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National Seminar cum Workshop on

Applications of Green Technologies for the


Improvement of Agrobased System in India
- A Biotechnological Approach
rd

th

23 & 24 July 2015

A Manual on
Preparation of Organic Fertilizers
&

Souvenir
Sponsored
Sponsored
by: by:
Department
of Biotechnology,
of India,
New Delhi
Department
of Biotechnology,
Govt.Govt.
of India,
New Delhi
SERB,
Govt.
of India,
New Delhi
SERB,
Govt.
of India,
New Delhi
NABARD,
of India,
Mumbai
NABARD,
Govt.Govt.
of India,
Mumbai

Karpaga Vinayaga
College of Engineering and Technology

Department of Biotechnology
Chinna Kolambakkam, Padalam - 603308
Madhuranthagam (Tk.), Kanchipuram (Dt.), TN

National Seminar cum Workshop on


Applications of Green Technologies for the
Improvement of Agrobased System in India
- A Biotechnological Approach
23

rd

th

& 2 4 July 2 0 1 5

A Manual on
Preparation of Organic Fertilizers
&

Souvenir
Sponsored by:

Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, New Delhi


SERB, Govt. of India, New Delhi
NABARD, Govt. of India, Mumbai

Karpaga Vinayaga
College of Engineering and Technology

Department of Biotechnology
Chinna Kolambakkam, Padalam - 603308
Madhuranthagam (Tk.), Kanchipuram (Dt.), TN

Mrs. Meenakshi Annamalai, M.Sc. (Ph.D)


Director
Karpaga Vinayaga College of
Engineering and Technology

Message
I am happy to note that department of Biotechnology in
Karpaga

Vinayaga

College

of

Engineering

and

Technology is Organizing a National Seminar cum


Workshop on National Seminar cum workshop on
Applications

of

Green

Technologies

for

the

Improvisation of Agro Based System in India A


Biotechnological Approach on 23rd and 24th July, 2015
funded by DST, SERB and NABARD and going to
release the proceeding during this occasion
For past decades KVCET had been rendering Quality
service in the field of Engineering Education by
providing excellent Infrastructure Facilities and the right
team of well qualified staff. This makes KVCET to march
towards confidently in this competitive era.

I express my whole hearted congratulations on this


occasion to all the staff & students of Biotechnology
departments and wish the Seminar cum Workshop a
grand Success.

Director

Dr. SM. Kannan, Ph.D


Principal
Karpaga Vinayaga College of
Engineering and Technology

Message
Warm and Happy greeting to all. I am immensely happy
that Biotechnology department of our college is
organizing a national Seminar cum workshop on
Applications of green Technologies for the improvisation
of agro based system in India A biotechnological
approach on 23rd and 24th July, 2015 funded by DST,
SERB and NABARD and is going present a collection of
various technical papers in the proceedings.
Under the able guidance of our management KVCET
continues to march on the way of success with
confidence. The sharp, clear sighted vision and precise
decision making of our management has made the
college and students competitive.

I also congratulate HOD, staff members, students of


Biotechnology department, Participants for their efforts
in organizing and participating in this seminar cum
workshop and I wish them all the success.

Principal

Dr. VC. Ravichandran, Ph.D


Advisor
Karpaga Vinayaga College of
Engineering and Technology

Message

I am extremely happy to understand that the Department


of Biotechnology is organizing a National Seminar cum
workshop on Applications of green Technologies for the
improvisation of agrobased system in India A
biotechnological approach on 23rd and 24th July, 2015
funded by DBT, SERB and NABARD.
The applications of many advanced science and
engineering are to help the nation for its development.
Biotechnology in its present day scenario has a
challenge to provide reliable natural sources to farmers
from the green technology.

It is essential for those professionals of Biotechnology to


get

new

updates

of

energy

and

its

advanced

applications to meet the challenges.


I hope this seminar cum workshop would certainly
induce innovative ideas among the participants paving
way for new inventions and new technologies in the
Biotechnology discipline.

Advisor

Dr. Sultan Ahmed Ismail


Director
Ecoscience Research Foundation
Chennai
Message
Earthworms have always been a subject of interest and
many ancient scientists, sages and poets have sung its
praises.

While

the

Tamil

poet

Manonmanian

Sundaranar has extolled the earthworms as those who


can remediate any type of difficult soil, scientists have
praised the earthworms either as the intestines of the
earth (Aristotle) or as natures plough (Darwin).
Earthworms have always been regarded as friends of
the farmers. Earthworms have a very positive effect on
the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the
soils. The earthworm is a soil biotechnologist and a solid
waste manager.

Earthworms are known to consume

large quantities of organic litter or waste and convert


them into manure, which is used as valuable compost,
known as vermicompost.

The significance of earthworms in soils is manifold.


They are unique among soil invertebrates as they bury
organic debris, mix organic and inorganic matter in their
excreta and modify the structure of the soil through their
burrow systems. Their importance in nutrient cycling,
soil

structure,

soil

health

including

soil

fertility,

productivity, agriculture, and their application in organic


waste

management

has

been

well

established.

Therefore the earthworm is considered as the leader in


revitalization of the soil.
Though a group of beneficial organisms such as
Bacteria,

fungi,

microarthropods

actinomycetes,

protozoans,

(proturans,

spring-tails,

pseudoscorpions, pauropods, symphylids), millipedes,


centipedes, slugs, snails, snakes, rodents, and a host of
flora join the earthworms in maintaining soil health, the
presence of earthworms is an indicator of soil health. To
diagnose soil health one has to feel the pulse of the soil.
Earthworms are the pulse of the soil. Healthier the
pulse, healthier is the soil.

sincerely

congratulate

Biotechnology,

Karpaga

the

Department

Vinayaga

College

of
of

Engineering and Technology, Maduranthagam, for


organizing the National Workshop on "Application of
Vermicomposting

Practices

for

Sustainable

Agricultural Development" sponsored by Department


of Biotechnology, Government of India, and wish the
team all success.
Sultan Ahmed Ismail, Ph.D, D.Sc.,

Dr. V. Karthikeyan
HOD & Organizing Secretary
Department of Biotechnology
Karpaga Vinayaga College of
Engineering and Technology
Message
It is with immense pride and anticipation that I invite
everyone to attend the National Seminar cum workshop
on Applications of green Technologies for the
improvisation of agro based system in India A
biotechnological approach on 23rd and 24th July, 2015
funded by DST, SERB and NABARD.
The Workshop will bring forth cutting-edge topics and
distinguished experts as speakers to foster advanced
studies as well as lively discourse between hundreds of
expected delegates from different parts of the nation.
The Workshop will look forward to the advancement in
Organic farming practices to the farmers in our country.
This Workshop will be familiar and refreshing charms.

Head & Organizing Secretary


Department of Biotechnology

CONTENTS
Particulars

Page No.

1. Panchakavyam

01

2. Amirtha karaisal

04

3. Meen Paagu

06

4. Bio Pesticide

08

5. Curd-Herbal Syrup

11

6. Cow Horn Manure

13

7. Cow Pat Pit

15

A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

1. PANCHAKAVYAM

INGREDIENTS:
Cow Dung

5 kg

Cows Urine

3 litres

Cows Milk

2 litres

Curd

2 litres

Ghee

1 litre

Tender Coconut Water 2 litres


Jaggary

1 kg

Banana

10 Nos

Yeast

25g

Hone

1/2 litres.

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A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

PREPARATION:
Mix equal amounts of fresh cow dung and
ghee into a good consistency.
Store it at room temperature for 3 days[52
hours].
Pour the contents into a 25 litre plastic drum.
Mix well during morning and evening. [By
doing this the methane gas will get liberated].
During the fourth day add the remaining
contents namely milk, curd, tendercoconut
water, banana, honey and yeast.
Mix thoroughly until it reaches watery
consistency. Close the drum.
Mix the contents daily by swirling the contents
in clockwise and counter clockwise direction
for atleast 15 days.
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A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

METHOD OF USAGE:
Add 300 ml of the preparation mix to 10 litres of
water and sprinkle on the crops every morning or
evening.
For 1acre
around 100 litres of water is required.
3 litres of Panchakavya is essential.
For a 20 day interval,sprinkle the above mentioned
preparation 2 or 3 times to get best results.
Additionally, add 50g of Khadhi soap in water and
sprinkle it on the crops. It enhances crop growth
besides its potent role as a pesticide.

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2. AMIRTHA KARAISAL
[JEEVA-AMIRTHAM]
INGREDIENTS:
200 litres Capacity plastic drum
Water

200 litres

Cow dung

10 kg

Cows Urine

10 litres

Jaggary

1 kg

Powdered pulses

2kg

Wet soil

Handful

PREPARATION:
Add 10 kg of fresh cow dung, 10 litres of
cows urine, jaggary and powdered pulses to
200 litres of water.
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Add handful of soil to it.Mix thoroughly for a


few days.
The preparation will be ready in 3 days.
METHOD OF USAGE:
Add 1 litre of the above preparation to 10 litres of
water and sprinkle it on the crops.
APPLICATION:
It increases the growth of microbes in the soil.
The roots of the crops will become dense.
The

growth

Acetobacter,

of

Azospirillum,

Pseudomonas

Rhizobium,

viridae

and

Phosphobacteria will be enhanced.

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A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

3. MEEN-PAAGU [FISH AMINO ACID]


INGREDIENTS:
2 litre capacity plastic drum
Fish

1kg

Jaggary

1kg

Tender coconut water

1litre

PREPARATION:
Cut the fishes into small pieces and place them
in a clean vessel.
Add finely grated jaggary and tender coconut
water to it and mix well. Close the vessel
properly.
Allow it to stand undisturbed for 30 days.

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A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

Then, filter the contents carefully with a clean


nylon cloth and collect the filtrate .Collect it in
an air tight bottle.
The remaining contents {Fish pieces} can be
reused by repeating steps 1 and 2.Allow the
contents to stand for 15 to 20 days.Filter the
contents and collect the filterate.

METHOD OF USAGE:
Add 50 ml of the above preparation in 10 litres of
water.
Sprinkle them on all kinds of crops during
evening.
Sprinkling can be done on the crops once in 20
days.
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4. BIO-PESTICIDE
INGREDIENTS:
100 litre capacity plastic drum
Neem leaves

1kg

Pongamiagladira leaves

1kg

Nochi leaves

1kg

Erukkam leaves

1kg

Pirandai leaves

1kg

Cow Dung

5kg

Cows Urine

10litres

Jaggary

1kg

Rag Bags

2 Nos

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A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

PREPARATION:
The above mentioned leaves are ground well
and tied properly in rag bags.
Take another rag bag and fill it with fresh cow
dung.
Add 90 litres of water, 10 litres of cows
urine,1 kg jaggary in a large plastic tankand
mix well.
Lower the two rags bags into the plastic tank
such that they are completely submerged in the
slurry.
Mix the contents thoroughly for 15 days
METHOD OF USAGE:
Take 1 litre of the above preparation in 10 litres of
water and sprinkle on the crops once In 25 days.
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A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

APPLICATION:
It acts as a pesticide and increases the growth rate
of the plants.

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10

A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

5. HERBAL SYRUP
INGREDIENTS:
Powdered Neem seed

1 Kg

Curd

2 litres

Cows Urine

3 litres

Kaddukai Powder

25g

Adhimaduram Powder

25g

Fenugreek Powder

25g

Water

5 Litres

PREPARATION:
Soak neem seeds by tying them using a clean
piece of cloth for 24 hours.
Filter the contents carefully.
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11

A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

To the filtrate add 3 litres of cows urine, 2


litres curd, kaddukai powder,adhimaduram
powder and fenugreek powder. Mix well and
store it for 7 days.
METHOD OF USAGE:
1 litre of the preparation is mixed with 10 litres of
water.
During flowering time, sprinkle it on the crops
during morning and evening.
APPLICATION:
It enhances/induces flowering of crops.

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12

A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

6. COW HORN MANURE (BD 500)


Cow horn-manure, a humus mixture prepared
by filling the horn of a cow with cow manure
and burying it in the ground (4060 cm below
the surface) and covered with good quality
compost. The pit should be kept cool by
mulching with debris, coconut fronds etc., the
preparation was ready after three- four months.
It is used at the rate of 25 grams in 13 litres of
water and stirred for one hour making a vortex
then be sprinkled with a broom sticks. With
regular application of BD 500 will give a soil to
improve humus formation, soil tilth, earthworm
activity.

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13

A Manual on Preparation of Organic Fertilizers

7. COW PAT PIT


Cow pat pit known as CPP, is specialized type
of compost. It refers to cow manure mixed with
crushed egg shell and rock dust. Cow pat pit
(CPP) structures were constructed

and BD

preparations (BD 502-507 ) inoculated in Cow


dung, egg shell and rock at the rate of 60kg,
200g, 300g respectively.CPP was turned once
every 15 days and moisture content maintained
by

sprinkling

water.

Use

as

ground

application at 1kg per acre CPP to 40 litres of


water and stir for 10 minutes. It contains a wide
range

of

microbial

population,

growth

promoting hormones, which can be very


helpful in many areas of agricultural and
horticulture.
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14

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15

A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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9

A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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A Manual on Preparation of organic fertilizers

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Particulars
S.No.

Content

Pg.
No

STUDIES ON ETHANOL PRODUCTION


FROM SPOILED FRUITS BY BATCH
FERMENTATIONS
S.KARUNAKARAN, ARCHANA.R and
KOMATHISREE P.S

STUDIES ON ETHANOL PRODUCTION


FROM SPOILED FRUITS BY BATCH
FERMENTATIONS
S.KARUNAKARAN, ARCHANA.R, and
KOMATHISREE P.S

PRODUCTION OF VERMICOMPOST
AND VERMIWASH
SWATHI.A

ISOLATION AND
CHARACTERIZATION OF
ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS DEGRADING
BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM
AGRICULTURAL SOIL
STEPHY MARY.A, PRIYA.T AND
MS.J.ESTHER HELLAN PRASANNA

SYNTHESIS AND
CHARECTERIZATION OF SILICA

10

NANOPARTICLES FOR DRUG


DELIVERY IN CANCER TREATMENT
S. DHANASEKARAN, S.
KARUNAKARAN, P. JAYANTHI AND P.
PRATHEEPA
6

STUDIES ON PRODUCTION OF
LACCASE FROM Pleurotus sp.
S.SUSHMITHA, S.MUSILIN WINMIKCA
AND PENNARASI

13

EFFECT OF AZOLLA AND SEA WEED

15

EXTRACT ON

GERMINATION OF

VARIOUS CROPS A COMPARATIVE


STUDY
R. Sripriya, S. Nancy Roy and
P.K.Gayathri

Nat. Appl. Green Tech. Impro. Agro in India A Biotech. Approach

STUDIES ON ETHANOL PRODUCTION


FROM SPOILED FRUITS BY BATCH
FERMENTATIONS

S.KARUNAKARAN, ARCHANA.R and


KOMATHISREE P.S.
Department of Biotechnology
Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Women
Elayampalayam, Tiruchengodu
ABSTRACT:India is the second major producer of fruits and
vegetables. In the world, particularly grapeOrange, apple,
pineapple, banana, and papaya (Carica Papaya) some
microorganisms isolatedfrom the peels, pulp and juice,
ash, pH, moisture, lipid, especially Acetobacter aceti,
Clostridium butyrium, Bacillus sp and Micrococcus, some
fungal microbes. Aspergillus flavus, A.niger,penicillium,
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chrysogenum,

and

Fusarium

species

were

best

fermentation process and gives thenutritive values. The


maximum amount of nutritive compounds were present in
papaya, fruitsthere composition of papaya was moisture
content 8.5 to 93.1 calcium, Phosphorus 6.8 to
8.9%,Protein 0.47 to 2.15 and fat 0.04 to 0.5%
respectively. Papaya Juice had the best organileinicquality
however the most ethanol distillate was produced from
Papaya. The papaya fruit pulpfrom raw starch Hydrolate
are attractive resources for economical production of
ethanol.
Key words: Papaya fruits, sacharification, Alcoholic
fermentation, Distillation.

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STUDIES ON ETHANOL PRODUCTION


FROM SPOILED FRUITS BY BATCH
FERMENTATIONS

S.KARUNAKARAN, ARCHANA.R, and


KOMATHISREE P.S.
Department of Biotechnology
Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Women
Elayampalayam, Tiruchengodu

ABSTRACT:India is the second major producer of fruits and


vegetables. In the world, particularly grape Orange, apple,
pineapple, banana, and papaya (Carica Papaya) some
microorganisms isolated from the peels, pulp and juice,
ash, pH, moisture, lipid, especially Acetobacter aceti,
Clostridium butyrium, Bacillussp and Micrococcus, some
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fungal microbes. Aspergillus flavus, A.niger, penicillium,


chrysogenum,

and

Fusarium

species

were

best

fermentation process and gives the nutritive values. The


maximum amount of nutritive compounds were present in
papaya, fruits there composition of papaya was moisture
content 8.5 to 93.1 calcium, Phosphorus 6.8 to 8.9%,
Protein 0.47 to 2.15 and fat 0.04 to 0.5% respectively.
Papaya Juice had the best organileinic quality however
the most ethanol distillate was produced from Papaya.
The papaya fruit pulp from raw starch Hydrolate are
attractive resources for economical production of ethanol.
Key words: Papaya fruits, sacharification, Alcoholic
fermentation, Distillation.

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PRODUCTION OF VERMICOMPOST AND


VERMIWASH
SWATHI. A
Dept of Biotechnology,
Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Thandalam, Chennai
swathiadi15@gmail.com
Abstract
Waste management is one of the major issues faced
all around the world.Vermicompost is emerging as
environmentally sustainable economically viable and
socially acceptable technology all over the world in
addressing this issue. Vermicomposting is performed to
convert domestic farmland waste into manure which has a
good NPK content and suitable for use. Vermicomposting
is a process in which earthworms are employed for
biodegradation of organic waste. Earthworms feed on
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organic waste and its excreta enhances the nutrient


content of the manure.

Special bins are used for

vermicomposting in order to collect Vermiwash which is


a potent liquid bio fertilizer. Also the bins are portable
and easy to handle hence providing a much advantageous
production method. In this process earthworms along with
alittle amount of soil and pre-degraded wastes were
layered in the bin. The whole process of degradation was
carefully monitored, keeping in check, all the key
parameters like predators for one month. The bio manure
along with the Vermiwash was collected regularly after
10 days. Vermicompost was collected at the end of this
period.

The

Vermiwash

and

Vermicompost

was

experimented and the various results have been


documented including NPK content which was obtained
as 0.013%, 1.715%, 24 ppm and 1.25%, 0.19%,
0.28%respectively. The study shows various techniques
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and difficulties faced during the process which resulted in


narrowing down to few efficient ones. The field
experiment studied on the weekly basis by implementing
this production of Vermicompost and Vermiwash proved
satisfactory, the results of which along with the avenues
for future development in it is also discussed in this paper.
KEY WORDS:
Vermicompost, Vermiwash, bins, nutrient value.

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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF


ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS DEGRADING
BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM
AGRICULTURAL SOIL
Stephy Mary.A, Priya.T and Ms.J.Esther Hellan
Prasanna
Department of Biotechnology
Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Women,
Elayampalayam, Tiruchengodu
ABSTRACT
Organophosphorous pesticides are the worlds most
widely used pesticides in agriculture. Exposure of these
pesticides and its metabolites have been related to a
variety of nerve disorders in humans. Microbial
degradation is considered to be a cost effective method
for

decontamination

of

toxic

organophosphorous

pesticides from the environment. In this study we isolated


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the bacteria from different agricultural field soil to


degrade

the

Organophosphorous

pesticides

(Monocrotophos, Dichlorovos, chloropyrifos, diozinon)


as a soul carbon source. And the results of biochemical
tests shows that Bacillus sp. Proteus sp. serratia
sp.effectively degrade the organophosphorus pesticides.
16s rRNA Gene sequencing results show that Bacillus sp
is responsible for degrading MCP Pesticide than others.
Ussing thin layer chromatography technique find out the
RF values that confirms the genus. It is evident from the
results that the isolated Bacillus sp. could be used for
bioremediate

the

area

contaminated

with

organophosphorous pesticides. Thus we can remediate the


environmental pollution.

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SYNTHESIS AND CHARECTERIZATION OF


SILICA NANOPARTICLES FOR DRUG
DELIVERY IN CANCER TREATMENT
S. Dhanasekaran, S. Karunakaran, P. Jayanthi and P.
Pratheepa
Department of Biotechnology
Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Women
Elayampalayam, Tiruchengodu
ABSTRACT
Cancer is a potentially fatal disease caused mainly by
environmental factors that mutate genes encoding critical
cell-regulatory proteins Lung cancer is one of the most
common types of cancer and cases in increasing yearly
wordwide. The resultant aberrant cell behavior leads to
expansive masses of abnormal cells that destroy
surrounding normal tissue and can spread to vital organs
resulting in disseminated disease, commonly a harbinger
of imminent patient death. Cancer is a complex genetic
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disease that is caused primarily by environmental factors.


The cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) can be present in
food and water, in the air,
and in chemicals and sunlight that people are exposed .
Nanoparticle drug delivery is one area of recent
research significance since incorporation of drug to nano
particles enhances therapeutic effectiveness and reduces
side effects of the drug payloads improving their
pharmacokinetics. In the present study Mesoporous silica
nanoparticles were synthesized, loaded with anticancer
drug 5FU and characterized by Zeta analysis to have a
average size of 288nm. The drug release studies shows
sustained release of drug. In vitro anticancer activity on
lung carcinoma cells shows increased cell death in a dose
dependent manner. Induction of apoptosis was evident
from fluorescent staining. From the results it can be
suggested that Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded
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with 5 FU can be considered as a potent candidate for


chemotherapy.

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Studies on production of laccase from


Pleurotus sp.
S.Sushmitha, S.Musilin Winmikca and Pennarasi
Department of Biotechnology
Vivekanandha College of Engineering for Women
Tiruchengodu
ABSTRACT
Lignin is the most abundant aromatic substance
present in biosphere mainly secondary cell walls of plants
and few algae.It is a non-carbohydrate aromatic
heteropolymer composed of phenylpropanoid units linked
through a variety of non hydrolysable C-C and C-O-C
bonds.Research on lignin is important for conversion of
solid

organic

waste

into

production

of

valuable

compounds like biofuel and maintenance of global carbon


cycling in the field of environmental engineering.This
recalcitrant organic compound has been effectively
degraded by microbes like fungi,actinomycetes and
bacteria through oxidation process.Laccasses are copper
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containing lignin degrading enzymes often extracellular in


nature.They use molecular oxygen to oxidize a wide
range of aromatic compounds. A Pleurotus sp showed
positive for laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese
peroxidase production. The growth of the test strain and
laccase production was high in lignin degrading enzymes.
Numerous substrates are used for enzyme activity.
Laccase isozymes have been purified 32.4-fold from the
crude

enzyme

protein

through

anion

exchange

chromatography, preparative gel electrophoresis, and


electro elution. Their estimated molecular weights are
3.543 kDa. Pleurotus sp has potential applications for the
cleanup of industrial effluents in paper and pulp industry.

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EFFECT OF AZOLLA AND SEA WEED


EXTRACT ON

GERMINATION OF

VARIOUS CROPS A COMPARATIVE


STUDY
R. Sripriya, S. Nancy Roy and P.K.Gayathri
Dept of Biotechnology,
Vel Tech High Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala
Engg. College, Chennai - 62
ABSTRACT
A comparative study of biofertilizers (Azolla and
seaweed) was carried out. Azolla (Azollapinnata) and
Seaweed

(Enteromorphaintestinalis)

contain

considerable amount of micronutrients and some plant


growth hormones which helps plant growth and also in
germination.

Seeds

of

Abelmoschusesculentus,

Solanumlycopersicum and Vignaunguiculata were


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treated withAzolla liquid fertilizer extracted from dried


Azolla. The result showed that20% concentration of
aqueous extract of Azolla promoted better germination
and growth. The above mentioned procedure was also
followed for seaweed extract . We analyzed nearly the
same germination rate for seaweed extract in
comparison with Azolla extract. However, the plant
growth observed in seaweed extract waslow. From this
experiment, we came to know that seaweed can also be
used as an alternate for the development of crops.
Keywords:

Azolla,

Seaweed,

Biofertilizer,

Germination.

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16

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