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FINAL PROJECT

DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

Project Name

Submitted to Miss Saima Ali

Submitted By Jan shair Khan MIT-F09-A048


Munzar Ali MIT-F09-A028
Qaisar Butt MIT-F09-A029

Punjab University College of Information Technology


University Of The Punjab, Lahore
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We have gone through many topics for our final project of Data Communications and
networks but prefer to work on .Bluetooth. No doubt, it is a noiseless and fastest way to
transfer data or to communicate

Bluetooth started as the code name for the association when it was first formed and the
name stuck. The name "Bluetooth" is from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand -
or Harold Bluetooth in English. King Blatand was instrumental in uniting warring factions
in parts of what are now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark - just as Bluetooth technology is
designed to allow collaboration between differing industries such as the computing,
mobile phone, and automotive markets.

We try our level best to fulfill all the requirements according to the project starting from the
main meaning till the conclusion.

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At the end, we would like to thank our respected teacher Miss Saima Ali who gave us an
opportunity to present our ideas

Jan Shair Khan(Group Leader)


MIT-F09-A048

Munzar Ali
MIT-F09-A028

Qaisar Butt
MIT-F09-A029

ABSTRACT

Bluetooth started as the code name for the association when it was first formed and the
name stuck. The name "Bluetooth" is from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand -
or Harold Bluetooth in English. King Blatand was instrumental in uniting warring factions
in parts of what are now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark - just as Bluetooth technology is
designed to allow collaboration between differing industries such as the computing,
mobile phone, and automotive markets.

Our Project Will Cover The Following Contents

 Introduction to Bluetooth
 Network Architecture
 Network Architecture
 Comparison with Wimax
 Comparison with Infrared
 Advantages and Disadvantages

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 Conclusion
 References

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION TO BLUETOOTH… …………………………………………5


1.1. Bluetooth Applications..…………………………………………………………………………..5
1.2. Bluetooth Standard Documents……………………………………………………..……..……6

2. PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE………………………………………………………...7

2.1. Usage models………………………………………….…………………………………...8


2.2. Introducing: The piconet…….……………………………………………………...9
2.3. Introducing: The Scatternet……………………..………………………………….9
2.4. Authentication and Privacy………………………………..……………………...10
2.5. Hardware Requirements…………………………………..………………………10

3. HISTORY OF BLUETOOTH………………………………………………………………11

4. INTRODUCTION TO WIFI AND WIMAX………………………………….………..15


4.1 Comparison with Infrared………………………..………………………………….17

5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH………………………..18

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6. Conclusions…………………………………………………………19

7. References……..……………………………………………………19

Introduction to Bluetooth
Bluetooth is an always-on, short-range radio hookup that resides on a microchip. It was
initially developed by Swedish mobile phone maker Ericsson in 1994 as a way to let
laptop computers make calls over a mobile phone. Since then, several thousand
companies have signed on to make Bluetooth the low-power short-range wireless
standard for a wide range of devices. Industry observers expect Bluetooth to be installed
in billions of devices by 2005.

The Bluetooth standards are published by an industry consortium known as the Bluetooth
SIG (special interest group).

The concept behind Bluetooth is to provide a universal short-range wireless capability.


Using the 2.4 GHz band, available globally for unlicensed low-power uses, two Bluetooth
devices within 10 m of each other can share up to 720 Kbps of capacity. Bluetooth is
intended to support an open-ended list of applications, including data (such as schedules
and telephone numbers), audio, graphics, and even video. For example, audio devices
can include headsets, cordless and standard phones, home stereos, and digital MP3
players. Following are some examples of the capabilities that Bluetooth can provide
consumers:

 Make calls from a wireless headset connected remotely to a cell phone;


 Eliminate cables linking computers to printers, keyboards, and the mouse;
 Hook up MP3 players wirelessly to other machines to download music;
 Set up home networks so that a couch potato can remotely monitor air
conditioning, the oven, and children's Internet surfing;
 Call home from a remote location to turn appliances on and off, set the alarm, and
monitor activity.
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Bluetooth Applications
Bluetooth is designed to operate in an environment of many users. Up to eight devices
can communicate in a small network called a piconet. Ten of these piconets can coexist
in the same coverage range of the Bluetooth radio. To provide security, each link is
encoded and protected against eavesdropping and interference.

Bluetooth provides support for three general application areas using short-range wireless
connectivity:

 Data and voice access points - Bluetooth facilitates real-time voice and data
transmissions by providing effortless wireless connection of portable and stationary
communications devices;
 Cable replacement - Bluetooth eliminates the need for numerous, often
proprietary cable attachments for connection of practically any kind of
communications device. Connections are instant and are maintained even when
devices are not within line of sight. The range of each radio is approximately 10 m,
but can be extended to 100 m with an optional amplifier;
 Ad hoc networking - A device equipped with a Bluetooth radio can establish
instant connection to another Bluetooth radio as soon as it comes into range.

Bluetooth Standards Documents


The Bluetooth standards present a formidable bulk—well over 1,500 pages, divided into
two groups: core and profile. The core specifications describe the details of the various
layers of the Bluetooth protocol architecture, from the radio interface to link control.
Related topics are also covered, such as interoperability with related technologies, testing
requirements, and a definition of various Bluetooth timers and their associated values.

The profile specifications are concerned with the use of Bluetooth technology to support
various applications. Each profile specification discusses the use of the technology
defined in the core specifications to implement a particular usage model. The profile
specification includes a description of which aspects of the core specifications are
mandatory, optional, and not applicable. The purpose of a profile specification is to define
a standard of interoperability, so that products from different vendors that claim to support
a given usage model will work together. In general terms, profile specifications fall into
one of two categories: cable replacement or wireless audio. The cable replacement
profiles provide a convenient means for logically connecting devices in proximity to one
another and for exchanging data. For example, when two devices first come within range
of one another, they can automatically query each other for a common profile. This might
then cause the end users of the device to be alerted, or cause some automatic data
exchange to take place. The wireless audio profiles are concerned with establishing
short-range voice connections.

The Bluetooth developer must wade through the many documents with a particular
application in mind. The reading list begins with coverage of some essential core
specifications plus the general access profile. This profile is one of a number of profiles
that serve as a foundation for other profiles and don't specify independently usable
functionality. The general access profile specifies how the Bluetooth baseband
architecture, defined in the core specifications, is to be used between devices that
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implement one or multiple profiles. Following a basic set of documents, the reading list
splits along two lines, depending on whether the reader's interest is in cable replacement
or wireless audio.

Protocol Architecture
Bluetooth is defined as a layered protocol architecture consisting of core protocols, cable
replacement and telephony control protocols, and adopted protocols.

The core protocols form a five-layer stack consisting of the following elements:

 Radio - Specifies details of the air interface, including frequency, the use of
frequency hopping, modulation scheme, and transmit power.
 Baseband - Concerned with connection establishment within a piconet,
addressing, packet format, timing, and power control.
 Link manager protocol (LMP) - Responsible for link setup between Bluetooth
devices and ongoing link management. This includes security aspects such as
authentication and encryption, plus the control and negotiation of baseband packet
sizes.
 Logical link control and adaptation protocol (L2CAP) - Adapts upper-layer
protocols to the baseband layer. L2CAP provides both connectionless and
connection-oriented services.
 Service discovery protocol (SDP) - Device information, services, and the
characteristics of the services can be queried to enable the establishment of a
connection between two or more Bluetooth devices.

RFCOMM is the cable replacement protocol included in the Bluetooth specification.


RFCOMM presents a virtual serial port that is designed to make replacement of cable
technologies as transparent as possible. Serial ports are one of the most common types
of communications interfaces used with computing and communications devices. Hence,
RFCOMM enables the replacement of serial port cables with the minimum of modification
of existing devices. RFCOMM provides for binary data transport and emulates EIA-232
control signals over the Bluetooth baseband layer. EIA-232 (formerly known as RS-232)
is a widely used serial port interface standard.

Bluetooth specifies a telephony control protocol. TCS BIN (telephony control specification
—binary) is a bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the
establishment of speech and data calls between Bluetooth devices. In addition, it defines
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mobility-management procedures for handling groups of Bluetooth TCS devices.

The adopted protocols are defined in specifications issued by other standards-making


organizations and incorporated into the overall Bluetooth architecture. The Bluetooth
strategy is to invent only necessary protocols and use existing standards whenever
possible. These are the adopted protocols:

 PPP - The point-to-point protocol is an Internet standard protocol for transporting


IP datagrams over a point-to-point link;
 TCP/UDP/IP - These are the foundation protocols of the TCP/IP protocol suite;
 OBEX - The object exchange protocol is a session-level protocol developed by the
Infrared Data Association (IrDA) for the exchange of objects. OBEX provides
functionality similar to that of HTTP, but in a simpler fashion. It also provides a
model for representing objects and operations. Examples of content formats
transferred by OBEX are vCard and vCalendar, which provide the format of an
electronic business card and personal calendar entries and scheduling information,
respectively;
 WAE/WAP - Bluetooth incorporates the wireless application environment and the
wireless application protocol into its architecture.

Usage Models
A number of usage models are defined in Bluetooth profile documents. In essence, a
usage model is a set of protocols that implement a particular Bluetooth-based application.
Each profile defines the protocols and protocol features supporting a particular usage
model. Following are the highest-priority usage models:

 File transfer - The file transfer usage model supports the transfer of directories,
files, documents, images, and streaming media formats. This usage model also
includes the capability to browse folders on a remote device;
 Internet bridge - With this usage model, a PC is wirelessly connected to a mobile
phone or cordless modem to provide dial-up networking and fax capabilities. For
dial-up networking, AT commands are used to control the mobile phone or modem,
and another protocol stack (such as PPP over RFCOMM) is used for data transfer.
For fax transfer, the fax software operates directly over RFCOMM;
 LAN access - This usage model enables devices on a piconet to access a LAN.
Once connected, a device functions as if it were directly connected (wired) to the
LAN;
 Synchronization - This model provides a device-to-device synchronization of PIM
(personal information management) information, such as phone book, calendar,
message, and note information. IrMC (Ir mobile communications) is an IrDA
protocol that provides client/server capability for transferring updated PIM
information from one device to another;
 Three-in-one phone - Telephone handsets that implement this usage model may
act as a cordless phone connecting to a voice base station, as an intercom device
for connecting to other telephones, and as a cellular phone;
 Headset - The headset can act as a remote device's audio input and output
interface.

Bluetooth communication occurs in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4GHz. The transceiver
utilizes frequency hopping to reduce interference and fading. A typical Bluetooth device
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has a range of about 10 meters. The communication channel can support both data
(asynchronous) and voice (synchronous) communications with a total bandwidth of 1
Mb/sec. The supported channel configurations are as follows:
Configuration Max. Data Rate Upstream Max. Data Rate Downstream
3 Simultaneous Voice Channels 64 kb/sec X 3 channels 64 kb/sec X 3 channels
Symmetric Data 433.9 kb/sec 433.9 kb/sec
723.2 kb/sec or 57.6
Asymmetric Data 57.6 kb/sec or 723.2 kb/sec
kb/sec

The synchronous voice channels are provided using circuit switching with a slot
reservation at fixed intervals. A synchronous link is referred to as an SCO (synchronous
connection-oriented) link. The asynchronous data channels are provided using packet
switching utilizing a polling access scheme. An asynchronous link is referred to as an
ACL (asynchronous connection-less) link. A combined data-voice SCO packet is also
defined. This can provide 64 kb/sec voice and 64 kb/sec data in each direction.

Introducing: The Piconet!


Bluetooth devices can interact with one or more other Bluetooth devices in several
different ways. The simplest scheme is when only two devices are involved. This is
referred to as point-to-point. One of the devices acts as the master and the other as a
slave. This ad-hoc network is referred to as a piconet. As a matter of fact, a piconet is
any such Bluetooth network with one master and one or more slaves. A diagram of a
piconet is provided in Figure 1. In the case of multiple slaves, the communication topology
is referred to as point-to-multipoint. In this case, the channel (and bandwidth) is shared
among all the devices in the piconet. There can be up to seven active slaves in a piconet.
Each of the active slaves has an assigned 3-bit Active Member address (AM_ADDR).
There can be additional slaves which remain synchronized to the master, but do not have
a Active Member address. These slaves are not active and are referred to as parked. For
the case of both active and parked units, all channel access is regulated by the master. A
parked device has an 8-bit Parked Member Address (PM_ADDR), thus limiting the
number of parked members to 256. A parked device remains synchronized to the master
clock and can very quickly become active and begin communicating in the piconet.

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Figure 1: A piconet

Introducing: The Scatternet!


You may be wondering what would happen if two piconets were within the same coverage area. For
example, you might have a piconet consisting of your cell phone and your PC, while the person in the
neighboring cubicle has a piconet consisting of a cell phone, headset, and business card scanner. A
diagram is presented in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2: A scatternet

Because the two piconets are so close, they have overlapping coverage areas. This
scenario is provided for in the Bluetooth specification and is referred to as a scatternet. As
a matter of fact, slaves in one piconet can participate in another piconet as either a
master or slave. This is accomplished through time division multiplexing. In a scatternet,
the two (or more) piconets are not synchronized in either time or frequency. Each of the
piconets operates in its own frequency hopping channel while any devices in multiple
piconets participate at the appropriate time via time division multiplexing. Returning to the
example, you may want to set up your neighbor’s business card scanner to also transmit
the information that is scanned to your PC so that you will have access to his business
contacts information. Of course, this would have to be a mutually agreed upon usage.
This brings us to the next topic, Bluetooth security.

Authentication and Privacy


While authentication and privacy could be handled at the software protocol layer, it is also
provided in the Bluetooth physical layer. A particular connection can be specified to
require either one-way, two-way, or no authentication. The authentication is provided
using a challenge/response system. The system supports key lengths of 40 or 64 bits.
The key management is left to software layers. These security mechanisms and the
associated software allow a user to set up his or her devices to only communicate with
each other. All Bluetooth devices implement this physical layer security in the same way.
Of course, for highly sensitive applications, it is also recommended that you utilize more
advanced algorithms in the network transport or application layer.

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Hardware Requirements
Now that you have a basic understanding of what the Bluetooth specification is and how
Bluetooth devices can interact with each other, you are probably beginning to wonder
what makes all this work in terms of real hardware and software. The remainder of this
article will focus on Bluetooth hardware. We will leave a detailed software discussion for a
future article.

Bluetooth hardware can be divided into two primary functions, the Radio Module and the
Link Module.

The Radio Module

As mentioned above, Bluetooth devices operate in the 2.4GHz Industrial Scientific


Medicine (ISM) band. This is an unlicensed band and, in most countries, includes the
frequency range from 2400 to 2483.5 MHz. Of course, as always when dealing with
international standards, there are a few exceptions. The primary geographies with
exceptions are France (2446.5 to 2483.5 MHz) and Spain (2445 to 2475 MHz). At this
time, Bluetooth products for these two markets are local versions that are not
interoperable with the international versions which implement the full range. These
localized versions have a reduced frequency band and a different hopping algorithm.
However, the Bluetooth SIG is working with authorities in both countries to open the full
range. For the sake of simplicity, this article will only deal with the international frequency
range implementation.

The RF channels used are from 2402 to 2480 MHz with a channel spacing of 1 MHz.
Frequency hopping has been implemented to reduce interference and fading. This means
that every 625 usec the channel will hop to another frequency within the 2402 to 2480
MHz range. This translates to 1600 hops every second. Each piconet has a unique
hopping sequence which is determined using an algorithm the uses the Bluetooth device
address of the master device. All Bluetooth units in the piconet are then synchronized to
this hopping sequence.

All packet transmissions are started at the beginning of one of the 625 usec time slots. A
packet may last up to 5 time slots. A time division duplex scheme is used to facilitate full
duplex transmission. During even numbered slots, the master may begin a transmission.
During odd numbered slots, a slave may begin a transmission. In addition, these time
slots can be reserved for synchronous applications such as voice data.

Bluetooth devices are classified according to three different power classes, as shown in
the following table.

Power Class Maximum Output Power


1 100 mW (20 dBm)
2 2.5 mW (4 dBm)
3 1 mW (0 dBm)

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Most portable Bluetooth devices will probably be in Power Class 1 or 2 (with a nominal
output power of 0 dBm) due to cost and battery life issues. A Power Class 1 device
requires that you utilize a power control to limit the transmitted power over 0 dBm. While a
little more costly and power hungry, this will provide up to 100m of range, which should be
sufficient for home networking and other applications that require a greater range.

Bluetooth radio modules use Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) for modulation. A
binary system is used where a one is signified by a positive frequency deviation and a
zero is signified by a negative frequency deviation. The data is transmitted at a symbol
rate of 1 Ms/sec. The radio module is covered in detail in Part A of the Specification of the
Bluetooth System published by the Bluetooth SIG.

The Link Module


The Link Module and the closely associated Link Manager software is responsible for the
baseband protocols and some other low level link functions. This includes
sending/receiving data, setting up connections, error detection and correction, data
whitening, power management, and authentication.

The link module is responsible for deriving the hop sequence. This is accomplished using
the Bluetooth Device Address (BD_ADDR) of the master device. All Bluetooth devices are
assigned a 48-bit IEEE 802 address. This 48-bit master device address is used by each
of the devices in the piconet to derive the hop sequence.

The Link Module is also responsible for performing the three error correction schemes
that are defined for Bluetooth:

• 1/3 rate FEC


• 2/3 rate FEC
• ARQ scheme for the data

The purpose of the two FEC (forward error correction) schemes are to reduce the number
of retransmissions. The ARQ scheme (automatic retransmission request) will cause the
data to be retransmitted until an acknowledgement is received indicating a successful
transmission (or until a pre-defined time-out occurs). A CRC (cyclic redundancy check)
code is added to each packet and used by the receiver to decide whether or not the
packet has arrived error free. Note that the ARQ scheme is only used for data packets,
not synchronous payloads such as voice.

In order to reduce highly redundant data and minimize DC bias, a data whitening scheme
is used to randomize the data. The data is scrambled by a data whitening word and then
unscrambled using the same word at the receiver. This descrambling is done after the
error detection/correction process.

Bluetooth provides provisions for three low power modes to conserve battery life. These
states, in decreasing order of power requirements are Sniff Mode, Hold Mode, and Park
Mode. While in the Sniff mode, a device listens to the piconet at a reduced rate. The Sniff
interval is programmable, providing flexibility for different applications. The Hold mode is
similar to the Park mode, except that the Active Member address (AM_ADDR) is retained.
In the Park mode, the device’s clock continues to run and remains synchronized to the
master, but the device does not participate at all in the piconet.
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Hardware Implementations

Cambridge Silicon Radio expects to be shipping its first silicon in volume by June of 2000. In future designs
the host controller software will be frozen and the flash memory will be integrated as mask ROM into the
silicon, further reducing the size of the design.

HISTORY OF BLUETOOTH

• The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is formed with five companies.

• The Bluetooth SIG welcomes its 400th member by the end of the year.

• The name Bluetooth is officially adopted.

• The Bluetooth 1.0 Specification is released.

• The Bluetooth SIG hosts the first UnPlugFest for member engineers.

• Bluetooth technology is awarded "Best of Show Technology Award" at COMDEX.

• First mobile phone.

• First PC Card.

• Prototype mouse and laptop demonstrated at CeBIT 2000.

• Prototype USB dongle shown at COMDEX.

• First chip to integrate radio frequency, baseband, microprocessor functions and Bluetooth wireless
software.

• First Headset.

• First printer.

• First laptop.

• First hands-free car kit.

• First hands-free car kit with speech recognition.

• The Bluetooth SIG, Inc. is formed as a privately-held trade association.

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• First keyboard and mouse combo.

• First GPS receiver.

• Bluetooth wireless qualified products now number 500.

• IEEE approves the 802.15.1 specification to conform with Bluetooth wireless technology.

• First digital camera.

• First MP3 player.

• Bluetooth Core Specification Version 1.2 adopted by the Bluetooth SIG.

• Shipment of Bluetooth enabled products hits rate of 1 million per week.

• First FDA-approved medical system.

• The Bluetooth SIG adopts Core Specification Version 2.0 Enhanced Data Rate (EDR).

• Bluetooth technology reaches an installed base of 250 million devices.

• Product-shipment rate surpasses 3 million per week.

• First stereo headphones.

• Product shipments soar to 5 million chipsets per week.

• The Bluetooth SIG welcomes its 4,000th member.

• The Bluetooth SIG Headquarters opens in Bellevue, WA; regional offices open in Malmo, Sweden
and Hong Kong.

• First Sunglasses.

• First watch.

• First picture frame.

• Bluetooth wireless reaches an installed base of 1 billion devices.

• Bluetooth enabled devices ship at a rate of 10 million per week.

• The Bluetooth SIG announces it will integrate Bluetooth technology with the WiMedia Alliance
version of UWB.

• First alarm-clock radio.

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• First television.

• The Bluetooth SIG welcomes its 8,000th member.

• SIGnature, The Bluetooth quarterly, makes its debut at the Bluetooth SIG's All Hands Meeting in
Vienna, Austria.

• Bluetooth SIG Executive Director, Michael Foley, wins Telematics Leadership Award.

• 2008 marks Bluetooth technology’s 10 year anniversary - no other wireless technology has grown
to be shipping nearly 2 Billion products in 10 years.

• The Bluetooth SIG welcomes its 10,000th member.

• Bluetooth SIG Executive Director, Michael Foley, is named one of RCR Wireless News' Mobile
Movers & Shakers for 2008.

• The Bluetooth SIG adopts Core Specification Version 3.0 HS making Bluetooth high speed
technology a reality

• The Bluetooth SIG welcomes its 12,000th member

• The Bluetooth SIG All Hands Meeting is held in Tokyo—the first AHM in APAC

• The Bluetooth SIG announces the adoption of Bluetooth low energy wireless technology, the
hallmark feature in Bluetooth Core Specification Version 4.0.

What is Bluetooth, WiFi and WiMAX?


Bluetooth, WiFi and WiMAX are wireless technologies which allow devices to inter-
connect and communicate with each other. Radio waves are electomagnetic waves and
have different frequencies. These technologies are radio frequencies. Similar to the
analogue radio, or FM radio. Bluetooth works on 2.45GHz frequency. WiFi works in two
frequency bands 2.4GHz and 5GHz. WiMAX works in two frequency bands, 2 - 11GHz
and 10 - 66GHz. See chart below for a comparison of these technologies.

Bluetooth
Named after the Danish king, Harold Bluetooth,was the first to emerge, several devices
like mobile phones, pdas, headsets, keyboards, mice, medical equipment and even cars
now come with this feature. Due to its low cost, manufacturers are willing to implement
this technology in most devices. It is designed for short range communications with a
range of about 10m. As a result, it consumes less power and are suited for very small
battery powered devices and portable devices. Problems associated when devices
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communicate via infrared or cables are removed. Infrared requires a line of sight,
bluetooth only needs to be in reasonable vicinity. As cables are not required, it would be
less cumbersome carrying a personal bluetooth device and space would be less
cluttered. As bluetooth devices automatically communicate with each other, it requires
very little from the user. Bluetooth allows for a wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) with
it's short range. See chart below for a comparison of these technologies. For more
technical resources and information relating to Bluetooth see the official Bluetooth site.

WiFi
WiFi or Wireless Fidelity, has a range of about 100m and allows for faster data transfer
rate between 10 - 54Mbps. There are three different wireless standards under WiFi,
802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g. 802.11 being the wireless standard set by The Institue of
Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). WiFi is used to create wireless Local Area
Networks (WLAN). The most widely used standard is 802.11b and 802.11g is expexcted
to grow rapidly. These two standards are relatively inexpensive and can be found
providing wireless connectivity in airports, railway stations, cafes, bars, restaurants and
other public areas. The main difference between the two is the speed. 802.11b has data
transfer rate of upto 11Mbps and 802.11g has a rate of upto 54Mbps. 802.11g is a
relatively new and has yet to be adopted widely. 802.11a is more expensive and as a
result it not available for public access. See chart below for a comparison of these
technologies.

WiMAX
WiMAX is Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. The IEEE standard for
WiMAX is 802.16 and falls under the category of wireless Metropolitan Area Network
(WMAN). WiMAX operates on two frequency bands, 2 - 11GHz and 10 - 66GHz and has
a range of about 50km with speeds of upto 80Mbps. This enables smaller wireless LANs
to be interconnected by WiMAX creating a large wireless MAN. Networking between cities
can beachieved without the need for expensive cabling. It is also able to provide high
speed wireless broadband access to users. As it can operate in two frequency bands
WiMAX can work by line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight. At the 2 - 11GHz frquency range it
works by non-line-of-sight, where a computer inside a building communicates with a
tower/antenna outside the building. Short frequency transmissions are not easily
disrupted by physical obstructions. Higher frequency transmissions are used for non-line-
of-sight service. This enables to towers/antennae to communicate with each other over a
greater distance. Due to infrastructure and costs involved it would be more suited to
provide the backbone services for ISPs and large corporations providing wireless
networking and internet access. See chart below for a comparison of these technologies.

Wireless Technology Comparison Chart


Bluetooth WiFi (a) WiFi (b) WiFi (g)

Standard 802.15 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g

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Frequency (GHz) 2.45 5 2.4 2.4
Speed (Mbps) 0.72 54 11 54
Range 10m 50m 100m 100m
Advantages Low Cost Speed Low Cost Speed
Disadvantages Range Cost Speed Cost, Range

Comparison of Infrared, 802.11b RF and Bluetooth


Infrared Bluetooth
Typical usage * Cradle replacement, * Personal Cable
Personal Cable replacement replacement

* Short range wireless point- * Mid range wireless Data


n-shoot Data Exchange and Exchange and Network
Network Access Access (Requires time to
discover other Bluetooth
devices in the vicinity. Also,
user needs to identify which
device he/she wishes to
connect to.)
Bandwidth * 115Kbps & 4 Mbps, * 1 Mbps, shared
dedicated
Effective Bandwidth * 115Kbps & 4Mbps * 700 Kbps, worse due to
interference
Interference None Other RF devices, building
material, equipment
Security Very secure Less Secure.
due to short range and line- Built-in link level
of-sight. No link level authentication. More difficult
security protection, requires for traffic sniffing. Still
application level requires application level
authentication and authentication and
encryption. encryption.
Power consumption Low High
Very long battery life due to Consumes more power than
low power consumption and IR.
does not have maintain a
constant connection
Supporting Devices * PDA, laptop, cell phone * Very few has it built-in,
and ragged handheld have it require external H/W card
built-in * Very few

* 100s of millions devices


Real-time network Requires user to walk up to User has to be within 10
access application an access point meters of an access point.
The user may inadvertently
walk out of range.
Steps requires to Plug-n-play, point-n-shoot Initial setup (bonding) with

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connect to LAN the access point required
Range 1 meter 10 meter

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Bluetooth


Bluetooth has a lot to offer with an increasingly difficult market place. Bluetooth helps to
bring with it the promise of freedom from the cables and implicity in networking that has yet to be matched
by LAN (Local Area Network).

In the key marketplace, of wireless and handheld devices, the closest competitor to Bluetooth is infrared.
Infrared holds many key features, although the line of sight it provides doesn't go through walls or through
obstacles like that of the Bluetooth technology.

Unlike infrared, Bluetooth isn't a line of sight and it provides ranges of up to 100 meters. Bluetooth is also
low power and low processing with an
overhead protocol. What this means, is that it's ideal for integration into small battery powered
devices. To put it short, the applications with
Bluetooth are virtually endless.

Disadvantages

Bluetooth has several positive features and one would be extremely hard pressed to find downsides when
given the current competition.

The only real downsides are the data rate and security. Infrared can have data rates of up to 4 MBps,
which provides very fast rates for data transfer, while Bluetooth only offers 1 MBps.

For this very reason, infrared has yet to be dispensed with completely and is considered by many to be the
complimentary technology to that
of Bluetooth. Infrared has inherent security due to its line of sight.

The greater range and radio frequency (RF) of Bluetooth make it much more open to interception and
attack. For this reason, security is a very key aspect to the Bluetooth specification.

Although there are very few disadvantages, Bluetooth still remains the best for short range wireless
technology. Those who have tried it love it, and they know for a fact that Bluetooth will be around for years
to come.

CONCLUSIONS

So it is concluded that Bluetooth is the fastest Omni-directional Communication Network


and is helpful for indirect transfer of data.

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