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Democracy is highly promoted and sought these days but its principles are hard to practice and protect. Once secured, however, it generates real life in human communities. Its sunrises provide energy to freedom and growth to civil society and culture, while its sunsets store energy to sustain deliberative citizenship and liberty and bridge past accomplishments to future aspirations. However, what do we mean by democracy? Are there perfect democratic societies around the world? Are democracy’s rays likely to shine on all landscapes? Is Muslim culture hospitable to deepening democracy’s impact? Do Muslims have a different understanding of democracy? If democracy is the preferred goal, how can democracy’s supporters move
democratization forward in Muslim countries? What we know is that no “one model fits all environments” exists. The journey of democracy is a “generational initiative” that must carefully consider internal and external dynamics. If Muslims, like others, wish to promote democracy, then they can detect their country’s place on the democratic terrain and determine how best to improve their practices and standing at home and abroad given their culture, historical experiences, resources, and vision for the future. This select bibliography is designed to help all those interested in understanding the link between Islam and Muslims on the one hand and democracy on the other. It consists of over 100 entries, divided among books, articles, presentations, and reports; government sources; and institutes and organizations.
Abou El Fadl, Khaled M., et al. Democracy and Islam in the New Constitution of Afghanistan. California: Rand Corporation, 2004. Afary, Janet. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution: Grassroots Democracy, Social Democracy, and the Origins of Feminism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Albright, Madeline and Vin Weber. In Support of Arab Democracy: Why and How: Report of an Independent Task Force. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2005. Al-Sulami, Misham. The West and Islam: Western Liberal Democracy Versus the System of Shura. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, Inc., 2003. Amin, Galal A. and David Wilmsen. Illusion of Progress in the Arab World. New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2006. Anderson, Lisa et al., eds. Islam, Democracy and the State in North Africa. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997. Ansari, Ali M. Iran, Islam, and Democracy: The Politics of Managing Change. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2001. Arat, Yesim. Rethinking Islam and Liberal Democracy: Islamist Women in Turkish Politics. New York: State University of New York Press, 2007. Azra, Azyumardi. Indonesia, Islam, and Democracy: Dynamics in a Global Context. Canada: Solstice Publishing, 2006. Bayat, Assef. Making Islam Democratic: Social Movements and the Post-Islamist Turn. California: Stanford University Press, 2007. Benard, Cheryl. Civil Democratic Islam: Partners, Resources, and Strategies. California: The Rand Corporation, 2004.
Bin Talal, El Hassan and Alain Elkann. To Be a Muslim: Islam, Peace, and Democracy. Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Sussex Academic Press, 2004. Bonner, Michael. Islam, Democracy, and the State in Algeria: Lessons for the Western Mediterranean and Beyond. Abingdon, Oxford, UK: Routledge, 2005. Browers, Michaelle. Democracy and Civil Society in Arab Political Thought: Transcultural Possibilities. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2006. Carothers, Thomas and Marina Ottaway. Uncharted Journey: Promoting Democracy in the Middle East. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005. Cesari, Jocelyne. When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Charfi, Mohamed, and Patrick Camiller. Islam and Liberty: The Historical Misunderstanding. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Cole, Juan. The Ayatollahs and Democracy in Contemporary Iraq. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2006. Cotran, Euegene. Democracy: The Rule of Law and Islam. New York: Springer, 1999. Craissati, Dina. New Social Movements and Democracy in Palestine: A Model for the Politics of Civil Society in the Arab World, Democracy and Development. Hamburg London: Lit Verlag, 2006. Diamond, Larry, Marc F. Plattner, and Daniel Brumberg. Eds. Islam and Democracy in the Middle East. Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. El Fadl, Khaled Abou, Deborah Chasman, and Joshua Cohen. Islam and the Challenge of Democracy. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2004.
Elhadj, Elie. The Islamic Shield: Arab Resistance to Democratic and Religious Reforms. New Jersey: Upublish.com, 2006. Esposito, John L. and John O. Voll. Islam and Democracy. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Feldman, Noah. After Jihad: America and the Struggle for Islamic Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2004. Gregorian, Vartan. Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003, especially Chapter 5. Hasan, Zoja. Democracy in Muslim Societies: The Asian Experience. California: SAGE Publications, 2007. Hefner, Robert W. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000. Hunter, Shireen T., Huma Malik, and Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. Modernization, Democracy, and Islam. Vermont: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2005. Ibrahim, Saad Eddin. Egypt, Islam, and Democracy: Critical Essays. New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2002. Inglehart, Ronald. Islam, Gender, Culture, and Democracy. Oregon: De Sitter Publications, 2003. Jamal, Amaney J. Barriers to Democracy: The Other Side of Social Capital in Palestine and the Arab World. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2007. Jazouli, Ahmed. Islam, Democracy, and Governance in the North African Countries: The Zero Stage of States. Nebraska: IUniverse, Inc., 2006.
Jung, Dietrich. Democratization and Development: New Political Strategies for the Middle East. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Kamrava, Mehran. The New Voices of Islam: Rethinking Politics and Modernity—A Reader. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007. Khan, M. A. Islamic Democratic Discourse: Theory, Debates, and Philosophical Perspectives. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006. Mernissi, Fatima. Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World. Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing, 1992. Moussalli, Ahmad. Islamic Quest for Democracy, Pluralism and Human Rights. Florida: University Press of Florida, 2003. Nasr, Vali and Ali Gheissari. Democracy in Iran: History and the Quest for Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Nasr, Vali. The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future. New York and London: W. H. Norton & Co., 2007. Quandt, William B., and Michael H. Armacost. Between Ballots and Bullets: Algeria’s Transition from Authoritarianism. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. Ramage, Douglas E. Politics in Indonesia: Democracy, Islam, and the Ideology of Tolerance. Abingdon, Oxford, UK: Routledge, 1995. Rash, J.E. Islam and Democracy: A Foundation for Ending Extremism and Preventing Conflict. Bedford, VA: Legacy International, 2006. Roy, Olivier, and George Holoch. Secularism Confronts Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.
Rubin, Barry. The Long War for Freedom: The Arab Struggle for Democracy in the Middle East. New Jersey: Wiley, John & Sons, Inc., 2005. Sachedina, Abdulaziz. The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Sachedina, Abdulaziz. The Role of Islam in the Public Square: Guidance or Governance? Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2006. Sadiki, Larbi. The Search for Arab Democracy: Discourses and Counter-Discourses. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. Salame, Ghassan. Democracy without Democrats? The Renewal of Politics in the Muslim World. London.: I. B. Tauris, 1994. Saroush, Abdolkarim, Mahmoud Sadri, and Ahmad Sadri. Reason, Freedom, and Democracy in Islam: Essential Writings of Abdolkarim Saroush. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Sisk, Timothy D. Islam and Democracy: Religion, Politics, and Power in the Middle East. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 1992. Tamimi, Azzam S. Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat within Islamism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Viorst, Milton. Storm from the East: The Struggle Between the Arab World and the Christian West. New York: Random House Publishing Group, 2007. Volpi, Frederic. Islam and Democracy: The Failure of Dialogue in Algeria. Sterling, VA: Pluto Press, 2003. Yavuz, M. Hakan. The Emergence of a New Turkey: Islam, Democracy, and the AK Parti. Utah.: University of Utah Press, 2006.
Articles, Presentations, Reports
Alief, Mohamad Ihsan. “Political Islam and Democracy: A Closer Look at the Liberal Muslims” in Piety and Pragmatism: Trends in Indonesian Islamic Politics. Asia Program Special Report #110 (April 2003), http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/asiarpt_110.pdf. Binder, Leonard. “Exceptionalism and Authenticity: The Question of Islam and Democracy.” Arab Studies Journal 6 (Spring 1998): 33-59. Bukay, David. “Can There Be an Islamic Democracy?” Middle East Quarterly XIV, 2 (Spring 2007): 71-79, http://www.meforum.org/article/1680. El-Affendi, Abdelwahab. “Do Muslims Deserve Democracy? What’s Stopping Democracy from Taking Root in Muslim Countries?” New Internationalist (May 2002),
http://newint.org/features/2002/05/01/do-muslims-deserve-democracy/. Esposito, John L. and James Piscatory. “Democratization and Islam.” Middle East Journal (Summer 1991): 427-441. Feldman, Noah. “Islam and Democracy: The Great Experiment.” The Economist (Feb. 1, 2004), http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2004/islam_and_democracy_the_great_ experiment. Ghadbian, Najib. “Democracy or Self-Interest? An Investigative Look into Islamic Democracy and US Policy.” Harvard International Review 25. 2 (Summer 2003),
hir.harvard.edu/articles/1128. Grant, Audra K. and Mark A. Tessler. “Palestinian attitudes toward democracy and its compatibility with Islam: evidence from public opinion research in the West Bank and Gaza.” Arab Studies Quarterly (Fall 2002),
Gulalp, Haldun. “Islam and Democracy: The Turkish Model.” Presentation at the Woodrow Wilson Center (Feb. 11, 2003),
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?event_id=18707&fuseaction=events.event_sum mary. Helicke, James C. “Muslims Warn Democracy Can’t Be Imposed.” Associated Press (Apr. 13, 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/0413-11.htm. Hirsch, Michael. “Bernard Lewis revisited: what if Islam isn’t an obstacle to democracy in the Middle East, but the secret to achieving it?” Washington Monthly (Nov. 2004), http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2004/0411.hirsh.html. Horowitz, Irving Louis. “The Struggle for Democracy.” The National Interest (Spring 2006), http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2751/is_83/ai_n16133367. Jillani, Tassaduq Hussain. “Democracy and Islam: An Odyssey in Braving the Twenty-First Century.” Brigham Young University Law Review (2006),
http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/4090066-1.html. Kibble, David G. “The Attacks of 9/11: Evidence of a Clash of Religions?” Parameters US Army War College Quarterly (Fall 2002), http://carlisle-
www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/02autumn/kibble.pdf. “The Lesson from Turkey.” The Economist (July 26, 2007),
http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9549614. Lewis, Bernard. “Islam and Liberal Democracy.” Atlantic Monthly (Feb. 1995): 89-98. Lewis, Bernard. “Islam and Democracy: A Historical Overview.” Journal of Democracy 7, 2 (Apr. 1996): 53-63. Lewis, Bernard. “Why Turkey is the only Muslim Democracy.” Middle East Quarterly I.1 (Mar.
1994), http://www.meforum.org/article/216. Liddle, William R. “New Patterns of Islamic Politics in Democratic Indonesia” in Piety and Pragmatism: Trends in Indonesian Islamic Politics. Asia Program Special Report #110 (Apr. 2003), http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/asiarpt_110.pdf. Mansur, Salim. “Muslims, Democracy, and the American Experience.” Middle East Quarterly XII.3 (Summer 2005), http://www.meforum.org/article/734. Nasr, Vali. “The Rise of Muslim Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 16, 2 (Apr. 2005): 13-28. Nasr, Vali and Ali Gheissari. “The Democracy Debate in Iran.” Middle East Policy 11, 2 (Summer 2004): 94-106. Nurwahid, Hidayat and Zulkieflimansyah, “The Justice Party and Democracy: A Journey of a Thousand Miles Starts with a Single Step” in Piety and Pragmatism: Trends in Indonesian Islamic Politics. Asia Program Special Report #110 (April 2003), http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/pubs/asiarpt_110.pdf. Pryor, Frederic L. “Are Muslim Countries Less Democratic.” Middle East Quarterly XIV, 4 (Fall 2007): 53-58. Quoc-Benjamin, Nguyen Tang Le Huy. “Women, Democracy, and Islam: a Nobel Laureate’s Views on Human Rights.” United Nations Chronicle (Dec. 2004),
http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2004/webArticles/072904_women.asp. Sarsar, Saliba. “Can Democracy Prevail?” Middle East Quarterly VII, 1 (Mar. 2000), http://www.meforum.org/article/40. Sarsar, Saliba. “Democracy in the Middle East: Quantifying Arab Democracy. Middle East Quarterly XIII, 3 (Summer 2006): 21-28.
Sheives, Kevin. “Islamism as the Fruits of Poor Middle Eastern Governance.” Islam and Democracy Project, Waco, TX: J.M. Dawson Institute of Church State Studies, 2003. Sims, Calvin. “Indonesia: Gambling that Tolerance Will Trump Fear.” The New York Times (Apr. 15, 2007),
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/15/weekinreview/15sims.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Tahiri, Amir. “Islam and Democracy: The Impossible Union.” The Sunday Times (May 23, 2004), http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/4585. Tapie, Matthew A. “The Revenge of God and the Third Wave of Democratization.” Islam and Democracy Project, Waco, TX: J.M. Dawson Institute of Church State Studies, 2003. Vatikiotis, Michael. “In Indonesia, Islam loves democracy.” Herald Tribune International ed. (Feb. 7, 2006), http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/02/06/opinion/edvatik.php. Voll, John O. “Islam and Democracy: Is Modernization a Barrier?” Religion Compass 1.1 (Jan. 2007), http://www.blackwell-
compass.com/subject/religion/article_view?article_id=reco_articles_bpl017. Voll, John O. and John L. Esposito. “Islam’s Democratic Essence.” Middle East Quarterly I, 3 (Sept. 1994), http://www.meforum.org/article/151. Wright, Robin B. “Islam and Liberal Democracy: Two Visions of Reformation.” Journal of Democracy (Apr. 1996): 64-75. Yacoubian, Mona. “Democracy and Islamist Parties: The Arab Experience. Washington, D.C.: The Aspen Institute (June 2006), http://www.aspeninstitute.org/atf/cf/%7BDEB6F227659B-4EC8-8F84-8DF23CA704F5%7D/cpYacoubian.pdf.
Yacoubian, Mona. “Engaging Islamists and Promoting Democracy.” Special Report 190. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, August 2007,
Hyde, Henry J., et al. “Is There a Clash of Civilizations? Islam, Democracy, and U.S.-Middle East and Central Asia Policy.” Subcommittee on the Middle East and Central Asia of the Committee on International Relations. United States House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. (Sept. 14, 2006),
http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/intlrel/hfa29882.000/hfa29882_0.HTM. Kronemer, Alexander, et al. “Islam and Democracy: Possibilities, Challenges, and Risks of Bringing Democracy to Islamic Nations, Government, and People.” Secretary’s Open Forum. Washington, D.C. (July 16, 2003), http://www.state.gov/s/p/of/proc/22190.htm. Lugar, Richard, et al. “Islam and the West: Searching for Common Ground.” United States Senate Council on Foreign Relations. 419 Dirksen Senate Office Building. (July 18, 2006), http://www.senate.gov/~foreign/hearings/2006/hrg060718a.html. Pollard, Robert A. “A Clash of Perceptions: The U.S. and the Islamic World.” Seminar Room, Fakulti Ekologi Manusia, UPM. (July 22, 2004),
http://malaysia.usembassy.gov/dcmsp0722.html. Rice, Condoleezza and Jack Straw. “No Conflict Between Islam and Democracy, Rice Says.” Blackburn, England. (Apr. 1, 2006),
Institutes and Organizations
The Carnegie Council focuses on the broad themes of ethics, war and peace; global social justice; and religion in politics. The program titled, “The Resurgence of Religion on Politics,” is the most relevant. See the section on Islam at
http://www.cceia.org/search_out?argtypes=sa_Keywords&sa_Keywords=Islam. Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy, http://www.csidonline.org/, is a non-profit organization, based in Washington, D.C., dedicated to studying Islamic and democratic political thought and merging them into a modern Islamic democratic discourse. The Dialogue Project, http://dialogueproject.sais-jhu.edu/aboutDP.php, is a multi-year initiative designed to promote—in a primarily cultural context—the development of democracy and human rights in the Muslim world. European Institute for Asian Studies, http://www.eias.org/, is a Brussels-based policy and research think-tank supported by the European Union (EU), which aims to promote understanding and cooperation between the EU and Asia. Several of its studies address Islam and democracy. Hudson Institute is a non-partisan organization dedicated to innovative research and analysis that promote global security, prosperity, and freedom. Its focus on Islam is at http://www.hudson.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=research_publications_list&resType=Islam J.M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies, located at Baylor University, is devoted to research in the broad field of church and state and the advancement of religious liberty around the world. See the Islam and Democracy Project at
Minaret of Freedom Institute has a dual mission for educating both Muslims and non-Muslims. See especially the articles and publications on freedom, democracy, and civil society at http://www.minaret.org/articles.htm#freedom. United States Institute of Peace plays an active part in preventing, managing, and resolving threats to international peace. See its Muslim World Initiative at
http://www.usip.org/muslimworld/index.html. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/, a nonpartisan institute, acts as a neutral forum for open, serious, and informed dialogue. It brings preeminent thinkers to Washington for extended periods of time to interact with policymakers through a large number of programs and projects. Check its site for presentations on Islam and democracy.
*Saliba Sarsar, Ph.D. is professor of political science and associate vice president for academic program initiatives at Monmouth University. Alexander Keller is a student in
Monmouth University’s Honors School, majoring in political science. For any modifications (corrections and additions) to this bibliography, please contact Dr. Saliba Sarsar at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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