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# APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION

6.1
Areas Between Curves
Wednesday, March 3, 2010
In this section we learn about:
Using integrals to find areas of regions that lie
between the graphs of two functions.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## Consider the region S that lies between two

curves y = f(x) and y = g(x) and between
the vertical lines x = a and x = b.
 Here, f and g are
continuous functions
and f(x) ≥ g(x) for all
x in [a, b].
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## As we did for areas under curves in Section

5.1, we divide S into n strips of equal width
and approximate the i th strip by a rectangle
with base ∆x and height f ( xi *)  g ( xi *) .
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## We could also take all the sample points

to be right endpoints—in which case
xi *  xi .
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES
n
The Riemann sum   f ( x *)  g ( x *)  x
i 1
i i

## is therefore an approximation to what we

intuitively think of as the area of S.

##  This approximation appears to become

better and better as n → ∞.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Definition 1
Thus, we define the area A of the region S
as the limiting value of the sum of the areas
of these approximating rectangles.
n
A  lim   f ( xi *)  g ( xi *)x
n 
i 1

##  The limit here is the definite integral of f - g.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Definition 2
Thus, we have the following formula for area:

## The area A of the region bounded by

the curves y = f(x), y = g(x), and the lines
x = a, x = b, where f and g are continuous
and f ( x)  g ( x) for all x in [a, b], is:

A    f  x   g  x  dx
b

a
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## Where both f and g are positive, you can see

from the figure why Definition 2 is true:
A   area under y  f ( x)    area under y  g ( x) 
b b
  f ( x)dx   g ( x) dx
a a

 f ( x)  g ( x)  dx
b

a
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 1
As shown here, the upper boundary curve
is y = ex and the lower
boundary curve is y = x.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 1
So, we use the area formula with
f(x) = x2 +1, g(x) = x, a = 0, and b = 1:

A    x  1  x  dx
1
 2
0

   x  x  1 dx
1
2
0
3 2
x x 1 1 5
   x 0    1 
1

3 2 3 2 6
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## Here, we drew a typical approximating

rectangle with width ∆x
as a reminder of
the procedure by which
the area is defined
in Definition 1.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## In general, when we set up an integral for

an area, it’s helpful to sketch the region to
identify the top curve yT , the bottom curve yB,
and a typical
approximating
rectangle.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## Then, the area of a typical rectangle is

(yT - yB) ∆x and the equation
n
A  lim  ( yT  yB )x    yT  yB  dx
b

n  a
i 1

## summarizes the procedure of adding (in

a limiting sense) the areas of all the typical
rectangles.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## Notice that, in the first figure, the left-hand

boundary reduces to a point whereas, in
the other figure, the right-hand boundary
reduces to a point.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 2
First, we find the points of intersection of
the parabolas by solving their equations
simultaneously.

##  This gives x2 = 2x - x2, or 2x2 - 2x = 0.

 Thus, 2x(x - 1) = 0, so x = 0 or 1.

##  The points of intersection are (0, 0) and (1, 1).

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 2

## From the figure, we see that the top and

bottom boundaries are:
yT = 2x – x2 and yB = x2
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 2
The area of a typical rectangle is
(yT – yB) ∆x = (2x – x2 – x2) ∆x
and the region lies between x = 0 and x = 1.

##  So, the total area is:

A    2x  2x  dx  2  x  x  dx
1 1
2 2
0 0
1
x x 
2 3
1 1 1
 2     2   
 2 3 0  2 3 3
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## Sometimes, it is difficult—or even

impossible—to find the points of intersection
of two curves exactly.

##  As shown in the following example, we can

use a graphing calculator or computer to find
approximate values for the intersection points
and then proceed as before.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3

## Find the approximate area of the region

bounded by the curves y  x x 1
2

and y  x  x.
4
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3

## If we were to try to find the exact intersection

points, we would have to solve the equation
x
 x x
4

x 1
2

##  In fact, it’s impossible.

AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3
Instead, we use a graphing device to
draw the graphs of the two curves.
 One intersection point is the origin. The other is x ≈ 1.18

 If greater accuracy
is required,
we could use
Newton’s method
or a rootfinder—if
available on our
graphing device.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3
Thus, an approximation to the area
between the curves is:
 x 
  x  x   dx
1.18
A  2
4

 x 1 
0

##  To integrate the first term, we use

the substitution u = x2 + 1.
 Then, du = 2x dx, and when x = 1.18,
we have u ≈ 2.39
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 3
Therefore,
   x  x  dx
2.39 du 1.18
A 
1 4
2 1
u 0
1.18
2.39 x5
x  2
 u    
1
 5 2 0
5 2
(1.18) (1.18)
 2.39  1  
5 2
 0.785
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Definition 3
The area between the curves y = f(x) and
y = g(x) and between x = a and x = b is:

b
A   f ( x)  g ( x) dx
a

##  However, when evaluating the integral, we must still

split it into integrals corresponding to A1, A2, . . . .
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 5

## Find the area of the region bounded

by the curves y = sin x, y = cos x,
x = 0, and x = π/2.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 5

## The points of intersection occur when

sin x = cos x, that is, when x = π / 4
(since 0 ≤ x ≤ π/2).
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 5

## Observe that cos x ≥ sin x when

0 ≤ x ≤ π/4 but sin x ≥ cos x when
π/4 ≤ x ≤ π/2.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 5
So, the required area is:
 2
A cos x  sin x dx  A1  A2
0
 4  2

0
 cos x  sin x  dx   4  sin x  cos x  dx
 sin x  cos x 0    cos x  sin x 
 4  2
4

 1 1   1 1 
   0  1   0  1   
 2 2   2 2
 2 2 2
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## Some regions are best treated by

regarding x as a function of y.

##  If a region is bounded by curves with equations x = f(y),

x = g(y), y = c, and
y = d, where f and g
are continuous and
f(y) ≥ g(y) for c ≤ y ≤ d,
then its area is:
 f ( y)  g ( y) dy
d
A
c
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

## If we write xR for the right boundary and xL

for the left boundary, we have:
 xR  xL  dy
d
A
c

 Here, a typical
approximating rectangle
has dimensions xR - xL
and ∆y.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 6

## Find the area enclosed by

the line y = x - 1 and the parabola
y2 = 2x + 6.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 6
By solving the two equations, we find that the
points of intersection are (-1, -2) and (5, 4).

##  From the figure, we notice

that the left and right
boundary curves are:
xL  y  3
1
2
2

xR  y  1
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 6

## We must integrate between

the appropriate y-values, y = -2
and y = 4.
AREAS BETWEEN CURVES Example 6

 xR  xL  dy
4
Thus, A  
2

   y  1   2 y  3  dy
4
 1 2
2

 y  y  4  dy
4
 1
2
2
2
4

1 y 3
 y 2

      4 y
2 3  2  2
  (64)  8  16    2  8   18
1
6
4
3