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UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

EXP. TITLE

EXP. NO

:6

STUDENT ID

: CE096508

SECTION

: 01

GROUP

: 02

GROUP MEMBERS: 1. AZRUL AFFAN BIN MUHAMAD RASHIDI

CE096502
2. HARIGARAN A/L KANDASAMY
CE096504
CE097089
INSTRUCTOR
Performed Date
06 JULY 2015

: PROF. IR. DR. MARLINDA BINTI ABDUL MALEK

Due Date
13 JULY 2015

Submitted Date
13 JULY 2015

TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE
Objective
Theory

PAGE
3
3-5

Anticipated Result

Apparatus

Procedure

Data, Observations and Results

8-9

Discussions

10

Conclusions

10

Critique

10

References

10

Appendix

11

OBJECTIVE
The
objective of the experiment
is
to
determine the center of
pressure on
both submerged and partially
submerged
plane surface. The purpose
of
this
experiment
also
to
to compare the center of pressure between experimental result with the theoretical values.
THEORY
We consider a submerged surface in a stationary fluid. When a fluid is stationary, it has
only normal stress, which is called pressure, but it has no shear stress. Hence, any submerged
surface in a stationary fluid would experience hydrostatic force. Another characteristic of
stationary fluid is that its free surface is always perpendicular to the direction of gravitational
acceleration. The fluid pressure acts normal to the surface of an object and is positive in the
direction into the surface. Integration of the pressure over a submerged surface yields the total
hydrostatic pressure force acting on that surface. Similarly the resultant moment about a suitable
specified point can be obtained by integrating the moments from the pressure over the body
surface. Through total moment of momentum balance, the rotating part of the equipment is
balanced with the load W on the scale.

Hydrostatic pressure of a liquid is proportional to its depth

P
gh................................ (1)
When
P = pressure
Newton/
density
G = acceleration due to gravity
h = depth of liquid

Kg/
9.81m/
m

P2 P1
=
g (h2 h1)
Since h
=
h2 h1
Thus P2 P1 =
gh or
P2
=
P1 + gh
3

If (1) is at the surface of the liquid; P1 is at the atmospheric pressure

Thus P2
=
Patm + gh ----------------------- (2)
Patm
=
0 gauge pressure
Thus P2
=
gh
Hydrostatic force on the submerged surface is equal to pressure at the centroid times area of
the submerged surface
F
F
h
A

=
=
=
=

gA ------------------------ (3)
Hydrostatic force Newton
Depth of the centroid m
Submerged surface area m2

Pressure on small area dA at a depth of h.

P
Force on area dA
But
Thus
Integrating (4)

gh
dF = PdA
gh dA
= X sin

dF

F=
=

=
=
=

gX sin dA

--------------------- (4)

= g sin
= XdA

However,
Thus

= Distace from center 0 to centroid (CG)

X
F = g sin A X

---------------------- (5)

Therefore

h = X sin
F = g h A

Determination of Center of Pressure, CP Theoretical Method.

dM

= XdF
4

= gh X dA
But h = X sin
Thus

= g sin X2 dA

dM

Or

M=

=
Since

dA

g X2 sin

g sin

dA
2

dA

------------------------ (6)

= I0
= 2nd moment of area about 0
=

LB3

Thus

M = g sin I0
------------------------- (7)
= Moment of hydrostatic force about 0
= F XP

Thus

M = F XP = g I0 sin

Or

XP =

-------------------------- (8)

From Parallel Axis Theorem

I0 = ICG + A X
2
Thus

XP =

Or

XP = X
+

XP
X
ICG
A

=
=
=
=

-------------------------- (9)

Distance from 0 to center of pressure (Cp)

Distance from 0 to centroid of surface A
Second moment of area A about the centroid
Submerged surface

m
m
m4
m2

Determination of Center of Pressure, Experimental Method

For HB 012 Hydrostatic Pressure, the submerged surface is always vertical or = 90.
This surface 75 mm wide and 100 mm high. The quadrant inner radius is 100 mm and outer
radius is 200 mm . Fulcrum is at the center of the quadrant.

When there is no water in the tank, W is the counter weight to the quadrant, the beam and
weight anger. A weight m is required to balance the hydrostatic force. M is at a distance
280 mm from 0.
FY = mgL
Y

--------------------------- (10)

At the same time Y = XP + (R1 h1)

Thus
XP = Y-R1 + h1 ---------------------------- (11)
ANTICIPATED RESULT
The expected result for Xp in this experiment are shown below:
By using the formula;

1. 600g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (227mm x 7500 m2) ) = 230

12
2. 500g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (204mm x 7500 m2) ) = 208
12
3. 400g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (181mm x 7500 m2) ) = 185
12
4. 300g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (158mm x 7500 m2) ) = 163
12
5. 200g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (128mm x 7500 m2) ) = 134
12
6. 100g +( (75)(100)3 mm4 / (106mm x 7500 m2) ) = 113
12

APPARATUS

1. A quadrant with the following dimensions.

Width = 7mm
Center of the quadrant is the same as fulcrum of the quadrant. Fulcrum to weight
hanger distance = 280mm
2. W is a counter weight to the quadrant and weight hanger when there is no hydrostatic
pressure. The position of W is adjustable horizontally.
3. A clear acrylic tank with fulcrum support for the quadrant. When the tank is filled
with water, hydrostatic pressure will turn the quadrant counter clockwise which
requires a balancing weight with the mass m.

Pre-determined Dimensions:
Width of Quadrant B = 0.075m
Height of Quadrant D = 0.100m
Length of Balance L = 0.275m
Quadrant to Pivot H = 0.200m

PROCEDURE
1. Weight W is adjusted to balance the quadrant, beam and weight hanger when there
is no water in the tank.
2. The tank is filled so that the quadrant is nearly completely submerged. The beam
at the weight hanger end is now tilted upward.
3. Weight (w) of 600g is added until the beam is about to but not tilted downward.
4. The water is drained slowly from the tank and the valve is closed immediately
when the beam is horizontal. Then the water level and the weight m is recorded.
5. 100g is taken off, the beam will again tilted upward and step No. 4 is repeated.
6. Step No. 5 is repeated until all the weights are removed.
7. The % error is between Xpexp and Xptheo is got.
DATA, OBSERVATION AND RESULTS

No.

m
(g)

h1
(mm)

=
(mm)

h2
(mm)

600

177

227

6.25 (

277

500

154

204

6.25 (

400

131

181

6.25 (

300

108

158

200

78

100

56

A
(mm)

(mm)

7500

77.0

230

254

7500

54.0

208

231

7500

31.00

185

6.25 (

208

7500

8.0

163

128

6.25 (

178

7500

-22.0

134

106

6.25 (

156

7500

-44.0

113

Calculation for the result ;

) (9.81
So, force can be calculated using the formula:

(h1 + 50) =

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

116.41%

6.

Average percentage error = 101.54%

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DISCUSSION
Based on the results, we can see the comparison between the XP (distance from 0 to
centre of pressure (Cp) ) of experimental and theoretical values. What can be observed is that
the theoretical value is much higher than the experimental value. This may due to error that
occurred during conducting the experiment. Human error might have occured when reading
the height of water level. The percentage error are very high that is from 66 -138%. In this
experiment, only the forces on the plane surface were considered. However, the hydrostatic
forces on the curved surface of the quarter-circle block do happen, but they do not affect the
measurement. This is because no moment is created by forces acting on the curved surface of
the quarter-circle block. The line of action of the forces on the curved surface are
perpendicular to the surface, all lines of action that acted on the curved surface will pass
through the centre or so called the pivot. Thus, no moments are created and hence no effects
on the results.
Buoyancy force is defined as the net pressure force acting on a submerged body, and thus
in this experiment it should not being neglected in the analysis of the experimental data. By
considering the surface buoyancy forces acting normal to the surface, then the buoyancy
force does not appear because the normal forces on the curved surface do not contribute a
moment about the pivot of the device. This result is due to the design of the apparatus. In
other words, the circular arc shape was been chosen because it allows the measurement of
hydrostatic pressure forces without accounting for the buoyancy effect.
CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the initial objective is met because we are able to conduct the
experiment well. We are also able to calculate the force, ICG values and Xp values by using
the provided formula in the lab manual. The result varies because there are some errors
occurred during conducting the experiment as stated above. Other than that there is no
problem during conducting the experiment.
CRITIQUE
We successfully conduct our experiment by referring the lab manual. The problem is
just that the lab manual has some typos when explaining the formula derivation.
REFERENCES
1. Mechanics of Fluid Laboratory CEWB121, Lab Manual, Experiment 6:
HB012 Hydrostatic Pressure
2. Hydrostatic Pressure Experiment - https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Gi4qBOjVAXk

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