grid computing (1) May refer to the type of cloud computing that provides only the server infrastructure.

See cloud computing. (2) A parallel processing architecture in which CPU resources are shared across a network, and all machines function as one large supercomputer. It allows unused CPU capacity in all participating machines to be allocated to one application that is extremely computation intensive and programmed for parallel processing. There Is a Lot of Idle Time In a large enterprise, hundreds or thousands of desktop machines sit idle at any given moment. Even when a user is at the computer reading the screen and not typing or clicking, it constitutes idle time. These unused cycles can be put to use on large computational problems. Likewise, the millions of users on the Internet waste massive amounts of machine cycles every minute that could be harnessed instead. This is precisely what the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence program does with Internet users all over the world (see SETI). Naturally, grid computing over the Internet requires more extensive security than within a single enterprise, and robust authentication is employed in such applications.


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Grid Computing
1)What is it?
Computing grids are conceptually not unlike electrical grids. In an electrical grid, wall outlets allows us to link to an infrastructure of resources that generate, distribute, and bill for electricity. When you connect to the electrical grid, you don’t need to know where the power plant is or how the current gets to you. Grid computing uses middleware to coordinate disparate IT resources across a network,allowing them to function as a virtual whole. The goal of a computing grid, like that of the electrical grid, is to provide users with access to the resources they need, when they need them.Grids address two distinct but related goals: providing remote access to IT assets, and aggregating processing power. The most obvious resource included in a grid is a processor, but grids also encompass sensors, data-storage systems, applications, and other resources. One of the first commonly known grid initiatives was the SETI@home project, which solicited several million volunteers to download a screensaver that used idle processor capacity to analyze data in the search for extraterrestrial life. In a more recent example, the Telescience Project provides remote access to an extremely powerful electron microscope at the National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research in San Diego. Users of the grid can remotely operate the microscope, allowing new levels of access to the instrument and its capabilities.

2)Who’s doing it?
Many grids are appearing in the sciences, in fields such as chemistry,

physics, and genetics, and cryptologists and mathematicians have also begun working with grid computing. Grid technology has the potential to significantly impact other areas of study with heavy computational requirements, such as urban planning. Another important area for the technology is animation, which requires massive amounts of computational power and is a common tool in a growing number of disciplines. By making resources available to students, these communities are able to effectively model authentic disciplinary practices.

3)How does it work?
Grids use a layer of middleware to communicate with and manipulate heterogeneous hardware and data sets. In some fields— astronomy, for example—hardware cannot reasonably be moved and is prohibitively expensive to replicate on other sites. In other instances, databases vital to research projects cannot be duplicated and transferred to other sites. Grids overcome these logistical obstacles and open the tools of research to distant faculty and students. A grid might coordinate scientific instruments in one country with a database in another and processors in a third. From a user’s perspective, these resources function as a single system—differences in platform and location become invisible. On a typical college or university campus, many computers sit idle much of the time. A grid can provide significant processing power for users with extraordinary needs. Animation software, for instance, which is used by students in the arts, architecture, and other departments, eats up vast amounts of processor capacity. An industrial design class might use resource-intensive software to render highly detailed three-dimensional images. In both cases, a campus grid slashes the amount of time it takes students to work with these applications. All of this happens not from additional capacity but through the efficient use of existing power.

4)Why is it significant?
Grids make research projects possible that formerly were impractical or unfeasible due to the physical location of vital resources. Using a grid, researchers in Great Britain, for example, can conduct research that relies on databases across Europe, instrumentation in Japan, and computational power in the United States. Making resources available in this way exposes students to the tools of the profession, facilitating new possibilities for research and instruction, particularly at the undergraduate level. Although speeds and capacities of processors continue to increase, resource-intensive applications are proliferating as well. At many institutions, certain campus users face ongoing shortages of computational power, even as large numbers of computers are underused. With grids, programs previously hindered by constraints on computing power become possible.

5)What are the downsides?
Being able to access distant IT assets—and have them function seamlessly with tools on different platforms—can be a boon to researchers, but it presents real security concerns to organizations responsible for those resources. An institution that makes its IT assets available to researchers or students on other campuses and in other countries must be confident that its involvement does not expose those assets to unnecessary risks. Similarly, directors of research projects will be reluctant to take advantage of the opportunities of a grid without assurances that the integrity of the project, its data, and its participants will be protected. Another challenge facing grids is the complexity in building middleware structures that can knit together collections of resources to work as a unit across network connections that often span oceans and continents. Scheduling the availability of IT resources connected

to a grid can also present new challenges to organizations that manage those resources. Increasing standardization of protocols addresses some of the difficulty in creating smoothly functioning grids, but, by their nature, grids that can provide unprecedented access to facilities and tools involve a high level of complexity.

6)Where is it going?
Because the number of functioning grids is relatively small, it may take time for the higher education community to capitalize on the opportunities that grids can provide and the feasibility of such projects. As the number and capacity of high-speed networks increase, however, particularly those catering to the research community and higher education, new opportunities will arise to combine IT assets in ways that expose students to the tools and applications relevant to their studies and to dramatically reduce the amount of time required to process data-intensive jobs. Further, as grids become more widespread and easier to use, increasing numbers and kinds of IT resources will be included on grids. We may also start to see more grid tie-ins for desktop applications. While there are obvious advantages to solving a complex genetic problem using grid computing, being able to harness spare computing cycles to manipulate an image in Photoshop or create a virtual world in a simulation may be some of the first implementations of grids.

7)What are the implications for teaching and learning?
Higher education stands to reap significant benefits from grid computing by creating environments that expose students to the “tools of the trade” in a wide range of disciplines. Rather than using mock or historical data from an observatory in South America, for example, a grid could let students on other continents actually use those facilities and collect their own data. Learning experiences become far richer, providing opportunities that otherwise would be impossible or would require travel. The access that grid computing offers to particular resources can allow institutions to deepen, and in some cases broaden, the scope of their educational programs. Grid computing encourages partnerships among higher education institutions and research centers. Because they bring together unique tools in novel groupings, grids have the potential to incorporate technology into disciplines with traditionally lower involvement with IT, including the humanities, social sciences, and the arts. Grids can leverage previous investments in hardware and infrastructure to provide processing power and other technology capabilities to campus constituents who need them. This reallocation of institutional resources is especially beneficial for applications with high demands for processing and storage, such as modeling, animations, digital video production, or biomedical studies.

grid computing, the concurrent application of the processing and data storage resources of many computers computer, device capable of performing a series of arithmetic or logical operations. A computer is distinguished from a calculating machine, such as an electronic calculator , by being able to store a computer program (so that it can repeat its operations and make

..... Click the link for more information. in a network to a single problem. It also can be used for load balancing as well as high availability by employing multiple computers—typically personal computers and workstations—that are remote from one another, multiple data storage devices, and redundant network connections. Grid computing requires the use of parallel processing parallel processing, the concurrent or simultaneous execution of two or more parts of a single computer program , at speeds far exceeding those of a conventional computer . ..... Click the link for more information. software that can divide a program among as many as several thousand computers and restructure the results into a single solution of the problem. Primarily for security reasons, grid computing is typically restricted to multiple computers within the same enterprise. Grid computing evolved from the parallel processing systems of the 1970s, the large-scale cluster computing systems of the 1980s, and the distributed processing systems of the 1990s, and is often referred to by these names. Grid computing can make a more cost-effective use of computer resources, can be applied to solve problems that require large amounts of computing power, and may be the forerunner of pervasive computing—computer applications that pervade our environment without our being aware of their presence.

Grid computing (or the use of computational grids) is the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains applied to a common task, usually to a scientific, technical or business problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or the need to process large amounts of data. One of the main strategies of grid computing is using software to divide and apportion pieces of a program among several computers, sometimes up to many thousands. Grid computing is distributed, large-scale cluster computing, as well as a form of network-distributed parallel processing [1]. The size of grid computing may vary from being small — confined to a network of computer workstations within a corporation, for example — to being large, public collaboration across many companies and networks. "The notion of a confined grid may also be known as an intra-nodes cooperation whilst the notion of a larger, wider grid may thus refer to an inter-nodes cooperation".[2] This inter-/intra-nodes cooperation "across cyber-based collaborative organizations are also known as Virtual Organizations".[3] It is a form of distributed computing whereby a “super and virtual computer” is composed of a cluster of networked loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. This technology has been applied to computationally intensive scientific, mathematical, and academic problems through volunteer computing, and it is used in commercial enterprises for such diverse applications as drug discovery, economic forecasting, seismic analysis, and backoffice data processing in support of e-commerce and Web services. What distinguishes grid computing from conventional cluster computing systems is that grids tend to be more loosely coupled, heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed. Also, while a computing grid may be dedicated to a specialized application, it is often constructed with the aid of general-purpose grid software libraries and middleware.

Grids versus conventional supercomputers
“Distributed” or “grid” computing in general is a special type of parallel computing that relies on complete computers (with onboard CPU, storage, power supply, network interface, etc.) connected to a network (private, public or the Internet) by a conventional network interface, such as Ethernet. This is in contrast to the traditional notion of a supercomputer, which has many processors connected by a local high-speed computer bus. The primary advantage of distributed computing is that each node can be purchased as commodity hardware, which when combined can produce similar computing resources to a multiprocessor supercomputer, but at lower cost. This is due to the economies of scale of producing commodity hardware, compared to the lower efficiency of designing and constructing a small number of custom supercomputers. The primary performance disadvantage is that the various processors and local storage areas do not have high-speed connections. This arrangement is thus well suited to applications in which multiple parallel computations can take place independently, without the need to communicate intermediate results between processors. The high-end scalability of geographically dispersed grids is generally favorable, due to the low need for connectivity between nodes relative to the capacity of the public Internet. There are also some differences in programming and deployment. It can be costly and difficult to write programs so that they can be run in the environment of a supercomputer, which may have a custom operating system, or require the program to address concurrency issues. If a problem can be adequately parallelized, a “thin” layer of “grid” infrastructure can allow conventional, standalone programs to run on multiple machines (but each given a different part of the same problem). This makes it possible to write and debug on a single conventional machine, and eliminates complications due to multiple instances of the same program running in the same shared memory and storage space at the same time.

Design considerations and variations
One feature of distributed grids is that they can be formed from computing resources belonging to multiple individuals or organizations (known as multiple administrative domains). This can facilitate commercial transactions, as in utility computing, or make it easier to assemble volunteer computing networks. One disadvantage of this feature is that the computers which are actually performing the calculations might not be entirely trustworthy. The designers of the system must thus introduce measures to prevent malfunctions or malicious participants from producing false, misleading, or erroneous results, and from using the system as an attack vector. This often involves assigning work randomly to different nodes (presumably with different owners) and checking that at least two different nodes report the same answer for a given work unit. Discrepancies would identify malfunctioning and malicious nodes. Due to the lack of central control over the hardware, there is no way to guarantee that nodes will not drop out of the network at random times. Some nodes (like laptops or dialup Internet customers) may also be available for computation but not network communications for unpredictable periods. These variations can be accommodated by assigning large work units (thus reducing the need for continuous network connectivity) and reassigning work units when a given node fails to report its results as expected.

The impacts of trust and availability on performance and development difficulty can influence the choice of whether to deploy onto a dedicated computer cluster, to idle machines internal to the developing organization, or to an open external network of volunteers or contractors. In many cases, the participating nodes must trust the central system not to abuse the access that is being granted, by interfering with the operation of other programs, mangling stored information, transmitting private data, or creating new security holes. Other systems employ measures to reduce the amount of trust “client” nodes must place in the central system such as placing applications in virtual machines. Public systems or those crossing administrative domains (including different departments in the same organization) often result in the need to run on heterogeneous systems, using different operating systems and hardware architectures. With many languages, there is a trade off between investment in software development and the number of platforms that can be supported (and thus the size of the resulting network). Cross-platform languages can reduce the need to make this trade off, though potentially at the expense of high performance on any given node (due to runtime interpretation or lack of optimization for the particular platform). Various middleware projects have created generic infrastructure, to allow diverse scientific and commercial projects to harness a particular associated grid, or for the purpose of setting up new grids. BOINC is a common one for academic projects seeking public volunteers; more are listed at the end of the article. In fact, the middleware can be seen as a layer between the hardware and the software. On top of the middleware, a number of technical areas have to be considered, and these may or may not be middleware independent. Example areas include SLA management, Trust and Security, Virtual organization management, License Management, Portals and Data Management. These technical areas may be taken care of in a commercial solution, though the cutting edge of each area is often found within specific research projects examining the field.

Market segmentation of the grid computing market
According to, for the segmentation of the grid computing market, two perspectives need to be considered: the provider side and the user side:

[edit] The provider side
The overall grid market comprises several specific markets. These are the grid middleware market, the market for grid-enabled applications, the utility computing market, and the softwareas-a-service (SaaS) market. Grid middleware is a specific software product, which enables the sharing of heterogeneous resources, and Virtual Organizations. It is installed and integrated into the existing infrastructure of the involved company or companies, and provides a special layer placed among the heterogeneous infrastructure and the specific user applications. Major grid middlewares are Globus Toolkit, gLite, and UNICORE. Utility computing is referred to as the provision of grid computing and applications as service either as an open grid utility or as a hosting solution for one organization or a VO. Major players in the utility computing market are Sun Microsystems, IBM, and HP. Grid-enabled applications are specific software applications that can utilize grid infrastructure. This is made possible by the use of grid middleware, as pointed out above.

Software as a service (SaaS) is “software that is owned, delivered and managed remotely by one or more providers.” (Gartner 2007) Additionally, SaaS applications are based on a single set of common code and data definitions. They are consumed in a one-to-many model, and SaaS uses a Pay As You Go (PAYG) model or a subscription model that is based on usage. Providers of SaaS do not necessarily own the computing resources themselves, which are required to run their SaaS. Therefore, SaaS providers may draw upon the utility computing market. The utility computing market provides computing resources for SaaS providers.

[edit] The user side
For companies on the demand or user side of the grid computing market, the different segments have significant implications for their IT deployment strategy. The IT deployment strategy as well as the type of IT investments made are relevant aspects for potential grid users and play an important role for grid adoption.

Grid Computing
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Grid computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Grid computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Grid computing is an emerging computing model that provides the ability to perform higher throughput computing by taking advantage of many networked computers to model a virtual computer architecture that is able to distribute process execution across a parallel infrastructure. Grids use the resources of many separate computers connected by a network (usually the Internet) to solve large-scale computation problems. Grids provide the ability to perform computations on large data sets, by breaking them down into many smaller ones, or provide the ability to perform many more computations at once than would be possible on a single computer, by modeling a parallel division of labor between processes"

Special Security and software
Naturally, grid computing over the Internet requires more extensive security than within a single enterprise, and robust authentication is employed in such applications Grid computing does require special software that is unique to the computing project for which the grid is being used. The Globus Toolkit is an open source software toolkit used for building Grid systems and

applications. It is being developed by the Globus Alliance and many others all over the world. A growing number of projects and companies are using the Globus Toolkit to unlock the potential of grids for their cause.

Definition of grid computing

A parallel processing architecture in which CPU resources are shared across a network, and all machines function as one large supercomputer. It allows unused CPU capacity in all participating machines to be allocated to one application that is extremely computation intensive and programmed for parallel processing.

Grid computing appears to be a promising trend for three reasons: (1) its ability to make more cost-effective use of a given amount of computer resources, (2) as a way to solve problems that can't be approached without an enormous amount of computing power, and (3) because it suggests that the resources of many computers can be cooperatively and perhaps synergistically harnessed and managed as a collaboration toward a common objective. In some grid computing systems, the computers may collaborate rather than being directed by one managing computer. One likely area for the use of grid computing will be pervasive computing applications - those in which computers pervade our environment without our necessary awareness. Some of the enterprises using grid computing in India include the Gujarat Electricity Board, Saraswat Bank, National Stock Exchange, Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation, General Insurance Company, Syndicate Bank, Ashok Leyland, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd and Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad.

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