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Experiment No. 3

Rectilinear Motion

Leader:

Aquino, Robi Carlin M.

Members:

Acua, Xavier John N.

Antonio, Mark Adrian D.

Bailon, Ryan Patrick M.

Balinoyos, Paulo M.

Bargan, Jizelle Ann S.

ZPH 124 3A

Prof. Bheim Llona

I.

ABSTRACT

type of motion describes the movement of a particle or a body. A body

is said to experience rectilinear motion if any two particles of the body

travel the same distance along two parallel straight lines. Given the

position of the particles, x (t), we can calculate the displacement,

velocity, and acceleration. These are important quantities to consider

when evaluating the kinematics of a problem. A common assumption,

which applies to numerous problems involving rectilinear motion, is

that acceleration is constant. With acceleration as constant we can

derive equations for the position, displacement, and velocity of a

particle, or body experiencing rectilinear motion.

II.

THEORY

Linear motion (also called rectilinear motion) is a motion along

a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only

one spatial dimension. The linear motion can be of two types: uniform

linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration; non uniform

linear motion with variable velocity or non-zero acceleration.

Linear motion is the most basic of all motion. According to Newton's

first law of motion, objects that do not experience any net force will

continue to move in a straight line with a constant velocity until they are

subjected to a net force.

Displacement

The motion in which all the particles of a body move through the

same distance in the same time is called translator motion. There are two

types of translator motions: rectilinear motion; curvilinear motion. Since

linear motion is a motion in a single dimension, the distance traveled by

an object in particular direction is the same as displacement. The SI unit of

displacement is the meter. If

is

displacement

Overall displacement when he returns home is zero, since the person ends

up back where he started, but the distance travelled is clearly not zero.

Velocity

Velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement with respect

to time. The SI unit of velocity is

Average velocity

The average velocity is the ratio of total displacement

over time interval

Where:

is the time at which the object was at position

is the time at which the object was at position

taken

Instantaneous velocity

The instantaneous velocity can be found by differentiating the

displacement with respect to time.

Speed

Speed is the absolute value of velocity i.e. speed is always positive.

The unit of speed is meter per second. If

speed.

Acceleration

Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respect to

time. Acceleration is the second derivative of displacement i.e. acceleration

can be found by differentiating position with respect to time twice or

differentiating velocity with respect to time once. The SI unit of acceleration

is

If

is the average

then mathematically,

as

and

Table 1

Length

(cm)

100

100

100

100

100

Height

(cm)

10

8

6

4

2

Table 2

Time

(s)

1.25 s

1.44 s

1.55 s

1.61 s

2.21 s

Ave. Speed

(cm/s)

80 cm/s

69.44 cm/s

64.52 cm/s

62.11 cm/s

45.25 cm/s

Segment

Distance

(cm)

Time

(s)

Ave. Speed

(cm/s)

Ave.

Acceleration

(cm/ s

1/3 L

33.33

0.64 s

52.08 cm/s

81.36 cm/ s

2/3 L

66.5

0.62 s

107.26 cm/s

173 cm/ s

100

0.62 s

163.94 cm/s

268 cm/ s

IV. COMPUTATIONS

1. Determine the average speed of the marble in each trial by dividing the

distance it covered (length of the inclined plane) by the average time

interval. Does the average speed depend on the steepness of the inclined

plane? Explain the result.

2. Determine the average speed in Part B using the same computation in #1.

3. Determine the instantaneous speeds at the different marks using the formula

v av =

( v 0 +v )

2

where

v0

v0

= 0.

4. Compute for the average acceleration in each segment using the computed

instantaneous speeds. Explain your findings.

V.

1. Differentiate between average velocity and average speed.

The average speed is the total linear distance covered divided by the time

taken to cover this distance. In contrast average velocity is the net

displacement of an object in a given time divided by the time taken. Thus

when a car travelling at speed 80 kilometers per hour travels in the north

south direction for one hour and south north direction in next hour it

covers a total linear distance of 160 kilometers in 2 hours. This gives an

average speed of 80 kilometers per hour. Now considering velocity, we

find that this car has reached, after travelling for two hours, the same

point from which it had started. Thus there is no net displacement in its

position. Therefore its average velocity is zero.

2

Av = ( 80

+ 802 2

= 113.14 km

Av =

113.14 km

2

to the average speed? Explain.

The average speed is the total length of the path, divided by the time it

took travel the path. The average velocity is the straight-line distance

from the paths starting point, divided by the time it took to traverse the

path So, the average velocity and average speed will be identical when

the path is a straight line. If there is any curvature, the average velocity

will be less than the average speed.

3. Is the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity always equal to the

instantaneous speed? Explain.

Yes. Instantaneous velocity mean change of displacement in extremely

small amount time.

lim

t0

time, magnitude of distance and displacement will be same for any

direction the object is moving. Suppose, the distance of our home to

market is 5km we bought the things and came back home total distance is

10km, total displacement is 0 km. Now if we differentiate both distance

and displacement with respect to time we get 0 as derivative of constant

value is 0.

4. What is meant by negative velocity? Negative Acceleration?

An object which moves backwards or in the negative direction has a

negative velocity. If the object is speeding up the its acceleration vector is

directed in the same direction as its motion (in this case, a negative

acceleration)

the two terms.

No, Deceleration means slowing down. Negative acceleration could mean

you are slowing down, or it could mean you are speeding up. It depends

on which direction your velocity is in. Negative and positive are just simply

directions. For example, if your velocity is in the positive direction, and

your acceleration is in the negative direction, you are decelerating

(slowing down) However, if velocity and acceleration are both in the

negative direction, you are speeding up. So, you cant necessarily say that

a negative acceleration is the same as deceleration.

6. Kate runs 200m, east in 20s and returns through the same path in only

18s. Determine the following:

a. Kates average speed during the entire trip.

a=10 m/ s

and b=1.2m/ s

v ( t )=a+b t 2

where

t=0s and at t=10s.

VI. CONCLUSION

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