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ICS 91.080.10; 93.010

SANS 2001-CS1:2005

ISBN 0-626-16714-0

Edition 1

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Construction works
Part CS1: Structural steelwork

Published by Standards South Africa


1 dr lategan road groenkloof private bag x191pretoria 0001
tel: 012 428 7911 fax: 012 344 1568 international code + 27 12
www.stansa.co.za
Standards South Africa

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table of changes
Change No.

Date

Scope

Abstract
Establishes construction requirements for structural steelwork for buildings and other structures,
excluding bridges, offshore structures, mobile equipment (stackers, reclaimers, draglines, cranes,
etc.), mine shaft steelwork (buntons and guides) and mining conveyances. Also establishes
requirements for materials, drawings, workmanship (general, welding and erection), inspections
during manufacture, testing of welders, non-destructive tests of welds and permissible deviations.

Keywords
erection, fabrication, materials, permissible deviations, structural steelwork, welding, workmanship.

Acknowledgement
Standards South Africa wishes to acknowledge the input of the Southern African Institute of Steel
Construction, and the Joint Structural Division of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering
and the Institution of Structural Engineers in the development of this part of SANS 2001.

Foreword
This South African standard was approved by National Committee StanSA TC 5120.61,
Construction standards, in accordance with procedures of Standards South Africa, in compliance
with annex 3 of the WTO/TBT agreement.
SANS 2001 consists of a number of parts in various stages of preparation, under the general title
Construction works.
Annex A forms an integral part of this part of SANS 2001. Annex B is for information only.

Introduction
The different parts of SANS 2001 each address a specific component of construction works. The
prime purpose in the production of these standards is to create a set of standards that are generally
applicable to construction works, and which can be readily modified to make them applicable to
particular works.
The SANS 2001 family of standards provides technical descriptions of the standard of materials and
workmanship that will be used in the works that are executed or in the performance of the works
when completed (or both). These standards do not make reference to the actions of those
responsible for executing the works or the parties to a contract, i.e. to the constraints relating to the
manner in which contract work is to be performed. Neither do they deal with the commercial
arrangements of such contracts. These standards are suitable for use in any "in-house"
construction work or in all types of engineering and construction works contracts, for example,
design by employer, design and build, develop and construct, construction management or
management contracts.
Standard requirements pertaining to the manner in which works are constructed can be found in the
SANS 1921 family of standards.

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Contents
Page
Abstract
Keywords
Acknowledgement
Foreword
Introduction
1 Scope .....................................................................................................................................

2 Normative references .............................................................................................................

3 Definitions and abbreviation ...................................................................................................

4 Requirements .........................................................................................................................

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

Materials ........................................................................................................................
Drawings .......................................................................................................................
Workmanship General ................................................................................................
Workmanship Welding ...............................................................................................
Workmanship Bolting .................................................................................................
Workmanship Erection ...............................................................................................

6
9
12
15
16
19

5 Compliance with the requirements ......................................................................................... 21


Annex A (normative) Preparation of specification data associated with this part
of SANS 2001 for inclusion in the scope of work ................................. 35
Annex B (informative) Items which might need to be considered when preparing
the scope of work for a project ............................................................. 38
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 38

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Construction works
Part CS1:
Structural steelwork

1 Scope
This part of SANS 2001 covers structural steelwork for buildings and other structures, excluding
bridges, offshore structures, mobile equipment (stackers, reclaimers, draglines, cranes, etc.), mine
shaft steelwork (buntons and guides) and mining conveyances.
This part of SANS 2001 does not cover roof and side cladding, or the detailed aspects of sundry
items such as handrails, ladders, steel flooring and the like, neither does it cover protection of
steelwork against corrosion or fire.
NOTE This part of SANS 2001 may, with additional clauses and suitable variations made in the specification
data (see annex A), be applied to structural steelwork falling outside the scope of this part of SANS 2001.

2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute
provisions of this part of SANS 2001. All standards are subject to revision and, since any reference
to a standard is deemed to be a reference to the latest edition of that standard, parties to
agreements based on this part of SANS 2001 are encouraged to take steps to ensure the use of the
most recent editions of the standards indicated below. Information on currently valid national and
international standards can be obtained from Standards South Africa.
ANSI/AWS A5.1/A5.1M, Specification for carbon steel covered arc-welding electrodes.
ANSI/AWS A5.17/A5.17M, Specification for carbon steel electrodes and fluxes for submerged arc
welding.
ANSI/AWS A5.18/A5.18M, Specification for carbon steel electrodes and rods for gas shielded arc
welding.
ANSI/AWS A5.20, Specification for carbon steel electrodes for flux cored arc welding.
ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M, Structural welding code Steel.
ASTM A 6/A 6Mb, Standard specification for general requirements for rolled structural steel bars,
plates, shapes, and sheet piling.
BS 4-1, Structural steel sections Part 1: Specification for hot-rolled sections.

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DIN 1026-1, Hot rolled steel channels Part 1: Taper flange steel channels; dimensions, masses
and sectional properties.
EN 10024, Hot rolled taper flange I sections Tolerances on shape and dimensions.
EN 10025-2, Hot rolled products of structural steels Part 2:Technical delivery conditions for nonalloy structural steels.
EN 10034, Structural steel I and H sections Tolerances on shape and dimensions.
EN 10056-2, Structural steel equal and unequal leg angles Part 2: Tolerances on shape and
dimensions.
EN 10210-1, Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels
Part 1: Technical delivery requirements.
EN 10210-2, Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels
Part 2: Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties.
ISO 8501-1, Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products
Visual assessment of surface cleanliness Part 1: Rust grades and preparation grades of uncoated
steel substrates and of steel substrates after overall removal of previous coatings.
SANS 657-1, Steel tubes for non-pressure purposes Part 1: Sections for scaffolding, general
engineering and structural applications.
SANS 1282 (SABS 1282), High-strength bolts, nuts and washers for friction-grip joints.
SANS 1431, Weldable structural steels.
SANS 1700-4-1/ISO 4759-1, Fasteners Part 4: Tolerances Section 1: Tolerances for fasteners
Bolts, screws, studs and nuts Product grades A, B and C.
SANS 1700-5-1/ISO 898-1, Fasteners Part 5: General requirements and mechanical properties
Section 1: Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel Bolts, screws
and studs.
SANS 1700-5-2/ISO 898-2, Fasteners Part 5: General requirements and mechanical properties
Section 2: Nuts with specified proof load values Coarse thread.
SANS 1700-7-1/ISO 4014, Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 1: Hexagon head bolts Product grades A and B.
SANS 1700-7-3/ISO 4016, Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 3: Hexagon head bolts Product grade C.
SANS 1700-7-4/ISO 4017, Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 4: Hexagon head screws Product grades A and B.
SANS 1700-7-5/ISO 4018, Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws
Section 5: Hexagon head screws Product grade C.
SANS 1700-14-2/ISO 4033, Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 2: Hexagon nuts,
style 2 Product grades A and B.

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SANS 1700-14-3/ISO 4034, Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 3: Hexagon nuts
Product grade C.
SANS 1700-14-9/ISO 7413, Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 9: Hexagon nuts for
structural bolting, style 1, hot-dip galvanized (oversize tapped) Product grades A and B Property
classes 5, 6 and 8.
SANS 1700-14-11/ISO 7417, Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 11: Hexagon nuts for
structural bolting Style 2, hot-dip galvanized (oversize tapped) Product grade A Property
class 9.
SANS 1700-16-2/ISO 7089, Fasteners Part 16: Washers Section 2: Plain washers Normal
series Product grade A.
SANS 1700-16-3/ISO 7090, Fasteners Part 16: Washers Section 3: Plain washers, chamfered
Normal series Product grade A.
SANS 1700-16-8/ISO 7415, Fasteners Part 16: Washers Section 8: Plain washers for highstrength structural bolting, hardened and tempered.
SANS 10094 (SABS 094), The use of high-strength friction-grip bolts.
SANS 10143 (SABS 0143), Building drawing practice.
SANS 10162-1 (SABS 0162-1), The structural use of steel Part 1: Limit-states design of hot-rolled
steelwork.
SANS 10162-2 (SABS 0162-2), The structural use of steel Part 2: Limit-states design of coldformed steelwork.
SANS 10403, Formatting and compilation of construction procurement documents.
SANS 14713/ISO 14713 (SABS ISO 14713), Protection against corrosion of iron and steel in
structures Zinc and aluminium coatings Guidelines.

3 Definitions and abbreviation


For the purposes of this part of SANS 2001, the following definitions and abbreviation apply:

3.1 Definitions
3.1.1
connection
bolt, weld, cleat, plate and fitting required to provide an adequate load path between a member and
the component to which it connects
3.1.2
design drawing
fully dimensioned drawing or its electronic equivalent which details the size, material grades and
special connections of all the members
3.1.3
deviation
difference between the actual (i.e. measured) dimension or position and the specified dimension or
position

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3.1.4
erection mark drawing
drawing or its electronic equivalent that shows erection marks, orientation and, where applicable,
the erection method and sequence and details of any temporary steelwork
3.1.5
fabrication drawing
drawing or its electronic equivalent that shows all the necessary information and detail required to
fabricate the structural steelwork
3.1.6
fitting
plate, flat or rolled section that forms a cleat, gusset or similar part to facilitate the connection or
stiffening of structural steel components
3.1.7
holding-down bolt/interface drawing
drawing that indicates the location of holding-down bolts or details of connections or the interface
between the steelwork (or any combination of these) and elements or structures made of other
materials
3.1.8
ordinary bolt
bolt used in a non-preloaded bolt assembly
3.1.9
permissible deviation
specified limit(s) of deviation within which a dimension or position lies
3.1.10
production test plate
plate used for testing purposes, and which is made of the same material and using the same
procedures as the joint in a component
3.1.11
specification data
data, provisions and variations that make this part of SANS 2001 applicable to a particular contract
or works (see annex A)

3.2 Abbreviation
HSFG high-strength friction grip

4 Requirements
4.1 Materials
4.1.1 Structural steel
Steel used in the fabrication of structural steelwork shall comply with the requirements of
SANS 1431 or EN 10025-2 unless otherwise specified in the specification data (see annex A) or in
the design drawings.
The dimensions and permissible deviations of all steel profiles shall comply with the requirements of
the standards listed in table 1.

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Table 1 Standards governing dimensional and permissible deviations
1

Profile

Applicable standard

Angles

EN 10056-2

Hollow sections cold-formed

SANS 657-1

Hollow sections hot-formed

EN 10210-2

I, IPE and H sections


Imperial channels
Metric channels
Plates, flats and bars
Taper flange I-sections

EN 10034
BS 4-1
DIN 1026-1
ASTM A 6/A 6Mb
EN 10024

4.1.2 Test certificates


The chemical composition and mechanical properties of all steel incorporated into structures shall
be stated in a mill test certificate.

4.1.3 Surface condition


Steel surfaces shall not be more heavily pitted or rusted than rust grade C of ISO 8501-1.
Surface defects in hot-rolled sections, plates and wide flats revealed during surface preparation,
and which are not in accordance with the requirements of SANS 1431, shall be rectified to comply
with such requirements.
Surface defects in hot-rolled hollow sections revealed during surface preparation and which are not
in accordance with the requirements of EN 10210-1, shall be rectified to comply with such
requirements.

4.1.4 Welding consumables


4.1.4.1 Standards
Consumables for use in metal arc welding shall comply with the appropriate standards listed in
table 2.
4.1.4.2 Storage
Consumables shall be stored in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. Any drying
or baking of consumables before use shall be carried out in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations.

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Table 2 Approved parent metal-filler weld metal combinations for
steels acceptable for prequalified welding procedure standards
1

Parent metal
Minimum
yield
strength

Minimum
ultimate
tensile
strength

MPa

MPa

300

5
Filler weld metal

Process

Electrode

SMAW
(Shielded metal arc welding)

AWS A5.1

SAW
(Submerged arc welding)

AWS A5.17
F7XX EXXX

GMAW
(Gas metal arc welding)

AWS A5.18

FCAW
(Flux-cored arc welding)

AWS A5.20
E7XT X

450

E70XX

ER70S X

AWS A5.1
SMAW
(Shielded metal arc welding) E7015, E7016
E7018, E7028
350
or
355

480

Minimum
yield
strength

Minimum
ultimate
tensile
strength

MPa

MPa

365

480

400

480/650

400

480

400

480

400

480

SAW
(Submerged arc welding)

AWS A5.17
F7XX EXXX

400

480

GMAW
(Gas metal arc welding)

AWS A5.18
ER70S X

400

480

AWS A5.20
E7XT X

400

480

FCAW
(Flux-cored arc welding)

(except 2, 3, 10, 13, 14, GS)

4.1.5 Structural fasteners


4.1.5.1 Ordinary bolt assemblies
The mechanical properties of bolts, screws and nuts shall be in accordance with the following
standards, as stated in the specification data or indicated in the design drawings:
a) Class 4.8, 8.8 and 10.9 bolts and screws: SANS 1700-5-1
b) Class 4 to 11 nuts: SANS 1700-5-2
Bolts, screws and nuts shall comply with the following standards:
a) bolts: SANS 1700-7-1 or SANS 1700-7-3
b) screws: SANS 1700-7-4 or SANS 1700-7-5
c) nuts: SANS 1700-14-2 or SANS 1700-14-3
d) hot-dip galvanized bolts: SANS 1700-14-9 or SANS 1700-14-11

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NOTE 1 See 4.5.1.1 for bolt/nut combinations.
NOTE 2 The term "class" is used here to indicate the mechanical properties of the material of which a
fastener is made. This is equivalent to the term "property class" which is used by ISO and in SANS 1700, or
the term grade which has customarily been used in the steel construction industry.

4.1.5.2 High-strength friction-grip (HSFG) bolt assemblies


HSFG bolt assemblies shall be in accordance with the provisions of SANS 1282. Through-hardened
washers shall be in accordance with the provisions of SANS 1700-16-8.
4.1.5.3 Holding-down (HD) bolts
Holding-down bolts shall be fabricated from round bar that complies with the requirements of
SANS 1431 grade 300WA.
4.1.5.4 Washers
Plain material washers shall be in accordance with the provisions of SANS 1700-16-2. Throughhardened washers shall be in accordance with the provisions of SANS 1700-16-3.
4.1.5.5 Shear studs
Studs used in composite construction shall be the headed type with the following properties after
being formed:
a) Minimum yield strength (0,2 % offset): 345 MPa.
b) Minimum ultimate tensile strength: 415 MPa.
c) Elongation of 20 % on a gauge length of 5,65

A , where A is the area of the test specimen.

4.1.6 Substitution of steel quality and shape


The steel quality or shape of components may be substituted if it can be demonstrated that all the
relevant performance criteria of the original design will be satisfied.

4.2 Drawings
4.2.1 General
4.2.1.1 Standards
All drawings shall be prepared in accordance with recognized industry standards.
NOTE The Southern African Institute of Steel Construction publication, Southern African structural steelwork
detailing manual, establishes industry standards for drawings.

4.2.1.2 Revisions
Revised drawings shall have a term added to the drawing number and a description in the notes
stating the changes that have been made and the date they were made. Furthermore, whenever
possible, the most recent revisions to design drawings should be individually highlighted where they
occur in the drawing.

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4.2.1.3 Format of drawings
Drawings that will be filed by microfilming for record purposes shall be prepared in accordance with
SANS 10143 and as specified in the specification data.

4.2.2 Design drawings


Design drawings shall include a general arrangement of the proposed structure with plans, cross
sections, elevations and dimensions, indicating all the structural members with their respective
sizes, material grades and special connections, and shall be sufficiently comprehensive to allow the
detailing of all connections. Dimension figures in the drawings shall be deemed to be correct, even
if the drawings are not to scale. No dimension shall be obtained from a drawing by scaling or
determining the distance between lines or points by electronic means. Where necessary, the
architectural or other relevant drawings shall also be provided. If applicable, the combinations of
forces to be resisted by connections and any cambers, eccentricities and other information required
for the design of connections shall be provided.

4.2.3 Holding-down bolt/interface drawings


Holding-down bolt/interface drawings shall show the base location, level, orientation and details of
members in contact with concrete or other supporting material, the supporting material as such, and
any interface devices such as HD bolts, cast-in items or pockets.

4.2.4 Fabrication drawings


4.2.4.1 General
Fabrication drawings shall show all necessary details, dimensions, and all welding and welding
inspection requirements to enable fabrication of components.
4.2.4.2 Attachments to facilitate erection
The fabrication drawings shall show details of holes and fittings necessary for lifting and erecting
components; such holes and fittings may remain part of the permanent structure, unless otherwise
specified in the specification data. The detailing of welding of temporary attachments shall comply
with the requirements in 4.4.4.5.
4.2.4.3 Packing, clearances and camber
When preparing fabrication drawings, provision shall be made for
a) packings which might be necessary to ensure proper fit-up of joints (see 4.5.2.1 and 4.5.4.1);
b) the need for clearances between the fabricated components so that the permissible deviations in
fabrication and erection are not exceeded (see 5.4); and
c) the requirements for cambers.
4.2.4.4 Hole sizes
Holes shown in the fabrication drawings shall be as follows:
a) For ordinary bolts and HSFG bolts
not exceeding 24 mm diameter:
greater than 24 mm diameter:

10

2 mm greater than the bolt diameter.


3 mm greater than the bolt diameter.

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b) For HD bolts
less than 24 mm diameter:
from 24 mm to 36 mm diameter:
greater than 36 mm diameter:

6 mm greater than the bolt diameter.


10 mm greater than the bolt diameter.
as specified in the specification data or shown in the design
drawings.

c) For fitted bolts: in accordance with 4.5.1.8.


4.2.4.5 Hole spacing
The spacing between holes for fasteners and the distance between holes and edges shall comply
with the relevant requirements of SANS 10162-1 and SANS 10162-2.
4.2.4.6 Holding-down bolts
HD bolt details shall include washers with holes not more than 3 mm greater than the HD bolt
diameter; and the size and thickness of a washer shall be appropriate to the bolt diameter and size
of the hole.
4.2.4.7 Connections to allow movement
Where the specification data requires the connection to be designed to allow for movement, the bolt
assembly used shall be detailed to remain secure without impeding the movement.
4.2.4.8 Machining
Any machining requirements shall be clearly indicated in the fabrication drawings or described in
the specification data.
4.2.4.9 Location of drilled holes
The fabrication drawings shall indicate clearly those locations where holes shall only be made by
drilling.
NOTE 1 Common situations where drilling is mandatory are
a) with non-slip connections for HSFG bolts,
b) at locations where plastic hinges are assumed in the design,
c) holes in regions susceptible to fatigue design constraints, and
d) where the design code does not permit punched holes.
NOTE 2 For guidance on punched holes see 4.3.6.3.

4.2.4.10 Faying surfaces with HSFG connections


The surface finish assumed in the design of the friction grip connections together with the method or
procedure to achieve such a surface shall be stated in the fabrication drawings.

4.2.5 Erection drawings


4.2.5.1 Temporary steelwork
Details and arrangements of temporary steelwork necessary for erection purposes shall be shown
in the erection drawings.

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4.2.5.2 Marking system (erection marks)
Every assembly or part which is to be erected shall be allocated an erection mark. Members which
are identical in all respects may have the same erection mark.
4.2.5.3 Erection mark drawings
Erection mark drawings shall show plans and elevations at a scale such that the erection marks for
all members can be shown.
The drawings shall show the grid locations (as indicated in the design drawings), main dimensions,
member levels and centre lines. Details at an enlarged scale should also be made if these are
necessary to show the assembly of members.

4.2.6 "As erected" drawings


The "as erected" drawings shall consist of one set of paper prints of all drawings which have been
marked up after completion and acceptance of the steelwork, to reflect changes that have occurred.
Such "as erected" drawings shall include
a) general arrangement drawings or erection mark drawings,
b) fabrication drawings,
c) drawings made after fabrication to show revisions, and
d) the fabrication drawing register.

4.3 Workmanship General


4.3.1 Identification
4.3.1.1 Material grade identification
The material grades of all steel shall be positively identifiable, excluding grade 300WA. Where required
in the specification data, all steel elements shall be marked so as to be traceable to a specific cast or
heat of steel.
4.3.1.2 Marking of steelwork
Individual pieces shall be identifiable at all stages of fabrication.
Completed components shall be marked with a durable and distinguishing erection mark in such a
way as not to damage the material. Hard-stamping may be used, except where otherwise stated in
the specification data.
Elements to be hot-dip galvanized shall be marked by hard-stamping or welded lettering.
Water-based paint or an appropriate marking pen shall be used for any temporary marks on steel
before galvanizing.

4.3.2 Handling
Steelwork shall be bundled, packed, handled and transported in a safe manner so that permanent
distortion does not occur and surface damage is minimized.

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4.3.3 Cutting and shaping
4.3.3.1 Cutting operations
Cutting and shaping of steel may be carried out by shearing, cropping, sawing, nibbling, laser
cutting, plasma cutting, water-jet cutting or machine-flame cutting. Where machine-flame cutting is
impractical, hand-flame cutting may be used.
4.3.3.2 Flame-cut edges
Flame-cut edges shall be dressed to remove irregularities and to achieve a smooth and straight
surface, unless such edges are free from significant irregularities. Before galvanizing, 1,5 mm shall
be ground from flame-cut edges to remove any signs of flame cutting.
4.3.3.3 Columns
4.3.3.3.1 Columns with ends not in direct bearing or intended to be erected on packs or shims,
shall be fabricated to the accuracy given in item 2 in table 3.
4.3.3.3.2 Columns which are intended to be in direct bearing shall be fabricated to the accuracy
given in item 3 in table 3.
4.3.3.3.3 Column sections which are intended to be in direct bearing shall be prepared at the
butting ends so that the permissible erection deviations can be complied with.

4.3.4 Machining
The thickness of elements that require machining shown in the drawings shall indicate the minimum
thickness after the machining operations.

4.3.5 Dressing
Cut edges shall be dressed to remove dross, burrs and irregularities. Holes shall be dressed as
required to remove burrs and protruding edges. Sharp edges shall be dressed.

4.3.6 Holing
4.3.6.1 Matching
All matching holes for fasteners or pins shall align with each other so that the fasteners can be inserted
without undue force through the assembled members in a direction at right angles to the faces in
contact. Drifts may be used but holes shall not be distorted.
4.3.6.2 Drilling through more than one thickness
Drilling shall be permitted through more than one thickness where the separate parts are tightly
clamped together before drilling.
4.3.6.3 Full size punching of holes
Full size punching of holes shall be permitted when
a) the permissible deviation on the distortion of the punched hole does not exceed that described in
item 3 in table 4,
b) the holes are free from burrs which would prevent solid seating of the parts when tightened,

13

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c) the thickness of the material is not greater than the hole diameter plus 3 mm; nor greater than
12 mm,
d) the component will not be subjected to fatigue, and
e) the holes in mating surfaces of spliced connections are punched in the same direction.
4.3.6.4 Punching and reaming
Punching is permitted without the conditions in 4.3.6.3, provided that the holes are punched at least
2 mm less in diameter than the required size and the hole is subsequently reamed to the full
diameter.
4.3.6.5 Slotted holes
Slotted holes shall be made by one of the following methods:
a) punched in one operation; or
b) formed by drilling two holes and completed by cutting; or
c) machine-operated cutting.

4.3.7 Assembly
All components shall be assembled within the permissible deviations specified in 5.4.3 and in such
a manner that they are not bent, twisted or otherwise damaged.
Drifting of holes to align the components shall be permitted, but shall not cause damage or
distortion to the final assembly.

4.3.8 Curving and straightening


Curving or straightening of components during fabrication shall be performed by one of the following
methods:
a) mechanical means, taking care to minimize indentations or change of cross section; or
b) the local application of heat, ensuring that the temperature is carefully controlled and does not
exceed 650 C; or
c) the induction-bending process where the procedure used includes careful temperature control.
After curving or straightening, welds within the area of curving or straightening shall be visually
inspected. Welds which are to be subjected to non-destructive examination shall have these tests
carried out after curving or straightening.

4.3.9 Storage
4.3.9.1 Stacking
Fabricated components which are stored before being transported or erected shall be stacked clear
of the ground and arranged, if possible, so that water cannot accumulate. They shall be kept clean
and supported in such a manner as to avoid permanent distortion.

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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4.3.9.2 Visible markings
Individual components shall be stacked and marked in such a way as to ensure that they can be
identified.

4.4 Workmanship Welding


4.4.1 General
Welding activities shall be undertaken by appropriately qualified welders only (see 5.2).

4.4.2 Welding processes


Welding shall be a metal-arc process in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M, read in
conjunction with this part of SANS 2001.
Welding consumables shall be chosen to ensure that the mechanical properties of the weld metal
are not less than those required for the parent metal. Approved parent metal and filler weld metal
combinations are listed in table 2. For parent metals and filler weld metals which are not listed in
table 2, ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M shall be utilized.
Joints shall be prepared in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M. Precautions shall be taken to
ensure cleanliness of the connection before welding, and to ensure the required preheat
temperatures.

4.4.3 Welding procedures


All welding procedures shall be prepared in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M.
The zinc coating on galvanized components shall be removed before welding in accordance with
the welding recommendations related to coatings and the provisions of SANS 14713.
A written welding procedure specification (WPS) shall be prepared for each different welding
procedure to be used in fabrication. This shall include the prequalified procedures, which are
exempt from tests. For the purpose of WPS prequalification, the parent metal-filler weld metal
combination given in table 2 shall be taken to form part of table 3.1 in ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002.
Welders, welding operators, tack welders and inspection personnel shall have access to the written
prequalified WPS.

4.4.4 Assembly techniques


4.4.4.1 Fit-up
Joints shall be fitted up to the dimensional accuracy required by the welding procedure, depending
on the process to be used.
4.4.4.2 Jigs
Fabrications assembled in jigs may be completely welded in the jig, or may be removed from the jig
after tack welding.
4.4.4.3 Tack welds
Tack welds to be incorporated into main welds shall be made using the same procedures as for the
root runs of main welds. The length of the tack shall be the lesser of four times the thickness of the
thicker part or 50 mm, unless otherwise demonstrated by a weld procedure qualification.

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Tack welds which are not defective may be incorporated into main welds provided that the welder is
qualified in accordance with 5.2. However, where joints are welded using an automatic or
mechanized process, the suitability of the tack weld used for incorporation into automatic processes
shall be demonstrated in the weld procedure qualification.
Where, in terms of the specification data or the design drawings, tack welds are not to be
incorporated into final welds, they shall be removed. For statically loaded structures, they need not
be removed.
4.4.4.4 Distortion control
The sequence of welding a joint or a sequence of joints shall be such that distortion is minimized
(see 5.4.1).
4.4.4.5 Fabrication or erection attachments
Welding of temporary attachments required for fabrication or erection purposes shall be made in
accordance with the requirements for a permanent weld.
When removal is necessary (as specified in the specification data), attachments shall be flame cut
or gouged at a point not less than 3 mm from the surface of the parent material. The residual
material shall be ground flush and the affected area visually inspected. When thicknesses are
greater than 20 mm, attachments shall also be checked by magnetic particle inspection.
Attachments shall not be removed by hammering.
4.4.4.6 Extension pieces (run on/run off pieces)
Where the profile of a weld is maintained to the free end of a run by the use of extension pieces,
they shall be of a material of a similar composition, but not necessarily the same grade, as the
component. They shall be arranged so as to provide continuity of preparation and shall be removed
after completion of the weld, and the surface shall be ground smooth.
4.4.4.7 Production test plates
Where production test plates are required for testing purposes, they shall be clamped in line with
the joint. The grade of material and rolling direction shall match the parent plate, but need not be cut
from the same plates or cast.

4.4.5 Shear stud welding


Welding of shear studs
ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M.

and

the

acceptance

criteria

shall

be

in

accordance

with

4.4.6 Weld repairs


Defective welds shall be replaced or repaired in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M. Repaired
or replaced welds shall be re-tested.

4.5 Workmanship Bolting


4.5.1 Ordinary bolted assemblies
4.5.1.1 Bolt/nut combinations
The combinations of bolts and nuts shall be not less than the following:
a) class 4.8 bolts or screws with class 4 nuts in accordance with SANS 1700-5-2; or

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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b) class 8.8 bolts with class 8 nuts in accordance with SANS 1700-5-2.
Any bolt assembly which seizes when being tightened shall be replaced.
4.5.1.2 Multiple bolt classes and diameters
Different bolt classes of the same diameter shall not be used in the same structure.
4.5.1.3 Bolt length
The bolt length shall be chosen such that, after tightening, at least one thread plus the thread runout will be clear between the nut and the unthreaded shank of the bolt and at least one clear thread
shall show above the nut. Unless otherwise stated in the specification data, the maximum protrusion
beyond the nut shall be 25 mm.
4.5.1.4 Washers
Except in the case of fitted bolts, and unless otherwise required in terms of the specification data or
specifically ordered, washers need not be used where surfaces are flat and flanges are untapered,
and where holes have normal clearances.
When the members being connected have already had the top/final coat of the surface protective
treatment applied, and this treatment might be damaged by the nut or bolt head being rotated, a
washer shall be placed under the rotating part.
A suitable plate, or heavy-duty washer, shall be used under the head and nut when bolts are used
to assemble components with oversize or slotted holes.
Washers used in hot-dip galvanized assemblies shall also be hot-dip galvanized.
4.5.1.5 Taper washers
When the bolt head or nut is in contact with a surface which is inclined at more than 3 from a plane
at right angles to the bolt axis, a taper washer shall be used to achieve satisfactory bearing.
4.5.1.6 Galvanized nuts
Nuts that are to be hot-dip galvanized shall be of a higher class than the associated bolt or screw.
Nuts shall be checked after being galvanized for free running on the bolt and shall be re-tapped to
the permissible deviations if necessary to ensure a satisfactory tightening performance.
4.5.1.7 Bolt tightening
Bolts may be assembled using power tools or shall be fully tightened by hand using appropriate
standard length spanners.
4.5.1.8 Fitted bolts
Bolts that comply with the requirements for product grade A in accordance with SANS 1700-4-1
may be used as fitted bolts when holes are drilled or reamed after assembly so that the clearance in
the hole is not more than 0,3 mm.

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
Edition 1
4.5.2 Fit-up and reaming when using ordinary bolts
4.5.2.1 Fit-up
Connected parts shall be firmly drawn together. If large distortion gaps (in excess of 2 mm) remain
between the plies of the joint, it shall be taken apart and a pack or shim inserted or irregularities
ground down.
4.5.2.2 Reaming
Where parts cannot be brought together by drifting without distorting the steelwork, rectification may
be made by reaming, provided that the design of the connection will allow for larger diameter holes
and bolts.

4.5.3 High-strength friction-grip (HSFG) assemblies


4.5.3.1 Bolt/nut/washer combinations
HSFG bolt assemblies shall be in accordance with SANS 1282.
4.5.3.2 Tightening
The use of HSFG bolts shall comply with SANS 10094.
Tightening of HSFG bolts shall be by the turn of nut method in accordance with SANS 10094, or
with direct tension-indicating devices used in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations.
4.5.3.3 Reuse of bolt assemblies in HSFG joints
One reuse of class 8.8S bolts shall be acceptable.
Class 10.9S or galvanized class 8.8S bolts shall not be reused.
4.5.3.4 Hot-dip galvanized assemblies
A thread lubricant shall be used on all hot-dip galvanized HSFG assemblies that are to be tensioned
in accordance with SANS 10094. Beeswax or molybdenum disulfide-based lubricants have proved
suitable. Thread lubricants shall be applied to the threads away from the connection so as to
prevent lubricant ingress into the faying surfaces.

4.5.4 Fit-up and reaming when using HSFG bolts


4.5.4.1 Fit-up
Connected parts shall be firmly drawn together with all bolts snug tight. If it is not possible at the
snug tightened point to fully compact plies due to distortional out-of-flatness of interfaces, the joint
shall be taken apart and a pack or shim inserted or high points ground down before recommencing
the tightening procedure.
4.5.4.2 Reaming
Where parts cannot be brought together by drifting without distorting the steelwork, rectification can
be made by reaming, provided that the design of the connection will allow the use of larger diameter
bolts.

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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4.6 Workmanship Erection
4.6.1 General
4.6.1.1 Handling and storage
Components shall be handled and stored clear of the ground in such a manner as to minimize the
risk of surface abrasion and damage.
Fasteners and similar small fittings shall be stored under cover in dry conditions.
4.6.1.2 Damaged steelwork
Any steelwork damaged during off-loading, transportation, storage or erection shall be restored to
comply with the standards for fabrication as given in this part of SANS 2001.
4.6.1.3 Column base plates and slabs
Steel packings shall be used to allow the structure to be properly aligned and levelled and shall be
of sufficient size to avoid local crushing of the concrete or distortion of the base plate under
construction loads.
Base packings shall be placed so that they do not prevent subsequent grouting from completely
filling all spaces directly under the base plates.
Base packings shall be left permanently in place.
4.6.1.4 Cladding
Cladding of a structure can only commence following acceptance of the structure. Unless otherwise
stated in the specification data, a structure shall have been aligned and levelled within the
permissible deviations given in 5.4.3 and grouting shall have been completed.

4.6.2 Site operations


4.6.2.1 Hard standings
The load spread under cranes and lifting plant shall not exceed the strength of the hard standing or
that stated in the specification data.
4.6.2.2 Temporary restraints and supports until permanent features are built
Temporary bracing or supports that will be necessary until walls, floors or other non-steel structures
are built, shall be installed and kept in position as long as they are required.
4.6.2.3 Other temporary restraints or supports
Temporary restraints during erection shall be removed after the structure has been aligned, levelled
and plumbed, provided that sufficient steelwork or permanent bracing (or both) has been erected.
4.6.2.4 Erection loads
No part of the structure shall be permanently distorted by stacking of materials or temporary
erection loads during the erection process.

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4.6.3 Alignment and levelling
4.6.3.1 Alignment of parts of the structure
Each part of the structure shall be aligned as soon as is practicable after it has been erected.
Permanent connections shall not be made between members until a large enough portion of the
structure has been aligned, levelled, plumbed and temporarily connected to ensure that members
will not be displaced during subsequent erection or alignment of the remainder of the structure.
4.6.3.2 Temperature effects
Unless otherwise specified, due account shall be taken of the effects of temperature on the
structure and on tapes and instruments when measurements are made for setting out during
erection, and for subsequent dimensional checks. The reference temperature shall be 20 C unless
otherwise stated in the specification data.

4.6.4 Grouting of supports


4.6.4.1 Timing
All grouting shall be completed before cladding or loading is applied to the structure.
4.6.4.2 Preparation
No bedding or grouting shall be carried out until enough of the structure has been aligned or, for
multistorey buildings, until a sufficient number of bottom lengths of stanchions has been aligned,
levelled and plumbed and adequately braced by means of other structural components that have
been levelled and are securely held by their permanent connections.
Steel wedges or packings or other levelling devices of adequate strength and rigidity shall be used
to support the steelwork. Immediately before being grouted, the space and all pockets under the
steel shall be cleared of all debris and free water.
4.6.4.3 Bedding of stanchions in foundation pockets
Before steel sections are embedded in concrete, the complete specified corrosion protection system
shall be applied to each member down to at least 100 mm below the level of the concrete. In the case
of a paint system, an additional final coat of the specified protection shall be applied to at least
100 mm above and below the level of the concrete.
Where grouting forms part of the works, stanchions in pocket bases shall be grouted with dense
concrete that has a characteristic cube strength at 28 d of not less than that of the surrounding
concrete base, or 20 MPa, whichever is the greater, and with a maximum aggregate size of 10 mm. At
least two-thirds of the depth of the pocket shall be filled initially and the stanchions shall then remain
undisturbed for at least 48 h (or an equivalent period where rapid-hardening or high alumina cement is
used) after which the pocket shall be filled.

4.6.5 Site welding


Site welding shall be carried out in accordance with 4.4.
Welding shall not be permitted during inclement weather, unless adequate protective measures are
taken.

4.6.6 Site bolting


Site bolting shall be carried out in accordance with 4.5.

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5 Compliance with the requirements


5.1 General inspection of steelwork during manufacture
Sufficient components shall be checked for dimensional accuracy and conformity to drawings, to
prove that the manufacturing process is working satisfactorily.

5.2 Welder qualification


Welders, welding operators and tack welders shall be qualified by a fabricator, steelwork erector or
an independent testing agency, in accordance with the provisions of ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M.

5.3 Non-destructive testing of welds


5.3.1 Record of testing
Records of the test results shall be kept by the fabricator or steelwork erector.

5.3.2 Visual inspection of welds


All welds shall be visually inspected in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M, over the full length
of the weld before non-destructive testing is performed. Any welds which will be rendered
inaccessible by subsequent work shall be examined before the loss of access.
A suitably qualified person for visual inspection of welds may be a welding inspector or a welder
who can provide evidence of having been trained and assessed for competence in visual inspection
of the relevant types of welds.

5.3.3 Surface flaw detection


Where a closer examination of a weld surface is required, magnetic particle inspection shall be
used in accordance with the recommendations given in ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M. If magnetic particle
inspection is impractical, dye penetrant inspection may be used in accordance with the
recommendations given in ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M.
A suitably qualified person for surface flaw detection of welds may be a welding inspector or a
welder who holds a current certificate of competence in surface flaw detection of the relevant types
of work, from a nationally recognized authority.

5.3.4 Ultrasonic and radiographic examination


Where ultrasonic or radiographic examination is required in terms of the specification data, it shall
be made in accordance with ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M.
Operators carrying out final ultrasonic or radiographic examination of the weld shall hold a current
certificate of competence from a nationally recognized authority.

5.3.5 Scope of inspection


All welds shall be visually inspected and shall be deemed acceptable if the criteria given in the
visual inspection acceptance criteria of ANSI/AWS D1.1/D1.1M are satisfied. Where non-destructive
testing other than visual examination is required, it shall be so stated in the specification data. This
information shall designate the categories of welds to be examined, the extent of each category,
and the method or methods of testing.

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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5.4 Permissible deviations
5.4.1 Accuracy of fabrication
The permissible deviations in cross section, length, straightness, flatness, cutting, holing and
position of fittings shall be in accordance with the provisions of tables 3 to 6.

5.4.2 Accuracy of foundations, walls and anchor bolts


The permissible deviations for foundations, walls and anchor bolts shall be in accordance with the
provisions of table 7.

5.4.3 Accuracy of erected steelwork


The permissible deviations in erected steelwork shall be in accordance with the provisions of
tables 8 and 9, taking account of the following:
a) All measurements shall be taken in calm weather, and due note shall be taken of temperature
effects on the structure (see 4.6.3.2).
b) The deviations shown for I-sections shall apply also to box and tubular sections.
c) Where deviations are shown relative to normal centre lines of the section, the permissible
deviation on cross section and straightness, given in 5.4.1, may be added.

22

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table 3 Permissible deviations in rolled components after fabrication
1

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Cross section after fabrication

Squareness of ends not intended for bearing

In accordance with the relevant provisions of


a
table 1 .

See 4.3.3.3.1.

h is the overall width or depth of the section


3

Squareness of ends prepared for bearing


Prepare ends with respect to the longitudinal axis
of the member, see also 4.3.3.3.2.

h is the overall width or depth of the section


4

Straightness on both axes


For compression members and beams (other
than purlins and sheeting rails), L is the distance
between points that are to be laterally restrained.

For other members, L is the overall length


5

Length L
Length after cutting measured on the centre line
of the section or on the heel of angles

L is the overall length


6

Curved or cambered
Deviation from intended curve or camber at the
mid-length of the curved portion when measured
with the web horizontal

L is the overall length


a

For ease of reference, see permissible deviations given in the structural steel tables in the Southern
African Institute of Steel Construction publication, Southern African steel construction handbook (limit
states design).

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table 4 Permissible deviations for elements of fabricated members

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Position of fittings
Deviations from the intended position of fittings
and components the location of which is critical to
the force path in the structure, shall not exceed .

Position of holes
The deviation from the intended position of an
isolated hole, or a group of holes, relative to each
other, shall not exceed .

Punched holes
The distortion caused by a punched hole shall not
exceed (see 4.3.6.3).

D is the diameter of the punched hole


4

Sheared or cropped edges of plates or angles


The deviation from a 90 edge shall not exceed .

t is the thickness of the plate or angle


5

Flatness of load transfer areas


Where bearing is specified, the flatness of load
transfer areas shall be such that when measured
against a straight edge not exceeding 1 m in
length, which is laid against the bearing surface in
any direction, the gap does not exceed .

24

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table 5 Permissible deviations in plate girder sections

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Depth
Depth on centre line

h is the overall depth of the section


2

Flange width
Width of either top or bottom flange

Bt is the width of the top flange


Bb is the width of the bottom flange
3

Squareness of section
Out-of-squareness of flanges

B is the width of the flange


4

Web eccentricity
Intended position of web from one edge of flange

b is the distance from the face of the web to the


end of the flange
5

Flanges
Out of flatness

B is the width of the flange


6

Top flange of crane girder


Out of flatness of the rail seat

W is the rail width plus 20 mm

25

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table 5 (continued)

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Length
L is the length on centre line

Flange straightness
Straightness of individual flanges

L is the overall length of the member


9

Curved or cambered
Deviation from intended curve or camber at midlength of curved portion when measured with
web horizontal

L is the overall length of the member


10

Web distortion
Distortion on web depth or gauge length

d is the depth of the web


11

Cross section at bearings


Squareness of flanges to web

h is the overall depth of the section

26

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table 5 (concluded)

12

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Web stiffeners out of plane of web


Straightness of stiffener out of plane of web, after
welding

ds is the depth of the web stiffener


13

Web stiffeners in plane of web


Straightness of stiffener in plane of web, after
welding

ds is the depth of the web stiffener


14

Twist

L is the overall length of the section

27

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table 6 Permissible tolerances in fabricated box sections

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Plate widths
Width of Bf or Bw

Bf and Bw are the two orthogonal sides of a plate


2

Squareness
Squareness at diaphragm positions

h is the overall width or depth of the section


3

Plate distortion
Distortion on width or gauge length W

Web or flange straightness


Straightness of individual web or flanges

L is the overall length of the member


5

Web stiffeners out of plane of web


Straightness out of plane of web after welding

ds is the depth of stiffener

28

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Table 6 (concluded)

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Web stiffeners in plane of web


Straightness in plane of web after welding

ds is the depth of stiffener


7

Length
Length on centre line (L)

Curved or cambered
Deviation from intended curve or camber at the
mid-length of the curved portion when measured
with the web horizontal

L is the overall length of the member


9

Twist

L is the overall length of the member

29

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table 7 Permissible deviations for foundations, walls and anchor bolts

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Foundation level
Deviation from specified level

Vertical wall
Deviation from specified position at steelwork
support point

Pre-set foundation bolt or bolt groups in


pockets
Deviation from the specified location and level
and minimum movement in pocket

x is the horizontal permissible deviation


y is the vertical permissible deviation
4

Pre-set foundation bolt or bolt groups


Deviation from the specified location, level and
protrusion

x is the horizontal permissible deviation


y is the vertical permissible deviation

30

= 20 mm

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Table 8 Permissible deviations of erected components

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Position at column base


Deviation of section centre line from the specified
position

Single-storey columns plumb


Deviation of top relative to base, excluding portal
frame columns, on main axes

hs is the storey height


3

Multistorey columns plumb


Deviation in each storey and maximum deviation
relative to base

H is the building height


hs is the storey height
4

Gap between bearing surfaces


(See 4.3.3.3, 5.4.1 and table 3).

h is the overall width or depth of a member

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Table 8 (concluded)

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Alignment of adjacent perimeter columns


Deviation relative to next column on a line
parallel to the grid line when measured at base or
splice level

Floor beams level


Deviation from the specified level at the
supporting column

Floor beams level at each end of same beam


(Normal beam and column construction)
Deviation in level

Level of adjacent floor beams within a


distance of 5 m
Deviation from relative horizontal levels
(measured on the centre line of the top flange)

Beams alignment
(Normal beam and column construction)
Horizontal deviation relative to an adjacent beam
above or below

Y is the difference in levels between the tops of


beams

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Table 9 Permissible deviations of erected components of crane gantries

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Crane gantry columns plumb


Deviation of cap relative to base

Hc is the height of the column


2

Crane gantries gauge of rail tracks


Deviation from specified gauge

X is the horizontal distance between beam


centres
3

Crane gantries rail track levels


Difference in level between rails

Joints in gantry crane rails


1) Class 1 and class 2 cranes
2) Class 3 and class 4 cranes

G is the gap mismatch


V is the height mismatch
5

Crane rail deviation in plan


Maximum deviation in plan from a straight line.

33

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
Edition 1
Table 9 (concluded)

Aspect

Permissible deviation ()

Crane rail horizontal offset


Horizontal offset at any point along a crane rail

is a horizontal length
7

Crane rail levels: maximum deviation in level

is a horizontal length
8

Crane rail levels: maximum difference in level


over any 2 m length of rail

is a horizontal length of 2 m
9

34

Crane rail offset with girder web (tw)

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
Edition 1

Annex A
(normative)

Preparation of specification data associated with this


part of SANS 2001 for inclusion in the scope of work
Specification data form an essential part of this part of SANS 2001; without such data, requirements
are incomplete.
The format for the specification data has been developed to be compatible with the requirements in
table D.1 of SANS 10403:2003. The specification data should be incorporated in the scope of work
as shown in table A.1.
NOTE For items which might need to be considered when preparing the scope of work for a project, see
annex B.

Table A.1 Incorporating this part of SANS 2001 in the scope of work
1

TOPIC

ASPECT

COMMENTARY

DESCRIPTION OF THE WORKS


CONSTRUCTION
Works specifications

Applicable part(s)
of SANS 2001

The following parts of SANS 2001 and associated


specification data are applicable:
1) SANS 2001 ..
2) SANS 2001 ..
The associated specification data are as follows:
Specification data Essential Data:
pertaining to
SANS 2001
The requirements for . are .
The requirements for . are .
Variations:
1) .....
2) ..
Additional clauses:
1) .....

Applicable national
and international
standards
Particular/generic
specifications

35

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
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Develop the specification data based on the contents of table A.2.
Table A.2 Specification data associated with this part of SANS 2001
1

Specification data associated with


this part of SANS 2001

Guidance notes
Clause
number

Consideration

Essential data
The grade of steel for the following
assemblies shall be ......

4.1.1

Omit if all steel is grade 300WA or state the grade and


subgrade of any steel other than grade 300WA to be
used in the works.
If steel other than steel that complies with SANS 1431
will be used, state the standard which such steel
complies with.
Indicate the parts of the works on which steel other
than grade 300WA shall be used. (Information should
also be supplied in the design drawings.)

Structural fasteners are of the following


grades and types:

4.1.5

State the classes and grades of the fasteners to be used if


not shown in the design drawings.

4.2.1.3

State in which format and to which standards each


category of drawings shall be prepared or handed over
(or both). (It may be a requirement to use specific
software.)
Omit if not a requirement.

Attachments to facilitate erections may


not remain part of the permanent
structure.

4.2.4.2
4.4.4.5

Omit if attachments may remain a part of the


permanent structure.

Hole sizes for holding-down bolts in


excess of 36 mm diameter shall be as
follows:

4.2.4.4

Describe hole sizes in base plates for holding-down


bolts in excess of 36 mm diameter should they not be
indicated in the design drawings.

4.2.4.7

Describe requirements for connections that shall allow


movement should they not be indicated in the design
drawings.

4.2.4.8

Describe requirements for machining if these are not


indicated in the design drawings.

All steel elements shall be marked so as


to be traceable to a specific cast or heat
of steel.

4.3.1.1

Omit if not a requirement.

The following assemblies may not be


hard stamped:

4.3.1.2

Omit if not a requirement.

Tack welds are not to be incorporated


into final welds.

4.4.4.3

Omit if tack welds may be incorporated into final welds.

The maximum protrusion beyond the


nut shall be ... mm.

4.5.1.3

Should there be a good reason to require the


protrusion of bolts beyond nuts to be less than 25 mm,
state what is permitted.
Omit if not permitted.

.....................
The format of drawings shall be as
follows:
.

.......
Connections to allow movement shall
be as follows:

The requirements for machining are as


follows:
..

36

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
Edition 1
Table A.2 (concluded)
1

Specification data associated with


this part of SANS 2001

Guidance notes
Clause
number

Consideration

Essential data
Washers under nuts and bolt heads on
flat surfaces are required.

4.5.1.4

Omit if not a requirement.

Cladding may commence when .

4.6.1.4

State at which stage cladding may commence, if it is


different to that provided for in 4.6.1.4.
Omit if the provision of 4.6.1.4 is acceptable.

The pressure or loading permitted on


the hard standing is .

4.6.2.1

State the pressure or loading permitted on any hard


standings provided, as necessary.

The reference temperature is . C.

4.6.3.2

State the reference temperature, if it is not 20 C.

Ultrasonic or radiographic examination


is required.

5.3.4

State if it is a requirement.

The requirements for non-destructive


tests are as follows:

5.3.5

State which non-destructive tests shall be performed


on welds, and how many shall be done.

Omit if there are no requirements.

Variations
1 All attachments to facilitate erection
shall be removed and holes shall be
closed up after erection.

4.2.4.2
and
4.4.4.5

State that temporary fittings required for lifting and


erection of assemblies should be removed and holes
closed up after erection, should there be a specific need
to do so.

2 Cut edges to the following


assemblies shall be ground to achieve
a smooth and straight surface:

4.3.3.1
and
4.3.3.2

If, for aesthetic purposes, any cut edges need to be


particularly neat, state that these should be ground to
achieve a smooth and straight surface.

4.4.4.3

Should it be specifically required not to incorporate tack


welds into the final welds, state that they shall be
removed before welding.

.................
3 All tack welds shall be removed
before welding.
4 Properly documented evidence of
previous qualification of welders shall
be acceptable.

5.2

5 The following temporary restraints


shall be installed:

4.6.2.2
and
4.6.2.3

.................

6 Site welding is not permitted.

Omit if not required.

State (by reference to drawings, if appropriate) what


temporary restraints shall be installed while the structure,
or other elements that will lend support to the structure, are
in an incomplete state. (Note that temporary supports may
include the propping of composite beams until the concrete
has hardened, as well as temporary bracing and other
supports.)
Provide cause if there is a specific reason not to
allow site welding.

Additional clauses
1 .
2 .

State additional requirements, if any.

NOTE In principle, a designer is free to specify whatever standards or requirements he deems appropriate. It
should be kept in mind, however, that SANS 10162-1 and SANS 10162-2 are based on the assumption that any
steel structure will not be constructed to a lower standard than that contained in this part of SANS 2001. The
designer is also cautioned against the relaxation of requirements contained in this part of SANS 2001 as such
relaxation might adversely affect the safety of the structure.

37

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SANS 2001-CS1:2005
Edition 1

Annex B
(informative)

Items which might need to be considered when


preparing the scope of work for a project
The scope of work for a specific project, prepared in accordance with the provisions of annex D of
SANS 10403:2003, should commence with a description of the works and thereafter describe items
relating to general project management practice, namely Engineering, Procurement, Construction,
or Management. It may, in many instances, be necessary to include clauses in each of these
sections to establish design responsibilities, management procedures, constraints to construction
and the like, which are pertinent to works executed in accordance with this part of SANS 2001.
Comprehensive management and construction requirements pertaining to structural steelwork are
established in SANS 1921-3. Annex B of SANS 1921-3:2004 provides guidance on the preparation
of the scope of work for structural steelwork in accordance with the provisions of SANS 10403.

Bibliography
Standard
SANS 1921-3, Construction and management requirements for works contracts Part 3: Structural
steelwork.

Other publications
Southern African Institute of Steel Construction. Southern African steel construction handbook (limit
states design). 3rd ed. Johannesburg: SAISC, 1997.
Southern African Institute of Steel Construction. Southern African structural steelwork detailing
manual. Johannesburg: SAISC, 1994.

Standards South Africa

38