reinforcementshall be furnished. Guardrai|endpiecessha||bemeasuredbythe|engthtnmetercomp|etedin placeand accepted.bendingand ftxtngshallbe in accordancewith ltem 404 60s.1 Nleasurement The Guard rail shall be measured by the length in meter of completed sectionfastenedin placeand accepted. and for all costs includinglabour.or whererequiredby the Engineer.formwork' erectionand fasteningof posts and Guard rail.determinedas prescribedabove shall be paid for at the contractpnce per unit for measurementfor the pay item listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich price shall be full compensationfor fabricationof itemsin lengthas directed.3.bent and fixed where shown on the Drawings.2 Pavment The quantities.and its furnlshing.includingconcrete.tYPe-- Each 605-2 . 60s.placed. 605. tools and incidentals necessaryto completethe work prescribedin this item.4.finishedand curedas specifiedin ltem 401.605.steel. Posts for guard rail and guard rail end pieces shall be measuredby the numbererectedin placeand accepted.

and shall be supplied.2.ork Formworkwherenecessary.2 Steel. Where metalbeam Guardrailsform partof the BridgeRailing.erectedand removedas specifiedin ltem 403.1 Formw.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS 606. 606.2.the Guardrail beam and connectionsshall conformto the requirementsof item 604 and shallbe paidfor underthat item. bending.2 I\{ATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 606.J.3.I BRIDGE RAILING DESCRIPTION Thrswork.bent and fixed where shown on the drawingsor wheredirectedby the Engineerand its furnishing.2. 606-'1 . 606.I'I'EM 606 606.1oras shownon the Drawings.and fixingshallbe in accordance withthe ltem404.1.l Formwork Formwork shall be supplied and fixed in the position required for the concreteto be cast as shown on the Drawings.3 Concrete concreteshallbe classD1 as specifiedin item 401. 606.2 SteelReinforcement Steelreinforcement shallbe as specifiedin ltem 404. 606.or as directed by the Engineer. I{cinlirrcement steei reinforcement shall be furnished.shallconformto ltem 403. 606. consistsof the supplyand erectionof concreterailingfor bridges and other structuresin accordancewith these specificationsanO to ihe detailsshownon the Drawings.

606.1 Measurement Concretein placeand acceptedshallbe measuredas specifiedin ltem 401' The formworkin place and acceptedshall not be measuredseparatelyas specifiedin ltem 403.1 9oncrete ConcreteclassD'l as shownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer shall be supplied.606.or the rates quoted by contractorand measuredas providedabove.placed.finishedand cured.4. Unit of Measurement Pay ltem No. Steel reinforcementin place and accepted shall be measured for as specifiedin ltem 404. 606.2 Payment Paymentshall be made for the materialsutilized. Reinforcing deformed Ton 606 2 .for followingitems.4.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 606.as specifiedin ltem 401. Description 606 a StructuralConcrete CM 606 b steelGrade60.3.

wide angle retroreflectivesheeting (herein after called sheeting). 607. The sheetingshall have eithera precoatedpressuresensitiveadhesiveor a tack-freeadhesiveactivatedby heat appliedin a heatvacuumapplicatorin a mannerrecommendedby the sheetingmanufacturer. Perforinshearing.2 ReflectiveSheeting Reflectivesheetingused on road sign madeof flexiblewhiteor colored. blisters. drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.I TRAFFIC ROAD SIGNS AND SAFETY DEVICES DESCRIPTION This work shall comprisefurnishingand installingtraffic signs. The thicknesssliall be uniformand the blank commerciallyflat.cuttingand punchingbeforepreparingthe blanksfor application of reflectivematerial.open searns. warning and informatory signs shall be manufacturedfrom aluminrumalloyconformingto ASTM B 209. The blanksshall be free from laminations. traffic symbolsand sign layout.H38 plates of three (3) mm thickness as shown on the drawings. alloy6061T6 or 5052 . 607-1 . permanent safetydevicesand post assembliesin accordancewith these specifications and to the detailsshown on the Drawings. or otherdefects'thatmay affecttheir appearanceor use.2 MATERTALREOUIREMENTS 607.degreased.and chromateor othenrvise prepared according to methods recommended by the sheeting manufacturer.The permanentsafetydevicesshallconsistof road posts and hazard markers and will be provided as per specifications.accordancewith NHA/NTRCsign standardsor as shown on plans. Both adhesiveclasses shallbe protectedby an easilyremovableliner. holes.pits.All sign faces and letteringshall be in .2.1 SignPanels Sign panels for regulator. Priorto manufactureand fabricationof the signsthe contractorshall submit to the Engineerfor approvaldetaileddrawingsshowingletter sizes.and related processingmaterialsdesignedto enhancenighttimevisibility. 601.The sheeting shall consist of optical elements adhered to a synthetic resin and encapsulatedby a flexible transparentplastic that has a smooth outer surface.ITEM 607 607. properly The blanksshallbe cleaned.2.

The sheeting rnanufacturermust provide documented evidence to the satisfactionof the Engineerthat representativeproductionmaterialsof the type to be suppliedhas been used successfullyin a substantialtrafficsigning programin similarclimaticconditionsfor at leastthreeyears. Color X Max.438 .352 2.316 27.430 .630 .0 40.0 7.472 15.360 .0 Brown .550 .340 .520 .516 . clears and thinners produced by the sheeting manufacturer for and compatiblewith the sheetingto meet the performance recommendec! requirements of thls specification and shall further be responsible for technicalassistaneein the use of these inks or alternativelysheetingcan be used on sheeting.Baltimore.The manufacturerof the sheeting being offered shall furnish the process inks. 3 2 1 6 .0 10G3/8 Red 'PB711 2.550 .558 .144 .303 .557 .364 .353 .O Yellow.5/14 * Thefourpairsof chromaticity theacceptable color determine coordinates with systemmeasured in termsof the CIE 1931standardcolormeteric illumination SourceC standard ** Avaifablefrom MunsellColorCompany.380 .247 . 21218.0 9.2p8 1.5YR5.0 30.5R3t12 Blue .MCP-90040.286 .450 . 8 Orange.25Y6t12 .30 . 0 5 .2441 CalvertStreet.5 11.613 .479 .370 .166 .0 1 0 .708 . 8 P B1 . requirements Table I AND NNFENtrNCE STANDANNS COLOR SPECMICATION LITVTITS* Reflectance Munsell Limit (Y) Min.581 .274 .030 .Catalog No.4288 .0 1.292 .201 .202 .244 .390 3.430 .610 . ** Paper White .380 . 4 1 2 .394 14.390 .297 .442 .066 .190 .498 .636 .340 .0 s Y R3 . a) Color Requirements.418 . Maryland 607-2 .0 8.368 .287 .776 3. Color shall be specifled and conform to the of Table 1.346 . 6 Green .

0 25 100 25 11 .0 3. For heat activatedmaterialthe adhesiveshall permitthe reflectivesheeting to adheresecurelyfortyeight(48) hoursafterapplication.darkening.2 A 02 +30 05 -4 u. at temperaturesof up to nrnety(90)degreeCentigrade. shall be at least ninety(90)% of the abovevalues The reflectivesheetingshall be sufficientlyflexibleas to permit applicatron over and adhesionto a moderatelyembossedsurface. cracking. shallshow no definitefading.0 30.c +30 White Red 250 45 170 45 20.0 '150 qLr 65 Yellow Green Blue Brown Oranqe For screen printed transparent colored areas on white sheeting.0 12. The brightnessof the reflectivesheetingtotallywet by rain. lt shall not show damage when bent ninety (90) degree over a frfty (50) mm diameter mandrill.0 100. or Fp g2 of FHWA.5 25.5 5. 607-3 .blistering or peelingand not less than seventyfive (75) % of the specifiedwet or dry minimum brightnessvalueswhen exposedto weatheringfor five (5) years. The reflectivematerialshall be weather-resistant and followingcleaning.5 60. The sheetingshall show no crackingor reductionin reflectionafter being subjecte!to the droppingof a twentyfive (25) mm diametersteel ballfrom a heightof two (2) metersonto its surface.The coefficientsof retroreflection shall conformto the minimumrequirements of Tablell.0 10 45 10 5.0 tc cz 15 7.b) Coefficient of Retroreflection. the coefficientsof retroreflection shall not be less than 70% of the values for corresponding colorin the abovetable. Table ll MINTMUM COEFFICIENT OF RETROREFLECTION (CANDELAS PER FOOTCANDLE PER SOUATTEFOOT) Observation Entrance Angle(') Angle(') 0. 0 8. The sheetingmanufacturer shall providea test reporlfrom Britishstandards (BSl) or any internationally Institution recognised laboratory statingthat the sheetingmeets the requirementsaccordingto BSI 873 part 6.

.v-109 ssauo^rIsaJJo ololsel oi paltnbal6uryeeqs aq1ecelda:lpnn leur6uoslt ol ace!ns u6tsor.l] ralnlcelnueur puelainlceJnueut Ourlaeqs u6rseq1siea.tlar ieq] umoLlsaq ueo ]t ajaqM 'urlaaqs o.lo1ce1sr1esun anrlcagarorlar aql 'uorlecrlrceds slrj] lo lll olqel ut pelels sleel 1o taqulnu aLl]roJ [lenrlcageulog:ed lleqs 'uol]epueLuutooot s.uollalecgr1.""riJ"tJ"j:']5:T:il olqe]o^oqeaql ut lolocOurpuodsalloc aql roj sanle^aLlljo %09 ueq] ssal aq lou lleLlsuotical]elojlal jo sluatctjlaoc aq] '6ur1aaqsaltqA uo seale peloloc lueredsuellpalulld uaalcs lol o qt 0t 9t 8t 8t vvl LL qc ocl ztz 002 (srea^ 0 L) uorlcauaiolloulo ]uarsuiaoc uJnururlA (srea12) uorlcallalollaulo ]uarcuJaoc uAorB enlB peu u33JC Molls a]!qM roloJ 6uriaaqg unurulr! ilt atqel 'lll alqel ut pelstlpouad 1eq16uunp6urlaaqs]eLllrol parlrcads urnurutLuoql ueq] ssal sl uollcaualollalJo luotcureocaql (z) lo :suotltpu03 Outnuplq6ru pue Aep leulou lopun alctqanOurnoule uoJl paMatnuoqm esod:ndpepualutsUJoJa^tlcoJlaut st uOrseq1(l) .aro.iua^aseltluaaql (e '6urLnp fuo1ce1sr1esun aq o] u^ oqs sburlaaqs loJsMollo.q u6rso1parpdde sburleeqg 'utaloqpolstl slueua:rnbeJlle slaaut su6rs anrlcapaJotlol por.lstuu loj pasn Ourlaaqs aql leql burlelsJernlcelnueuOurleeqsaLl]r.c u'rsra11e #ru"ffi.1qgpuv sluourellnbegacueuloya6 (c .occe Duruea..ter.a:nlcelnueLu6urlaaqsaLll o] burptocce posn pue pellddnssu6rscriletl ontlcol.burp.lllualxa oLl]ol sesneo palaptsuocoq ll$ burlaaqs lernleuol enp paleloualapsell l jl {.JoJn]ceJnueu Ourlaeqs qlm ecuepJocoe pue passacoLd ut sleualeul>1ue.se slsocuollelolsal ranoclleqsJalnloelnueul 6urlaaqsaLl]anoqesiuauetrnbalacueLulof ed atl] laur lou aneLlsuotlepuauiulocols.ra3 e ltulqnslleqs JaJnlcelnueuu6rs aq1 'uol1e6.

3 MetalPosts wide flangeof 10 x 10 centimetersmetal posts shall be fabricatedfrom structural steelconforming to the specifications of ASTMA 293GradeD.nor shallit peeloff nor warp. c) Priorto application of the High IntensityGrade reflectivesheeting.2.pimples.and shallbe givenone coatof rustinhibitive primingpaintandtwo coatsof grey paint. the Contractor 607.edge chippingor edgeshattering. smooth.flat.duringthe first five years sign manufacturer and sheeting manufacturer will cover the cost of restoringthe sign surfaceto its originaleffectiveness at no costto the NHAfor materialsand labor. samplesof the reflective sheetingshallbe approvedby the Engineerpriorto placinghis order. b) The High IntensityGradesheetingfor the background shouldcoverthe wholeareaof the signplate.2. 60'7. All postsshallbe thoroughly cleaned.scaleand rust.The plateshallbe rinsedthoroughly anddriedwith hotair beforeapplyingthe sheets.Lengthof the postsshallbe suchthattheirtop flusheswiththetop ot the signpenal. d) The sheetingafterapplication to the sign base shallnot comeoff the edges.the sign plate shall be cleanedand shall be wax-free.They shall be degreasedby vapouror by alkalineimmersionand etchedby scrubbing withabrasivecleaner. rigid.The surface shall be smoothand free from any bubbles.whichshallbe sealed. lt shallbewashableandweather-proof.5)mm.Anytrademarkor otherprintingshallbe carefullyremovedwithliquidthinner. 607-5 . In lieuof wideflangesteelpoststhe contractormay usetubularsteelposts of minimuminternaland externaldiametersof sixty three (63) mm and seventyflve (75) mm respectively conformingto the specifications of ASTM A 501.wfiereas bottomof signpanelis at leasthundredandeighty (180)centimeters aboveshoulder level.freefrom grease.weatherproofand shall notrustor deteriorate otherwise.b) ln addition.4 Plates a) Platesshall be non-porous. It shall be so cut that thereare no sharpedgesand that the cornersare roundedoff4oa radiusof thirtysevenandhalf(37.

)or aluminium alloy. 607.10 Road Posts and Hazard Markers The roadpostsand hazardmarkersusedas permanentsafetydevieesshall conformfully.2.withthe requirementsof the statutoryinstruments.flex 607€ .with connectingcrosspiecesin orderto ensurethe solidityof the joint and with slantingstruts embeddedin the concreteas directed by the Engineer. b) All the nutsand bolts'andmetalwashersmustbe heavilygalvanized.7 eaBspyerlbcrpcs Thesecan be of heavyplasticor of aluminium wellfittedso thattheycannot be removed.2.and.The boltheadSto be suchthat theydo not protrudeout too muchnor showvery muchon the frontface of the plate.the nuts shall be TACK WELDEDto the boltsagainstpilferage.cunent Britishstandards andchapterfour(4) of theTrafficsignsmanual.2. c) Relevantholesto receiveten (10)mm boltsshallbe drilledintothe pipes and the platesand not punched.ffi7.Theseto be drilledthroughthe plates beforetheapplication of scotchlite. 607.1.6 RubberWasher All rubberwashersshall have thick wallsand shall not get dry and brittle whenexposedto weatherat the site aftertheyare in positionduringthe life of thesign.1andshallof the size 450x 450x 650 mm for category1 & 2 and600x 600x 750mm for category3. or maybe of stainless steelof highquality. ffi7.1.anygoodadhesivecan be used.The headsshouldbe flushwith the plateface and coveredwith sheetinggalvanised according to ASTMA 153.2.5 NutsandBolts All Nutsand boltsand metalwashersshallbe of heavilygalvanized quality ten (10)mm dia (G.in that caseextended Aluminiumpanelsshallbe usedor the variouspiecesof sheetshallbe joined by angle-ironsh anticorodalmaterials.The safety devicesshallconsistof delineatorsand detoursof vergemaster. 607.9 Concrete Foundation Blocks Theconcretefor thefoundation blocksshallbe in situClassA in accordance withltem 401. 607. d) Afier the platesare fixed with nuts and bolts.2. if necessary.8 General a) Verylargesignsneednot be madeof one piece.2.

3.These shall be of High IntensityGrade reflectivesheeting for maximumvisibilityby bothday and nightand consequenfly be resistantto impact. All newly erectedtraffic road signs shall be covered with burlap or other materialuntiltheiruncovering is orderedby the Engineer.as shown rn drawingscategory'1 607-7 . 607.{ Categories of Signs Traffic road signs shall be of three categories according to type of construction 4IY+r constructed withsinglepostand signof equilateral triangleshape.master.3. 607. and chevroflexetc.3.passingplace post.2 Erectionof Posts The posts shall be erectedverticallyin positioninsidethe formworkof the foundationblockpriorto the placingof the concreteand shall be adequately supportedby bracingto the preventmovementof the post duringthe setting processof the concrete.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 607.edge master. 607.damageand vandalism. Backfillingshall be carriedout by using the surplus excavatedmaterialif approvedby the Engineerand shall be compactedin layersnot exceeding fifteen(15)cm in depth. 607. surplus excavated materiafshall be disposed of by the contractor as directedby the Engineer.3.3 SignPanelInstallation sign panels shall be installedby the contractor in accordancewith the detailsshown on the Drawings. The exposedportionof the fasteninghardwareon the face of the sign shall be paintedwithenamelsmatchingthe background colour.The posts shall be locatedat the positionsshown on the Drawings. and will be manufacturedfrom highly durable tough plastic material with standing vehicularimpact.1 Excavatior and BackJillinq Holesshall be excavatedto the requireddepthof the bottomof the concrete foundation as shownon the Drawing.Any chippingor bendingof the sign panels shall be consideredas sufficientcauseto requirereplacementof the panels at the Contractor's expense.

shall be installedin accordancewith the techniquesand methodslaid down in the manufacturer's manualor guide and in conformityto the line and level and locationsshown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineerto ensure maximumvisibilityand safety. lf any panelis required 90x30cm.bridges.Signs b) Regulatory Constructedwith single post and sign of circularshape.category2.g.3.3. 607. two or three numbersof postsor as shownon the drawings.Dimensionsmay vary . c) Informator-v Signs These signsshall be rectangularin shapeand constructedwith one. verge-master. howevertotalarea of sign shallbe as under:Category3 a = One Sq.highembankments.fixed/ portablesafetybarriersand hazardmarkerse.d e s i g n a n d s i z e a s s h o w n i n t h e p l a n s .5 Installationof SafetvDevices Safetydevicescomprisingof road posts.S i z e a n d s p a c i n go f l e t t e r ss h a l l b e a s u n d e r : - 607-8 . 607.6 Sign faces a ) Desiqn A l l s i g n f a c e s s h a l l b e o f t h e t y p e . meter Category3 b = Two Sq meter Category3 c = As shownon drawings d) Additionalpanel it shallbe of the sizes60x30cm or to be installed.delineatorsof varioustypes.These and full assistanceby the shall be constructedstrictlywith the specifications manufacturerfor installationwith precision. as shown in the drawings.bigmax. usedas delineators culverts.as a visual and physicaldeterrentfor a prohibitingcar parkingon grassvergesand protectingkerb-sideareason publicand private roads.flex-master chevroflex.even in adverseweatherconditions.accordingto the requirements. c o l o u r .edgemasterand passingplacepost and otheretc..These safety devicesshall be at sharpcurvesof highwaysverges.

Spaceonelinewilloccupy 4cm 10. StrokeWidthandWidthof border 3.1. showingihe designand/orarraRgemeRt and spaeingof boththe Urduand Englishsignmessages. Widthof lettersfor km includingspacing 15. Spacebetweendigitsof numerals 4cm 11. The Urduand Englishwritingshallbe aboutthe samein length.three(3) copiesof drawingsfor all specialsign faces and all sign faces bearingmessages. The sizeandspacingfor Urduletterand Wordswiltgenerally conformto the dimensions shownabovefor Englishletters. Spacebetweenwordsandborder(at least) 5cm B. Sizeandstyleof letteringshallbe as shownon the plansor as othenrvise approvedby theEngineer 607-9 . K-23cm m€ cm K4 cm rn-9. Thespelling of placenamesin Urduandin Englishshallbe as writtenin the Surveyof Pakistan. 4.0cm b) Shopnratues The contractorshallsubmitto the Engineerfor approval. 2. officialtownnamesand theirspellingshallbe as prrovided by the Engineer. Heightof Capitalletters 21 cm 5. Sizeof letterfor km.5cm 7.Height 14. 17. Englishlettersare to be in italicsexceptthe first letter of the word.6cnr 2. 3. Widthof dividingline 16. widthandspacing.whichis to be in capital. SpacebetweenWords 5cm 9. The Urduwritingshallbe in "Persian"character. maps. Heightof italicsletters 1 7c m 6. Spacebetweenlines(at least) 5 crn 13. Heightof numeralssameas capitallefters 23 crn 12.

panelsize60 x 30 cms Additional Each panelsize90 x 30 cms 6079 Additional Each 607h RoadPostsand HazardMarkers Each 607f 607-10 . backfillingand erectionof posts. installationof sign panels and all incidental costs including sheeting/paintingnecessary to complete the work as prescribedin this item.4 MEAS{JREMENTA}ID PAYMENT ffi7. rejected 507. equipment.3. storageor erectionshall be discoloredor defacedduringtransportation.4. materials.2 Pevlqe4 The quantities measured as determined above shall be paid for at the contract unit price for the pay items listed below.607. size-- Each 2. tools.7 $toraseof Sisns Signsdeliveredfor use on a projectshall be storedoff groundand under cover in a manner approvedby the Engineer. Description Unitof Measurement 607a TrafficRoadSignsCategory1. and for excavation. size-' 607b TrafficRoadSignsCategory Each 3 (a) 607c TratficRoadSignsCategory Each 3 (b) 607d TrafficRoadSignsCategory Each 3 (c) 607e TrafficRoadSignsCategory SM Pay ltem No. 607. concreting.1 Measurement The quantitiesof traffic road signs and safety devicesto be paid for shall be measuredin number of each categoryof sign suppliedand installedat site as directedby the Engineer.4. and as shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich price and paymentshall be full compensationfor furnishing all labour.Any signs damaged.

Comuosition a) WhiteTraffic Paint r) Pigment TrtaniumDioxideRutileand extenders 10oo/o i i ) Vehicle ModifiedChlorinated Rubber Plasticized and ResinBlend 52+4% Solvents 45+40h Additives i.e. 1.Solventand Additives 608-1 55+4%by Weight 45+5%by Weight . The paintshallbe appliedin conformance to the size.anti-oxidants.thicken.Flowleveling.3% iii) PaintComposition:Pigments Vehicle. 60n. setflebadly or propertres show any objectionable after periodof storagenot to exceedsix (6) months.The paint shall be homogeneous.tT[\t 608 6(lft. siccativesetc.2.2 CHLORINATEDRUBBERPAINT 608.for the preparationof the surface and for the applicationof the paint to the pavementsurfaceall in accordance withtheseSpecifications.for samplingand packing.well dispersedto a smooth consistencyand shall not cake.I PAVEMENT MARKING DESCITIPTION This work shall consistof furnishingnon reflectiveor reflectivechlorinated rubber based or thermoplasticpaint materialor retroreflective preformed pavementmarking(tape)whicheveris calledfor in the specialProvisions and shown in the Bill of Quantities.gel.shapeand locationof the markingsas shownin the Drawings. liver.l i\'lateriaIRequirements A standardand acceptable qualityof chlorinatedRubberbasedpaintshall be used rhe paintshallbe readyfor application and shallbe of a smooth quality.curdle. adhesion improving agents.

tr) White Traffic Paint i) Pigment ii) Vehicle : : ChromeYellowand Extenders 1OO% by Weight Same as for whitetrafficpaint iii) PaintComposition:Pigments 55+4%by Weight Vehicle. 608-2 .12 N o . The proportion of ballotini to paintshallbe not lessthan five hundred(500) gramsper litreof paint. 100%by Weight Sameas for whitetrafficpaint i i i ) PaintComposition:Pigments 55!4% by Weight Vehicle 45+5%by Weight The volatilematerialshall be of such characterthat has a minimumsolvent actionof asphalt. Other pavementmarkingpaint may be submittedby the Contractoras an alternative to the above. 608.and such that the resinsand non-volatilecomponentswill be entirelydissolvedin the volatilemateriaf.1. The non-volatile materialshallbe of suchqualitythat it will not darken or become vellow when a thin section is exoosedto the sunlight.1 Ballotinifor Reflective RoadPaint The gradingof ballotinidispersedin the paintshallbe as follows: SieveSizes PercentaqeRetained No.At leastninety (90)percentglassbeadsshallbe transparent.and will not precipitatefrom the solutionon standing.3 0 N o .Solventand Additives 45+5ohby Weight c) Blacli Traffic Paint i) Pigment Velrrcie it) ChromeBlackand Extenders . reasonable sphericaland free from flaws.2 0 N o .5 0 No 80 C 30 50 BO 100 GlassbeaosshallconformwithAASHTODesignationM-247.2.for the approvalof the Engineer.

5 237 118 75 43 Yellow 0.labourand traffic paintnecessary for theentirework.whentheair is misty.and the supplyingof all tools. Trafficpaintshallbe appliedto the pavementat a rateof one (1) litreto two and half (2. or when. in the opinion of the Engineer.whenapplied.till its completedryingandstickingto roadsurface.3 (Degree) 4(Degree) 40(Degree) 0.the protectionof all parts of the road.5 75 32 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Traffic markingsshall be appliedwith approvedequipmentcapableof applyingthe paint at the specifiedwidth and at the specifiedrate of application.ied valuesat two tenth(0. in widthwill be permitted.2)degreeand theyhaveminimumbrightness half (0.wetweather. The paint.the protectionof pedestrians.2. Contractorshall provideadequate arrangements that appliedpaintis not disfiguredby movingtraffic. structuresor appurtenances againstdisfigurement by spatters. ln no caseshallthe contractorproceedwith the work untilthe equipment. White Divergence Angle IncidenceAngles IncidenceAngles 608.or uponpavements whichhaveabsorbedheatsufficientto cause the paintto blisterandproducea porouspaintfilm.splashesor smirchesof paintor of paintmaterials.the application.Paintshallnot be appliedupondamppavement surfaces.608.5) degreedivergenceexpressedas candle powerper meter per squaremeterof surfacecoating. 608-3 .shall be so appliedas to producea uniform.2 Photometric Requirements for Reflective Road Paint Other reflectiveroad paintsmay be consideredfor use by the Engineer provic. methodof application andrateof application as established by a testsectionhavebeenapprovedbythe Engineer The paintingof lanemarkersand trafficstripsshallincludethe cleaningof protectionand dryingof the paint the pavementsurfaces. The application of paintshallpreferablybe carriedout by a purpose-made machinebut where brushesare used only round or oval brushesnot exceeding 10 cm.as follows: Golour.5) squaremetersor less.2 0. The paintshallnot be appliedduringrain. coatings.2.conditionsare othenruise unfavodrable for the work.evencoatingin closecontactwiththe surfacebeingpainted.2 129 43 0. vehicularor other traffic on the pavements.

from ihe extendershallnormallybewhiting(i. of the mixed materialas found on The proportionsof the constituents of table1.calciumcarbonateprepared natural chalk) complyingwith the requirementsof BS 1795. calcinedflint. calcite.2 Pisment and ext€nder a) White material. titaniumdioxideto complywiththeotherrequirements c) AII materials.3.1.3. for all or part of the Sufficientsuitableyellowpigmentshallbe substituted of thisspecification.1 Material Requirements 608. withthe approval The bindershallconsistof synthetichydrocarbon gunorwoodresin.1. quartz.3 HOT-APPLIED TIIERMOPLASTIC ROAD PAINTS 608.e.or. The of BS complying withthe requirement lithopone maysubstitute manufacturer 296for anyor all of thewhiting. resin. of the Engineer.plasticized withmineraloil.1 Assresate The aggregate shall consist of light coloured silica sand. e) Composition of mixture. 608. shallcomplywiththerequirements analysis 608-4 .608. d) Binder. or other materialapprovedby the Engineer. of The pigmentshall be titaniumdioxidecomplyingwith the requirements (rutile) BS 1851. of or TypeR TypeA (anatase) b) Yellow materials.3.

TABLE 2. EXTENDERAND BALLOTINI 60tt. PROPORTIONS OF CONSTITUENTS OI.3. a) At the manufacturer's b) After it has beenre-meltedby the road applicationcontractor.PIGMENT.No minimumis specified for yellowmaterial.-MXTURE Constituent Percentageby massof total mixture Minimum Maximum Binder(resinand oil) 18 22 Pigment 6* Pigmentand extender 18 Ballotinr 20 22 Aggregate Pigment 7B 82 Extenderand ballotini * Fortitaniumdioxideonly. 8 0m m 600um 100 75-95 Sampling andTesting 6()tt. Where specified.it is essentialthat adequateand representative samplesbe takenin the mannerprescribedrn specification BS 3262at following stages.1 SarnDling For the purposeof carryingout the testing.1. GRADING OF COMBINED AGGREGATE.extenderand ballotini (wherespecified)as foundon analysisshallcomplywith the requirements of lable 2.pigment.10% in the case of materialto which surfaceballotiniis to be appliedby pressureapplication The grading of the combinedaggregate. oud-c .2 Sieve Percentageby mass passing Sprayed 2 . plant.TABLE 1.2.

3. 3262 (1976)appendixA to H. withappendixC shallbe not The softeningpointmeasuredin accordance l e s st n a n0 5 ' u . the luminancefactorof white When testedin accordance withappendixD shallbe not lessthan materialas measuredin accordance 65 b) Yellorvmaterial. The test resultsshallconform Specification the followingproperties. with appendixE. The Colour of yellowmaterialshallbe approximately yellow as deliveredby the material 355. Softening point. 608-6 . C o l o u r a n c ll u n r i n a n c e it) \\'hite nraterial.J.The luminancefactorof manufacturershall be not less than 60 whereas the luminancefactor of material obtained from an applicatoror melter on site after re-melting withappendixD shallnot be lessthan55. BS 381CColourNo.2 Tesfing The samples shall be preparedand tested in accordancewith B. Lemon. the luminancefactorof yellow When testedin accordance with appendixD shallbe not lessthat materialas measuredin accordance 55. l-he luminancefactor of white materialas deliveredby the manufacturer withappendixD and shallnot be lessthan shallbe measuredin accordance or factorof materialobtainedfrom an applicator 70 whereasthe luminance melteron site after re-meltingmeasuredin accordancewith appendixD shallnot be lessthan65 b.a cone made and tested in accordancewith appendixF. Flolv resistance.S. with appendixE. Ycllot rnaterial. measuredin accordance r HeatStability a) WhiteMaterial.608. ln testingthe flow resistance. shallnot slumpby moreIhan25%.

3. Batch number. When tested in accordancewith appendixG. the temperaturerangeof the apparatusand the proposedmethodof laying. The thermoplasticpaintshall only be appliedto surfaces. Packineand Storins of Paint 608. lmmediatelybefore the applicationof paint.4 Certification The Contractorshall furnisha certificatefrom manufacturerthat the material he proposesto use has the required properties.3. 608.and in good condition.oils.3.2 Packins . the sefting time. 608. The material shall not be applied if the road surface is at a temperatureof less than 5o C. the surface shall be cleaned with mechanicalbroom. Each container shall be clearly and iridelibly marked with the manufacturer's name.the acid value of the binder. reflectorisation(if applicable).3 Manufacturins. date of manufacture.modern. mud.3. chemical type of binder and maximumsafe heatingtemperature.which are clean and dry. the maximum safe heating temperature. dust and other loose or adhered material.3 The material shall be supplied in sealed containers which do not contaminatethe contentsand which protectthem frorn contamination. 608.3.1 Manqfapluriug The paint shall be produced in a plant owned and operated by the manufacturerfollowinga processwhich has been used by the manufacturer for at least five (5) years to produce paint. compressedair or other approved means to remove surplus asphalt. The equipmentfor mixing and grindingshallbe clean.3. colour.3. Storing The material shall be stored in accordance with the manufacture/s instructionsand any materialthat is in darnagedcontainersof which the seal has been broken. 608-7 .Skid resistance.3.5 Application of Material to the Roail a) Prenarationofsite. 608.3. .stating the maximum and minimum proportionsand grading of the constituents. 608.shall not be used. the skid resistanceof a newly laid markingpreparedunderthe statedconditionsshall be not less than 45.

Ballotinidispensedon the surface of the markings shall conform to the followinggrading.The molten materialshall be used as expeditiously as possible.and for thermoplastic material.The ternperature of the mass shallbe within the range specifiedby the manufacturer.a tack coat compatiblewith the marking material shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's priorto the application instructions of thermoplasticmaterial. hand propelledmachine or self propelledmachine as approved by the Engineer. c) Layins.edgelines shall be laidto a regular alignmentby self propelledmachine. Carriagewaycentrelines.b) Prtinarationof materialon site.1 0 0 45.lane linesand. The ballotiniso sprayed shall give uniform cover and immediatdreflectivitvover the whole surface of the marking.Other mafkingsmay be laid by hand. 608-8 .100 1 0.the materialshall be maintained withinthe temperaturerange specifiedby the manufacturerand stirred to maintainthe rightconsistency for laying.and shall on no accountbe allowed to exceed the maximum temperature stated by the manufacturer.additionalballotini(400 g/m' to 500 g/m' from the machine) shall be applied by pressure concurrentlywith the laying of the line with sufficient'velocityto ensure retentionin the surface of the line. d) Reflectorization by surfaceapnlication. On concrete carriageway.which has naturalresinbinders or is othenryise sensitiveto prolongedheating. When surface applicationof ballotiniis required. Sieve Percentaqeby mass 1 .The surfaceproducedshall be uniformin textureand thickness and appreciably free from blistersand streaks. 7m m 600 pr 425 yt 300 u 100 8 0. The material shall be melted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructionsin a heatherfittedwith a mechanicalstirrerto give a smooth consistency to the thermoplastic material and such that local overheatingwill be avoided. After transferto the layingapparatus.the materialshall not be maintainedin a moltenconditionfor more than 4 hours.4 5 0 -25 0-5 ztzp.

The preformedmarkingfilm shallmold itselfto pavement contoursby the actionof traffic.4 RETOROREFLECTIVEPREFORMEDPAVEMI NT MARKINGS. The minimum thicknesses specified are. Ceramicskid particlesshall be bondedto a top urethanelayerto providea skid resistantsurface. The markingfilm shall be durableretroreflective plisot polymerpavement markingfilm for performedlongitudinalmarkingssubjectto low to medium trafficvolumesand moderatewear conditionssuch as repeatedshearaction from crossoveror encroachmenton channelization lines. The preformedmarkings shall be capable of being adhered to asphalt cementconcrete(ACC)or PortlandCementConcrete(PCC)by a precoated pfessure sensitive adhesive.the markingsshall be immediatelyready for traffic.and recommendation for applicationthat will assureeffectiveproductperformance.The ballotinishallbe made of soda glass. b) Sprayedyellowedge linesnot lessthan 0.6 Trial Section In no case shall the contractorproceedwith the work until the equipment.5 mm.The methodof thicknessmeasurementshall be in accordancewith appendixH of BS 3262 (1976).Not lessthan 1. The preformedmarkingsshall be suitablefor use for one year after the date of receipt when stored in accordancewittrthe manufacturer's recommendations.exclusive of surface applied ballotini. 608.Followingproper applicationand tamping.8 mm. a) Sprayedlinesotherthan yellow. shall identify proper solvents and/or primers (where necessary)for properapplication. 608.4.The pavementmarkingfilm wearingcourses during the paving operation in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.1 Materials.the materialshall be laid to the followingthicknesses.shall be of transparentglass. by mass of the ballotini.3.Ceramic and glass beads shall be incorporatedto provide immediateand continuingretroreflection. sphericalin shape and not more then ten (10) percentshall be ovate in shapeor haveotherflaws. The bidder. A primer may be used to preconditionthe pavementsurface.approvedby the Engineer. 608-9 . e) Thickness Unlessotherwiseapprovedby the Engineer.Requirements The performedmarkingsshall consistof whiteor yellowfilms with pigments selectedto conform to standardhighwaycolours. method of applicationand rate of applicationconformingthe required thickness(as establishedby a test section)have been approved by the Engineer. when bidding.Not less than 90%. 608.

The white and yellow films shall have the following initial minimum rpflectancevalues as measuredin accordancewith the testing procedures bf ASTM D 4061.315.X 0536.J.4.The photometricquantityto be measuredshallbe specific luminance(SL).Y = 0. fc metric.The retroreflectivepavementmarking film shall consist of mixture of highquality pigmentedpolymericmaterials.463.00" Observation Angle SpecificLuminance SL [(mcd. Measurements shallbe made in accordancewith ASTM E 1349. Y.4 White Yellow 96.and shallbe expressedas millicandalsper squarefoot per -'). The followingtest shallbe employedto measurereflectivity retention.| 608. 608. m millicandals lx-') EntranceAngle86.and a layerof skid resistantceramic particlesbondedto the top urethanewear surface.The edgesof the preformedtape shallbe clearcut and true.with a reflectivelayer of ceramic and glass beads.Y = = 0. the ceramicand glass beads must be stronglybondedand not be easily removedby trafficwear.equivalent shall be expressedas -').ft').X = $491. 608.00 96.2 Colour: The daytime colour of the white film shall provide a minimum initial Luminancefactor.ASTME 303.4.290.bein accordance with ASTM E 308 for the 2o standardobserver.The film shall have a pre-coatedpressuresensitive adhesive.J.486.4. 608.fc-1.The foot-candle(mcd. 608.3 Reflectance.s Patchabilitv The pavementmarkingfilm shall be capableof use for patchingworn areas of the same typeof film in accordancewith the manufacturer's instructions.435. To have a good. effectiveperformancelife.50 1.Calculations shall. 608-'t0 .00 175 300 Skid Resistance The surfaceof the retoreflective films shall providean initialminimumskid resistancevalues of 55 BPN as measured bv the British PortableSkid Tester in accordancewith.50 1.ft-2). Y = 0.Y = 0.using illuminent"C" and Ol45(4510)geometry. of 80.X = 0.6 Reflectance Retention.512. per squaremeterper lux (mcd. and shall conform to the followingchromaticity requirements: X = 0.

examinationof the area on the mandrelshall show no axis. 608-11 . ( 1 . microscopic.76mm).to observedthe extent and type of bead failure.4.11 Installation The markings shall be applied in accordancewith the manufacturer's instructions. when applied according to the recommendationsof the manufacturer. of the beads with entrapmentby the binder of less than more than 1Oo/o 40%.4. Roundabout.4.the sample shall be inspectedat 200 cycles.9 Thickness The film without adhesive. shall provideneat.030 in (0. 2 4 c m )s a m p l ei s b e n to v e r a 1 l 2 i n . impairthe intendedusage of the liftingor shrinkagewhich will significantly markingthroughoutits useful life and shall show no significanttearing.durablemarkingthat will not flow or distort due to temperatureif the pavementsurfaceremainsstable. quality and refractiveindex of the ceramic and glass beads shall be such that the performancerequirementsfor the markingshall be met. weathervisibility.shall have a minimumthicknessof 0. .4. The film.The film shallbe weather resistantand through normal traffic wear shall show no fading. dimensionperpendicularto the mandrel diameter-mandrel. 608.Pavementsand car parkareas.roll backor othersignsof poor adhesion. 2 7c m ) with the 2 ih.No more than 15% of the beads shall be lost due to popoutand the predominantmode of failure shall be "wear down" on the beads.s CEMENTITIOUSMARIilNG COMPOUND Cementitiousmarking compound shall be used for Concrete.10 EffectivePerformanceLife. ( 5 .4.608. This compoundwill be appliedat followinglocations: .6. Kerbs.verticaland slopingfaces. 608. 608.undera microscope. 608. 608. Surface Dressingand Bitumento provideenhancednightand wet.8 BeadRetention The film shall be ceramicand glass bead retentionqualitiessuch that when a 2 i n x 6 i n .t TaberAbraserSimulationTest Usinga TaberAbraserwith an H-18wheel and a 125 gram load. 608.7 Beads The size.4. 0 8c m x 1 5 . The bead adhesionshall be such that beads are not easilyremovedwhen the materialsurfaceis scratched.

. Markingin non-reflective Pavement CR/TPPaintfor4. Markingin reflective Pavement CR/TPPaintfor Lineof 12 cm width. Markingin non-reflective Pavement CR/TPPaintfor Linesof 20 cm width. Pay ltem No..packing and testing at approvedlaboratory. areas.Paintthat is applied No measurementshallbe made of unauthorized in un-authorizedareas shall be completelyremovedfrom the surface of the road to the satisfactionof the Engineerand at Contractor'sexpense.etc' Traffic Dividers.s MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 608. which price for furnishingand placingall and paymentshallconstitutefull compensation materialsincludingsampling. 608 a 608 b 608 c 608 d 608 e 608 f 608 g 608 h Description Unit of Measurement Markingin non-reflective Pavement CR/TPPaintfor Linesof 12cm width. .shall be the no.verticaledges and bull noses. Markingin non-reflective Pavement CR/TPPaintfor varioussigns. 608.2 Payment The quantitiesmeasuredas determinedabove shall be paid for at the Contract unit price respectivelyfor the pay items listed below. of linearmeters of painted traffic line for the specified width as indicated in BOQ.The arrowsshallbe measuredin number' The measurementshallbe made of paintedareas. The cost shall also includethe preparationof the surface.s.1 tVleasurement The quantityof non-reflectiveor reflectivechlorinatedrubber based or thermoplasticpavementmarkingpaint. Traffic lslands. The retroreflectivepreformed pavement markings (tape) shall be measured in squaremeters.on high speed intersectionsand traffic merging.completedand accepted. Markingin non-reflective Pavement CR/TPPaintfor Linesof i5 cm width. Markingin non-reflective Pavement CR/TPPaintupto6.black and ivhite chevrons.0 M arrows. 608. Markingin reflective Pavement CR/TPPaintfor Lineof 15cm width. Concrete wall and faces . 608-12 M M M Each Each SM M M .5.and for all other costs necessaryto completethe work as prescribedin this item.0M'arrows.

PavementMarkingin reflective CR/TP Paintfor varioussigns. PavementMarkingin reflective CR/TPPaintfor varioussigns. PavementMarkingby retro reflective preformedpavementmarkings(Tape)..608 i 608 j 608 k 608 | 608 m PavementMarkingin reflective CR/TP Paintof 20 cm width. 608-13 . PavementMarkingin reflective CR/TP Paintfor 4 M arrows.

ITEM 609 609. (a) 'FlushSurface'Type The'FlushSurface'reflectorshallbe the shortbasetypehavinga maximum basearea of 18 cm x 14 cm or as shownon the Drawings. The reflectorsshall be made of impact and abrasionresistingglass and sealedinto a coppersocket.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 609. The shell shall containone or two prismaticreflectoreach inclinedat an angleof thirty(30) degreeto the horizontaland havingan area not less than twenty(20)squarecm or as indicatedon the plans.1 REFLECTORIZEDPAVEMENT STUDS DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of furnishingand installingreflectorizedpavement studs set into the traveled way of the type in accordance with the and at the locationsshown on the Drawingsor as directedby specifications the Engineer. The base shall be formed in cast-ironwith adequatewebbingto ensure a firm key to the roadwhen installed. The reflectorsshall attainthe followingstandardsfor their photometricand physicalqualities: 609-1 .frommethylmethacylateintothe shape of a shallow frustum of a pyratnid having base dimension of cm x 10 cm and thicknessnot morethan two (2) cm or as approximately'10 shownon the drawings. The pad shall be highlyresilientand durablerubberreinforcedwith canvas and shall have an anticipatedlife of at leastfive (5) years. shallbe hermetically (b)'RaisedProfile'Type The'Raised Profile'reflectorsshall consistof an acrylicplasticshell filled with an adherentepoxycompoundmolded.r Studs Reflectorized 'Flush Surface'type of ReflectorzedStuds shall be "cat-eyes"either the RaisedProfile'type havingthe followingcharacteristics. 609.The pad shall be so designedas to produce a self whippingaction of the reflectorwhen depressed.2.

The widthof the photocellshallbe 1.t.20 (in Degree) s.ighand wattthicknessof six (6) mm. 0 3. twentyfive (25) mm b. s.20 0.l) expressed as candle power per foot candle of illuminationat the reflectoron a planeperpendicular to the incidentlight.22cms and shall be shieldedfrom stray light.i) PhotometricRequirements The reflectorsshall have the followingminimum specific Intensityvalues (s. s.00 1.5)centimeter. A reflectorshall be centeredhorizontallyover the open end of a vertically positionedhollow metal cylinderseventyfive (7s) mm internaldiameter. Failure shall constituteeither breakageor significantdeformationof the markerat any loadlessthanone thousand(1000)kg.20 0.72 0. 609-2 . ii) StrensthRequirement The reflectorsshall supporta verticalload of 1000 kg when tested in the followingmanner.30 IncidenceAngle The reflectorfor testingshall be locatedwith the center of the reflectingface at a distanceof one and half (1.5) m from a uniformlybrightlight source havingan effectivediameterof half (0.t.The distancefrom the centersof the lightsourceand photocellshallbe 0.20 0.t. Faifure of more than four () % of the reflectingfaces shall be cause for rejectionof the lot.53cms. COLOUR Crystal Yellow Red DivergenceAngle 0.80 4. The toadshail be appliedto the top of'the reflectorthrougha six (6) mm diameterby six (6) mm high metalplugcenteredon top of the reflector.75 20 1.

609.04 0.2 Adhesive When'RaisedProfile'typeof reflectorsare used.a two-partadhesivehaving the followingingredientsshall be appliedto the stud for bonding to the pavementsurface. 60e:2.94 0.609.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 603.07 EpoxyResin TitaniumDioxide Silica Colloidal Talc nnA 0.'Nomore than one quartof adhesiveshall be preparedat one time.2.24 0.650 Equalvolumesof PackageA &'B shouldbe mixed togetheruntil a uniform coiouris obtained.The longitudinal requiredfor the pavementstud when laidto correctlineand direction' The walls of the cavityshall be splayedback at an angle of approximately joint afterthe mortar thirty(30) degreeto the verticalto facilitatea "dove-tail" set.345 Ke/Litre PackageB ModifiedAsphalticAmine 2611) Hardener(Reinchold ModifiedAsphalticAmine 2613) Hardener(Reinchold CarbonBlack Silica Colloidal Talc 0. Ks/Litre PackageA 0.0022 0.3.472 0.1 FlushSurfaceTvpe The stud shall be installed into the pavement in acCordancewith the manufacturer'sinstructions but shall also comply with the following requirements: Cavities in the pavement shall be clearly cut to the dimension of the pavementstud and shall allow a clearanceof one (1) cm around the stud centerlineaxis of the cavityshallbe the same as that base.3 CementMortar Cement mortar shall consist of one (1) part Portlandcement to three (3) partsof fine aggregates. has 609-3 .

4. preparationof surfaces.Singte) Each Reflectorised PavementStud (FlushSurfaceType .2 RaisedProfileTyne The pavementstudsshallbe installedin accordancewith the manufacturer.1.tools and incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item.equipment.for all labour.The bottom of the cavrtyshall be leveledwith asphalt concreteprior to placingthe stud base.applyingadhesiveand mortar.Single) Each Reflectorised PavementStud (RaisedProfileType .excavatingcavities.which paymentshall constitutefull compensationfor furnishingand placing all materials. 609. 609a 609b 609c 609d Description Unitof Measurement Reflectorised PavementStud (FlushSurfaceType .1 Measurement The quantityof reflectorizedpavementstuds to be paid for shall be the 'Flushed numberof surface'or'Raisedprofile'typeprovidedand installed as mentionedabove.{ MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 609.Doubte) Each 609-4 . which shall be poundedinto positionwith pounder Foot attachedto a pneumaticdrill The depth of the cavityshallbe such that when the stud base and reflectors have been installedthe elevationof the floor of the lens socketshallnot be greater than two (2) mm or less than one (1) mm above the pavement surface.2 Payment The quantitiesmeasured as describedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price respectively for the pay items listed belowand shown in the Bill of Quantities. 609. The stud shall be groutedinto positionwith asphaltconcretecontainingfine aggregateonly or with a cementmortaras describedin ltem 609. 609.3above when the studsare installedintoa cementconcretepavement.3.2.s instructions or to the requirements of the Engineer. Pay ltem No.Double) Each Reflectorised PavementStud RaisedProfileType .

(c) Back-fillins After the placing of precast concrete posts and markers in the excavated areas and subsequentsetting in with cement mortar. 610-1 . 610. 610.2.ITEM 610 610.Guide Posts and Right of Way Markers. the same will be refilledto the requ. (b) Placine The precast concrete posts and markers shall be set in two (2) cm of cement mortar to the level and grade as shown on the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENT 6t0.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS (a) Excavationand Beddins Excavationshall be made to the requireddepth as shown on the Drawings.iredelevationwith suitabieearth or'granular material.2.1 Concrete Precast concrete post and markers shall consist of Class A Concrete conformingto the requirementsof ltem 401 and to the lengths. Beddingshall be to sectionand dimensionshown on the'Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.shapesand other detailsshown on the Drawings.r PRECASTCONCRETEPOSTSAND MARKERS DESCRIPTIQN The work shall'consistof furnishingand placingprecastconcreteKilometer. All soft and unsuitablematerialshall be removedand replacedwith suitable materialacceptableto the Engineer. complete including or paintingand letteringin accordancewith the Drawingsand specifications by the Engineer.2 ReinforcingSteel Reinforcingsteel shall conformto ltem 404. which shall be tamped in layersof not more than fifteen (15) centimeters eachuntilfirmand solid. as directed 610. Ten Kilometer.

-l NIEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 610.placing.2 Payment The accepted quantitiesof posts and markers shall be paid for at the contractunit price per unit of measurementfor the pay items listedbelow and shown in Bill of Quantitieswhich price shall be compensationfor furnishing. Description Unitof Measurement 610a GuidePost.excavation. Each 6 10 c Kilometer Post.-r.erection. 610.610.painting.+.letteringand for all costs includinglabour. Each 6 10 b Rightof WayMarker. tools. Each 610-2 . Each 610d TenKilometer Post. and incidentalsnecessaryto completethe work prescribedin theseitems: Pay ltem No.1 Vleasurement The quantityof each elementto be paid for shall be the numberof post and markerfurnishedand installedin placeas per drawingor as directedby the Engineer.

2 Chain Link Fabric Chain link fabric shall be fabricatedfrom ten (10) gauge galvanizedwire conformingto AASHTO M 181 and shall be of the type shown in the Drawings.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMEN'I'S 6rl. The Barbedwire shall conformto the requirements barbedwire shall consistof two (2) strandsof twelveand half (12.' l . 61r. twistedwith two (2) points.2.1.The postsshallbe cast to the lengthshownon the detailgd drawingsand shallhavea smoothsurfacefinish.2. 611. 6t1.5 SteelReinforcement Sfeel reinforcententfor the concrete posts shall be deformedsteel bars conformingto the provisionsof ltem404.r BarbedWire of ASTM A 121' Class l.3 ConcretePosts Concreteposts shall be made from Class D1 concretein accordancewith Item 401.2.2.Beforeorderingthe chainlink fabricthe Contractorshallsubmita sampleof the materialto the Engineerfor his approval.2. 6 11 .1.fourteen(14) gauge barbs spaced 10 cm apart.1 FENCING DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof constructingpost and barbedwire fence or chain link fence in accordancewith the detailsand at the locationsshown on the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. 611.The posts shall be of copperbearingsteel and shall conformto '183for the gradespecified.ITEM 611 611.5)gauge wire.4 SteelPosts Steel posts shall be of the sectionlengthas specifiedor as shown on the Drawings. of AASHTOM the requirements 611.

M 611-2 .3.2 Pavment The quantitiesmeasuredas determinedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price for the pay items listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantities which price and payment shall be full compensationfor furnishing.No horizontalsplicingwill be permitted.rectedin place and accepted. 6 l l. fixing and weldingof the fabric and wire.J.insidethe formwork of the foundationblock prior to the placingof the concreteand shall be adequately supportedby bracingto preventmovementof the post during.-r MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT I 6 I 1. 6tl.2.measuredbetweenthe centresof the end posts.1 Erectionof Posts The posts shall be erected verticallyin position. where splicingof the fabricis necessaryor at jointsthe lappingof the chain link fabric shall be a minimumof ten (10) cm and shall occur only at the concretepost.2 Installationof Chain Link Fabric The chain link fabric shall be set to line and elevationand pulled tight between each post before spot welding or other method of fixing is carried out. and for all materials. 611. The fabricshallbe fixedto the concretepost as shownon the Drawings. labour. 6l 1. Description U n i to f Measurement 6 1' t a ChainLinkFabricFencing M 6 ' l1 b BarbedWire Fencing. washers and other associatedhardwareshall be galvanized afterfabricationas specifiedin ASTM 153.backfillingand erectingall posts for the installation.excavating.thesetting process of the concrete.The posts shall be erected to the height and locationshownon the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.toolsand incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item.placing.6 Hardware Nuts.3.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 6l1. Measurement The quantityto be paid for shall be the numberof linearmetersof fencing e.6t 1.equipment."1. Pay ltem No. bolts.

2. Each tree shall possess for its variety and grgwth typical of such trees in the the characteristics region. sun sealed.Vines.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 612. 612-1 .groundcoversand other plantswill hereinbe referred as "Plants"or "PlantMaterial" to collectively The kinds. 612.2. well-branchedwith symmetricaltop and intact leader.3 Shrubs Each shrub shall possessthe characteristicsof the variety and growth typicalof such shrubsin the region.1 FURNISHING AND PLANTING TREES. 612. SHRUBSANT) GROUND COVER DESCRIPTION Underthis work.2 Trees Trees shall have straighttrunks. 612.Plantsshall be free from disfiguring knots.sizesand quantitiesof plantsto be furnishedand plantedand the locationsat which they are to be planted shall be as called for on the Drawingsor as designatedby the Engineer.vines.They shall have no cuts of limbs over two (2) centimeterin diameterwhich have not completelyhealedover.and such inspectioncertificatesas are All plants requiredby law shall be filed with the Engineer'srepresentative.2. Unless otherwiseindicatedon the Drawingsall plantsshallbe nurserygrown. vigour and shall bear evidenceof proper top and -root pruning. abrasionsof bark. the contractorshall furnishand planttrees.shrubs. groundcoversand otherplantsrn additionto preparingand finishingplanting beds and shall perform maintenance and planting operations in a and workmanlikemanneraccordingto the provisionsof these specifications practice to acceptedhorticultural Trees. wind or freezing iniury or other Plantsshall show the appearanceof normai healthand disfigurements. of their normal speciesor varietiesand shall be first-classrepresentattve shall have average or normal well-developedbranch or cane systems togetherwith vigorousrootsystems.Plantcut backfrom largersizesto meet specifiedsizes will not be acceptable.Shrubs.ITEM 612 6r2.1 General All plant materialshallcomplywith the local laws with respectto inspection for plant diseasesand infestation.

During transportation.3.The ballshall be firm and the hessianshall be soundat the time of deliveringand placingthe tree on the project. 612. The headof eachtree shallbe carefullytied to preventfractureof branches.which are furnishedin pots or other containersand which have been acclimatisedto outsideconditionswill be providedthey are equalto fieldgrownstock.1 to 612.and not by the plant.612.3. moss or othersuitable material.Ground Coverand Other Plants Vines.shall conformin quality.except that small treeswill be acceptablein suitablecontainers.Deciduoustrees may be suppliedearth placedand hessiancoveredor in containersif the contractorso desires.preparedand packedfor transportation to site with care and skill in accordancewith recogrrized standardpracticefor the kind of plantconcernedand in compliancewith the followingprovisions from612.tow.shall have had their root systemspuddledin a .size and grade with the respectiverequirementshereingiven for nurserygrown stock.2 Trees All evergreentrees shall be balledand hessiancovered. 612. handled. ln all cases such collectedwood grown or naturalseedingplantsshall be of recognised first quality.clean sound stock free from decayedor decayingstumps and free from fire injury.3.4.All earthballsshall be firm and intactand none shall be "made" balls. wind and climaticor seasonalinjuries.2.5 CollectedPlants Collectedwood grown or natural seeding plants if permittedfor use by indicationon the Drawings. 612. 612. ground cover and other plants. such as perennials.3.Tarpaulinsor othercoversshallbe placedover plantswhen they are transportedby trucks or in open freightcars for considerabledistances.r General The root systemsof all plantsshall not be permittedto dry out any time and they shall not be exposed to artificialheat or to freezingtemperatures.All balledand hessiancoveredplantsshallat all times be handledby the ball.claysolutionof sufficientdensityas to adhereto all partsof the root system.all plants shall be packed adequatelyto insure protectionfrom the sun.4 Vines. 612-2 .All bare-rootplantsshall havetheirroot systemsprotectedby wet shingle.3 Handling& TransDortine All plantsshall be dug. Deciduoustrees suppliedin bare-rootcondition.2.

bale or containercontaining name.All rejected plant materialshall be removedfrom the projectand shall be replacedby the all at Contractorwith plantmaterialconformingto all specifiedrequirements. groundcoversperennialsand other similarplantmaterialsuppliedin as pot pots.tins and othersuitablecontainerswill be referredto collectively plant protected and the well grown plants.The labelsshall give the approvedhorticultural size. age or otherdetaileddata requiredto identifythe plant as conforming to specificationand.they will be specifiedas "Clumps"of variousclassifications.612.4 LABELLING OF PLANT MATERIAL Legiblelabelsshall be attachedto each plant.The clumpsshall be dpg with earth and incidentalvegetationadheringto the roots of the soil or habitof the root groMh in such that the roots are not adequatelyprotected.PerennialsEtc. 612-3 .and shallgive the Engineerat least 48 hours notice prior to deliveryof plant materialat the site of the plantingoperation.which is deliveredto the site as a separateunit.4 Vines.Pot grownplantsshall be well developedand sufficient and at the hold the earthtogetherintactafter removalfrom the containers same time not be root bound. bundle. baleor container. earth balled and hessian covered or in suitable containersas providedabovefor deciduoustrees.which has produceda fibrousroot systemtypicalof the natureof the plant.3 Shrubs All evergreenshrubsshallbe earthballedand hessiancoveredor in suitable containersas aboveprovidedfor evergreentrees.5 INSPECTIONAND REJECTION All plantsintendedfor use on the projectshallbe subjectto inspectionby the at any place and at any time.3. when not attachedto separateplants. bundle. and to each box. Vines. After arrivalat the site of the work and prior to the time of planting.each plantwill be inspectedby the Engineer'sRepresentative for conformanceto and Drawings. The Contractor Engineer'sRepresentative shallinfoim the Engineerat the earliestpracticabledate as to the sourcesof plant materialsto be furnishedon the project. 612.Deciduousshrubsmay be supplied bare root. When collectedwood grown natural seeding stock or other non-nursery grown shrubsare permittedor calledfor on the Drawingor as directedby the Engineer. 612.3.Ground Covers.the root system shall be unwrappedin hessianor othersuitablematerial. the Contractor's expense.the label shall show the quantitiesof each specifiedplant containedin the box.and such plantsas do not conformthereto the Specification will be marked or othenvise identifiedas "rejected". 612. one or more plants. Collectedplantsshall be taken from soil. The root systems must be protection quality set of and suppliedin accordancewith the specification roots to forth above.

it shallbe madeonlywith priorapprovalof the Engineer and shallbe subjectto adjustment.8.6 SUBSTITUTION OF PLAIITS No substitutions of plantsmaterialwillbe permitted unlessit is provedto the satisfaction of the Engineerthat specifiedplantsare not availableduringthe normalplantingseasonoccurringwithinthe Contractperiod.largeclods. in suchamountas the Engineermay considerto be fair and equitable.7 TEMPORARYSTORAGE Afterbeingdugandpriorto planting on the project. the plantsspacedseparately.1 Layout of Planting Areas Plantlocationsand outlinesof plantingareasshall be markedout and stakedby the Contractor.protected fromwindandsun. Earth-balled plantsshallhavetheir ballsprotectedby and hessian-covered earth.CTION REOUIREMENTS 612. all plantmaterial shallbe properly protected againstinjuryat alltimes.strawor eithersuitablematerialwhichshallbe kept dampor wet to preventdryingout of rootsystems. 612.rocks and otherdebrisencountered in the cultivating work.afterwhichtheyshall be cultivatedto a depthof fifteen(15)cm. Excavation or pits for individualplantsshall be made in accordancewith provision (i)to (iv)whichfollow: 612-4 . and any excessshall be removedand disposedof in a manner approved bythe Engineer. All plantsshallbe protected fromexcessiveheator coldand shallbe stored in a wellventilated andshadedplace. 612. andall rootcoveredand keptmoist.lf substitution of plantmaterialsis thuspermitted.8 CONSTRU.8. All weedsand othervegetation growth.2 Preparation of Areas for Planting Areason whichplantingis to be doneshallbe broughtto pleasingcontour and to the linesand gradesdirectedby the Engineer.612.Plantswhicharenot plantedor whichare not to be plantedwithinone day afterarrivalon the projectshall be givenspecialprotection as follows: plantsshallbe "heeled-in" Bare-root in trencheswiththe bundlesopened. eitherfor or againstthe Contractor. The plantinglayoutswillbe subjectto the approval priorto commencement of theEngineer of the planting operations. 612.

groundcoversand similartypesof plant materialsshallbe of suchdimensionsas will providespacefor the spread rootsystemsof the plants. Ground Covers and Other Plants Pits.by to provide suchamountas the Engineermaydetermineas beingnecessary a space of not less than fifteen (15) cm aroundand beneaththe root systems. 612-5 .the pits.All plantsshall be plantedon and in good qualitytopsoil to which fertilizersand soil shallbe addedand uniformlymixed. carefultampingandwatering. includingbackfilling. ivl Vines.i) General Topsoilshallbe keptseparatefromsubsoiland shallbe renderedlooseand friable.Depths diameterof earthballor the spreadrootsystemof bare-root of pitsfor shrubsshallbe not lessthanthirty(30)cm and as muchdeeper to providea depthof at leastfifteen(15)cm belowthe as maybe necessary bottomof the earth ball or root systemof the shrubwhen placedat the properlevel. besthorticultural with the recognised workmenand in accordance Plants shall be set plumb and at such a level of elevationthat after settlementtheywill bearthe same relationto the levelof the surrounding groundas theyboreto the groundfromwhichtheyweredug.3 Planting shall be performedby experienced All plantingwork.in whichspacegood qualitytopsoiland plantnutrientshallbe in placeat thetimeof planting.or the spreadroot systemof bare-roottrees.Alkalinesoil. ii) Trees thanthe Pitsfor treesshallbe at leastfortyfive (45)cm greaterin dimension diameterof earthball.pocketsor trenchesfor vines.ln general.The preparedtopsoilused conditioners holes.pocketsor trenchesshallbe wider and deeperthan the actualspace required.as aboveprovided. 612.stonesor othermaterialsor matterencountered in the excavationsand which are detrimentalto plant growth shall be separatedfrom the soil and disposedof at locationsapprovedby the Engineer.Depths of pits for treesshallbe not less than eighty(80) cm deep and as much to providea depth of at leasttwenty(20)cm deeperas maybe necessary belowthe bottomof earthballor rootsystemof the treewhenplacedat the properlevel. of holdingwater shall be formedabouteach planton the surfaceof the completedbackfill.8. practice.pits the planting in fillingunderandaroundthe plantandin backfilling or trenchesshall be thoroughlyand properlyconditionedand settledby saucercapable a slrallow Forspringplanting. iii) Shrubs Pitsfor shrubsshallbe at leastthirty(30) cm greaterin dimensionthanthe shrubs.gravel.

the Contractorshall make up any deficiency.subjectto the directionsof the Engineeras to the location.depth. Deciduoustrees over two and half (2. with an approvedtree-woundpaint.Pruningshall be best horticultural remove such as will injuredtwigs and branchesand as will compensatefor loss of roots during plantingoperations. line and grade to which excavationthereof shall be made.the Contractorwill be permittedto obtain suitabletopsoilfrom areaswithinthe jurisdictionof the Employer.t Pruninq. Subsoil.Insofaras such is availableand can be taken withoutdetriment to the highwaydevelopment..Pruningshall produceclean cuts withoutbruisingor tearingthe bark. Bare-rootplantsshall have their roots spreadout in a naturalpositionand the preparedtop soil shall be carefullyplacedunder and among them to fill all voids. ropes.especiallythose of metal. All deciduoustrees over two (2) meter in heightshall be stakedor guyedat time of planting. The right to take materialsfrom sourcesnot under the jurisdictionof the Employershall be acquiredby the Contractorat his own expense.Preparedtopsoilshallbe carefullytampedaroundand under the baseof each ballto fill all voids.The stake shallbe placedin the plantexcavationand driven securelyinto the ground prior to plantingoperations.care shall be takento preventdisturbanceof the rootsystemsor ballof earththerein. removedfrom the top of the earthballs.5) mm wire.112)M high.but no clothshall be pulledout form underthe balls. Any roots. shall be stakedin a similarmanner. but less than 4 M high.Guyinsand Staking After beingplanted.The tie wire shallcross betweenthe tree and stake and be securelyfixedat the specifiedheight. olz-o . shall be in livingwood and where the wound can heal over properly.the stakesshall be cut off to presenta uniformlypleasingappearanceas directedby the Engineer. the wire shall be coveredwith a lengthof rubberhose adequateto protectthe bark from chafingand injury.In all cases. In removingplantsfrom containers.8. and topsoil in excess of the amounts required for filling and backfillingwork on the plantingareasshall be disposedof by the contractor in a mannersatisfactory to the Engineer.Earth-balledand hessian-coveredplants shall have all cloth. 612. lf topsoilof suitablequalityis not obtainablefor plantingarea preparationin sufficientquantityfor the plantingwork.The tree shall be placednot to exceedten (10) cm from the stake and fastenedtightlyto the stake at a pointapproximately two thirdsthe heightof the tree by meansof two and half (2.which are broken or frayed shall be cleanlycut off from the plant. At the point of contactwith the tree.Cuts over2 cm in diametershall be painted.all plantmaterialsshallbe prunedin conformanceto the practiceappropriateto the type of plant. etc.

6r2. of height normal approximatelyfive (5) crir above the tool.6 Mulching of the Planting areas shall be mulched after cultivationwith materials qualityand placedto the depthsindicatedon the Drawings. prouiO"spaceforthemutcfr.theentireareaSo branchesor occupiedand extending60 cm beyondthe outer ends of the provided' canesshallbe cultivatedas above prior to any plantingoperations. Evergreentrees or other hessian in (3) cables guyed three with be also shall (1t2) height in M shrubsover half a similarmanner.as the Erigineer.8.shall'be or vine planted 30 cm and lyingaroundeach Where cm' 8 than less of not depth a for and broughitJ triabtecondition closely so plants are the which in groups in planted plant maGrialsare spaceoastojustifytreatmentoftheareaaSaunit.the removalof objectionable materials these of soil.the plantingareas shall be broughtto the indicatedon the Drawingsor as directedby lines.ofnot|essthanNinety(9O)cmandlyingaround not less than each plantedtree and shrub and an area havinga diameterof loosened ground cover.Treesoffour(4)Morgreaterheightshallbeguyedwithguycables'each or heavier wire consistingof iwo'(2) Jtrands of two and half (2'5) mm two thirdsthe heightof the tree to a stake or extendingfrom approximately the trunk of deadmananchoredsecurelyin the ground at a distancefrom by protected the heightof faitenin$. Disposal well as the removaland disposalof excess to the Engineer' shallbe in a mannersatisfactory plantingareas may lf mulchingis required.tniform 612-7 .the breaking as debris.8.as indicatedon the Drawingsthe in surface irregularities with and be left in a reasonablysmooth condition (3) cm' not exceedingthree gradeand cross-section 612.lf the areas are to have mulchirrgmaterial establishedto and be adjusted shall grades indicatJdon the Drawings.The tree shall be aboutthree-quarters covered rubber hose or similar means. and litter stones. edging sharp a with adjoininglawhshaltbe neaflytrimmed up or The cultivatingwork shall includethe removalof weeks.gradesand cross-sections placedthereon.Mulch shall "pprou6d materialsshall be spreaduniformlyover the areas to be mulchedand surface' be finishedto a smoothand r.Attheedgesofwalks'pavementsand thiee (3)cm belowthe triveways'thefinishedsurfaceshallbe approximately surface shall be the finished areas. surfacesthereof.At edges of lawn The edges of grass.5 "Cultivationof PlantingAreas Anareahavingadiameter'. removingof ciods.

612.the life and satisfactory conditionof all plantsfurnishedby the Contractor shallbe guaranteed bytheContractor.8.all plants.After the conclusion of the plantingoperationandpriorto the 612-8 .as wellas keepingthe areasmooth.They shall be incorporatedin the work as directedby the Engineer.grass.growingcondition by watering. Maintenance shallconsistof keepingplantsin a healthy.pruning.the plantsshall be treatedby preventive or remedialmeasuresapprovedfor goodhorticultural practice. Fertilizer shallconsistof an approved compoundcontaining notlessthen: 10 percentNitrogen 15 percentPhosphoric Add 10percentPotash or similarapproved composition The contractormay add with the approvalof the Engineerany additional plantnutrients.shall be replacedwith satisfactory material. All plant and materialshall be protectedfrom stray animalsor theft or damageby any elementduringthe specifiedperiodof maintenance at the expenseof the contractor. materials withsoil.612. lf "heeled-in"plant materialshave to be held over until a later planting season.sprayingandothernecessaryoperations.7 Fertilizers and Soil Conditioners Fertilizersand soil conditioners shall be mixed with topsoilused in the plantingoperations and usedelsewhere as directedby the Engineer. Duringthisperiod.8.in the opinionof the Engineer arein an unhealthy or badlyimpairedcondition. whichhe considers theconstitution of the soilto warrant. 612.litter anddebris.8 Maintenance and Protection until suchtime as all workto be donein the contractis completedby the contractorand has beenfinallyacceptedby the Engineer.neatandattractive. Maintenance shallalsoincludethe keepingof plantingareasfreefromweeds.mulchandothermaterials shallbe thorough and complete.suchplant materialsshallbe liftedand replantedin nurseryrows. Mixing of these.9 Guarantee and Replacement Untilsuchtime as all workto be doneunderthe contractis comptetedby the contractorand duringa specifiedmaintenance periodafteracceptance of the planting. In the eventof an infestation from insectsor disease. such emergency storageand maintenance of held-overstockshallbe at the soleriskandexpenseof the Contractor.the contractor shall maintain all plant materialsand all planting areas efficienfly.8.which.

andPlanting Furnishing collectedPlantsincludingmaintenance Each periodof . shallbe understood and placingof planting......2 Paruqp4 paymentfor thefurnishing and plantingof trees.... materials 612.the conditionof the plantings' completionof all normalwork to determine a|lp|antsthennotinahealthygrowingconditionwi|lbenotedfor and ihall be promptlyremovedby the contractor...9 AI\iDPAYMENT MEASUREMENT 612.9..1 Measurement pricetenderedfor a giventype The quantityto be paidfor at the applicable plants of thattypefurnishedin place of number the of ptantmaierialshallbe Engineer' the by andfinallyaccepted as specified mulching No separatepaymentwill be madefor the furnishingof fertilizers. iertilizers.vines..9. Years... Years. with in accordance work the all otheritemsof work necessaryto complete the specification.Assoonas replacement permit.. 612a 612b 612 c 612 d DescriPtion Unitof Measurement andPlanting Furnishing maintenance of treesincluding Each periodof ....groundcoverand otherPlantsincludingmaintenance periodof . Payltem No. 612-9 . andsoilconditioners..replacementwork. andPlanting Furnishing maintenance Shrubsincluding Each periodof ...groundcover for and other plantmaterialJwill be madeat the pricetenderedfor each this forth in plants...all plantsto be replacedshallbe replacedby the seasonalconditions as contractorwith the same kinds and sizes and in the same manner Employer' the to cost specifiedandat no extra originally 6t2... Years...and for whiih separatepaymentis not specifically provided.materials. Years. set as of types "furnishingand planting"the various andon the Drawings' specification The pricetendeledfor eachfor the specifiedand listedpay itemstendered to coverand includepaymentfor all labour...maintenance.. transportation of performance the and mulchingmaterialsand soilconditioners. andPlanting Furnishing Vines.shrubs..

613. bush roots and stones largerthan 5 cm in diameter. 613. grasses.2 Spriss sprigs shallbe healthylivingstems(stolonsor rhizomes)with attachedroots of perennialturf-forminggrassesharvestedwith adheringsoil.ITEM 613 613. 613.and obtained from approvedsourcesin the localityof the work where the sod is dense and well rooted.3 Grass.2.noxiouswoods.1 Top Soil a) Sourceof Material The contractorshall notifythe Engineerat least5 days beforehe intendsto start top soil strippingoperations."Sod The sod shall consistof a healthy. bush sticks.3. tall grass.hard clay.or foreignmaterials.trees or othervegetationthat is free drainingand non-toxic.densg and well rooted growthof living grass.1 Ton Soil Top soil furnishedby the Contractorshall consistof a naturalfriablesurface. 613-1 . soil withoutadmixtureof undesirablesubsoil.lt shall be reasonablyfree frorn roots.refuse.After inspectionancl approvalby the Engineerand prior to strippingany top soil.or as requiredby the Engineer. at the locationshown on the drawings.3 CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS 613.2. coarse gravel.stoneslarger than 5 cm in diameter.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS 613.stubble.or other litter.2.The presenceof detrimentalmaterialswill be cause for rejection. The grass sod shall be cut into uniformsquaresapproximately 30 cm by 30 cm or in rolls of uniformwidth of approximately39 cm and shall have a minimumthicknessof 5 cm (excluding grassblades).1 SPRIGGING AND SODDING DESCRIPTION These works shall consistof furnishingtop soil and plantingsprigsor laying grass sods in accordancewith the specifications.and shall have been cultivatedfrom a healthygrowthof crops. 613. the contractor shall remove noxiousweeds and tall grass.

Sprigsthat have dried out or are otherwisedamagedduring harvestingor deliveryshallbe rejected' b) PlantineSpries Spriggingsshall not be done duringwindy weather.3.largeclods. After spreadinghas been completed. groupsof four sprigsor more shallbe spaced50 cm apartin the rows.stones.& shallbe coveredimmediately.3.Any erosion. broughtto a reasonablyfine textureto a depthof approximately 613-2 . whicheveris shownon the drawings: i) Row spriggingFurrowsshall be openedalongthe approximatecontour of slopes at the spacingand depth indicatedon the drawings. water shall be applieduntil the soil is moist and in a workablecondition.b) Placine. The roadway surfacesshallbe kept cleanduringhaulingand spreadingoperations.or when the groundis untillable.lf the soil is not moistwhen the wet.TonSoil The top soil shall be evenlyspreadon the designatedareas to the ltneand slope if shown on the drawingsand compactedto a depth of not less than 10 cm. excessively sprigsare being set.One or more of the followingmethodsshall be used.stumpsand other loose lying materialshall be raked up and removed.2 SgieCl4g a) HarvestingSPrigs The Contractorshallobtainthe Engineer'sapprovalof his sourceof springs and shall notify the Engineerat least 5 days before the sprigs are to be harvested. of grade or other incidentaldamageto the surfaceof top soil irregularities prioito the plantingof springsor layingof grasssods shallbe requiredto the Engineer'ssatisfaction. or othenryise dry. 613. 613.Sprigs shallbe placedat intervalsnot exceeding15 cm in a continuousrow in the open furrow. or otherwisein a conditiondetrimentalto the work.roots. c) of Spr Maintenance The Contractorshall regularlywater and maintain sprigged areas in a satisfactorycondition for the duration of the contract and until final acceptanceof the work by the Engineer.3 9sddils The Surfaceof the top soil on the area to be soddedshall be loosenedand 2-5 cm. Spreadingshall not be done when the groundtopsoilis excessively wet. ii) Spot spriggingspot spriggingshall be performedas specifiedunder row spriggingexcept that. instead of planting in continuousrows.

. soddingandtop soilingshalleachbe measured by the squaremeter. the sod on slopes shall be laid horizontally.spacedas neededby the natureof the soil and steepnessof slope.When placing sod scourchecksor similarconstruction. d) Top Dressins After the staking has been completed.sufficientlyto set or pressthe sod into the underlyingsoil. Unless otherwise required. At the limitsof sods areas.whereupona thin layerof top soil shall be scatteredover the sod as a top dressingand the areas shall then be thoroughlymoistenedby sprinklingwithwater. 613-3 . stakes shall be driven into the sod at right anglesto the slope untilflush with bottomof the grass blades. 613. and a layer of earth shall be placed over thisjuncture. or other foreign material.the end stripsshall be turned in and treatedas describedabove.top of embankment)shallbe turnedinto the soil to be below the adjacentarea. As the sod is being laid. the upperedgesof the sod strips(e. At pointswhere it is anticipatedthat water may flow over a sodded area. and the sod shall be placed thereonwithin 24 hoursafter havirrgbeen cut. The top soil to be measuredfor paymentshall be that quantitywhich exceedstheamountin ltem103for "Stripping".1 Measurement The workof sprigging. if not naturallysufficientlymoist. it shatt be lighflytamped with suitablewooden tampers.4. As the sod is being laid. c) Stakins the Sod on all.which has been plantedor placedin accordancewith thesespecifications andaccepted.and thoroughlycompacted.9. excess soil.4 MEASUREMENT ANDPAYMENT 613. beginningat the bottom of the slopes and working upwards. it shalt be lighflytamped with suitabtewooden tampers.20-30 cm in length. the lengthof the stripsshallbe laid at right angles to the directionof flow of the water. e) Maintenanceof SoddedAreas The Contractorshall regularlywater and maintainsoddedareas In a satisfactoryconditionfor the durationof the Contractand until final acceptance of theworkbythe Engineer.sufficientlyto set or pressthe sod into the underlyingsoil.the surface shall be clearedof loose sod.b) Placine the Sod The earth bed upon which the sod is to be placed shall be moistenedto the looseneddepth.slopessteeperthan one meter verticalto four meters horizontalthe sod shall be peggedwith stakes.

2 Pavment aboveshallbe paidfor at the contract The quantitymeasuredas prescribed unitpricetor tne payitems. items.m. for furnishingall materials. 6 1 3b Sodding sq. 6 1 3c TopSoil sq.Listedbelowandshownin the Billof Quantities' water.4. *nrch faymentsfraitOefuli compensation the complete to necessary costs all and transport tools.613.m. auor. Description 6 1 3a Sprigging sq. bqiripment.m. above the prescribed in workas Unitof Measurement Pay ltem No. 613-4 .

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SNOflT{YTTflCSIW .

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controland quantification of differentitems of work. 701.type and numberof surveyequipment.3. Description 701a Provide survevandallied instruments.for the propercompletionof the work as directedby the Engineer in the Special Provision.Q.equipmentand its maintenanceand incidentals.2 EXTENT OF PROVISION AND GENERAL REOUIREMENT Engineershall specifythe quality.Engineershallalso specifythe numberand designation of surveystaff to be providedunderthis item. 70t.then thesewill becomeclient'spropertyat the end of the projects.in SpecialProvision.O.1 PROVISION OF SURVEY TEAMS AND INSTRUMENTS DESCRIPTION The contractor shall provide necessary surveying staff and surveying equipment to the Engineer for conducting necessary survey work in connectionwith checkingor establishing line.2 Pavment Paymentshall constitutefull compensationfor all costs of furnishingsurvey teams and necessarylabour.3 MEASUR.EMENTAND PAYMENT 701.level.materials.lf the survey instrumentsare providedagainsta normalB.1 Measurement The quantitiesto be paidfor underthis item of work shall be at the contract unit price. Month . Pay ltem No. 701b Maintain SurveyInstruments & provideteamsfor Survey 701-1 Unitof Measurement L.TTEM701 701.item then these will remainthe propertyof contractorat the end of the project. however if survey instruments are supplied against ProvisionalSum item.S. 701.3.

of equal area shall be accommodation residenceswithout.and paidon proportional 702.Contractorshall providesecurityservicesfor base camp round of or replacements of the Engineer. be at the After completionof the contract.buildings.the contractorshall provide additionalfacilities and equipmentas directedby the Engineer. and electricity lf the operationsof the Contractorare such that additionsto the Engineer's staff are required.fixturesand furnitureshall be the propertyof the Employer. EQUTP AND MAINTAIN OFFICE FACILITY AND RESIDENCE FOR THE ENGINEER (BASE CAMP FACILITN AND CLIENTS REPRESENTATIVE. quoted paid rate.Preferably. provided by the contractorelsewhere.Maintenance the clockto the satisfaction worn out or brokenequipmentor furnitureshall be done by the contractor againstitem of maintenance. of small duration.heatingand ventilationshall also be providedas per special provisions. 702-1 .his staff and Client's representative.equipped and representative.ITEM 702 702. officeand residentialfacilitiesfor the Engineer..locationof this officefacilityshall be at a centrallocationof the projectsite near to contractor'soffice and laboratory the exclusiveuse of Engineerand his staff and Clients and shall remainat -fhe office facility shall be constructed. DESCRIPTION The contractorshall provideand properlymaintain. The above describedaccommodationshall be constructedwithin three however temporary office months after the availability of land.any Engineer's offices and construction of during the accommodation shall maintenance of such temporary however extracharge.2 N1AINTENANCEREQUIREMENTS The ContractorshallprovidenecessaryJanitorialServicesand supplyfor the above officialaccommodationsuch as cleaning.contractorshall providetemporaryofficeaccommodation as providedin the SpecialProvisions. furnishedas shownin the SpecialProvisionand drawings. Airconditioning.windowwashingetc. The cost of the same shall be the of the Contractorand shall be consideredsubsidiary to all responsibility basis. 702.for the durationof the work. for project In order to caterfor the officesand residentialaccommodations. All chargesfor installationand maintenanceof utilitiessuch as water.1 PROVIDE. otherpay itemslistedin the Billof Quantities.3 BUILDINGSITE ACQUISITIONAND OWNER-SHTP The Clientwill secureand obtainthe land requiredfor the Engineer'soffice and will make said land availableto the Contractorfor and his representative constructionpurposesaftersigningof the contract.The site shall be located as shown on the plans or as directedby the Engineer. gas shallbe borneby the contractor.

O.materials.equipmentand incidentalsfor the proper completion of the work prescribed in the specifications. drawingsand Special Provisions.However if furnishingsare supplied againsta ProvisionalSum item.4.2 i) Provideand equipEngineer'sand clientsofficeand Residenceto be.item then it will becomethe propertyof contractorat the end of the project. ii) FurnishEngineer's& Clientsoffice& residence. Pay item No.measured for payment as Lump sum soon after its completion.1 Measurement Work underthis item shallbe measuredin two portions: 702. Payment The quantityto be paid for underthis item of work shall be at the contract pricequotedin the Billof Quantitieswhich priceand paymentshallconstitute full compensation for all costsof furnishinglabour.In case if furnishingare providedagainsta normal B.4. 702a 702b 702c Description Unit of Measurement ProvideEngineer's & Client's Office& Residence Lump-sum Furnish& EquipEngineer's & Clientsoffice& Residence Lump-sum MaintainEngineer'sOffice & Residence 702-2 Month .then rhesewill becomethe propertyof the Client.702. iii) MaintainEngineer'sofficeand Residenceto be measuredfor the durationof the contract.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 702.Q.

Equipment.all to the satisfaction access/service drawingsand SpecialProvision. 703-1 .The list shall includethe name and descriptiveliterature.2 GENERALREQUIREMENTS The furnishingof equipmentshall ensureconductionof all tests relatedto constructionitemsdescribedunder relativematerialrequirementclause.utilities. The Contractorshall maintain the laboratoryequipment.3.I PROVIDE. 103. EQUIP AND MAINTAIN LABORATORY FOR THE PROJECT DESCRIPTION This work shall includethe constructionof Laboratorycompleteand ready and for use. manufacturer's Lab. The Contractorshall provideat no cost to the Engineer.The Contractorshall submitto the Engineerfor his approvalat his earliest.fixtures & furniture shall remain the property of the contractoraftercompletionof the project.at any other laboratory.installations of the Engineeras shownon the roads. the Engineermay authorizesuch a test to be carriedout at the cost of contractor.3 FACII-ITY OF THE MATERIAL TESTING as ddscribedaboveshall be completed Materialtesting facilities(Laboratory) period.Lists of specificlaboratoryequipmentnoted in the special provisionsare intendedas an aid to the contractorand should not be to purchasefrom a construedas a bindinglist nor as a recommendation specificmanufacturer. howeverlaboratorybuilding.apparatusand supplieshe proposesto furnishfor the laboratory. available 703.providedsuch facilitiesare acceptable to the Engineer.technicians and helpersin the number deemed necessaryby the Engineer.Contractorshall also be responsiblefor extra expensesof the Engineerfor conductionof test in temporaryarrangement. may be removed Techniciansand helpersonce assignedto the laboratories by the Contractoronlywith the approvalof the Engineer. Contractor may be paid for maintenance of temporarylaboratory.ITEM 703 703.to assist in the operation of the laboratoriesas requiredby the Contractor'sproposedprogrammeof work.as withinthe mobilization an interim arrangement. In case if any test requiredfor testingof materialcan not be performedin the projectlaboratory.In case of delayin providingsuch a facility.apparatusand suppliesnecessaryto permitexecutionof all standardtests requiredby the specifications.with all necessaryfurnishingof equipments.shall be handedover to the client which shall be conslructedof the land made by the clientas per item702.temporaryfacilitiesof testing material shall be provided as agreed by the Engineer.a completelistingof the equipment.

703.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 70J. 703. Month 703-2 . Lump-sum Equipand FurnishProject Laboratory.to be measuredfor paymentas Lump-sumsoon afterits completion. Pay item No.. Theseinstrumentsshall be installedat a placeas directedby the Engineer.2 Payment The quantitiesunder this item of work shall be paid at the contractprice indicatedin the Billof Quantitieswhichpriceand paymentshallconstitutefull compensationfor all costs of furnishinglabour.minimumthermometer 703.1 lVleasuremenl Work underthis itemshallbe measuredin three (3) portions: i) Provide MaterialTesting Laboratory.equipmentand incidentalsfor the proper completion of the work indicated in these specifications and specifiedon the drawingsand Specialprovision.1^ Description Unit of Measurement Providematerialstesting laboratory. One (1) maximum. materials.1 W EATHERRECORDINGEOUIPMENT The contractorshall furnish and maintain in good working order for the durationof the contract.1. to be measuredfor the durationof the contract.4. 703a 703b '7n. iii) MaintainLaboratory.instrumentsand their necessaryappurtenances to be used by the Engineerin recordingweatherdata.The instrumentswill be of the latestmodel subjectto approvalof the Engineerincluding: i) ii) iii) iv) O n e ( 1 )r a i ng a u g e One (1)thermometer One (1) recording barometer. Lump-sum MaintainLaboratory. ii) Equip& FurnishProjectLaboratory to be measuredas Lump-sumitem.

B o. 70{.J : Pavnrent The paynrentfor this item for the first year shall be deemed to h:rr.{.n'ENt 704 MAINTENANCEOF WORKS FOR ONE YEAR AFTER COMPLETION. I Measurement Any nraintenance work which becomenecessarydue to use of bad qiralrlv materialor bad workmanshipor whrchis reouireclto repairnormalw€ar rr.J MEASUR[MIiNTAND PAYMENl' 70t. However.1 tearshallnot be measuredfor payment Howeverany specialvrrorkduring maintenanceperiodif carriedout at the rnrrrtten instructionof the Engineerthe same shall be measuredand oaid underapplicablertemof work of the BOe ?(t-l. expressedor implied.on the contractor'spartunderthe contract 70-t.1 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS All repair/remedial work shall be carriedout by the contractorat his own expenseif the necessitythereofshall.in the opinionof the Engineer.l N{ATIRIALS All materialsto be used for maintenanceof works shall conform to the requirements of applicablesectionsof this specification in the particularitem of work involved.Q shallshow a separateitem 704 and contractorshall quotethe ratefor such provision 704-1 .in case the Employerrequiresthe maintenance of prolectfor more than one year.intof rnaintenance shallbe made underthis item.be due to the use of materialsor workmanshipnot in accordancewith the contract. reconstruction.as a resultof an inspectionmade by or on behalfof the Employer Periodof Maintenanceas definedhereinis one year beginning the day following the receipt by the contractor of the certificate o1 Completionissuedby the Employer 7(l-l.eLreen rncludedin rates for differentitems of work and no paymenti.rr..amendment.I DESCRIPTION This work shall consistof executionof all such work of repair.rr accor.or withinfourteen(1a)dayi after its expiration. shrinkageor other faults as may be requiredof the contractorin writingby the Engineerduringthe Periodof Maintenance.rectificationand making good defects. imperfections. or the neglector failure on the part of the contractorto comply with any obligation.DEFECT LI{BILITY PERIOD(PERIODOF MAINTENANCE ?04.

3.Upon completionof the Works.all Temporary Road Works such as.I TEMPORARY ROAD WORKS FOR TR{FFIC DIVERSION DESCRIPTION The Contractoris allowedto carry out rehabilitation work on half carriage way and directthe trafficon the other half. regular gradingto maintainsmoothnessof the road sudace. Howeverif he opts to divertthe trafficon temporaryroad for ease in construction. the Contractorshallclean up and restorethe land to the satisfaction of the Engineeror the landownerconcerned. 705-1 .including payment if required.repair of damagedportionswhich may affecttrafficflow. 705. detours.as approvedby the Enoineer 705.with the public authoritiesor land ownersconcerned. 705. Such work shall include.3. relievethe Contractorof his contractualobligations.2 Maintenance of TemporarvlLoad Works shall be performedperiodically and to such an extentas to cause no delaysor interruption to the normalflow of traffic.unlessotherwiseallowedin writing. Such temporary diversionstructuresshallbe constructedto the satisfaction of the Engineer.2 MATERIALS Materialsused in the constructionof TemporaryRoad Works shall provide reasonablysmooth and strongsurfaceto carry the traffic. however.3 CONSTRUCTIONA Before constructingTemporaryRoad works.but not limitedto.for the use of the land and he shall also obtainthe approvalof the Engineer Such approvalwill not.which shall be very near to originalcondition.maintain and remove on completionof the works for which they are required.Lengthof diversionshall not exceed more then 20 percent of project length unless otherwise authorised by Engineer 705. cleaningof culvertsto ensure properdrainage. the Contractorshall make all necessaryarrangements.1 Construction requirements for TemnoraryRoad Works shall be carriedout by the contractoras per requirementof items used in construction or as directedby the Engineer.he shall provide.tT[vI705 705. immediatereparrof potholes. sleeper tracks over unstable groundand bridgesover streamsand shall make them safe and suitablein every respect for maintainingtwo way diverted traffic.

1(b).2 Pavrnent Paymentfor provisionof temporaryroad diversionfor bridgesshall be made under applicableitems of works of the B.removal and disposalof temporaryroad for diversionof trafficin case. Pay item No. of tgmDorarvroad a) Construction Contractorshall submit the proposal of constructionto the Engineer. whereas payment for maintenanceof temporaryroad diversionfor bridgesshall be made under thisitemas measuredunderitem705.. measurementshall be made proportionate to the road completed& opened for traffic approvedfor maintenanceperiod. Description Unit of Measurement 705a or Diversion Construction Lumo-sum road.the provisionand maintenanceof temporaryroad shall be measuredas under.to divertthe trafficfor ease in road or culvertconstruction. if it is required. 705b Maintenanceof temporaryroad 705-2 Lump-sum . as half lane road is allowedon the project.Q.whereas removaland disposal of temporaryroad shallnot be measuredfor payment.705..maintaining. construction Howeverin case of bridgeconstruction.t 705.1. 705.4. Engineermay amend or approvethe proposalof the contractor.4.1 Measurement No measurementshall be made for providing.O.which will on rate alreadyquotedby the contractor then be authorisedfor construction b) Maintenance of temDoraryroad Contractorshall maintainthe temporaryroad as directedby the Engineer.

1. traffic as required and otherfacilities flares.barricades signs.the Contractot'shall furnish and station competentflagmen. or whereverorderedby the Engineer.2 TemporaryTraffic Control In order to facilitatetraffic movement through or around the works.s)meterswide on the roadwayor embankmentto be kept open to trafftc. The Contractorshallso conducthis operationsas to offerthe least possible and delayto trafficand shall be responsiblefor obstruction. Where required.in-convenience the adequatecontrol of the traffic using the width. be removedimmediately 706-1 .the movementof the Contractor'sequipmentfrom one portion of the work to anothershall be subjectto such single-lanetraffic control.which sum will be deducted from any moneydue or which may becomedue to the Contractorunderthe Contract.whose sole duty shall consist of directingthe movementof trafficthroughor aroundthe work.or where directedby the Engineer. the contractor. Spillageresultingfrom ha'ulageoperationsalongor acrossthe roadwayshall at the Contractorexpense.1 DESCRIPTION 706. At placeswheresuch single-lanetrafficis in operation. 706.3 Traffic Control Single-Lane In all cases where single-lanetraffic becomesnecessaryover a particular length of the works or over the approachesthereto. of single lane above specified. by the Engineerfor the directionand controlof traffic.and when orderedby the Engineer. in maintainingthroughtraffic.illumination. The Contractorshall take necessary care at all times to ensure the convenienceand safetyof residentsalongand adjacentto the Highway.1. Any failureof the Contractorin the performanceof these works will entitle the Engineerto carry out such work as he deems to be necessaryand to chargethe Contractorwith the full cost thereof.signals.shall providea singlelane at least three and a half(3.the Contractorshallerectand maintainat prescribedpointson the works and at the approachesto the work. 706.r.ITENT 706 CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF TRAFFIC 706.1 General The Cohtractorshall keep open to traffichalf a portionof any existingroad work on the other half provided duringthe performanceof the rehabilitation that when such a maintenanceof trafficis not possiblefor any reasonthe contractorwill constructa temporaryroad as providedunderitem 705.

elimination. shall be so placedas to be easilyand opportunelyvisible to oncoming traffic to ensure drivers will know immediately whatinstructions theyareto follow.2 MATERIALS Materialsof which road posts.barricades. Pay item No. flashing amber lights. 706.1 Measurement Thisitemshallbe measured in numberof monthsduringwhichthe trafficis properlymaintainedby the contractorby providingall signs. signals.706.2 Pavment Paymentfor the maintenanceof Trafficas measuredabove shall be made under the applicableitem of the work of BOQ for the number of months duringwhichsatisfactory performanceis verifiedby the Engineer. 706. roundthe clock and necessarymanpower/ flagmenas perrequirement of theEngineer. shall conform to current BS or AsrM standardsor as approvedby the Engineer. 706 Descriptlon Controland protection of Traffic 706.hazardmarkers. 706-4.4 ProiectInformationSisns The contractorshall withinthe mobilization period.erect projectinformation signs at all main roads crossingthe projectarea and at the beginningand end of the contract. signals.2 Unit of Measurement Months .detours (chevron) etc.4 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 706.cones.trafficsigns. signals. barricades. 706. big cones. bollards.r.warningtapes. The size of the project informationsigns and the messagethereonshallbe determinedby the Engineer.warningtapes road posts and hazard markers. barricades etc.3 CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS Trafficsigns.bollardsetc.4.diversion cones.

707a 707b 7A7c 7Q7d 7Q7e 707f Description Relocationof Electric lines Relocationof Telephone lines Relocationof Water Supplyi Seweragelines Raisingof Manholes Relocation of Suigaslines Relocationof Water Courses 707-1 Unit of Measurement L. Specifications 701.4 MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT 707. with relativedepartment.if requiredfor the relocationof servicesshall conformto the of the relativedepartmentwhoseutilitiesare beingshifted.M L.furnishingof materialsand installingor coordination relocationas per requirementof the relativedepartment.4.ITEM 707 707. 707.equipment.1 Measurement The qualityof each item for which utilitieshave been relocatedshall be measuredin the unit as approvedby the Engineeror as designatedin the SpecialProvisions. 707. level and general workmanship shall conformto the applicable requirements of relative deoartments.M L.MENTS The constructionrequirementsuch as alignment. The quantumof work shall be establishedby the designconsultantand elaboratedin the SpecialProvisionsor as directed by the Engineer.2 MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS All materials.M .M No LM L. This payment shall constitutefull compensationfor any design work.1 REMOVAL / RELOCATION OF UTILITIES DESCRIPTIOT: This work shallconsistof carryingout relocationof varioustypesof services fallingwithinthe Rightof Way.3 CONSTRUCTIONREQUIRI.4.which shall also includeall labour. 707.tool and incidentalnecessaryto completethe item Pay item No.2 Payment The acceptedquantitymeasuredas applicableto each item shall be paid on the unit rate as quoted/ agreedwith the contractorfor each item.

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RE.NT .COMMENDEI) MAJOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPME.

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3CM) and Backfill z PlateCompactor 108 Formationof Embankment. PROJECTS. P) D u m p e (r 1 0T ) 102 Removalof Trees Excavator(0. CONSTRI CTION MACHINER Y F'OR MAJOR PROJECTS REHABILITATIO MAINTENANCE N/MEDIUM SIZE PROJECTS.RECOMMENDEDMAJOR CONSTRUCTIONEQUIPMENT ITEM DESCRIPTION \o. WaterTanker (Tow-Type) Combination Roller (10-12T) G r a d e(r1 4 0 .". P) StaticRoller (8-12r) WaterTanker (Tow-Type). StaticTandemRoller 105 RoadwayExcavation ( 8 . ) Tractor/Trolley (50HP) PlateCompactor 1 Grader(140-165 HP) Grader(140HP) z Combination / sheep. 1 1 1& 112 1.1 6H5P ) withscarifier z Asphalt Distributor TandemRoller (10-12T) PlateCompactor. ( 1 6 0H . 11 0 . . 101 Clearingand Grubbrng.Combination/ footor pneumatic sheepfootor pneumatic Roller(8-'l2T) Roller WaterTanker (Bowser Type) (8-12r) WaterTanker (BowserType) 109. (160H P) Bulldozer or Grader(140H. 1 3 Sub-grade Preparation. P .1 2r ) WaterTanker(Tow Type) BullDozer (160-200 H. 'l 2 BullOo.3 CM) 103 Stripping G r a d e r ( 1 4 0 HP ) 104 Compactionof Natural Ground. BitumenStabilrzed Sub-grade Grader(140-165 HP) withscarifier. HeavyDuty Tractorwith Blade ( 8 0 H .P) FrontEndLoader (2-3CM) DumpTruck (10-18T) 107 StructuralExcavation 1 Excavator (0.

) WaterTanker (Tow Type) StaticRoller (10-12r) (2-3cM) Pugmill(50-100T/ Hour) 4 D u m p e (r 1 0 .RECOMMENDED MAJOR CONSTRUCTION EQUTPMENT ITEM NO.P. HeavyDuty Tractorwith z 212 BitumenStabilized i) Sub-base.1 5 T ) 5 BasePaver(4Mwide) Combinationroller (10-12T) 204 SoilCementStabilized Sub-base/ base. D u m p e (r 1 0 .) (50-80HP) WaterTanker (Tow Type) WaterTanker (Tow Type) StaticRoller (10-12T) StaticRoller (10-12T) DESCRIPTION 114 Dressingand Comoactionof Berms. Water Tanker (Tow type) StaticRoller (10-12T) Tractor/ Trolley with Blade(50 HP) Watertanker (Tow Type) StaticRoller (10-12T) PowerBroom/ Air compressor. PROJECTS. ) 2 AsphaltDistributor Combinationroller (10-12T) Graderwith Scarifier (140-16H 5 .)with Articulated Blade. . FrontEnd Loader Grader (140H. ) Water Bowser. Tractorwith Tractorwith Blade Blade(50 H. 201 GranularSub-Base. Graderwith scarifier ( 1 4 0H . MAJOR PROJECTS a 4 202 & 211 BaseCourse PoweqBroom /Air Compressor GraderWith Scarifier ( 1 4 0H P . BitumenStabilized ii) Base. CombinationRoller (10-12T) HeavyDuty Tractorwith Blade.1 5 T ) Base Paver (4M wide) TandemRoller (10-12T) SameEquipment as for major project. (a) ColdMix (b) HotMix M-2 Blade.P. Combination Roller(10-i2T) SameEquipment as for major projects. WaterTanker (Tow type) Combination Roller (10-12T) HeavyDuty Tractor/ Trolley with Blade ( 8 0H . ConcreteBatching and forcedmixing plant(30 CM/Hour). CONSTRUCTIONMACHINERY FOR REHABILITATIO MAINTENANCE N/MEDIUM SIZE PROJECTS. P . Equipment mentioned as perltem203.P.) BitumenDistributor (Auto/TowType) TandemStaticRoller (10-12r) Equipment mentioned as per ltem203. P .

WaterTanker (Two type) StaticRoller (10-12T) Bitumen Aggregate Mixer(1 CM) 'Wheel Barrow (0. 203 & 305 AsphalticBaseCourse / WearingCourse PlantMix. (9 Wheeled)18-T. BitumenBowser plusall equipmentfor Asphaltic Concreteunder Item305 HeavyDuty Tractor/ Trolley with Blade.5cM) Tandem Vibratory Roller(8-10T) Tractor / Trolley ( 5 0H . PowerBroom/ AirCompressor. Engine Operated Bitumenpressure (Auto-Type) distributor M-3 Cold Milling Machine (1 M wide) Dumpers(10T) WaterTanker (Tow type) 2 J ManualOperated Bitumenpressure distributor (Tow Type) Cold Milling Machine(1 M wide) Dumpers (1or) WaterTanker (Towtype) Manually Operated Bitumen pressure distributor fl-owTvpe) . MEDIUM SIZE PowerBroom/ AirCompressor. ColdMix Recycler.(8-10T) Recycling Machine. ) (10T) 2 Dumpers WaterTanker (Towtype) Roller Combination (10-12T) PROJECTS.T.RECOMMENDEDMAJOR CONSTRUCTIONEQUIPMENT ITEM NO. P . P . ) Water Tanker (Tow type) StaticRoller (8-10r) 309 ColdMilling 2 J 302& 303 Bituminous Prime Coat/ TackCoat. 308 Re-cyclingof Asphalt Concrete 1 1 5& 306 ShoulderTreatment.R. Grader(140HP) WaterTanker (Tow Type) Vib.R(9 Wheeler 21 T) Tandem Vibratory Roller(10-12r) 4 6 1 1 G r a d e(r1 4 0H .T.2 . DESCRIPTION 213 Recyclingof Road PavementStructure/ Soil Stabilization. TandemVibratory Roller.Combination Roller (10-12T) FrontEnd loader ( 1 . FrontEnd Loader (2-3 CM) AsphaltPlant (80-120T) 4 Paver(4 M wide) D u m p e r( 1 0 . P .1 8 T ) A P. 5 0 . CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY FOR MAINTENANCE REHABILITATION/ MAJOR PROJECTS PROJECTS. 5C0M ) AsphaltPlant(2040T) Dumper(10T) Paver (4M wide) P. ) Tractor / Trolleywith Blade ( 5 0H .

RECOMMENDED MAJOR CONSTRUCTIONEQUIPMENT ITEM NO.T. Bituminous Surface Treatment. Tractor/Trolley ( 5 0H . Power Broom/AirCompressor. 401 Concrete Aggregate Spreader (3-4M wide) Bitumen Distributor Autoor TowType. 304 DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY FOR MAJOR PRO.R(9 Wheeled18T) l^ 310 ConcretePavements. HeavyDutyCranecr Beamlaunching Truss. 407 Piling plus PilingEquipment all thoseequipment mentionedin ltenr 4 0 1 . 2 AggregateSpreader. 608 PavementMarking RoadMarkrng Machine M-4 Concrete StaticMixer(1 cM) TractorTrolley (50HP) 3 Crane(20T) 4 4 WaterTanker (Towrype) Vibrator ConcreteStatic Mixer(1/2-1CM) Tractorffrolley (50HP) Vibrator. (40mm-50mm) Manual Manual . P .4 0 1 . 3 EngineOperated Bitumenpressure distributor(AutoTvpe) DumpTruck(1OT) l 5 RubberMounted TandemRolleror P.f o r m a j o r projects. Wheel Borrows. ConcretePaving Machine(4 M wide) FrontEnd Loader (2-3 CM) ConcreteTransit mixer(6 CM) ConcreteBatchirrg Plant(30 CM/H) FrontEnd Loader (2-3CM) ConcreteTransit Mixer(6 CM) 4 Crane (20-45r). StaticTandem Roller(8-10T) PROJECTS. ) BitumenSprayer (manual)static TandemRoller (18T) ConcreteBatching Plant(30 CM/H). Vibrator(40mm50mm) ConcreteFinisher 405 PrestressedConcrete Structures Prestressing plusall Equipment equipment contained i n l t e mN o .IECTS REHABILITATIO MAINTENANCE N/MEDIUM SIZE PROJECTS. DumpTruck (10r).

HaiderRaza I)r . M u s h t a qM a h m o o d l)r'o. Nafional Highlvay Authority Mr.A h s a nR a s h i d l)ircclor (('!tS) M r . Javed KhizarHyatt N ' l c r r t b e rI ) l : r n n i n g M r .PATRONAGE. Whose accomplishmentof the assignment.( Client) Client's Senior Executives. M/S Buxly PaintsLimited M / S N a t i o n aE l ngineers patronage contributed towards successful .jccl )il'cclor ( l-lll)) M r . l)ircctor((l&S) A s s i s t a n c eF r o t n O u t s i 4 e A g e n c i e s M/S 3 M Pakistan(Pvt)Ltd.

Engr.A b d u l A z i zM u g h a l Engineer SeniorHighwa"v Mr. Syed NuzhatHussainZaidi SeniorMaterialsEngineer Mr.SERVICES (SeniorExecutives) Sampak Senior Executives. Shafiq Ahmed P r i n c i p a lE n g i n e e r E n g r .(iornputerProgratnurer .Whose dedicated services contributed towards successful accomplishmentof the assignment. Mir Ashraf Khan Asstt.

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J. rU n i to f M e a s u r e m e n l 3 1 1. 41 4 lJCt.4 6 305-6 Payment/ FriceAdjustment JU3. 5 1 0 .i a L P a yl t e mN o .3.Omm" 2 1 lCtL iSuctitule"Cubrcmeters"for "Squaremeiers" I jReplar:e"Sl'/"by ' Cll for Payltern311a & "SM"by " j X g ' f a .5.w.b .106d/Unil of Measurement 108-6 Payment/ Formaticln from structuraiExcaval.5 409-6 Pay ltem No.z .( 3 11 a & 3 11 b ).3.1(b) lReplar.3.e"Table"on page406-4as per attachedannexure-A t "LM"for "CM" Unitof measurement iSubstirute ' jRead i.'.2 1 I 14 5 1 0 .3 Measurement wrv.2 15 608-2 Heading/ Title 608.CoRRTGENpUM TO GENERAI_ SPECIF|CATIONS Nt{A-199S 4 I a 106-2 lPayltemNo.2.42 J 114-4 Measurement 4 206-1 SreveDesignation of LastTabie 6 3A4-4 Spreading of Aggregates 304.t5vrilh4.3.rKg" aftercubic meter I "c'rKg"aftercubicmeter lAdd lnset "iKg" afterCM to read as "CM/Kg" Substitute'!Vhite"with "Yeliou/'toreadas 'YellowTraffic Paint" 1A 608-5 Table 1 & 2 underCompositionof Mixiure 608.e"S.s "Fittingof Stif-fener"s" insteacof "Frtof stiffeners" I lAdd "c.0-3 Payment 510. q 1n 14 tl 406-4 ElastomericBearingPads I 406.Z 7 B 310-25 Measurement Jtt-o U 1 1 0 .4.409e/ Unitof Measurement 449. 2 Repiac.75 z Insert'ruord"Lindulations" after"bindershows" I 2(Table-1) 310.3 Pay ltem No.1. 7.O 2nd last tz.2(e) RepiaceTable 1&2 with descripiion/ nctes as per attachedannexure-B .Omm" insteacj"50.2. yl t e m3 11 .ron lnsertunit"CM"infrontof Pay ltem 106d(iii) 108.> fromcostof excavatlon lDeleieword"excavaticn" I "Cubicmeter"for "Squaremeter" lSubstiiute Change4. / Unii of l'4easurernent 510.4.2 413-11 Heading/ Title + rJ. A a n e {I 1 a a 13 51.

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100hrs. D 736 Passed . Young'sModulusat 35oC.22 hrs.at 3BoC+ 1 oC Low temperature stiffness.'. 6015 D 1149(except No Cracks 100+20partsper 100.000) D 797 35OMax.kgs per cm' Low temperature brittleness.000. Requirements Tensilestrength.Annex. D 624 (DieC) D 2240 1 3M i n .Kgsper cm2 Hardness(ShoreA) Ozoneresistance20o/ostrain. D 395 (MethodB) 25 Max. kgsper cm2 Elongationat break. D 412 350Min..percent Compression set. 5 hoursat -40oC D412 160[\4in.at 67oCpercent Tear Strength.

1t . .''if' . as Drop-on) +. i .80mm 1. :. . : ' r"'J. i.1"'''" .l h. aggregate. 7B 82 fo1 yeliov'i (* For Tiianium Di-oxideonly. The gradingof the combined : analysis shall comply with the t*f. no minimumis specified material. pnoponrt9Ng Gonstituent Binder(resinandoil) Pigment Pigmentand extender Ballotini Aggregate Pigment Extenderand ballotini 1B 6" 1B 20+ 22 i. ."i" spicifiedJ as found on of table2.10o/o application' is to be appliedby pressure extenderand ba||otini pigmenJ.i.I rl 'ir' r i.esurface in the case of materialto whichsurfaceballotini Wherespecified. i ! . . .:' AnneX I ii 1.. requirements Percentage bY masq Pgggln 2.GlassBead 10% Pre-mixedand 10% to be appliedon th.i:. '. 1 8m m 600 p m (micron) 100 100 tu:nu 75-95 .i or MlxrunE or CqNsrirqeNTs raeLe t..