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6.1

Areas Between Curves

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

In this section we learn about:

Using integrals to find areas of regions that lie

between the graphs of two functions.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

curves y = f(x) and y = g(x) and between

the vertical lines x = a and x = b.

Here, f and g are

continuous functions

and f(x) ≥ g(x) for all

x in [a, b].

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

5.1, we divide S into n strips of equal width

and approximate the i th strip by a rectangle

with base ∆x and height f ( xi *) g ( xi *) .

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

to be right endpoints—in which case

xi * xi .

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

n

The Riemann sum f ( x *) g ( x *) x

i 1

i i

intuitively think of as the area of S.

better and better as n → ∞.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Definition 1

Thus, we define the area A of the region S

as the limiting value of the sum of the areas

of these approximating rectangles.

n

A lim f ( xi *) g ( xi *)x

n

i 1

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Definition 2

Thus, we have the following formula for area:

the curves y = f(x), y = g(x), and the lines

x = a, x = b, where f and g are continuous

and f ( x) g ( x) for all x in [a, b], is:

A f x g x dx

b

a

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

from the figure why Definition 2 is true:

A area under y f ( x) area under y g ( x)

b b

f ( x)dx g ( x) dx

a a

f ( x) g ( x) dx

b

a

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 1

As shown here, the upper boundary curve

is y = ex and the lower

boundary curve is y = x.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 1

So, we use the area formula with

f(x) = x2 +1, g(x) = x, a = 0, and b = 1:

A x 1 x dx

1

2

0

x x 1 dx

1

2

0

3 2

x x 1 1 5

x 0 1

1

3 2 3 2 6

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

rectangle with width ∆x

as a reminder of

the procedure by which

the area is defined

in Definition 1.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

an area, it’s helpful to sketch the region to

identify the top curve yT , the bottom curve yB,

and a typical

approximating

rectangle.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

(yT - yB) ∆x and the equation

n

A lim ( yT yB )x yT yB dx

b

n a

i 1

a limiting sense) the areas of all the typical

rectangles.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

boundary reduces to a point whereas, in

the other figure, the right-hand boundary

reduces to a point.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 2

First, we find the points of intersection of

the parabolas by solving their equations

simultaneously.

Thus, 2x(x - 1) = 0, so x = 0 or 1.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 2

bottom boundaries are:

yT = 2x – x2 and yB = x2

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 2

The area of a typical rectangle is

(yT – yB) ∆x = (2x – x2 – x2) ∆x

and the region lies between x = 0 and x = 1.

A 2x 2x dx 2 x x dx

1 1

2 2

0 0

1

x x

2 3

1 1 1

2 2

2 3 0 2 3 3

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

impossible—to find the points of intersection

of two curves exactly.

use a graphing calculator or computer to find

approximate values for the intersection points

and then proceed as before.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3

bounded by the curves y x x 1

2

and y x x.

4

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3

points, we would have to solve the equation

x

x x

4

x 1

2

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3

Instead, we use a graphing device to

draw the graphs of the two curves.

One intersection point is the origin. The other is x ≈ 1.18

If greater accuracy

is required,

we could use

Newton’s method

or a rootfinder—if

available on our

graphing device.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3

Thus, an approximation to the area

between the curves is:

x

x x dx

1.18

A 2

4

x 1

0

the substitution u = x2 + 1.

Then, du = 2x dx, and when x = 1.18,

we have u ≈ 2.39

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3

Therefore,

x x dx

2.39 du 1.18

A

1 4

2 1

u 0

1.18

2.39 x5

x 2

u

1

5 2 0

5 2

(1.18) (1.18)

2.39 1

5 2

0.785

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Definition 3

The area between the curves y = f(x) and

y = g(x) and between x = a and x = b is:

b

A f ( x) g ( x) dx

a

split it into integrals corresponding to A1, A2, . . . .

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 5

by the curves y = sin x, y = cos x,

x = 0, and x = π/2.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 5

sin x = cos x, that is, when x = π / 4

(since 0 ≤ x ≤ π/2).

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 5

0 ≤ x ≤ π/4 but sin x ≥ cos x when

π/4 ≤ x ≤ π/2.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 5

So, the required area is:

2

A cos x sin x dx A1 A2

0

4 2

0

cos x sin x dx 4 sin x cos x dx

sin x cos x 0 cos x sin x

4 2

4

1 1 1 1

0 1 0 1

2 2 2 2

2 2 2

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

regarding x as a function of y.

x = g(y), y = c, and

y = d, where f and g

are continuous and

f(y) ≥ g(y) for c ≤ y ≤ d,

then its area is:

f ( y) g ( y) dy

d

A

c

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

for the left boundary, we have:

xR xL dy

d

A

c

Here, a typical

approximating rectangle

has dimensions xR - xL

and ∆y.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 6

the line y = x - 1 and the parabola

y2 = 2x + 6.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 6

By solving the two equations, we find that the

points of intersection are (-1, -2) and (5, 4).

that the left and right

boundary curves are:

xL y 3

1

2

2

xR y 1

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 6

the appropriate y-values, y = -2

and y = 4.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 6

xR xL dy

4

Thus, A

2

y 1 2 y 3 dy

4

1 2

2

y y 4 dy

4

1

2

2

2

4

1 y 3

y 2

4 y

2 3 2 2

(64) 8 16 2 8 18

1

6

4

3

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