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ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE- TOGAF

TOGAF
Describe the TOGAF Enterprise Architecture Framework and map it to
the Zachman Framework.
According to Gartner, Enterprise architecture is a discipline for proactively and
holistically leading enterprise responses to disruptive forces by identifying and
analyzing the execution of change towards desired business vision and
outcomes.
Enterprise architecture has rapidly matured in recent years as a business-driven
technique to provide companies with the big picture needed to optimize longterm IT investments. The main reason for developing enterprise architecture is to
support the business by providing the fundamental technology and process
structure for an IT strategy, which in turn makes IT a responsive asset for a
successful modern business strategy.
Typical problems in enterprise architecture involve:

System complexity
Poor business alignment

Other issues include multiple data sources for same data entity, proliferation of
interfaces, incompatible technologies, and procurement and supplier control.
Using

an

architecture

framework

speeds

up

and

simplifies architecture

development, ensures complete coverage of the designed solution, and makes


certain that the architecture selected allows future growth in response to the
needs of the business.
TOGAF (The Open group Architecture Framework) is one of the approaches to
enterprise architecture, which may be used freely by any organization wishing to
develop enterprise architecture for use within that organization.
TOGAFs view of enterprise includes four categories:
Business Architecture defines the key business processes, strategy, and
governance of the organisation.
Application architecture gives blueprint and interactions of specific applications.
Data Architecture describes the organization of data assets and associated data
management.
Technical

Architecture

describes

the

software,

hardware

and

network

infrastructure to support deployment of applications.

TOGAF
TOGAF consists of three main parts:
1. The Enterprise Continuum is a virtual repository of all the architecture
assets - models, patterns, architecture descriptions, etc. TOGAF views the
world of enterprise architecture as a continuum of architectures, ranging
from highly generic to highly specific. Architects find building blocks as
they proceed through the continuum and assemble them into their own
Organization Architecture.

Foundation
Architecture

Common
system
architecture

Industry
architecture

Organization
architecture

2. The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) provides guidance to


implement and execute organization specific EA to address business
requirements. The process has multiple, consecutive phases enclosed in a
closed loop. The various phases are shown in the diagram below:

H.
Architectu
Architectu
re change
managem
managem
ent

G.
Implement
Implement
ation
ation
Governanc
Governanc
e
e

F
.
F.
Migration
Migration
planning

A.
A.
Architect
Architect
ure vision

Requireme
Requireme
nts
nts
Manageme
nt

E.
E.
Opportuniti
Opportuniti
es
es and
and
Solutions
Solutions

B.
B.
Business
Business
Architect
ure
ure

C.
C.
Informati
Informati
on
on
systems
Architect
Architect
ure
ure

D.
D.
Technology
Architectur
es
es

3. The TOGAF Resource Base is a set of resources - guidelines, templates,


background information, etc. to help in the usage of the ADM.
Example of TOGAF Implementation:
3

TOGAF
The Dairy Farm Group (DFG) of Hong Kong illustrates the extensive use of TOGAF
for enterprise wide IT architecture to align disparate business units. The DFG
belongs to retail sector and has strong presence in Asia-Pacific region. Its
corporate goal is to be the most successful and largest retailer in its chosen
markets in Asia-Pacific. To achieve this goal, it restructured from a federation to a
unified group of companies with single IT infrastructure and single corporate
purpose business focus. The technical architecture group was chartered to
develop a enterprise architecture and chose TOGAF as the foundation. Using
TOGAF, they were able to develop a world class technical architecture within a
short span of time (July through October 1998).
MAPPING TOGAF WITH ZACHMAN FRAMEWORK
The scope of four architecture domains of TOGAF framework aligns with the first
four rows of the Zachman framework namely Contextual, Conceptual, Logical
and Physical as shown in the figure below.

TOGAF
BUSINESS ARCH
TOGAF- APPLICATION ARCH
TOGAF- DATA ARCHITECTURE
TOGAF- TECH. ARCHITECTURE

There is a defined alignment between cells of Zachman framework and TOGAF.

The cell corresponding to the intersection of Data (Column) and System


Model is mapped to the data architecture of TOGAF which represents the
4

TOGAF
data as well as the information flowing through the enterprise services and

processes.
The intersection of Function (Column) and Scope model of Zachman can
be mapped to the services and processes which are defined in the

business architecture of TOGAF.


The network of People as well as IP networks which forms the Technical
Architecture of TOGAF could be mapped to the intersection of network

(column) and the technology of Zachman.


Also the People (column) and Enterprises intersection can be aligned with
the applications architecture comprising of user interfaces, consumers and

their business applications.


The time and motivation columns of Zachman can be related to events
and policies and governance (ADM) of TOBAG respectively.

We also see that TOGAF provides methodology for Zachman as there is similar
layering

Zachman: context >> conceptual>> logical>>physical


TOGAF: business >> information systems >> technology

TOGAF and Zachman cover similar domains which are business drivers and
business process along with data, information, locations applications, technology
implementation and networks.
Apart from the TOGAF model mapping to cells of Zachman, the TOGAF
architecture development method (ADM) stages are also mapped to cover
different cells of Zachman Framework. The below table represents the mapping
of each phases of TOGAF ADM to cells of Zachman:
Phases of TOGAF ADM

Output of each Phase

Cell of Zachman
covered by the phase

Preliminary

Phase:

Framework

and

Principles
Phase A:

Architecture

Vision

Framework Definition

of TOGAF ADM
ZF: R1

Architecture principles

ZF: R2- C2 and R2-C6

Architecture,

ZF: Row 1,2 and 3

Vision/Business
Scenario,

Phase

B:

Architecture

Business

Architecture

Work
Target
Architecture

Business

ZF: Row 1
ZF:

Row

except
5

TOGAF

Phase
System

C:

Information
Architectures:

Data Architecture

Technology Architecture

column C1

work
Target

ZF: R3,C6 and R3,C3


ZF: Row 3

Architecture

Data

ZF: Row 1 except C2


ZF:

R1-C1,R1-C4

R1-C5

AND