You are on page 1of 304

Chapter 3

Planting Colonies in North

America, 1588-1701

La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco soon know as Santa

Fe. The Pueblos Indians were to be converted to Christianity.

Apache neighbors mounted on stolen Spanish

horses raided the Pueblo villages and Spanish
took Pueblos labor services. From 1610 to
1680 the number of Pueblo communities fell
by more than half from 81 to 31 and their
population plummeted by two-thirds.

Kivas an Indian sacred location for Indian artifacts and writings. Were
destroyed by Spanish Governor. In 1675 Spanish Governor rounded up
Indian priests and killed them. Pope an Indian witness this injustice.

Pope organized a rebellion and organized a conspiracy

among more than twenty communities. Sant Fe became
the capital of the Pueblo confederacy led by Pope. Pope
order to destroy anything Spanish in 1675.

Spanish governor came in 1692 after Pope was deposed. The Pueblos
actually needed the Spanish for horses, sheep, fruit, wheat, tools and
especially protection from the Apaches

Spanish, French
and the Dutch in
North America

Franciscan missionaries Our

Lady of Perpetual Help

In 1598 Juan de Onate the son of a wealthy mining family of

New Spain financed an expedition made up of Indians and
mestizos (people of mixed Indian and European ancestry with
purpose of mining both gold and soul. Reviving Francisco
Visquez de Coronado goal to find a New Aztec Empire. He
did not find gold.

Social Classes in the


North America at MidCentury

In 1608 Samuel de Champlain establish the

outpost of Port Royal on the Bay of Fundy . He
found Quebec on the St. Lawrence River and
forged an alliance with Huron Indians. Who
controlled rich fur grounds. He allied with
Huron Indians against five Nation Iroquois

Coureu De Bois were paid agents of

the fur company.

The Jesuits with the New France missionaries took a different

approach with the Indians in comparison of the Spanish. The Jesuits
learned native languages and attempted to understand the Indian
way of life. Christianity would be integrated into life after
development of relationships.

Jesuit school, archives in Quebec. Understand the


Amsterdam became the worlds first stock exchange. This is todays

Amsterdams stock exchange. This was done in the sixteenth
century. There were also investment banks and the Dutch investors
built the largest commercial fleet in Europe capturing the Baltic and
North sea trade in fish lumber and iron.

Dutch West India

Company gave the
United Netherlands
two great
monopolies Dutch
East India Company
and the Dutch West
India Company
combining naval
military and
commercial strength.
The Dutch West India
Company hired
Henry Hudson to go
to Manhattan Island.

The Dutch West India

Company negotiated a
commercial alliance with the
Five Nation Iroquois
Confederacy access to
Dutch products including
metal tools, firearms to
improve there status in
return for furs.
The Iroquois conducted a
series of military expeditions
against their northern m
western and southern
neighbors know as the
Beaver Wars. The Iroquois
attacked and dispersed the
Huron who had long
controlled the flow of furs

The Beaver Warsalso known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars
encompass a series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern North America.
Encouraged and armed by their Dutch and English trading partners, the Iroquois sought to
expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between European
markets and the tribes of the western Great Lakes region. The conflict pitted the nations of
the Iroquois Confederation, led by the dominant Mohawk, against the French-backed and
largely Algonquian-speaking tribes of the Great Lakes region.
The wars were brutal and are considered one of the bloodiest series of conflicts in the
history of North America. As the Iroquois succeeded in the war and enlarged their territory,
they realigned the tribal geography of North America, and destroyed several large tribal
confederaciesincluding the Huron, Neutral, Erie, Susquehannock, and Shawneeand
pushed some eastern tribes west of the Mississippi River, or southward into the Carolinas.
The Iroquois also controlled the Ohio Valley lands as hunting ground, from about 1670
onward, as far as can be determined from contemporary French (Jesuit) accounts. The Ohio
Country and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan were virtually emptied of Native people as
refugees fled westward to escape Iroquois warriors. (Much of this region was later
repopulated by Native peoples nominally subjected to the Six Nations; see Mingo.)
Both Algonquian and Iroquoian societies were greatly disrupted by these wars. The conflict
subsided with the loss by the Iroquois of their Dutch allies in the New Netherland colony,
and with a growing French objective to gain the Iroquois as an ally against English
encroachment. After the Iroquois became trading partners with the English, their alliance
was a crucial component of the later English expansion. They used the Iroquois conquests
as a claim to the old Northwest Territory.

Global Competition and

the Expansion of
England's Empire

Harvey Rosen Princeton

Head of Economics

Rosen has been an Associate Researcher

at the National Bureau of Economic
Research since 1978, where he's focused
on taxes and commerce. [2] In 1981 he
was a Visiting Scholar at the Hoover
Institute, and in 1986 was a Fellow at the
Econometric Society. From 1989-1991 he
worked at the United States Department
of Treasury as the Deputy Assistant
Secretary for Tax Analysis. [3] He served
as a member of the Council of Economic
Advisors from 2003-2005, and served as
Chairman in 2005. [4] Rosen is currently
the John L. Weinberg Professor of
Economics and Business Policy at
Princeton University, where he's
previously served as Chairman of the
Department from 1993 to 1996, and was
a Co-Director at Princeton's Center for
Economic Policy Studies from 1993 to
2011. [5] His work at Princeton focuses
on teaching undergraduate courses in
public finance, taxation, and introductory
microeconomics, and graduate courses

England enjoy more rights than most people with 1215

Magna Carta there was a sense that of protection
against arbitrary imprisonment and seizure of ones
property without due process of law. This was English
freedom that was suppose to go to the colonies. Some
did some did not.

North America in The Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries

The Chesapeake: Virginia and Marylan



John Smith Saves


By the end of the first year, the

original population 104 had
fallen by half. New arrivals
including the first two women
who landed in 1608 brought
the numbers up to 400 in 1609
but by 1610 after a winter long
remembered as the starving
time only 65 settlers remained
alive. By 1616 80% of the
immigrant who had arrived in
the first decade were dead.

Powhatan Confederacy

Englands idea was to Plant the English culture into

the New World the Indians were to be looked at as
savages. Only 2 marriages between whites and
Indians occurred. One was John Rolf and Pocahontas
(daughter of Virginias leading chief)

Jamestown and

Virginia Company had sent 6,000 settlers to Virginia

and its white population was only 1,200. The King
now had to take control. Put John Rolfe in charge and
make Virginia into a tobacco producing colony


Pocahontas married to John Rolfe is dress in

European clothes.

As settlers fended in more and more lands and

introduced new crops and livestock, the natural
environment changed in ways that undermined
traditional Indian agriculture and hunting. Pigs
and cattle roamed freely trampling Indian
cornfields and gardens. The need for wood to
build and heat homes and to export England
depleted forests.

The surviving 900 colonist organized themselves into military bands.

Governor Wyatt stated the Indians had forfeited any claim to the land, we
must expulse the savages must occur

Prosperity occurred. Of the 120,000 English immigrants who entered

the Chesapeake region during the seventeenth century three
quarters came as servants. Virginias white society increased came
to resemble that of England with wealthy landed gentry at the top; a
group of small farmers mostly former indentured servants who had
managed to acquire land in the middle and an army of poor. By 1700
the regions white population had grown to nearly 90,000

Tobacco brides arrived in 1620 and 1621 for arranged

marriages. But given the demand for male servants
to work in the tobacco fields. Men in the Chesapeake
outnumbered women for the 1600s 5 to 1. the vast
majority of women who emigrated to the region came
as indentured servants. Since they usually had to
complete their terms of service before marrying, they
did not begin to form families until their mid-twenties.

Sir William Berkeley, governor of colonial Virginia

In 1618 the House of Burgess was

built for representation of the
colonists. The House of burgesses
was hardly a model of democracy
only landowners could not and the
company and its appointed governor
retained the right to nullify any
measure the body adapt.

English exchanged goods with native population and

Indians often traveled through colonial settlements.
Fur traders on the frontiers of settlements sometimes
married Indians. Most English settlers however
remained separate from their Indian neighbors.
Colonial courts recorded numerous sales of Indian
land to governments or individual settlers. To keep
peace some lands were off limits to settlers

The Growth of

An Atlantic World

Social Classes in
the Colonies

The Colonial


Robert King Carters home in Virginia was the

speaker of the House of Burgesses acquired
300,000 acres of land and 1,000 slaves

Built in the 1750s by Carter Burwell, grandson of

the original Robert King Carter

Mt. Vernon the home of George Washington Is in Virginia outside

of Washington the background shows the Potomac River. George
Washingtons great grand father and grand fathers were justices
of the peace.

William Byrd and his

Virginia Estate

Wealthy Americans tried to model their lives on British etiquette and

behavior and tried to emulate their wealth. William Byrd lived so
extravagantly that by 1770 he had accumulated a 100,000 pound

Spotswood, the
governor of Virginia
warned planters to
be vigilant. The
desire for slaves
wanting freedom he
reminded them can
"call together all
those who long to
shake off the fetters
of slavery.

By 1700 blacks constituted more

than 10% of Virginias population.
Fifty years later they made up
50%. The House of Burgesses in
1705 enacted a new slave code.
Bringing together the scattered
legislation of the previous century
and adding new provision that
embedded the principle of white
supremacy in the law. Slaves
were property completely subject
to the will of the master. And
more generally of the white
community. They could be
bought and sold leased fought
over in court

Lord Baltimore is Cecilius Calvert

a Roman Catholic

Celcilius Calvert, the son

of recently deceased
favorite of King Charles I.
The charter made Calvert
proprietor of the colony
and granted him full, free
and absolute power/
Calvert imagined
Maryland as a feudal
domain Land would be laid
out in manors with the
owners paying quitrents to
the proprietor. Calvert
dislike representative
institutions and ordinary
people should not meddle
in governmental affairs.

Religious toleration accepted

Lord Baltimore was taken out of his

position of proprietor for Maryland.
He had mismanaged his territory.
Catholicism was tolerated. In 1715
the Baltimore's converted to
Anglicanism to restore proprietary

Body of Liberties of 1641 made provision for slavery in

the Bible Common wealth, there were very few slaves
in the 1600s in New England. Nor were indentured
servants as central to the economy as in the
Chesapeake. Most households relied on labor of their
own members including women. Body of Liberties
allowed slavery in New England



A Diverse Population

Attracting Settlers

Mayflower Compact

Agreement Between the Settlers at New Plymouth : 1620

IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN. We, whose names are underwritten,
the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the
Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of
the Faith, &c. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and
Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and
Country, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of
Virginia; Do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually, in the Presence
of God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a
civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and
Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid: And by Virtue hereof do enact,
constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts,
Constitutions, and Officers, from time to time, as shall be thought most
meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony; unto which we
promise all due Submission and Obedience.
IN WITNESS whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at CapeCod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King
James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland
the fifty-fourth, Anno Domini; 1620.Mr. John Carver

Mayflower Compact

Mr. William Bradford

Mr Edward Winslow

Mr. William Brewster

Isaac Allerton

Myles Standish

John Alden

John Turner

Francis Eaton

James ChiltonJohn

John Billington

Moses Fletcher

John Goodman

Mr. William Mullins

Mr. William White
Mr. Richard Warren
John Howland
Mr. Steven HopkinsDigery Priest
Thomas Williams
Gilbert Winslow
Edmund Margesson
Peter Brown
Richard Britteridge
George Soule
Edward Tilly
John Tilly
Francis CookeThomas Rogers
Thomas Tinker
John Ridgdale
Edward Fuller
Richard Clark

Mr. Samuel Fuller

Mr. Christopher Martin
Richard Gardiner
Mr. John Allerton
Thomas English
Edward Doten
Edward Liester

Mayflower Compact

Plymouth Colony

Although the Puritans never abandoned

the idea that economic activity should
serve the general welfare, Boston
merchants soon came to exercise a
decisive influence in Public Affairs. The
government of Massachusetts Bay
Colony actively promoted economic
development by building roads and
bridges, offering bounties to economic
enterprise and abandoning laws limiting
prices. The Puritan experiment would
evolve into a merchant dominated
colonial government. Free market
capitalism evolved from the City on the
Hill. God helps those who help
themselves. If you were one of the
chosen then God will reward you on
earth. Make money and invest the
money. The Puritans had great research
and development for the motive was
both religious and economical. The
Puritans rarely spent their profits on


The Massachusetts Bay Colony

John Winthrop and the

Massachusetts Bay Colony

There was great variance in

distribution of wealth. In
Essex County,
Massachusetts the number
of poor persons warned out
each year rose from 200 in
the 1730s to 1700 in the
1760s. Many were
members of families head
by widows

Colonial Life/ Headright


John Cotton and Ann

Hutchinson both were
exiled from Boston. There
crime was Antinomianism
a term for putting ones
own judgment or faith
above both human law
and the teachings of the
church. Hutchinson's
position being a women
made her defiance seem
even more outrageous.
Governor Winthrop and
her were neither comely
in the sight of God nor
fitting your sex was the
quote of Winthrop to

Stoic, tough little emotions your world was of gods.

Example of the public confession of Puritans

sins. You must renounce sins to community

Two years before Harvard's death the

Massachusetts Bay Colonydesiring to
"advance learning and perpetuate it to
posterity: dreading to leave an illiterate
ministry to the churches, when our present
ministers shall lie in the dust"
appropriated 400 toward a "schoale or
colledge"[3] at what was then called
Newtowne.[11] In an oral will spoken to his
wife[12] the childless Harvard, who had
inherited considerable sums from his
father, mother, and brother,[citation
needed] bequeathed to the school 780
(half of his monetary estate, with the
remainder to his wife)[5] as well asand
perhaps more importantly[13]his 320volume scholar's library.[6] It was
subsequently ordered "that the Colledge
agreed upon formerly to bee built at
Cambridg shalbee called Harvard
Colledge."[3] (Even before Harvard's
death, Newtowne had been renamed[3]
Cambridge, after the English university
attended by many early colonists,
including Harvard himself.)[14]

The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico (in Spanish: Real y

Pontificia Universidad de Mxico) was founded on 21 September
1551 by Royal Decree signed by Charles I of Spain, in Valladolid,
Spain.[1] It is generally considered the first university officially[2]
founded in North America and second in the Americas (preceded
by the National University of San Marcos in Lima, Peru, chartered
on May 12 of the same year).
After the Mexican War of Independence it was renamed
University of Mexico. It was closed during the years 1833, 1857,
1861 and 1865; the main reason being that it was not well
regarded by the liberals, who called it an example of cultural lag.
During the Second Mexican Empire, the University was reopened
by Maximilian I of Mexico and, after the victory by the liberals in
1867, closed for good. Scattered institutions, mainly civil colleges
founded by the liberals and religious establishments outside
Mexico City, continued without interruption.

Massachusetts Press.
First Press in North
America. Not affiliated
with Harvard

Royal University of Mexico is

the oldest of the universities
in North America was founded

A force of Connecticut and Massachusetts solders augmented

by Narragansett allies surrounded the main Pequot village at
Mystic and set it ablaze killing those who tried to escape Over
500 lost their lives in the massacre. This destroyed the largest
of the Indian groups.

Indians versus territories of the Massachusetts Bay


Concerned about the legality of conflicting land claims given to

several companies including the New England Company to the
still little-known territories of the New World, and because of the
increasing number of Puritans that wanted to join the company,
the company leaders sought a Royal Charter for the colony.
Charles granted the new charter on 4 March 1628/9,[26]
superseding the land grant and establishing a legal basis for the
new English colony at Massachusetts. It was not apparent that
Charles knew the Company was meant to support the Puritan
emigration, and he was likely left to assume it was purely for
business purposes, as was the custom. The charter omitted a
significant clause the location for the annual stockholders'
meeting. After Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629, the
company's directors met to consider the possibility of moving
the company's seat of governance to the colony. This was
followed the Cambridge Agreement later that year, in which a
group of investors agreed to emigrate and work to buy out
others who would not. The Massachusetts Bay Colony became
the first English chartered colony whose board of governors did
not reside in England. This independence helped the settlers to
maintain their Puritan religious practices with very little
oversight by the king, Archbishop Laud, and the Anglican
Church. The charter remained in force for 55 years, when, as a
result of colonial insubordination with trade, tariff and navigation

Thomas Smith was a seventeenth-century Anglo-American mariner

and artist. He is the earliest painter in New England for whom a
specific canvas can beidentified his self-portrait (fig. 1). Based on
stylistic similarities to that painting, five additional surviving works
have been attributed to Smith. Besides his role as an artist,
interpretations of Smith's autobiographical painting suggestthat he
fought in naval battles and was a Puritan. Genealogists have
proposed that Smith came from Bermuda about 1650, though that
theory is unsubstantiated.1 Numerous references to Thomas Smith
exist in contemporary documents, but because many men shared the
same name in Boston at the time, it is extremely difficult to provide
further details about the artist's life.
Smith's style embodied the arrival of baroque taste in American
painting. Previous New England artists worked in the Elizabethan
court style, including the unknown painter who executed portraits of
the Freake family. That style emphasized line and the decorative use
of color, whereas baroque painters strove to convey the effects of
light and shadow to create believable illusions of forms in space.
Smith typified the baroque style through his concern with modeling as
well as with his relatively somber palette and free brushwork.2
Important European prototypes of the baroque were Peter Lely (1617
1680) and Godfrey Kneller (16481723), whose work Smith probably
knew from imported prints.3

Colonies in Crisis

Changes in New

The Prosecution of

The Salem Witch Trials

Salem Witch Trials

Eventually Cotton
Mather and Incease
Mathre wrote that
juries should not take
in consideration the
notion of witches
with deliberations

Thomas Smith: Puritan

artist, entrepreneur,
navigator and wealthy
business man

An illustration from Cotton Mathers

Dissent from Puritanism

Hooker arrived in Boston and settled in Newtown (later renamed Cambridge), where
he became the pastor of the First Parish Church. His parish became known as "Mr.
Hooker's Company".[5]
Hooker and Company Journeying through the Wilderness from Plymouth to Hartford,
in 1636, Frederic Edwin Church, 1846
Voting in Massachusetts was limited to freemen, individuals who had been formally
admitted to their church after a detailed interrogation of their religious views and
experiences. Hooker disagreed with this limitation of suffrage, putting him at odds
with the influential pastor John Cotton. Owing to his conflict with Cotton and
discontented with the suppression of Puritan suffrage and at odds with the colony
leadership,[8] Hooker and the Rev. Samuel Stone led a group of about 100[9] who, in
1636, founded the settlement of Hartford, named for Stones place of birth: Hertford,
in England.[10]
This led to the founding of the Connecticut Colony.[5][11] Hooker became more
active in politics in Connecticut. The General Court representing Wethersfield,
Windsor and Hartford met at the end of May 1638 to frame a written constitution in
order to establish a government for the commonwealth. Hooker preached the
opening sermon at First Church of Hartford on May 31, declaring that "the foundation
of authority is laid in the free consent of the people."[12]
On January 14, 1639, freemen from these three settlements ratified the
"Fundamental Orders of Connecticut" in what John Fiske called "the first written
constitution known to history that created a government.

Thomas Hookers home in Hartford,


John Smith


Global Competition and

the Expansion of
England's Empire

The Founding of Carolina

The Holy Experiment

1669 Proposed to establish

a feudal society with a
hereditary nobility with
titles of serfs and slaves.
Needing to attract settlers
quickly the proprietors
provided for an elected
assembly and religious
toleration. By now religious
toleration was accepted in
the new world. The head
right system offering of 150
acres for each member of
the family arriving to the
Carolinas. And 100 acres to
male servants who
completed their terms.
Slavery not feudalism made
South Carolina a hierarchal

Global Competition and

the Expansion of
England's Empire

The Conquest of New Netherland

New York and the Rights of

Englishmen and Englishwomen

New York and the Indians

The Charter of Liberties

Social Classes in
the Colonies

The South Carolina Aristocracy

Poverty in the Colonies

Charlestown, South Carolina port with the

Atlantic and Ashley and Cooper Rivers

Charleston, SC 1680 with Ashley and Cooper Rivers

Charleston District per capita wealth was 2,300

more than four times that of tobacco areas in
Virginia and eight times the figure for Philadelphia
or Boston. Wealth in South Carolina was highly
concentrated. The richest 10% of the colony
owned half the wealth in 1770, the poorest quarter
less than 2%

New York and

New Jersey

King Charles II
awarded the New
colony to his
younger brother
James II. James
renames this area
New York, since
James was the
duke of York.

y and the

Robert Livingston had

160,000 acres of land and
Frederick Philipse was given
90,000 acres . By 1700 only
five families owned New York

This portrait of the Cheney family

In 1683 the duke agreed to

call an elected assembly
whose first act was to draft
a charter of Liberties and
Privileges. The Charter
required that elections be
held every three years
among male property
owners and the freeman of
New York City. It also
reaffirmed traditional
English rights such as trial
by jury and security of
property as well as
religious toleration for all
Protestants. Liberties' went

A womens work is never done. Mary Cooper a Long

Island woman wrote this in her diary in 1769. I left my
fathers house and came here, and here have I seen
little else but hard labor and sorrow

The Founding

De Lanceys,
Livingston's and Van
Rensselaers were
strong ruling families
in New York.
Penn Family in
A few landholders in
the south
No family in Colonial
America could rival
the families in
England as far as
power and wealth

An early eighteenth-century
Depicts William Penn

Global Competition and

the Expansion of
England's Empire

Quaker Liberty

Land in Pennsylvania

William Penn the founder of Pennsylvania on top of the Administration

building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

William Penns Treaty with the Indians

Germans 110, in all formed the largest group of newcomers

from the European continent. Most came from Rhine River
which is also Switzerland. Those who found themselves
worshiping the wrong religion faced persecution. Germans
tended to travel in entire families. English and Dutch
tended to travel with well organized systems which were
called redemption. Most Germans went to Pennsylvania and
the south backcountry.

A visitor in
Pennsylvania in
1750 described
the colonys
religious diversity
We find there
Lutherans ,
Moravian, Seventh
Day Baptist, Jews
and Pagans.

A Quaker Meeting,

William Penns Home

William Penn stated it was

best to have many
different types of religions
since this will help from a
problem of checks and
balance. If there are two
religions the chance of one
taking over the other is
great. But if there are
many religions the chance
of tyranny is less likely.

Bushel's Case arose from a previous case involving two Quakers charged
with unlawful assembly, William Penn and William Mead. They had been
arrested in August 1670 for violating the Conventicle Act, which forbade
religious assemblies of more than five people outside the auspices of the
Church of England. The jury found the two "guilty of speaking in
Gracechurch Street" but refused to add "to an unlawful assembly". The
infuriated judge charged the jury that they "shall not be dismissed until we
have a verdict that the court will accept".
The jury modified the verdict to "guilty of speaking to an assembly in
Gracechurch Street", whereupon the judge had them locked up overnight
without food, water or heat. Penn protested this and the judge ordered him
bound and gagged (it is not known whether this order was carried out).
Finally, after a two-day fast, the jury returned a not guilty verdict. The
judge fined the jury for returning a verdict contrary to their own findings of
fact. Penn protested that this violated the laws of the Magna Carta and
was forcibly removed from the court.
The judge found the jury in contempt of court and removed them to prison.
Edward Bushel, a member of the jury, nonetheless refused to pay the fine.
Decision[edit source | editbeta]
Bushel petitioned the Court of Common Pleas for a writ of habeas corpus.
Sir John Vaughan, Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, initially held
that the writ should not be granted, saying that it was King's Bench that
should issue writs of habeas corpus in ordinary criminal cases and that
Common Pleas could issue the writ only on a claim of privilege of the court
(e.g., if the petitioner were an attorney of Common Pleas); the other
justices issued the writ, however,[2] Vaughan ruled that a jury could not be

A German-language illustrated family record

from late seventeenth-century Pennsylvania.

Origins and Status of Migrants to British North

American colonies, 17001775

Colonial consumerism in a modern sense the mass

production, advertising and sale of consumer goods
did not exist but there were a wide variety of
possessions with people. Tea once a luxury became
virtually a necessity of life. Even modest farmers and
artisans owned books, ceramic plates, metal cutlery
and items made of imported silk and cotton.

At. A 1721 conference a

group of colonial and
Indian leaders reaffirmed
Penns Chain of
Friendship. But conflicts
over land soon
multiplied. The infamous
Walking Purchase of
1737 brought the
fraudulent deal so
common in other
colonies to Pennsylvania.
The Lenni Lape Indians
agreed to an
arrangement to cede a
tract of land bounded by
the distance a man could
walk in 35 hours.
Governor James Logan
hired a team of swift
runner to make the

Inventions of 17-18th century America

Cotton gin


and War

Colonies in

King Philips War

With King Philips War of

1675 and Bacons
Rebellion the following
year coincided with the
disturbances in other
colonies. In Maryland
where the proprietor Lord
Baltimore in 1670 had
suddenly restricted the
right to vote tow owners of
fifty acres of land.
Problems with Indians with
rebellion of Westo Indians
who suppressed in in 1680.
the Pueblo Revolution,
there was a crisis of
colonial authority.

King Philips War

Metacom or Phillip and

Wampanoag Indians were
annihilated in 1676 because
the Iroquois and colonist
gather forces and destroyed
this Wampanoag war chief or
sachem. o King Philip's War,
was a widespread uprising
against English colonists in
New England.
Philip was quartered his
severed head mounted on a
pike at Plymouth

This book tells the story of Mary Rowlandsons experience as a captive and a survivor of the
Narragansett Indians and how her faith gave her strength. Around 1637, Mary Rowlandson
was born in a farming family in the south of England. Her father, John White, and her mother,
Joan White had been married in 1627. Mary was the fifth of eight children born to John and
Joan White. Later, Mary Rowllandson became wife of Lancaster, Massachusetts minister Joseph
Rowlandson. She had three children at the time of her capture.
The White and Rowlandson families move to Lancaster leaving Marys twenty-year-old brother,
Thomas to charge of the Wenham holdings. In 1675, during the Metacoms War or King Philips
War, Mary Rowlandson was captured by the Nipmuc, Narragnsett, and Wampanoag Indians.
The Metacoms War was not a war between strangers, the war was one between neighbors.
The Indians and the Puritans had been living together and sharing the land for many years.
The war was a result of the different approaches to land use and land ownership. The English
felt that they had a right to exclusively own and use the land and the Indians felt that the land
belonged to all people and so all had access.
Before the Metacoms war starts, human beings were divided into Civilized and Savage
European Christians were civilized by virtue of their religious, political, and cultural
institutions and practices. Native American and other were savages to be religiously
superstitious and lacked European hallmarks of civilization such as the nation-state and
private property. During the seventeenth century, the Native people, Southern New England:
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island of population was more than one hundred
thousand. But Colonists soon brought devastating epidemics of smallpox and other disease to
which Indians lacked sufficient immunity, reducing the population in some areas around 90%.
But Southern New England was not worst than the eastern coast.
Little before sixteenth century, native communities were connected with one another thought
elaborate ties of exchange. Many of the objects exchanges were valued primarily for their
spiritual powers-certain minerals like quartz, for example, and sea shells such as the quahog,
which was used to make scared wampum beads.
In March 1975, John Sassamon informed Governor Jo

Mary Rowlandson, ne White, later

Mary Talcott (c. 1637 January 5,
1711) was a colonial American
woman who was captured by Native
Americans[1][2] during King Philip's
War and held for 11 weeks before
being ransomed. In 1682, six years
after her ordeal, The Sovereignty and
Goodness of God: Being a Narrative
of the Captivity and Restoration of
Mrs. Mary Rowlandson was published.
This text is considered a seminal
American work in the literary genre of
captivity narratives. It went through
four printings in 1682 and garnered
readership both in the New England
colonies and in England, leading it to
be considered by some the first
American "bestseller."


Bacons Rebellion and Southern Conflicts

When Berkeley refused to go against the Native Americans, farmers gathered around at the report of a new
raiding party. Nathaniel Bacon arrived with a quantity of brandy; after it was distributed, he was elected
leader. Against Berkeley's orders, the group struck south until they came to the Occaneechi tribe. After
getting the Occaneechi to attack the Susquehanock, Bacon and his men followed by killing most of the
men, women, and children at the village. Upon their return, they discovered that Berkeley had called for
new elections to the Burgesses in order to better facilitate the Indian problem.[8]
The recomposed House of Burgesses enacted a number of sweeping reforms. (Bacon was not serving his
duty in the House; rather, he was at his plantation miles away.) It limited the powers of the governor and
restored suffrage rights to landless freemen.[9]
After passage of these laws, Bacon arrived with 500 followers in Jamestown to demand a commission to
lead militia against the Indians. The governor, however, refused to yield to the pressure. When Bacon had
his men take aim at Berkeley, he responded by "bearing his breast" to Bacon and told Bacon to shoot him
himself. Seeing that the Governor would not be moved, Bacon then had his men take aim at the assembled
burgesses, who quickly granted Bacon his commission. Bacon had earlier been promised a commission
before he retired to his estate if he could only be on "good" behavior for two weeks. While Bacon was at
Jamestown with his small army, eight colonists were killed on the frontier in Henrico County (where he
marched from) due to a lack of manpower on the frontier.[10]
On July 30, 1676, Bacon and his army issued the "Declaration of the People of Virginia." The declaration
criticized Berkeley's administration in detail. It accused him of levying unfair taxes, appointing friends to
high positions, and failing to protect frontier settlers from Indian attack.
Beginning to move against the Indians, Bacon and his men attacked the innocent (and friendly) Pamunkey.
The tribe had remained allies of the English throughout other Indian raids. They were supplying warriors to
aid the English when Bacon took power.
Illustration of the burning of Jamestown
After months of conflict, Bacon's forces, numbering 300-500 men, moved to Jamestown. They burned the
colonial capital to the ground on September 19, 1676. Outnumbered, Berkeley retreated across the river.
[11] Before an English naval squadron could arrive to aid Berkeley and his forces, Bacon died from
dysentery on October 26, 1676.[12][13] John Ingram took over leadership of the rebellion, but many
followers drifted away. The Rebellion did not last long after that. Berkeley launched a series of successful
amphibious attacks across the Chesapeake Bay and defeated the rebels. His forces defeated the small
pockets of insurgents spread across the Tidewater. Thomas Grantham, a Captain of a ship cruising the York
River, used cunning and force to disarm the rebels. He tricked his way into the garrison of the rebellion, and
promised to pardon everyone involved once they got back onto the ship. However, once they were safely
ensconced in the hold, he trained the ship's guns on them, and disarmed the rebellion. Through various
other tactics, the other rebel garrisons were likewise overcome.[

Revolution in

in Crisis

The Glorious Revolution

Colonies in Crisis

The Maryland Uprising

Leislers Rebellion

Sir Edmund
Andros was
governor of
New England
Domination in
the mid
1670s. He
used the
Iroquois as his
ally in
defeating the
other 5 Indian

The relatively nonviolent Glorious Revolution had

the great contribution of having the Bill of Rights
signed. The new monarchs William and Mary had to
be checked by the constitution of England and Divine
Right was dead. England had become a constitutional
James advocated the throne by the Parliament. James
daughter Mary betrayed him and with husband
William ruled the William and Mary reign.

In 1689 the Iroquois English Covenant Chain

alliances challenged New Frances fur trade
empire and in response the French pressed
farther west. In the far north the English
countered with establishment of Hudson's
Bay Company a royal fur trade monopoly .
The competition in the colonies was part of a
larger conflict between England and France
over the War of the Grand Alliance or King
Williams War. The French and their Indian
allies attacked and burned frontier
settlements in New York and the Iroquois.
England briefly captured port Royal. The war
ended with an inconclusive peace

Before 1689 Sir Edmund Andros

leader of the Dominion of New
England was taken out of office by
William and Mary. Andross actions
alienated nearly everyone not
dependent on his administration for
favors. He appointed local officials in
place of elected ones. Imposed taxes
without the approval of elected
representatives, declared earlier land
grants void unless approved by him
and religious tolerance was only for

Jacob Leisler was German born

married into wealth and was one
of the wealthiest people in New
York. Was fervent Calvinist who
feared that James II intended to
reduce England and its empire
to popery and slavery. The
Dutch did not like Leislers rule
which the Dutch had lost for 20
years. Seeing the opportunity
to take down Leisler the Dutch
overtook his rule. The King of
England was slow on the matter
and did pardon Jacob Leisler but
the papers came too slow. The
Dutch killed Leisler and the
conflict in New York has been
Leisler versus Anti-Leisler.

This piece of china

was made in

The Bill of Rights laid out certain basic rights for (at the time) all Englishmen.
The Act set out that there should be:
no royal interference with the law. Though the sovereign remains the fount of
justice, he or she cannot unilaterally establish new courts or act as a judge.
no taxation by Royal Prerogative. The agreement of the parliament became
necessary for the implementation of any new taxes
freedom to petition the monarch without fear of retribution
no standing army may be maintained during a time of peace without the consent
of parliament.[7]
no royal interference in the freedom of the people to have arms for their own
defence as suitable to their class and as allowed by law (simultaneously
restoring rights previously taken from Protestants by James II)
no royal interference in the election of members of parliament
the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be
impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament
"grants and promises of fines or forfeitures" before conviction are void
no excessive bail or "cruel and unusual" punishments may be imposed
Certain acts of James II were also specifically named and declared illegal by the
Bill of Rights, while James' flight from England in the wake of the Glorious
Revolution was also declared to be an abdication of the throne.
Also, in a prelude to the Act of Settlement to come twelve years later, the Bill of
Rights barred Roman Catholics from the throne of England as "it hath been found
by experience that it is inconsistent with the safety and welfare of this Protestant
kingdom to be governed by a papist prince"; thus William III and Mary II were
named as the successors of James VII and II and that the throne would pass from
them first to Mary's heirs, then to her sister, Princess Anne of Denmark and her
heirs and, further, to any heirs of William by a later marriage. The monarch was
further required to swear a coronation oath to maintain the Protestant religion.

European settlement and ethnic diversity on the

Atlantic coast of North America, 1760

The Growth of
Colonial America

The Consumer

Colonial Cities

Colonial Artisans

King Williams War

King William III, a portrait

by an unknown
artist, painted around 1697.

Social Classes in
the Colonies

The Middle Ranks

Women and the Household


Grand Council
of the Iroquois Nations

Colonial cities
Mexico had
people, Boston
had 6,000 and
New York
4,500 Eight
cities in
Mexico were
larger than
colonial cities.

Husbandry reported
that little
freeholders who live
upon their own
property made up
the population of
America. This was
far different than
that of England

Credit was used

and used well by
the colonist. People
used credit for
everyday sense of
life. Now we look at
credit as an
entitlement. See