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Monitoring and Evaluation System
Monitoring and Evaluation providing options for decision-makers • Structuring the M&E plan
1. Qualities of an Indicator 2.
Common pitfalls in developing an M&E system
3. Types of Indicators
• • • • • • Proxy Indicators Indicators for Monitoring Process Indicators Output Indicators Economic Indicators Quality of Life Indicators
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1. Development of Indicators
• Basic steps in developing indicators as part of an a M&E system
1. Role of Indicators in the Planning Process
1. Determining the Sources of Data for Indicators 2. Conclusion 3. References
Indicators are measures of ‘change’, progress and achievement in a project or programme. A good monitoring and evaluation system should support improvement and adaptation at several different levels. At the project management level, a monitoring and evaluation system should provide information needed to improve the efficiency of the implementation process and the performance of those involved. At a strategic level, it should also support regular reviews of the strategy itself—to revaluate chosen courses of action and take into account changing contexts. The monitoring and evaluation system itself should also be subject to regular reviews. Indicators An indicator is a piece of information which communicates a certain state, trend, warning or progress to the audience. Indicators can help to answer the questions where are we now, where do we want to go, are we taking the right path to get there, and are we there yet? The ‘change’ or ‘difference’ that a project makes or brings about has to be kept track of to ensure that projects are implemented successfully so that intended results are obtained. In order o keep track of the progress of implementation and also the results, we need some devices or information to measure the changes or achievements at different levels i.e. input delivery, performance of activities, and realization of outputs, effects and inputs. Such a measure used by project management is called Indicators. Indicators provide insight into matters of larger significance and make perceptible trends that are not immediately detectable. Indicators reflect the status of a system, for example an oil pressure gauge on an engine or the number of owls in a forest. Indicators are measures selected to assess progress towards the targets associated with goals and objectives and the accomplishment of actions. For example, the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age and the proportion of population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption are used as indicators for the Millennium Development target on hunger.
Monitoring and Evaluation System Monitoring and Evaluation System is explained as below: • Monitoring is a continuous assessment of project implementation in relation to agreed schedules, use of inputs, infrastructure and services provided by project beneficiaries. Evaluation is a periodic assessment of the relevance, performance efficiency and impact (both expected and unexpected) of the project in relation to stated objectives. Monitoring and Evaluation involves: • Monitoring the process of implementation—to ensure that the actions outlined in the strategy are being taken and that resources are being allocated and used effectively. • Monitoring the outcomes of those actions—in terms of investments in infrastructure and changes in policies, institutional frameworks, and management instruments. • Evaluating the progress towards the achievement of goals and objectives in relation to actions. • Using the information gained to refine the strategy and to inform decision making at different levels—from national planning to water user behavior. Although normally used in conjunction, the words monitoring and evaluation represent two separate concepts with different meanings and purposes. While monitoring and evaluation are both concerned with the collection, analysis and use of information to evaluate the relevance of the work done within the project and support informed decision-making, it is useful to understand the differences between the two: What are the general purposes? Who is responsible? When and why are they carried out? This distinction is shown in Table 1. Table 1: Definitions of Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring Evaluation General purpose Continuous analysis of progress towards achieving planned results with the purpose of improving management decision making Assessment of the efficiency, effectiveness, impact, relevance and sustainability of the programme
Internal programme management responsibility at all levels
Usually incorporates external input (objectivity) The users of the results (including planners and policy makers concerned with strategic policy and programming issues, rather than just managers responsible for implementing the tasks)
Periodic, less frequent – mid term, completion, ex post
To check the physical (input provision,
Learn broad and generic lessons,
activities undertaken and results applicable to other programmes input delivered) and financial progress for policy reviews (budget and expenditure) Check quality Provide accountability of process (i.e. stakeholder participation and local capacity development)
Source: Adapted from EC. 2004. Monitoring refers to a continuous analysis of the progress towards achieving the planned results. According to UNDP (1997) it “aims primarily to provide project management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing programme or project with early indications of progress, or lack thereof, in the achievement of programme or project objectives”. Its main purpose is the improvement of informed management decisions including corrective actions if needed. It usually is part of the internal management responsibility and refers to all levels involved in the capacity programme. It provides information on the physical progress in terms of input provision and execution of activities and results accomplished. It also refers to the quality of the established capacity development process with regard to the level of stakeholder participation, communication and acquired skills and knowledge. Evaluation refers to a time-bound review of the effectiveness, efficiency, impact, relevance and sustainability of an ongoing or completed programme. It encapsulates a broader view on the way the capacity programme is designed and formulated, and to what extent the assumptions are realistic and valid. Evaluations serve the purpose of policy makers and planners as well as the accountability needs of lending agencies and governments. They involve key stakeholders with direct responsibilities for implementation on the ground (i.e. the project management team) but an external view is also required for more objectivity. They provide a structured opportunity to discuss and agree on the content and build a common understanding of key issues/concerns and of actions that need to be undertaken.
Monitoring and Evaluation providing options for decision-makers
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is a technical exercise, designed by and used by technical experts and researchers. In fact, like all numerical data of this kind, the ultimate purpose of the M&E ‘exercise’ is to provide useful information to decision makers. The monitoring and evaluation play complementary role as given in Table 2. Table 2 : Complementary roles for monitoring and evaluation Monitoring Evaluation
Routine collection of information Tracking project implementation progress
Analyzing information Ex-post assessment of effectiveness and impact
Measuring efficiency Question “Is the project doing things right?” an M&E system Table 3: Purposes and benefits of M&E Purpose Benefit
• • •
Confirming project expectations Measuring impacts Question “ Is the project doing the right things?”
Source: Alex and Byeriee, Monitoring and Evaluation for AKIS Projects, World Bank, 2000
To provide accountability of project and programme expenditure to funding agencies
A condition for receiving funding More funding, if the outcome is positive
To review implementation of projects/programmes
• • •
Better understanding of the realities and, therefore, more realistic and appropriate plans Timely identification of bottlenecks in carrying out activities as planned, so timely adjustments to plans, schedules and/or budgets Opportunity to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Activities Knowing whether activities are achieving desired outcomes Knowing whether activities are having unanticipated negative impacts that need correcting Information to convince others of the merits of one’s efforts, for example, when influencing policy makers
To provide public accountability of local and national government programmes to communities
• Local empowerment • Helps ensure that project and programme impacts influence and reorient policy • Encourages institutional reform towards more participatory structures • • • • Better working environment as learning from mistakes eases performance fears More motivated staff Better programmes and, therefore, more locally appropriate development Less waste of money and time
To strengthen organizations
Local and staff empowerment
To understand and negotiate stakeholder perspectives
More self-development initiatives Reassessment of objectives and attitudes by funding agencies Improved strategic planning at different levels
To provide information at different levels
Checks and helps update our understanding of society and development
Structuring the M&E plan
Identify: • who is going to collect and register which piece of information • who is going to collate information • who is going to analyse information • who is going to disseminate the final findings, how are they going to do it and with whom will they share it • where it is going to be carried out (which community/field, what is the sample size) • with which methods • when will all this happen (how often and which month/week/day).
Qualities of an Indicator
Every indicator that is identified to measure something should fulfill four criteria that include basic purpose, quantity, quality and a time frame. Only when all these four criteria are ensured the indicator would be able to objectively verify the changes that are claimed to have been brought about. The illustrations below in Table -1 provide examples of indicators possessing the criteria one lined. Table 4 : Examples for Quality of Indicators STEP Characteristics Example – 1 Example – 2
Basic Small farmers increase rice yields
Improving access to safe drinking water to rural households
Set a Quantity
30,000 small farmers increase rice 50% of households in five villages yields by 50% (from X to Y) per block of a district
30,000 small farmers increase rice Water from a covered well/ hand yields by 50% while maintaining same pump/ piped water supply not quality existing in 1979 harvest more than 500 meters away
30,000 small farmers increase
production between 1990 and 1995 of the project
Within a year after the beginning
The general questions to be asked while selecting indicators include (a) Can it be unambiguously defined in the conditions prevailing? (b) Can it be accurately measured in the conditions prevailing, and, at an acceptable cost? (c) When measured, does it indicate ‘the state of a condition’; in a specific and precise manner? (d) Is it an unbiased measure of the value of interest? (e) When viewed as one of a set of indicators to be measured, does it contribute uniquely to explain part of the variation in the situation it reflects? Before proceeding to consider appropriate indicators for measuring project progress towards each objective separately, introductory comments on these questions serve to set the scene. (a) Unambiguous Definition Many economic and social indicators that have been precisely defined in relation to a cashoriented,industrial society are often inapplicable to small semi subsistence farmers in developing countries. Examples are: unemployment or underemployment, and income. (b) Accurate Measurement Many indicators are difficult to measure when dealing with farming communities which are illiterate and are not accustomed to dealing in standard units of measure. Yields can be measured accurately by crop-cutting methods but such methods require time and skill and, as usually applied, may only produce aggregate community estimates rather than farm-by-farm estimates. Measuring income, however defined, is extremely difficult, and not for small farmers along. (c) Specificity and Precision These will tend to decline as one proceeds along the sequence of inputs, outputs, effects, and impact. The delivery of inputs within a controlled project area may be specific—a change in the rate of delivery reflects a real change in the implementation of the project. The output achieved as a result will be less so as yields may move seasonally according to climatic variations by more than the underlying trend due to the use of the inputs. Income as a measure of the effect of the project may be influenced to an even greater degree by exogenous influences outside the control of the project. (d) Bias
Clearly, it is desirable that an indicator should, whenever it is measured, reflect the true value of the condition it is representing. For example, the volume of a crop purchased by a marketing cooperative will usually be a biased estimate of the total crop marketed, but changes in the volume purchased by the board may be a good indicator of change in the total volume marketed so long as the co-operative’s share of the total market remains constant. In years of large harvests, the price on the open market may drop and farmers may sell most of their crop to the marketing cooperative at a guaranteed stable price. In lean years, the farmer may take advantage of high prices in his nearby market and the sales to the co-operative may decline proportionately much more than the decline in total marketed volumes. . (e) Contribution to explanation of Variation In selecting indicators for monitoring and evaluation system, the objective is to put together a set wherein each indicator, individually and separately, explains a part of the overall variation in the condition being studied; and, together, explain a substantial proportion of the total variation. Previous studies or even intuition may identify an indicator that is so closely correlated with another indicator that the inclusion of both contributes little more than the inclusion of their one alone. Examples of pairs that are sometimes, but not invariably, highly correlated are • income - expenditure • area planted quantity of seed used • literacy years of formal education • cash crop production cash crop sales.
Common pitfalls in developing an M&E system
• • •
Box 1: Common pitfalls in developing an M&E system Not having a system: Defining a loose collection of disparate indicators with little or no relationship to each other, instead of a system in which indicators relate to each other and to the strategy goals, objectives and targets in a meaningful way. Bad fit between targets and indicators: Defining indicators with a weak relationship to the targets set for strategy activities, objectives and goals. In most cases, the problem is with the indicator; in others, the root of the problem is a poorly formulated target. Building a system based on bad baseline data and/or unreliable indicators: Indicators need to provide a consistent measure of progress. This means that the starting point (the baseline data) is accurate and that the indicator provides an objectively verifiable result, i.e. two people applying the same indicator should get the same result. Not taking into account that impacts may differ according to location and to the gender and socio-economic status of intended beneficiaries. Poor feedback mechanisms: Developing a system in which indicator results do not feed back into the strategy process and into decision-making and planning processes. M&E systems are worthless if the information they provide is not acted upon.
Types of Indicators
• • • • •
Proxy Indicators Indicators for Monitoring Process Indicators Output Indicators Economic Indicators Quality of Life Indicators
1. Proxy Indicators Of the criteria listed above, the one of most practical importance from the designer’s viewpoint
is the ability to measure the indicator accurately, at reasonable cost on the scale required. Inability to do this may require a search for a proxy indicator that can be measured more easily and which appears to meet, or partly meet, the other criteria. Consider first the example of indicators of the area under maize. The questions asked of a farmer can include the following in ascending order of difficulty: • How many plots did the farmer plant? • How much seed did the farmer use? • What was the area of maize (e.g., to the nearest tenth of a hectare)? Either (a) or (b) may serve as a rapid assessment aimed at producing an indicator of whether the incidence of maize planting is above or below previous seasons. For many purposes, however, a more precise area may be required; but if the farmers do not know the area in these terms, a massive quantum jump in survey scale is required in order to physically measure the land using one of the acceptable techniques. A different example is provided by certain social indicators. Consider indicators of nutritional status as a proxy measure of the general quality of life. Simple measures of age, height and weight may be used to calculate indicators, particularly for children, that reflect not only the nutritional status of the individual but may, in appropriate circumstances, be used as a proxy for general wellbeing. (Table – 5) Table – 5: Examples of Direct & Indirect (proxy) Indicators Purpose Direct Indicators Indirect Indicators (Proxy or Substitutes)
To increase per capita income of small farmers
Crop Sales Consumption
Food Purchase of Typical Consumer Items. Tin roofs on huts
To increase Agricultural production
Total metric tons
Market Price Fluctuations Arrival of Agriculture Products
To Improve Nutrition of School Children
Amounts and Types of Food Consumption
Height and Weight of Children: Cases
1. Indicators for Monitoring Although precise indicators are not identified, the groupings below provide the outline of a recommended set of indicators for project monitoring. It has been stated earlier that monitoring assesses whether project inputs are being delivered, are being used as intended, and are having an initial effect as planned. The first group of monitoring indicators includes • financial disbursement figures; • progress of physical construction relative to a predetermined critical path; and • staff and equipment usage rates. The source for these should be the administrative records maintained within the project.
A second group of monitoring indicators include : • technical parameters requiring instrument recording, e.g., water flows, evaporation, soil moisture; • environmental parameters, e.g. meteorological data; and • economic parameters e.g. crop and livestock prices. Seasonal cycle and annual trends in local prices affect project implementation. Moving on to the first project/recipient interaction, there is a need for indicators of input supply; examples are: • credit supply; • direct farm supplies; • extension advice; and • educational, health or social facilities. Data for a (a) and (b) in terms of input supply should also be available from project records. Indicators will include numbers of recipients and the resulting percentages of predetermined targets; the distribution of these numbers by various quantity size classes; and the parameters of this distribution (mean, standard deviation, quartiles, etc.) the supply of the input becomes confounded with the usage or adoption rates. The monitoring system requires little in terms of surveys of beneficiaries; rather, it involves the maintenance and proper use of available records. The next set of indicators, move the focus to beneficiary observation involving the use of the received inputs, and, in the case of credit, repayment performance. They include • input usage rates; • adoption rates; and • repayment rates. The usage of physical inputs by the beneficiaries will require a survey to determine the practices adopted, e.g., seeding rates, method of planting crops to which the input was applied, and so on. It is desirable to keep the questions on usage simple, and not to confuse it with farm management or detailed study; simple questions can be put to a sample of sufficient size to provide valied estimates for the total beneficiary population. 1. Process Indicators Process indicators, which monitor the basic progress of implementing the actions outlined in the strategy. This includes monitoring implementation processes and also the tracking of inputs—the people, money, equipment needed to achieve actions. Processes are the ways in which activities are conducted. For example group formats is an activity and it involves certain processes and procedures (rapport building, awareness generation, training etc.) unless these processe are followed systematically, desired results may not be forthcoming. We need to evolve indicators to keep track of the process. 2. Output Indicators In agriculture and rural development projects, outputs are expressed in terms of production; whether crops, livestock, forest products fish, etc. In general, quantification of production maybe through direct measurement or the producer’s stated estimate. If direct measurement is adopted, the following common categories of production can be identified: • seasonal crops—areas and yields per unit area; • tree crops (including forestry) – numbers of trees and yield per tree (or area and yield per unit area); • animals—live numbers, and off-take number; and • animal products (including fish)—volumes, weights. The indicators, therefore, are well defined; numbers, areas, yields, volumes, and weights. The estimation of crop production deserves special mention. A well-documented and popular method is to conduct a crop-cut of a small portion of a known area of the plot in order to estimate the
average yield per hectare for the crop. The alternative to direct measurements of production is to obtain estimates from the producer. 1. Economic Indicators The postulated economic benefits of a project are usually expressed in income terms; so income is the obvious choice as the indicator to measure. However, as indicated earlier, in the case of small farmers, the accurate definition and measurement of income is difficult. The measurement of expenditure does not present some of these definitional and response problems. The experience of many budget surveys is that expenditure is recorded more accurately and completely than income. Expenditure can be used as a proxy for income in evaluating change. 2. Quality of Life Indicators Aspects commonly agreed to affect quality of life include, food consumption, health, education, shelter, access to essential amenities, and life expectancy. They are not, of course, independent of each other. If quality of life measures are required in a rural development project, the following is suggested as a reasonable list: • Child nutritional status (anthropometric measurements); • School enrollment by age; • Expenditure on shelter improvements and contents; • Distance or time to potable water;
Development of Indicators
Indicators need to be developed for every stage of the project i.e. input, activities, processes, outputs, effects (outcomes) and input (goal). These indicators should fulfill the four criteria. In order to develop indicators, we need to have strong reliable sources of information which are also called Means of Verification. The common sources of data for measuring project’s progress and success are: a) Data collected on routine basis by project staff This is done by developing a good Management Information System (MIS) and progress reporting formats. This source, generally, serves monitoring purpose very well. b) Data generated through special surveys Based on the MIS and progress reports, certain persistent problem may be identified or the existing MIS or progress report formats may not capture everything that are required for meaningful project management decision. Sometimes, more detailed and indepth information may be required. Under such circumstances special surveys may have to carried out to collect the needed information to build indicators. Such an exercise may serve monitoring the outputs and effects and sometimes to measure the initial signals of impact. This survey can serve both monitoring and evaluation requirements. c) Published statistics. In large scale programmes of longer duration like agricultural development, health project etc, indicators can be generated/ obtained from state/ national statistics which are brought out periodically. For instance, Agriculture Department brings out Area, Production and Yield of majorcrops every year. Similarly Health Department brings out data relating to Infant mortality Rate, Maternalmortality rate etc. Such information, if available on regular basis could be used. Many a times such publications are not regular or it may be time lagged.
Basic steps in developing indicators as part of an a M&E system
There are various approaches to defining indicators. The model below is one example: Step 1: Make sure that targets associated with strategy goals, objectives and actions are clearly
defined and agreed upon; and that the inputs necessary carry out actions are identified. Step 2: Define indicators for each target based on stakeholder consultations and on criteria, such as relevance, reliability, and cost-effectiveness. Involve stakeholders who cause or are affected by the problem or issue addressed in the target; who have relevant information or expertise; and who will be responsible for implementing indicators. Step 3: Select indicators to track human and financial resources and ensure that they are being disbursed and used efficiently. Step 4: Check to make sure that indicators relate clearly to targets, and that these in turn support the achievement of actions, objectives and goals. Identify and fill gaps. Refine indicators and/or targets as necessary. This step may involve taking an inventory of indicators that are already in use in the country to eliminate redundancies, and also considering the relationship of national M&E efforts to international monitoring programs—such as the World Water Assessment Programme. Step 5: Calculate human and financial resources needed to apply the indicator package. Evaluate whether the package is a good investment, i.e. the human and financial resources required are commensurate with the value of the various indicators employed. Step 6: Agree on the agencies/institutions that will be responsible for applying the different indicators, how, and how often. Step 7: Determine how the information resulting from the different indicators will be managed: how it fits into decision-making processes, both specifically related to the strategy but also ongoing policy and planning processes; how information will be amalgamated to get a more comprehensive picture of progress; and how it will be communicated to stakeholders. Step 8: Include requirements for M&E package in capacity building plan, budget, and staff allocation. Steps in Designing M&E system M & E studies have identified six steps in designing an M & E system. These are: a. Establishing the purpose and scope - why do we need M & E and how comprehensive should our M & E system be? b. Identifying performance questions, information needs and indicators - what do we need to know to monitor and evaluate the project in order to manage it well? c. Planning information gathering and organisation - how will the required information be gathered and organised? d. Planning critical reflection processes and events - how will we make sense of the information gathered and use it to make improvements? e. Planning for quality communication and reporting how and to whom do we want to communicate what in terms of our project activities and processes? f. Planning for the necessary conditions and capacities - what is needed to ensure our M&E system actually works?
Role of Indicators in the Planning Process
Indicators are the basic building blocks of monitoring and evaluation systems. They are also a part of assessment, which plays a crucial role at the beginning of the strategy formulation process and provides the baseline needed for M&E during implementation. As a part of assessment and Monitoring and Evaluation systems, indicators help to answer key questions at various stages in the strategy, such as where are we now, where do we want to go, are we taking the right path to get there, and, finally, are we there yet? Where are we now? As part of a baseline assessment at the beginning of the strategy process, indicators help to determine what the problems are, where they are, and their level of severity.
Where do we want to go? Information provided by the baseline assessment indicators can help decide on priorities and can serve as a useful input into stakeholder dialogues during the strategy formulation process. Indicators may also be used in identifying the necessary actions by helping to assess the effectiveness of existing institutions, policies, regulations, etc. Once priorities and basic goals, objectives, and actions have been agreed upon, the process of defining indicators for monitoring and evaluation can help to set and refine specific targets. Core indicators are the ways we come to understand the inputs and outcomes of a program or project that we may or may not be able to observe directly. A strong monitoring and evaluation system helps ensure that a project meets its main objective of fostering positive change, and also that the strategy can adapt to evolving needs and conditions. Although a vital component in the success of any strategy, development and implementation of a M&E system is often allocated insufficient time, thought, and human and financial resources.
The question of ‘what are the right/best indicators’ dominates many discussions about M&E. This only intensifies when more participatory forms of working are pursued, as perceptions of what is ‘right’ or what are the ‘best’ indicators will inevitably differ between stakeholders. What is sometimes forgotten is that an indicator is simply a means to help communicate complex changes to a wider audience. Indicators describe and express conditions and represent some kind of simplification or approximation of a situation. The most crucial question when selecting indicators is clarity about the end-users and end-uses of the information. It is also paramount to minimize the number of indicators to keep the M&E process manageable. Resolving these questions requires considerable discipline, compromise and hard decisions. Decision makers at every level and scale will find very different kinds of indicators relevant to their decisions, therefore, getting consensus about objectives and indicators will usually require negotiation. For example, municipal level agricultural research in Brazil involves many different kinds of farmers, farmer experimentation groups, community associations, university researchers, government extension staff, local NGOs and even international funding agencies. Each operates at a different scale with more immediate and local or longer-term and broader objectives. If these objectives are clear, then the easier it is to develop indicators. A M&E system also has to be responsive to changing information needs as contexts change, to the changing skills of those involved, and indeed to changing levels of participation as new partners join and others leave. Indicators must be reviewed regularly to ensure that they are providing information that is relevant. However, any change to an indicator means reducing the possibility of producing time-series data. One approach is to limit indicator-based monitoring to longer-term, broader objectives that are less likely to change, but the less specific the objective, the more difficult it is to be clear about the cause–effect linkages that indicators represent. Distinguishing between more immediate and longer-term objectives is important when selecting indicators. Monitoring often focuses on the immediate, more tangible, and easily accessible information like ‘the number of farmers trained’. By comparison, evaluation will focus on assessing whether, for example, the training efforts are worthwhile and the effect of those trained farmers on their fields and households.
Determining the Sources of Data for Indicators
The choice of sources/ means of information for developing indicators would depend on:
• Data availability (dependable, regular and relevant) • Capability of personnel to carryout special surveys, analyse and construct indicators • Availability of Funds. Since data collection involves time and human resources, it is expensive. The choice of the source of information will depend on available funds Box
Indicators should clearly relate to the targets defined for the strategy’s actions, objectives and goals. Indicators need to be defined and analyzed as part of a logical framework of relationships between goals, objectives, actions and the intended outcomes and impacts. In some cases these relationships may only be hypothesized, in which case part of the work of the M&E system is to test hypothesized links. Stakeholders should be involved in defining indicators and should clearly see how the information provided by the indicator relates to their concerns and activities. It should be clear who is responsible for applying each indicator and how the resulting information will be utilized in the process—who needs it when. M&E needs to take into account that impacts may differ according to location and gender and socio-economic status of beneficiaries. The human and financial resources required for M&E need to be considered and factored into budgets and capacity-building needs. The results of M&E activities should be communicated regularly to stakeholders— to help mobilize support for the strategy and to increase accountability. Monitoring and evaluation needs a strong information system. Data from grassroots and various segments need to be collected on a regular basis. Such data need to be compiled, collected and analysed and converted into concise and precise pieces of information. Such a concise form of information/ data is call an Indicator which a re measured of change, progress and achievement. There are certain basic qualities for an indicator and there different types of indicators. Developing indicators is an expert job and should be done collectively through a participation process. Indicators serve like a barometer, road sign or gauges in the dash board of car for project management.
1.CSD (2001). Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies.
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/publications/indisd-mg2001 2.Davis-Case, Community Forestry. Participatory Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation. Rome:FAO. 1990. 3.Dennis J. Casley & Krishna Kumar, Project Monitoring and Evaluation in Agriculture, The World Bank. 1990. 4.Guijt, I.. Participatory Monitoring and Impact Assessment of Sustainable Agriculture Initiatives. 1998. 5.EC. Aid delivery methods. Vol.1: Project cycle management operational guidelines. European Commission. 2004. 6.Gulati, Ashok., and Gary Pursell, Trade Policies, Incentives and Resource Allocation in Indian Agriculture, MIMEO, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. 1996. 7.International Food Policy Research Institute, WTO, Agriculture and Developing Countries: A survey of Issues, TMD Discussion paper 81. Washington, D.C. 2002. 8.Parris, T. and Kates, R., Characterizing and Managing Sustainable Development. Annual Review of Environment and Resources vol. 28, pp. 559-86. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org, 2003
9.Monitoring & Evaluation Manual, National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP), Project
Implementation Unit (PIU), NAIP, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 2007.
10.World Bank,Monitoring & Evaluation – Some Tools, Methods and Approaches, 2004.
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