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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

EXP. TITLE

EXP. NO

:6

STUDENT ID

: CE096508

SECTION

: 01

GROUP

: 02

CE096502

2. HARIGARAN A/L KANDASAMY

CE096504

3. MOHAMMAD OMAR HAMID WAGIEALLA

CE097089

INSTRUCTOR

Performed Date

06 JULY 2015

Due Date

13 JULY 2015

Submitted Date

13 JULY 2015

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

Objective

Theory

PAGE

3

3-5

Anticipated Result

Apparatus

Procedure

8-9

Discussions

10

Conclusions

10

Critique

10

References

10

Appendix

11

OBJECTIVE

The

objective of the experiment

is

to

determine the center of

pressure on

both submerged and partially

submerged

plane surface. The purpose

of

this

experiment

also

to

to compare the center of pressure between experimental result with the theoretical values.

THEORY

We consider a submerged surface in a stationary fluid. When a fluid is stationary, it has

only normal stress, which is called pressure, but it has no shear stress. Hence, any submerged

surface in a stationary fluid would experience hydrostatic force. Another characteristic of

stationary fluid is that its free surface is always perpendicular to the direction of gravitational

acceleration. The fluid pressure acts normal to the surface of an object and is positive in the

direction into the surface. Integration of the pressure over a submerged surface yields the total

hydrostatic pressure force acting on that surface. Similarly the resultant moment about a suitable

specified point can be obtained by integrating the moments from the pressure over the body

surface. Through total moment of momentum balance, the rotating part of the equipment is

balanced with the load W on the scale.

P

gh................................ (1)

When

P = pressure

Newton/

density

G = acceleration due to gravity

h = depth of liquid

Kg/

9.81m/

m

P2 P1

=

g (h2 h1)

Since h

=

h2 h1

Thus P2 P1 =

gh or

P2

=

P1 + gh

3

Thus P2

=

Patm + gh ----------------------- (2)

Patm

=

0 gauge pressure

Thus P2

=

gh

Hydrostatic force on the submerged surface is equal to pressure at the centroid times area of

the submerged surface

F

F

h

A

=

=

=

=

gA ------------------------ (3)

Hydrostatic force Newton

Depth of the centroid m

Submerged surface area m2

P

Force on area dA

But

Thus

Integrating (4)

gh

dF = PdA

gh dA

= X sin

dF

F=

=

=

=

=

gX sin dA

--------------------- (4)

= g sin

= XdA

However,

Thus

X

F = g sin A X

---------------------- (5)

Therefore

h = X sin

F = g h A

dM

= XdF

4

= gh X dA

But h = X sin

Thus

= g sin X2 dA

dM

Or

M=

=

Since

dA

g X2 sin

g sin

dA

2

dA

------------------------ (6)

= I0

= 2nd moment of area about 0

=

LB3

Thus

M = g sin I0

------------------------- (7)

= Moment of hydrostatic force about 0

= F XP

Thus

M = F XP = g I0 sin

Or

XP =

-------------------------- (8)

I0 = ICG + A X

2

Thus

XP =

Or

XP = X

+

XP

X

ICG

A

=

=

=

=

-------------------------- (9)

Distance from 0 to centroid of surface A

Second moment of area A about the centroid

Submerged surface

m

m

m4

m2

For HB 012 Hydrostatic Pressure, the submerged surface is always vertical or = 90.

This surface 75 mm wide and 100 mm high. The quadrant inner radius is 100 mm and outer

radius is 200 mm . Fulcrum is at the center of the quadrant.

When there is no water in the tank, W is the counter weight to the quadrant, the beam and

weight anger. A weight m is required to balance the hydrostatic force. M is at a distance

280 mm from 0.

FY = mgL

Y

--------------------------- (10)

Thus

XP = Y-R1 + h1 ---------------------------- (11)

ANTICIPATED RESULT

The expected result for Xp in this experiment are shown below:

By using the formula;

12

2. 500g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (204mm x 7500 m2) ) = 208

12

3. 400g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (181mm x 7500 m2) ) = 185

12

4. 300g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (158mm x 7500 m2) ) = 163

12

5. 200g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (128mm x 7500 m2) ) = 134

12

6. 100g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (106mm x 7500 m2) ) = 113

12

APPARATUS

Inner radius = 100mm

Outer radius = 200mm

Width = 7mm

Center of the quadrant is the same as fulcrum of the quadrant. Fulcrum to weight

hanger distance = 280mm

2. W is a counter weight to the quadrant and weight hanger when there is no hydrostatic

pressure. The position of W is adjustable horizontally.

3. A clear acrylic tank with fulcrum support for the quadrant. When the tank is filled

with water, hydrostatic pressure will turn the quadrant counter clockwise which

requires a balancing weight with the mass m.

Pre-determined Dimensions:

Width of Quadrant B = 0.075m

Height of Quadrant D = 0.100m

Length of Balance L = 0.275m

Quadrant to Pivot H = 0.200m

PROCEDURE

1. Weight W is adjusted to balance the quadrant, beam and weight hanger when there

is no water in the tank.

2. The tank is filled so that the quadrant is nearly completely submerged. The beam

at the weight hanger end is now tilted upward.

3. Weight (w) of 600g is added until the beam is about to but not tilted downward.

4. The water is drained slowly from the tank and the valve is closed immediately

when the beam is horizontal. Then the water level and the weight m is recorded.

5. 100g is taken off, the beam will again tilted upward and step No. 4 is repeated.

6. Step No. 5 is repeated until all the weights are removed.

7. The % error is between Xpexp and Xptheo is got.

DATA, OBSERVATION AND RESULTS

No.

m

(g)

h1

(mm)

=

(mm)

h2

(mm)

600

177

227

6.25 (

277

500

154

204

6.25 (

400

131

181

6.25 (

300

108

158

200

78

100

56

A

(mm)

(mm)

7500

77.0

230

254

7500

54.0

208

231

7500

31.00

185

6.25 (

208

7500

8.0

163

128

6.25 (

178

7500

-22.0

134

106

6.25 (

156

7500

-44.0

113

) (9.81

So, force can be calculated using the formula:

(h1 + 50) =

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

116.41%

6.

10

DISCUSSION

Based on the results, we can see the comparison between the XP (distance from 0 to

centre of pressure (Cp) ) of experimental and theoretical values. What can be observed is that

the theoretical value is much higher than the experimental value. This may due to error that

occurred during conducting the experiment. Human error might have occured when reading

the height of water level. The percentage error are very high that is from 66 -138%. In this

experiment, only the forces on the plane surface were considered. However, the hydrostatic

forces on the curved surface of the quarter-circle block do happen, but they do not affect the

measurement. This is because no moment is created by forces acting on the curved surface of

the quarter-circle block. The line of action of the forces on the curved surface are

perpendicular to the surface, all lines of action that acted on the curved surface will pass

through the centre or so called the pivot. Thus, no moments are created and hence no effects

on the results.

Buoyancy force is defined as the net pressure force acting on a submerged body, and thus

in this experiment it should not being neglected in the analysis of the experimental data. By

considering the surface buoyancy forces acting normal to the surface, then the buoyancy

force does not appear because the normal forces on the curved surface do not contribute a

moment about the pivot of the device. This result is due to the design of the apparatus. In

other words, the circular arc shape was been chosen because it allows the measurement of

hydrostatic pressure forces without accounting for the buoyancy effect.

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the initial objective is met because we are able to conduct the

experiment well. We are also able to calculate the force, ICG values and Xp values by using

the provided formula in the lab manual. The result varies because there are some errors

occurred during conducting the experiment as stated above. Other than that there is no

problem during conducting the experiment.

CRITIQUE

We successfully conduct our experiment by referring the lab manual. The problem is

just that the lab manual has some typos when explaining the formula derivation.

REFERENCES

1. Mechanics of Fluid Laboratory CEWB121, Lab Manual, Experiment 6:

HB012 Hydrostatic Pressure

2. Hydrostatic Pressure Experiment - https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=Gi4qBOjVAXk

11

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