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TLIB307C

Carry out vehicle


servicing and
maintenance
Learner Guide
Contents
What this Learner’s Guide is about ........................................ 1  
Planning your learning ........................................................... 2  
How you will be assessed ...................................................... 5  

Section 1............................................................................................. 7  
Diagnose basic faults and undertake repair for the safe
operation of a vehicle ............................................................. 7  

Section 2........................................................................................... 39  
Carry out minor repairs to a vehicle ..................................... 39  

Section 3........................................................................................... 55  
Tyre maintenance and repair ............................................... 55  

Additional resources ....................................................................... 76  

Feedback on activities .................................................................... 78  


TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

What this Learner’s Guide is about

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  about  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  carry  
out  basic  servicing  and  maintenance  of  a  commercial  vehicle,  including  
action  to  implement  the  vehicle  manufacturer's  specifications  for  
routine  checks  and  maintenance  and  to  ensure  that  all  specified  safety  
requirements  are  met  and  that  the  vehicle  is  operational  to  the  
requirements  of  both  the  workplace  and  the  relevant  state/territory  
roads  and  traffic  authority.  

The  Elements  of  Competency  from  the  unit  TLIB307C  Carry  out  vehicle  
servicing  and  maintenance  covered  in  this  Learner’s  Guide  are  listed  
below.  
Maintain  and  service  the  vehicle  systems  
Carry  out  minor  repairs  to  a  vehicle  
Diagnose  minor  vehicle  faults  and  undertake  repairs  for  the  
safe  operation  of  a  vehicle  
Complete  documentation  
This  unit  of  competency  is  from  the  Transport  and  Logistics  
Training  Package  (TLI07).  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 1


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Planning your learning

It  is  important  to  plan  your  learning  before  you  start  because  you  may  
already  have  some  of  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  are  covered  in  this  
Learner’s  Guide.  This  might  be  because:  
• you  have  been  working  in  the  industry  for  some  time,  
and/or  
• you  have  already  completed  training  in  this  area.  

Together  with  your  supervisor  or  trainer  use  the  checklists  on  the  
following  pages  to  help  you  plan  your  study  program.  Your  answers  to  
the  questions  in  the  checklist  will  help  you  work  out  which  sections  of  
this  Learner’s  Guide  you  need  to  complete.  

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  written  with  the  idea  that  learning  is  made  more  
relevant  when  you,  the  learner,  are  actually  working  in  the  industry.  
This  means  that  you  will  have  people  within  the  enterprise  who  can  
show  you  things,  discuss  how  things  are  done  and  answer  any  
questions  you  have.  Also  you  can  practise  what  you  learn  and  see  how  
what  you  learn  is  applied  in  the  enterprise.  

If  you  are  working  through  this  Learner’s  Guide  and  have  not  yet  found  
a  job  in  the  industry,  you  will  need  to  talk  to  your  trainer  about  doing  
work  experience  or  working  and  learning  in  some  sort  of  simulated  
workplace.    

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ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Section 1: Identify various components of a


commercial vehicle and describe
their operation

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. identify  nominated  components  of  a  
commercial  vehicle?        
2. describe  the  operation  of  the  electrical  
system,  trace  the  system  and  identify  the  
major  components?          
3. carry  out  basic  fault  diagnosis  and  repair  to  
a  commercial  vehicle  electrical  system?          
4. describe  the  operation  of  the  fuel  system,  
trace  the  system  and  identify  the  major  
components?        
5. carry  out  basic  fault  diagnosis  and  repair  to  
a  commercial  vehicle  fuel  system?  

Section 2: Describe safe use maintenance of


hand tools and undertake minor
repairs

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. describe  safe  commercial  vehicle  
workshop  activities?        
2. demonstrate  the  correct  use  and  
maintenance  of  basic  hand  tools?        
3. undertake  minor  repairs  to  a  commercial  
vehicle?          
 

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 3


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Section 3: Tyre changing and principles of


wheel technology

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. describe  the  safety  procedures  associated  
with  mounting  and  dismounting  truck  
tyres?        
2. describe  the  principles  of  tyre  and  wheel  
technology,  identify  and  explain  the  
cause(s)  of  tyre  wear  patterns?          
3. dismount  and  remount  a  commercial  
vehicle  wheel?          
4. disassemble  and  reassemble  a  multipiece  
commercial  vehicle  wheel  trim?        
5. repair  a  puncture  in  a  commercial  vehicle  
tyre  inner  tube?  
       

Page 4 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

How you will be assessed

Assessment  of  this  Unit  of  Competency  will  include  observation  of  real  
or  simulated  work  processes  using  workplace  procedures  and  
questioning  on  underpinning  knowledge  and  skills.  It  must  be  
demonstrated  in  an  actual  or  simulated  work  situation  under  
supervision.  

You  will  be  required  to:  


• change  a  fuse  in  a  vehicle  
• replace  a  tail  light  (or  other)  lens  
• change  a  wheel.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 5


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

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ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Section 1

Diagnose basic faults and


undertake repair for the safe
operation of a vehicle

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 7


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Identify  nominated  components  of  a  commercial  vehicle  

Describe  the  operation  of  the  electrical  system,  trace  the  system  and  
identify  the  major  components  

Carry  out  basic  fault  diagnosis  and  repair  to  a  commercial  vehicle  
electrical  system  

Describe  the  operation  of  the  fuel  system,  trace  the  system  and  
identify  the  major  components  

Carry  out  a  basic  fault  diagnosis  and  repair  to  a  commercial  vehicle  fuel  
system  

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ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Describe the operation of the electrical system

The  various  electrical  systems  fitted  in  a  motor  vehicle  are  designed  to:  
• allow  the  vehicle  to  be  operated  safely  regardless  of  the  
road  or  weather  conditions  and  the  time  of  the  day  
• alert  the  driver  when  a  problem  occurs  with  any  of  the  
vital  systems  
• provide  adequate  comfort  for  the  driver  and  passengers  
• indicate  to  the  driver  that  the  electrical  parts  are  
operating.  

A  basic  electrical  system  has:  


• a  power  supply,  to  provide  electrical  energy  
• a  protective  device,  to  protect  the  system  from  serious  
damage  
• a  control  unit,  to  connect  and  disconnect  the  power  to  or  
from  the  work  unit  
• a  work  unit,  to  produce  heat,  light,  movement  or  sound  
• leads  and  cables,  to  attach  each  of  the  parts  to  the  circuit.  

To  suit  the  motor  vehicle  application  the  circuit  is  usually:  


• single  pole,  insulated  copper  wires  carry  the  current  from  
the  positive  terminal  of  the  power  supply  to  the  work  unit  
• negative  earth  return  where  the  chassis  or  the  body  
returns  the  current  from  the  work  unit  to  the  negative  
terminal  of  the  power  supply.  

Note  that  some  vehicles  have  positive  earth  return.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 9


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Safety and warning devices

When  a  vehicle  is  being  used  between  dusk  and  dawn,  regardless  of  
weather  conditions,  it  is  important  that  the  road  and  its  surroundings  
are  clearly  illuminated  and  other  road  users  are  alert  to  your  
intentions.  The  system  that  achieves  these  functions  will  include:  
1. Headlights,  to  illuminate  the  road  ahead  for  a  distance  that  
will  give  you  sufficient  time  to  react  to  any  change  in  
conditions.  A  switch  allows  the  light  beam  to  be  dipped  
which  will  prevent  the  drivers  of  oncoming  traffic  from  
being  dazzled.  Two  or  four  lights  are  mounted  on  the  front  
of  the  vehicle  and  are  controlled  by  switches  which  you  
can  easily  reach.  
2. Park,  tail  and  number  plate  lights  to  convey:  
− the  vehicle’s  size  and  its  position  on  the  road  at  night  
− to  illuminate  the  rear  number  plate.  
3. Indicator  lights,  to  provide  a  flashing  signal  to  indicate  the  
direction  the  vehicle  is  going  to  turn.  The  operating  switch  
is  located  on  the  steering  column.  
4. Clearance  lights,  located  on  the  sides  and  across  the  front  
and  rear  of  the  vehicle  to  indicate  to  other  road  users  the  
size  of  your  vehicle.  
5. Horn,  to  provide  a  signal  that  will  attract  the  attention  of  
other  road  users.  The  horn  button  is  located  on  the  
steering  wheel  or  the  steering  column.  
6. Windscreen  wipers  and  washers,  to  provide  a  clear  vision  
through  the  windscreen  under  all  weather  conditions.  In  
some  cases,  a  similar  device  is  used  to  clean  the  rear  
window  and  the  headlights.  Its  control  switch  is  on  the  
instrument  panel  or  on  the  steering  column.  
7. Heater  and  demister,  to  remove  condensation  from  the  
inside  of  the  windscreen  and  windows.  The  two  systems  
used  are:  
− a  warm  air  stream  passed  over  the  inner  surface  of  the  
windscreen  the  heater/demister  unit  using  the  heat  from  the  
engine’s  cooling  system  to  warm  the  air  
− a  heating  element  placed  in  the  rear  window  glass  using  the  
heat  from  the  element  to  warm  the  glass.  
These  are  controlled  by  a  set  of  switches  and  levers  located  on  the  
instrument  panel.  

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ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

8. Stop  lights  consisting  of  two  red  lights  to  warn  other  road  
users  at  the  rear  of  the  vehicle  that  the  brakes  have  been  
applied  and  the  vehicle  is  slowing  down.  These  lights  are  
bright  enough  to  be  seen  in  sunlight  and  located  at  the  
rear  of  the  vehicle.  Their  switch  is  located  in  the  braking  
system  and  is  operated  by  the  movement  of  the  brake-­‐
pedal  or  by  hydraulic  pressure  as  the  brake  is  applied.  They  
may  be:  
− combined  with  the  tail-­‐lights  
− positioned  in  the  mudguards,  rear  window  or  included  in  the  
rear  light  assembly.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 11


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 1: What is the purpose of lights on a vehicle

What is the purpose of headlights on a vehicle?

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Why does a vehicle have reversing lights?

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What do the instrument lights in a motor vehicle do?

____________________________________________________

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There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

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ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 2: Draw your vehicle dashboard and illustrate various


controls

In the blank space provided below draw your vehicle’s dash and
the instrument panel. Locate on your drawing the various
instrument controls.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 13


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Instruments and gauges

For  the  safe  operation  of  the  vehicle  and  the  engine,  it  is  necessary  for  
you  to  be  able  to  monitor  the:  
• condition  of  the  vital  fluids  (oils,  fuel  and  water)  
• output  of  the  charging  system  
• operation  of  other  electrical  warning  systems  
• vehicle  road  speed.  

Each  of  these  is  monitored  by  a  gauge  or  a  light  switch  which  is  
controlled  by  a  sender  unit.  

The  most  common  circuits  are  to:  


• engine  oil  pressure  indicator  indicate  to  low  oil-­‐pressure  
• engine  coolant  temperature  indicator  warn  of  overheating  
• charging  indicator  to  indicate  the  charging  system’s  
condition  
• fuel  gauge  to  display  the  amount  of  fuel  in  the  fuel  tank  
• speedometer  (may  be  a  mechanical,  electrical  or  electronic  
device)  to  register  the  number  of  kilometres  per  hour  the  
vehicle  is  travelling  and  the  number  of  kilometres  the  
vehicle  has  travelled  
• brake  failure  warning  light  to  warn  of  brake  failure  
• turn  signal  indicators  to  show  which  set  of  indicators  are  
being  used  and  that  they  are  operating  correctly  
• high  beam  warning  light  to  alert  the  driver  that  headlights  
are  on  high  beam  
• park  brake  ‘ON’  indicator  to  warn  that  the  park  brake  is  on  
• rear  window  demister  ‘ON’  indicator  to  show  that  the  rear  
window  demister  is  on  
• tachometer  or  clock  when  fitted  to  register  the  engine’s  
rpm  or  displays  the  time,  respectively.  

These  lights  and  gauges  are  grouped  together  on  the  instrument  
panel.  The  instrument  panel  is  designed  so  that  it  can  be  viewed  easily  
by  the  driver.  

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ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Ancillaries  (accessories)  

Ancillaries  are  electrical  circuits  installed  to  add  to  the  comfort  and/or  
pleasure  of  those  persons  travelling  in  the  vehicle.  Some  of  these  
circuits  provide  the  following  features:  
• cigarette  lighter  
• clock  
• radio  and/or  cassette  player  
• trailer  socket  
• extra  lights.  

Testing equipment

The  common  types  of  testing  equipment  used  to  detect  faults  in  the  
body  electrical  system  are  the:  
• ammeter  
• voltmeter  
• ohmmeter  
• test-­‐light  
• series  test-­‐light.  

The  voltmeter  and  the  ohmmeter  may  be  combined  in  one  meter  
called  a  multimeter.  

The  ammeter  

The  ammeter  is  used  to  measure  the  current  flow  in  a  circuit.  It  must  
be  physically  connected  in  a  series  with  the  circuit  under  test.  

The  voltmeter  

The  voltmeter  is  used  to  measure  the  electrical  pressure  applied  to  a  
circuit  or  the  difference  in  electrical  pressure  (voltage  drop)  across  a  
component.  The  highest  scale  should  be  selected  before  the  first  
reading  is  observed.  The  scale  which  gives  the  most  accurate  reading  
can  then  be  selected.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 15


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

The  ohmmeter  

The  ohmmeter  is  used  to  measure  the  resistance  in  a  circuit  or  a  
component.  It  is  connected  across  the  circuit  or  the  component’s  input  
and  output  terminals  with  the  battery  disconnected.  In  some  cases,  it  
is  necessary  to  disconnect  the  component  from  the  circuit  so  that  an  
accurate  reading  can  be  obtained.  To  prepare  an  ohmmeter  for  
measuring  the  resistance  of  a  component,  you  must;  
• connect  the  red  and  black  test-­‐leads  to  the  red  and  black  
ohmmeter  terminals  
• select  the  lowest  scale  
• zero  the  needle:  
− turn  the  adjusting  knob  in  the  direction  required  to  set  the  
needle  above  the  zero  mark  
• disconnect  the  two  test-­‐probes.  

The  test-­‐light  

The  test  light  is  used  to  visually  check  that  voltage  is  being  applied  to  a  
component.  It  is  connected  between  any  circuit  lead  or  terminal  and  
body  (earth)  while  the  circuit  is  switched  on.  The  brilliance  of  the  light  
indicates  roughly  the  voltage  being  applied.  

The  series  test-­‐light  

The  series  test-­‐light  is  used  to  check  the  continuity  of  a  low  resistance  
component  such  as  a  switch  or  a  low  tension  (LT)  lead.  It  can  be  used  
to  check  for  a  short  circuit.  It  is  connected  across  the  component’s  
input  and  output  terminals  with  the  circuit  switched  off  or  the  battery  
disconnected.  In  some  cases,  it  may  be  necessary  to  disconnect  the  LT  
leads  from  the  components  to  obtain  the  correct  reading.  

Test  methods  

The  following  tests  can  be  carried  out  on  body  electrical  components  
and  the  vehicle  circuits:  
• resistance  
• voltage  drop  
• continuity  
• current  flow  
• short  circuit  
• open  circuit  
• internal  short  circuit.  

Page 16 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Fault diagnosis

Test  a  component  for  a  short  circuit  using  a  series  test-­‐light  by  


following  the  steps  below:  
1. prepare  the  series  test-­‐light  
2. disconnect  the  input  and  output  from  the  component  
− use  a  suitable  tool  to  disconnect  the  screw  type  
− pull  on  the  terminal  cover  to  disconnect  the  push-­‐on  type  
3. connect  the  red  test  clip  to  the  input  terminal  and  the  
black  test  clip  to  the  body  (earth)  on  the  component  
4. turn  on  the  test-­‐light  switch  
5. observe  the  test-­‐light  
− the  light  will  glow  when  a  short  circuit  exists  
6. turn  off  the  test-­‐light  switch  
7. disconnect  the  test-­‐light  clips  from  the  component  
8. connect  the  LT  leads  to  the  component  and  make  sure  
they  are  secure  
9. check  the  operation  of  the  circuit.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 17


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 3: Demonstrate the use of electrical test equipment

Demonstrate for your trainer or your mechanic the use of each


electrical test equipment with the following exercises:
• measure the current flow through an electrical part
• measure the voltage drop across an electrical part or circuit
• test a part for a short circuit with a series of test lights
• measure the resistance of a part.

Ask your trainer or the mechanic to interpret the circuit test results

Do you use other items of safety equipment that have not been
listed in this Learner’s Guide?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Page 18 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Removing, rewiring and replacing electrical


parts

Any  attempt  to  drive  your  vehicle  when  a  body  electrical  part  has  been  
removed  from  its  circuit  may  be  dangerous  and  must  be  prevented  by  
correctly  preparing  your  vehicle.  

To  prepare  your  vehicle  for  the  removal  and  replacement  of  body  
electrical  parts:  
• park  your  vehicle  on  a  flat  level  surface  
• select  neutral  and  chock  the  wheels  
• apply  the  park  brake  
• disconnect  the  battery.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 19


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 4: Remove and replace your battery

Remove and replace your battery. Ask your trainer to check your
work.

Did the learner Yes No


• ensure that all vehicle electrical switches
were switched off?
• remove the earth lead:
− loosen the terminal nut and spread the
clamp with a screwdriver
− if it was a very tight terminal did the
learner removed it with a puller or
remover
− remove the spring terminal with a pair of
pliers or pincers?
• loosen and remove the live terminal?
• unscrew the nuts or screws holding the
battery securing clamp?
• remove the battery clamp?
• lift the battery out of the vehicle?
• use a battery sling to remove the battery
when if it was in an awkward position?
• clean the battery posts and terminals?
• carefully lift the battery into its cradle:
− use a battery sling to replace battery?
• replace and tighten the live lead:
− position the lead and lower the terminal
on to its post
− ensure no damage was caused to the
seal between the case and the post (e.g.
by hammering it into place)
− firmly tighten the clamping bolt?
• replace and tighten the earth lead?

Page 20 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Did the learner Yes No


• smear the terminals and posts with
petroleum jelly to prevent corrosion:
− thoroughly clean tools in boiling water to
remove battery acid that would etch
them quickly?
• demonstrate the correct use of the following
hand tools:
− pliers
− screwdrivers
− spanners including socket, box or open
ended?
• demonstrate the cleaning and storage of all
tools used?
• document the removal and replacement of
battery in accordance with company
procedure?

Test a part for a short circuit with a series test-light

Did the learner Yes No


• prepare the series test-light, connect input
lead to the vehicle’s battery?
• disconnect the input and output leads from
the part:
− use a suitable tool to disconnect the
screw type
− pull on the terminal cover to disconnect
the push-on type?
• connect the red test-clip to the input terminal
and the black test-clip to the body (earth) on
the part being tested?
• turn on the test-light switch?
• observe the test-light to see if light glowed
the light will glow when a short circuit exists?
• turn off the test-light switch?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 21


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Did the learner Yes No


• disconnect the test-light clips from the part?
• disconnect the test-light input lead from the
vehicle’s battery?
• reconnect the input and output leads to the
part make sure they are secure?
• check the operation of the circuit?

Remove and replace a corroded LT terminal on a vehicle


component. Ask your trainer for feedback on your performance.

Page 22 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 5: Remove and replace a headlight unit

Demonstrate for your trainer or mechanic the removal and


replacement of a headlight (not affecting aim) on your vehicle. Ask
your trainer or your mechanic for assistance if required.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 23


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Short  circuit  in  your  vehicle  

The  shorting  out  or  continuous  globe/fuse  failure  could  be  caused  by  a  
wire  that  has  been  damaged  and  is  shorting  out  on  the  vehicle  body.  
This  problem  can  also  be  caused  by  having  an  incorrect  size  fuse  (  too  
small  for  the  given  current  flow).  To  repair,  check  fuse  and  replace  
with  the  correct  type  with  the  specific  amp  rating  to  make  sure  of  the  
maximum  protection  to  the  circuit.  

Page 24 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 6: Remove and replace an electrical fuse in your


vehicle

Replace an electrical fuse in your vehicle. Ask your trainer to check


your work.

Did the learner Yes No


• correctly locate fuse box?
• check fuse size (use the manufacture’s
manual to check size of fuse)?
• obtain correct size of fuse from the store?
• install fuse correctly?
• check the circuit for operation of the fuse?
• demonstrate the correct use of the following
hand tools:
− pliers
− screwdrivers
− spanners including, socket box or open
ended?
• demonstrate the cleaning and storage of all
tools used?

Replace a faulty electrical low tension lead. Ask your trainer to


check your work.

Did the learner Yes No


• select a roll of new LT lead with the same
amp rating or a higher amp rating than the
original?
• select the same colour wire for identification
purposes
• select suitable terminals and terminal covers
• use the same type as those which were cut
from the old lead?
• measure the length of the original lead and
cut the same length from the roll?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 25


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Did the learner Yes No


• correctly fit the terminal covers to the lead?
• lay the lead along the wiring harness?
• release the wiring harness tabs or spring
clips?
• use insulation tape (or clips) to secure the
lead to the wiring harness in several places?
• reclamp the wiring harness to the body?
• connect both ends of the lead to their
respective parts?
• connect the battery and check the operation
of the circuit?

Page 26 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 7: What could be the reason your headlights are not


working?

Think about why your headlights might not work. List below six
reasons why your headlights may not work.

1 ___________________________________________________

2 ___________________________________________________

3 ___________________________________________________

4 ___________________________________________________

5 ___________________________________________________

6 ___________________________________________________

Ask your trainer if there are other reasons for your headlight failure.
Write down his/her answer.

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 27


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Replace tail-light lens

To  remove  lens  from  external  light:  


• determine  the  retaining  method.  It  may  be:  
− two  or  more  screws  through  the  lens  
− two  or  more  screws  through  a  retainer  or  a  trim  
• using  a  suitable  screwdriver,  remove  the  screws  while  
holding  the  lens  
• remove  the  retainer  (where  applicable)  
• grip  the  lens  firmly  and  ease  it  away  from  the  light  body  
• remove  and  discard  the  seal  (if  seal  is  damaged)  
• obtain  the  replacement  lens  and  seal  from  stores:  
− make  sure  it  is  a  genuine  replacement  part  
• install  a  new  seal  (if  necessary)  to  the  body  of  the  lens  
• position  the  lens  on  the  light  body  
• secure  the  retaining  device:  
− insert  and  tighten  the  retaining  screws  while  the  lens  is  held  
firmly  against  the  light  body  
• check  that  tail-­‐lights  are  working.  
Side  mirrors  

Side  or  door  mirrors  are  an  important  safety  item  on  your  vehicle.  They  
allow  you  to  view  other  road  users  approaching  from  the  rear,  and  
they  assist  in  the  reversing  of  your  vehicle  when  a  load  may  obscure  
your  inside  mirror  viewing.  

Page 28 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 8: Remove and replace a door mirror

Remove and replace a broken door mirror. Ask your trainer for
feedback on the completed task.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 29


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Comparing petrol and diesel engines

Both  petrol  and  diesel  engines  are  internal  combustion  engines  


working  on  either  the  two  or  four  stroke  cycle.  The  basic  design  of  the  
engines  is  similar.  The  main  difference  between  the  two  is  the  method  
of  introducing  the  fuel  charge  into  the  combustion  chamber,  and  the  
means  employed  to  ignite  it.  

Some  advantages  of  using  the  diesel  engine  include:  


• it  uses  less  fuel  than  the  petrol  engine  of  a  similar  size.  
• it  is  more  economical.  
• diesel  fuel  can  be  stored  more  safely  than  petrol  (diesel  
fuel  is  less  volatile  than  petrol).  

Fuel  injection  system  

The  basic  fuel  injection  system  with  an  in-­‐line  injection  pump,  consists  
of  the  following  parts:  
• fuel  tank  
• fuel  tap  
• fuel  lift  pump  
• fuel  filter  
• fuel  injection  pump  
• governor  
• fuel  injectors  
• fuel  leak  off  pipe.  

Page 30 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 9: Identify engine faults


Ask your trainer or your mechanic to analyse and assist you to
diagnose the following engine faults. Ask them why your engine
might:

• overheat?
• have low oil pressure?
• have power loss?
• stops after starting?

List their answers briefly.

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 31


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Fuel  filters  

There  are  five  common  types  of  filter  in  use,  they  are:  
• resin  impregnated  paper  
• felt  
• cloth  
• cotton  
• ceramic  or  bronze.  

Page 32 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 10: Remove and replace a fuel filter on your vehicle


Visually inspect the fuel filter on your vehicle for water and other
contaminants.
Remove and replace the fuel filter on your vehicle.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 33


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

System  operational  sections  

The  fuel  injection  system  can  be  divided  into  three  operational  
sections,  consisting  of:  
1. air  
2. fuel  
3. electrical.  

The  air  system  consists  of:  


• air  snorkel,  fresh  air  pick-­‐up  point  for  the  air  cleaner  
• air  cleaner,  cleans  the  air  entering  the  engine  
• air  flow  meter  or  sensor.  

The  fuel  section  consists  of:  


• fuel  tank  and  fuel  reservoir  providing  a  surge  free  pick-­‐up  
zone  
• fuel  pump,  maintains  fuel  pressure  within  the  system  
• fuel  pressure  regulator,  controls  fuel  pressure  within  the  
system  
• fuel  filter,  makes  sure  clean  fuel  is  delivered  to  the  
injectors  
• fuel  injector  valve,  fuel  pressure  mechanical  or  electrically  
operated  or  activated.  

The  electrical  system  consists  of:  


• fuses  and  relays,  devices  that  protect  and  switch  the  
circuit  
• electronic  control  unit  (computer),  processes  sensor  
information  and  determines  injection  duration  
• system  sensor,  provides  computer  with  information  in  
relation  to  engine  operational  basis.  

Page 34 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 11: Air cleaner servicing

Does your air cleaner filter require regular attention?

Yes  No 

If yes, why?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Remove and replace a dirty air cleaner filter. Ask your trainer for
feedback on your performance.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 35


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Petrol  cap  

The  filler  cap  used  with  vapour  emission  control  systems  has  a  
pressure-­‐vacuum  valve  that  vents  air  into  the  tank  as  fuel  is  used  in  
order  to  prevent  tank  collapse.  Fuel  vapour  cannot  vent  to  the  outside  
atmosphere  unless  a  pressure  of  14  Kpa  (nominal)  above  atmosphere  
is  reached.  

Other  petrol  caps  incorporate  an  anti-­‐surge  mechanism  that  prevents  


fuel  spillage  through  the  cap  due  to  surge  when  cornering.  
Atmospheric  air  and  fuel  vapour  are  normally  free  to  pass  in  and  out  of  
the  fuel  system  preventing  tank  collapse  and/or  excessive  pressure  
build  up.  In  certain  instances  the  anti-­‐surge  mechanism  can  prevent  
fuel  vapour  from  passing  through  the  cap.  However,  pressure  cannot  
build  in  excess  of  14  kPa  (nominally)  above  atmospheric.  

Repair  broken  fuel  line  

A  damaged  section  of  fuel  line  tubing  can  be  cut  out  of  the  existing  line  
and  replaced  by  service  hose  and  two  retaining  clamps.  All  
replacement  hoses  must  be  cut  to  a  length  that  will  make  sure  proper  
clamp  retention  beyond  the  ends  of  the  connecting  tubing.  This  type  
of  repair  should  be  considered  temporary  and  more  permanent  repairs  
should  be  carried  out  as  soon  as  possible.  

Installation  of  replacement  fuel  line  


1. Use  the  same  diameter  tubing  as  the  original  
installation(s),  and  shape  the  new  line(s).  Avoid  sharp  
bends.  
2. Cut  the  new  line(s)  to  approximately  the  same  length  as  
the  original  line(s).  Allow  an  additional  length  for  the  
flaring  operation.  
3. Square  off  the  ends  with  a  file,  and  ream  out  the  sharp  
edges  with  the  reamer  blade  on  the  tube  cutter.  
4. Position  the  new  loom(s)  (if  used)  on  the  new  line(s).  
Place  new  connections  on  the  line,  if  required,  and  flare  
the  ends  of  the  line(s)  with  the  flaring  tool.  When  
attaching  a  new  line  to  fuel  pump  or  any  other  fitting,  be  
sure  to  use  a  double  lap  flare  in  the  line.  Be  sure  metal  
chips  are  removed  from  the  inside  of  the  tubing.  
5. Install  the  connecting  hoses  and  clamps,  (if  required)  on  
the  fuel  line(s).  Position  the  line(s)  in  the  clips  on  the  
vehicle,  and  tighten  the  connection(s).  Tighten  the  
connecting  hose  clamps,  if  so  equipped.  
6. Check  the  connections  for  leaks.  

Page 36 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

7. Record  work  carried  out  in  accordance  with  company  


procedures.  

Leaks  in  fuel  tank  

Proprietary  lines  are  available  that  will  allow  you  to  carry  out  a  
temporary  repair  on  a  damaged  fuel  tank.  However,  it  is  important  
that  the  fuel  tank  be  correctly  repaired  as  soon  as  possible.    

It  is  not  recommended  that  you  attempt  this  repair  yourself.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 37


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Page 38 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Section 2

Carry out minor repairs to a


vehicle

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 39


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Describe  safe  commercial  vehicle  workshop  activities  

Demonstrate  the  correct  use  and  maintenance  of  basic  hand  tools  

Undertake  minor  repairs  to  a  commercial  vehicle  

Page 40 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Tools and equipment

Tools  that  you  may  require  to  carry  out  testing  and  repairs  may  
include:  
• hammers  and  mallets  
• pliers  (assorted)  
• screwdrivers  (assorted)  
• sockets  
• spanners  
• shifters  
• grease  gun  
• oil  filter  remover.  

Equipment  that  you  may  require  to  carry  out  testing  and  repairs  may  
include:  
• timing  light  
• tunescope  
• wheel  aligner  
• wheel  balancer  
• battery  charger  
• steam  cleaner  
• air  compressor  
• electric  drill  
• bench  grinder  
• bead  breaker.  

Personal  protective  clothing  and  equipment  may  include:  


• overalls  
• gloves  
• protective  glasses  
• ear  protection  
• hard  hat.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 41


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 12: Check hand tools and equipment


Check your tools and equipment prior to use. Are they all in good
working condition? There has been room left for you to add other
tools or equipment.

Hand tool or Condition of tool or equipment. Yes


equipment Is the:
Open end • head in good condition − not
spanners stretched, cracked, broken or
damaged?
Tube spanners • hexagon in good condition − not
worn, rounded or corners split?
Socket spanners • drive socket in good condition:
− not worn or rounded?
− nut socket not rounded or split?
Screwdrivers • screwdriver in good condition:
− not worn, broken, bent or twisted?
− handles not split or broken?
Pliers • jaws and handles in good condition?
Hammers • strike face in good condition − handle
not split or broken, wedges in good
condition, head tight on the handle?
Pipe wrench and • jaw movement and adjusting nut in
adjustable good condition − not worn or
spanners damaged?
Oil filter tool • pivot pin, strut, spring steel band and
handle in good condition?

Page 42 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Hand tool or Condition of tool or equipment. Yes


equipment Is the:
Battery charge • mains power in good condition:
− gauges not broken or damaged?
− battery clips not sprung or
corroded?
Air compressor • power lead, air hose in good
condition:
− pressure gauge working?
− water drained from air chamber?
− oil at required level?
− compressor switches not broken
or damaged?
Bench grinder • power lead in good condition, safety
guards all fitted, on/off switches in
good condition?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 43


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 13: Adjust or replace your vehicle fan belt


Adjust or change a fan belt on your vehicle, and record this task for
future reference.

Check and adjust or replace fan belt

Prepared by:

Date:

Vehicle No:

Activity
completed
Check and adjust or replace fan belt Yes No
Check fanbelt for:
• glazing
• incorrect seating in pulley wheel
• cracks or other damage
• if belt is in good condition, adjust it.
Adjust loose fan belt:
• loosen pivot bolts
• loosen adjustment clamp bolt
• pull alternator towards you
• use of lever to tighten (if required)
• tighten clamp bolt
• tighten pivot bolts.
Replace fan belt:
• get correct belt size from existing belt
• check manufacturer’s manual for size
• follow steps for adjusting belt.

Remove and replace a faulty radiator hose.

Ask your trainer for feedback on the completed job.

Page 44 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Cooling system inspection

The  coolant  level  must  be  checked  regularly,  and  topped  up  as  
required.  Cooling  systems  with  expansion  tanks  should  be  maintained  
to  the  full  mark  on  the  expansion  tank.  

On  other  systems,  you  are  required  to  remove  the  radiator  cap  to  
check  the  coolant.    

Check  the  cooling  system:  


1. Slowly  turn  the  radiator  cap  anti-­‐clock  wise  to  
approximately  1/4  of  a  turn  to  release  the  steam  pressure.  
2. Press  the  cap  down  firmly,  turn  it  a  further  1/4  of  a  turn  
anti-­‐clock  wise  and  lift  cap  off  carefully.  
3. Inspect  the  coolant  for:  
• correct  level  
• cleanliness  
• rust    
• discolouration  of  the  coolant.  
4. Top  up  coolant  level  if  required.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 45


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 14: Check your cooling system for damage

Check cooling system for leaks and/or damage. Ask your trainer for
feedback on your performance.

Did the learner Yes No


• inspect the:
− radiator core
− tank joints
− drain plug?
• check the cylinder head gasket?
• check the radiator hoses for leaks and/or
damage:
− top
− bottom
− heater hose
− hose clamps?
• check the water pump seal?
• check the temperature gauge sender unit
for leaks or damage?
• check all welsh plugs for leaks?
• check engine drain plug?
• check the radiator core for obstructions
such as:
− dirt
− insects
− leaves
− oil
− bent or damaged fins?

Page 46 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Did the learner Yes No


• check hoses for:
− swelling
− hardness
− cracking
− perishing
− oil contamination?
• check the crankcase oil for water?
• check the fan for:
− looseness
− cracks
− bent blades?
• check fan belt for:
− tension
− cracks
− wear
− oil contamination?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 47


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Pressure  testing  the  cooling  system  

At  times  it  becomes  necessary  to  pressure  test  your  radiator  to  check  
for  the  elusive  leak  that  may  only  be  found  with  the  cooling  system  
under  pressure.  

Page 48 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 15: Pressure check your radiator

Pressure test your radiator components for leaks and/or damage,


replace hoses or cap if necessary.

Sub-task Did the learner Yes No


Test for external • remove the radiator cap
leaks
• top up the radiator coolant
level if required
• clamp the pressure tester to
the radiator filler neck
• pump the pressure tester
until the pressure was
approximately 25% above
that recommended for the
manufacture’s approved
cap
• inspect the radiator, hoses
and all connections for
leaks
• check the gauge reading to
see that it remained steady
(any drop in the system
gauge pressure would
indicate a leak in the
system)?
If no leaks were • check for an internal leak
detected and the from the water jacket or the
system continues to cylinder head
lose pressure, test
for internal leaks • remove the radiator cap
• top up the cooling fluid (did
they remember to leave an
air space)
• start the engine, run the
motor until it reached
operating temperature
• fit the pressure tester to the
radiator filler neck

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 49


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Sub-task Did the learner Yes No


• pump the tester to
pressurise the system to
around 7-14 kPa
• check the pressure gauge
while the engine was
running (a sudden increase
in the pressure reading
indicates a fault in the
cylinder head or the head
gasket)?
Test the radiator cap. • check that the cap meets
the vehicle manufacture’s
recommendation for that
vehicle
• attach the radiator cap to
the pressure tester
• slowly pump the pressure
tester and check that
release pressure on the
gauge (the gauge will show
a definite drop and then
hold steady, as the valve
releases)
• find that the valve release
pressure was incorrect, or
the cap pressure did not
hold steady on the gauge
• replace the radiator cap
(after checking that the
replacement cap holds to
the required pressure)?

Page 50 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Remove and replace a top radiator hose on your vehicle.

Sub-task Did the learner Yes No


Replace top radiator • partially drain the radiator
hose system.
• loosen the clamps at
each end of the radiator
hose to be removed. slide
the hose off the
connections.
• position the clamps on
each end of the new
hose, slide the hose onto
the connections, then
tighten the clamps.
• position the clamps
beyond the beads on the
connections.
• fill the system with
coolant and bleed the
system.
• operate the engine for
several minutes, then
check the hose(s) and
connections for leaks?

Record the replacement of parts in accordance with your workplace


policy. Ask your trainer for feedback on your performance.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 51


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Care in the use of compressed air and air tools

Compressed  air  is  extensively  used  in  the  road  transport  industry  to  
operate  pneumatic  tools,  such  as  wrenches,  drills,  grinders  and  
sanders,  and  equipment  such  as  hoists,  tyre  bead  breakers,  air  jacks,  
grease  guns,  etc.  It  is  also  used  for  parts  cleaning,  tyre  inflation  and  
many  other  purposes.  

Compressed  air  is  piped  around  most  work  areas.  You  must  learn  to  
distinguish  the  air  supply  pipe  from  other  pipes.  Compressed  air  is  very  
dangerous  when  used  for  anything  but  the  correct  purpose.  Pressures  
of  690  kilopascals  (kPa)  or  more  are  quite  common.  

Precautions  when  using  compressed  air  


1. Before  opening  the  valve  from  the  air  line,  check  that  the  
hose  and  connections  are  not  damaged.  Hold  the  end  of  
the  hose  to  stop  it  whipping  about  when  you  turn  the  air  
on.  
2. Never  use  compressed  air  to  clean  your  cloths  or  hair.  Eye  
damage  or  ruptured  ear  drums  could  result  from  this.  
3. Never  direct  compressed  air  at  another  person.  It  can  
cause  serious  injury  or  death.  
4. Use  rubber  gloves  if  compressed  air  is  used  to  clean  spare  
parts.  
5. Wear  goggles  when  drying  parts  and  components  with  
compressed  air.  
6. Never  blow  down  a  bench  or  machine  with  compressed  
air.  It  may  blow  metal  filings  dust  or  chips  for  6  or  10  
metres  or  more.  
7. Do  not  used  compressed  air  to  blow  brake  lining  dust  from  
shoes,  drums  etc.(asbestos  dust  is  a  health  hazard).  Use  a  
vacuum  cleaner  and  brush.  
8. Do  not  spin  ball  or  roller  bearings  with  compressed  air  as  
they  may  fly  apart  causing  injury.  Damage  to  the  bearing  
will  also  result  as  the  surfaces  are  not  lubricated.  The  
bearing  should  be  immersed  in  clean  solvent  and  slowly  
rotated  by  hand  until  clean.  

Page 52 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 16: Identify the components of an exhaust system

Match the exhaust components to the corresponding letter.

A
B
C
D
E
F

A
B

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 53


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TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Page 54 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Section 3

Tyre maintenance and repair

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 55


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Describe  the  safety  procedures  associated  with  mounting  and  


dismounting  truck  tyres  

Describe  the  principles  of  tyre  and  wheel  technology,  plus  identify  and  
explain  the  cause(s)  of  tyre  wear  patterns  

Disassemble  and  reassemble  a  multipiece  commercial  vehicle  wheel  


trim  

Repair  a  puncture  in  a  commercial  vehicle  inner  tube

Page 56 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Tyres
Components  of  a  tyre  

Although  tyres  are  finally  moulded  into  one  piece  they  are  built  up  
from  these  components:  
• the  casing  
• the  beads  
• the  tread  
• the  side  walls  
• the  inner  walls.  

Rubber  compounds  are  used  in  the  construction  of  tyres.  These  
compounds  have  the  following  advantages:  
• ability  to  grip  the  road  surface  
• good  shock-­‐absorbing  qualities  
• good  wear  resistance  
• good  resistance  to  continual  flexing  
• airtight.  

Classification  of  tyres  

Tyres  are  classified  according  to  different  characteristics:  


• type  of  service:  
− car  
− motor  cycle  
− light  truck  
− truck    
− tractor  
• type  of  construction  
− bias  or  radial  ply  
• tubed  or  tubeless  
• type  of  tread  
• ratio  
− high  or  low  
• load  capacity  
− ply  or  load  rating.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 57


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 17: What type of tyres do you have on your vehicle?

Write what type of tyres you have on your vehicle.

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Page 58 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Tyre  construction  

The  ‘plies’  or  cord  material  used  in  the  casing  of  the  tyre  determine  the  
shape  and  behaviour  of  the  tyre  when  it  is  inflated  and  running  on  the  
road  under  load  and  traction  forces.  

Depending  on  the  angle  the  plies  are  laid  across  the  tyre  during  
manufacture,  the  tyres  may  be:  
• bias  ply  (also  known  as  diagonal  or  cross  ply)  
• belted  bias-­‐ply  
• radial-­‐ply.  

Different  tyre  constructions  give  different  performance  characteristics:  


1. Bias-­‐ply  tyres  are  the  oldest  type  still  in  use  and  are  
suitable  for  all  normal  operating  conditions.  These  have  
two,  four  or  more  body  plies  which  cris-­‐cross  at  an  angle  of  
approximately  35  degrees  to  the  centre  line  of  the  tyre.  
The  plies  are  made  of  rayon,  nylon,  polyester  or  similar  
material  and  the  tyres  are  usually  marked  by  size  and  ply  
rating  only.  
2. Belted  bias  tyres  have  a  similar  body  construction  to  the  
bias  or  cross  ply,  plus  two  or  more  layers  of  fabric  acting  as  
a  belt  between  the  tread  and  plies.  They  are  identified  by  
the  letter  `B’  in  the  size  marking.  
3. Radial-­‐ply  tyres  are  more  expensive  to  manufacture  but  
give  longer  tread  life,  better  handling  and  the  highest  
capability.  Because  they  have  a  lower  rolling  resistance,  
they  save  on  fuel  consumption  compared  with  bias-­‐ply  
tyre.    Body  cords  or  plies  run  from  the  bead  to  bead  at  90  
degrees  to  the  centre  line  of  the  tyre.  In  addition,  there  are  
two  or  more  steel  or  fabric  belts  between  the  tread  and  
the  plies.    They  are  identified  by  the  letter  `R’  in  the  size  
marking.  

Tread  patterns  

Most  car  and  truck  tyres  have  ‘all-­‐purpose’  tread  designs  which  give  
good  wear,  traction  and  quiet  running  under  most  road  surface  
conditions.  

Speed  rating  

The  tyre  chosen  must  have  a  speed  rating  equal  to,  or  greater  than,  
the  maximum  speed  capacity  of  the  vehicle.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 59


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TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

The  rating  of  the  tyre  is  denoted  by  a  letter  included  in  the  tyre  
identification  stamping.  The  letters  used  to  indicate  the  speed  rating  
for  radial-­‐ply  tyres  are:  
1. ‘S’   180  km/h  
2. ‘H’   210  km/h  
3. ‘V’   over  210  km/h.  

Selection  of  tyres  

For  safe  operation,  the  tyres  fitted  to  a  vehicle  must  have:  
• sufficient  load  carrying  capacity  
• sufficient  speed  rating    
• steering  stability  to  suit  the  vehicle  
• clearance  from  the  body  and  chassis  
• adequate  durability  (hardness).  

When  replacement  tyres  are  fitted,  they  should  be  of  the  size  and  type  
recommended  by  the  vehicle  manufacturer.  If  special  circumstance  
require  different  tyres  to  be  fitted,  the  following  factors  must  be  
considered:  
• type  of  vehicle  
• rim  size  
• tyre  size  
• tyre  load  capacity  
• type  of  tyre  construction  
• speed  rating  
• tread  pattern  
• regulations.  

Tubes  

Tubes  are  usually  made  from  synthetic  rubber  compounds,  such  as  
‘butyl’  rubber,  which:  
• is  impermeable  or  airtight  −  the  tyre  and  tube  holds  its  air  
pressure  for  a  long  time  
• can  be  repaired  −  patches  with  chemical  adhesives  are  
used  which  do  not  require  heating.  

Page 60 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 18: Describe your tyre rating

What is the speed rating of your truck tyres? (check your tyres)

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

What is the speed rating of your car tyres?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 61


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Types  of  wheel  

The  main  types  of  wheel  used  on  motor  vehicles  are:  
• the  drop-­‐centre  rim  wheel  −  used  on  most  passenger  cars  
and  light  trucks  
• the  flat-­‐base  demountable  flange  rim  wheel  −  used  on  
most  medium  and  large  trucks  
• 15%  drop  centre  rim  wheels  −  used  on  medium  and  large  
trucks  with  tubeless  tyres  
• split  rim  (2-­‐piece)  wheel  −  used  on  military  vehicles,  ‘off-­‐
the-­‐road’  and  other  special  purpose  vehicles.  

Change  damaged  wheel  

For  your  own  safety  and  the  safety  of  others,  the  following  should  be  
observed  when  changing  wheels:  
• do  not  attempt  to  change  a  wheel  in  a  dangerous  situation  
• locate  vehicle  in  a  safe,  level  and  firm  location  
• apply  parking  brakes  and  chocks  to  wheel(s)  
• place  warning  devices  in  position  on  road  
• turn  on  hazard  lights  
• loosen  wheel  nuts  before  you  jack  the  vehicle  
• jack  up  vehicle  
• use  safety  stand  
• remove  wheel  
• replace  wheel,  follow  correct  order  for  tightening  wheel  
nuts  
• remove  safety  stand  and  remove  jack  
• fully  tighten  wheel  nuts  
• stow  damaged  wheel  on  vehicle.  

Recheck  rim  for  movement  and  wheel  nuts  for  tightness  after  50  km.  
Repeat  after  a  further  50  km  if  a  problem  is  found.  

Page 62 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Removal and installation

The  tyre  must  be  completely  deflated  before  removal,  and  the  bead  
must  not  be  damaged  by  a  tyre  iron.  

After  installation,  a  tube  tyre  should  be  inflated  to  recommended  


pressure,  deflated,  and  then  reinflated  again  to  make  sure  that  the  
tube  is  not  folded  inside  the  tyre.  Make  sure  the  tube  flap  is  properly  
positioned  before  inflating  the  tyre.  

It  is  recommended  that  correct  tyre-­‐changing  equipment  be  used  in  


changing  all  truck  tyres.  

Disassembly and assembly

Drop-­‐centre  tubeless  rims  and  wheels  

Demounting  the  tyre  


1. Make  certain  the  tyre  is  completely  deflated  with  the  valve  
core  removed.  
2. With  the  tyre  lying  flat,  loosen  both  beads  by  walking  on  
the  tyre  with  the  heels  close  to  the  rim.  
3. With  the  wide  side  of  the  rim  down,  lubricate  the  top  
bead.  
4. With  the  stops  toward  the  rim,  insert  the  spoon  ends  of  
the  two  tubeless  tyre  tools  about  250  cm  apart  (Fig.  1,  
View  A).  Holding  the  bead  in  the  well  with  your  foot,  pull  
one  tool  towards  the  center  of  the  rim.  
5. Hold  the  tool  in  position  with  one  foot  and  pull  the  second  
tool  towards  the  center  of  the  rim  (Fig.  1,  View  B).  
Progressively  work  the  bead  off  the  rim,  taking  additional  
bites  with  the  tools  as  necessary.  
6. Stand  the  assembly  in  a  vertical  position.  Lubricate  the  
second  bead.  
7. At  the  top  of  the  assembly  insert  the  straight  end  of  the  
tool  between  the  bead  and  back  flange  of  the  rim  at  about  
a  45  degree  angle  (Fig.  1,  View  C).  Turn  the  tool  so  that  it  is  
perpendicular  to  the  rim.  Pry  the  second  bead  off.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 63


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8. Clean  and  inspect  the  wheel  and  tyre  as  previously  


described.  

 
Fig.  1.  

Mounting  the  tyre  


1. Be  sure  the  right  valve  is  used  and  properly  installed  in  the  
rim.  
2. Inspect  the  rim  to  make  sure  the  bead  seats  are  clean  and  
smooth.  
3. Place  the  rim  on  the  floor  with  the  wide  side  down  and  
lubricate  the  first  bead  of  the  tyre  and  upper  bead  seat  of  
the  rim  (Fig.  2,  View  A).  
4. Push  the  first  bead  into  the  well  of  the  rim  and  onto  the  
rim  as  far  as  possible.  Using  the  straight  end  of  the  tool  
(with  stop  resting  on  the  rim  flange)  take  small  bites  to  
work  the  remaining  section  of  the  first  bead  onto  rim  (Fig.  
2,  View  B).  
5. Hold  the  second  bead  in  the  well  by  standing  on  the  tyre  
and  anchor  with  the  vice-­‐grip  pliers  (snub  side  toward  the  
tyre).  
6. Using  the  spoon  end  of  the  tyre  tool  with  the  stop  towards  
the  rim,  use  small  bites  until  the  bead  slips  over  the  flange.  
If  necessary,  insert  the  second  tyre  tool  and  lubricate  last  
150  cm  of  bead  before  completing  the  mounting  (Fig.  2,  
View  C).  
7. Inflate  the  tyre  as  previously  described,  making  certain  
that  all  the  safety  precautions  are  followed.  Check  for  
leaks.  

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Fig.  2.  

Semi-­‐Drop  Wheels  

CAUTION:  Demounting  and  mounting  truck  tyres  can  be  extremely  


dangerous  if  proper  safety  precautions  are  not  followed.  

Demounting  the  tyre  


1. Place  the  tyre  and  wheel  on  the  floor  with  the  side  ring  up.  
Make  certain  that  the  tyre  is  completely  deflated  and  that  
the  valve  core  is  removed.  
2. To  loosen  the  first  bead,  drive  the  hooked  end  of  the  rim  
tool  between  the  tyre  and  rim  flange  and  press  downward  
on  the  bead  (Fig.  3,  View  A).  
3. Progress  around  the  rim,  using  the  two  tools  as  shown  in  
View  A.  
4. To  remove  the  ring,  insert  the  tool  in  the  notch  and  force  
the  ring  opposite  of  the  notch  into  the  futter,  then  pry  off  
(Fig.  3,  View  B).  
5. Pry  out  and  up  on  the  side  ring,  carefully  but  firmly.  Take  
care  not  to  bend  the  side  ring.  
6. Force  the  upper  tyre  bead  into  the  well  opposite  the  valve  
slot  and  with  the  tyre  tool,  pry  the  opposite  portion  of  the  
bead  over  the  edge  of  the  rim  (Fig.  3,  View  C).  
7. Turn  the  tyre  over,  and  by  means  of  rim  tools,  loosen  the  
bead  on  the  opposite  bead  seat.  Insert  the  straight  end  of  
the  tool  between  the  bead  and  back  flange  of  the  rim  at  
about  a  45  degree  angle.  Turn  tool  so  that  it  is  
perpendicular  to  the  rim.  Make  sure  one  portion  of  the  
second  bead  is  still  in  the  rim  well,  then  pry  the  opposite  
portion  of  the  bead  over  the  edge  of  the  rim.  This  will  free  
the  tyre  (Fig.  1,  View  C).  

Clean  and  inspect  the  wheel  and  tyre  as  previously  described.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 65


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A B C

Fig.3.  

Page 66 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Mounting  the  tyre  


1. Place  the  tyre  on  the  rim  so  that  the  valve  is  in  line  with  the  
rim  slot  and  insert  the  valve  through  the  slot.  Force  the  
first  bead  down  into  the  well  of  the  rim  just  to  side  of  the  
valve  with  foot.  Mount  the  first  bead  over  the  rim  lip  with  
the  rim  tool  progressing  from  each  side  of  the  foot  
approximately  opposite  foot  (Fig.  4,  View  A).  
2. To  apply  the  second  bead,  start  at  the  point  opposite  the  
valve  and  press  the  tyre  bead  over  the  rim  lip  and  into  the  
rim  well  with  foot  pressure.  Mount  the  remainder  of  the  
bead  over  the  rim  lip  by  means  of  thin  tyre  tool,  being  
careful  not  to  pinch  the  tube.  If  necessary,  insert  the  
second  tyre  tool  and  lubricate  the  last  150  cm  of  the  bead  
before  completing  the  mounting  (Fig.  4,  View  B).  
3. Place  the  half  of  side  ring  opposite  tool  notch  under  the  
rim  lip  with  cutaway  portions  in  the  position  as  shown.  
Force  part  of  the  ring  directly  opposite  of  the  notch  down  
below  the  rim  lip  approximately  25  cm  to  aid  in  mounting.  
Insert  the  thin  end  of  the  rim  tool  in  the  tool  notch  and  pull  
ring  outward  over  the  rim  lip,  while  striking  the  ring  with  a  
rubber  mallet  to  start  engagement  over  the  rim.  Remove  
the  rim  tool,  then  strike  the  remaining  portion  of  the  side  
ring  to  force  it  down  over  the  rim  lip  (Fig.  4,  View  C).  
4. Inflate  the  tyre  as  previously  described  in  this  Part,  making  
certain  that  all  safety  precautions  are  followed.  Check  for  
leaks.  

 
  A   B   C  

Fig.  4.  

Two-­‐Piece  Rims  and  Wheels  

CAUTION:  Demounting  and  mounting  truck  tyres  can  be  extremely  


dangerous  if  proper  safety  precautions  are  not  followed.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 67


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TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Demounting  the  tyre  


1. Place  the  tyre  on  the  floor  and  make  certain  that  the  tyre  is  
completely  deflated  and  that  the  valve  core  is  removed.  
2. Insert  the  hooked  end  of  the  tyre  tools  between  the  side-­‐
ring  and  the  side  wall  of  the  tyre  and  pry  the  bead  loose  
from  the  side-­‐ring  by  downward  pressure  on  the  rim  tools.  
Continue  prying  progressively  around  the  tyre  until  the  
bead  is  completely  free  from  the  side  ring  (Fig.  5,  View  A).  
3. Insert  the  tapered  end  of  the  tool  into  the  prying  notch  on  
the  side  ring  and  pry  the  side  ring  from  the  groove  in  the  
rim  by  prying  progressively  around  the  tyre  until  the  ring  is  
free  (Fig.  5,  View  B).  
4. Turn  the  assembly  over  and  unseat  the  second  tyre  bead  
from  the  rim.  Lift  the  rim  from  the  tyre  (Fig.  5,  View  C).  
5. Clean  and  inspect  the  wheel  and  tyre  as  previously  
described.  

  A   B   C  

Fig.  5.  

Mounting  the  tyre  

1. Insert  the  tube  flap  into  the  tyre  and  inflate  sufficiently  to  round  
out  the  tube.  Apply  rubber  lubricant  to  the  inside  and  outside  
surfaces  of  both  the  tyre  beads  and  to  that  portion  of  the  tube  and  
flap  that  appears  between  the  beads.  

2. Lay  the  rim  flat  on  the  floor  with  the  valve  slot  up.  Align  the  valve  
with  the  valve  slot,  place  the  tyre  onto  the  rim  and  insert  the  valve  
through  the  valve  slot  (Fig.  6,  View  A).  

3. Place  the  side-­‐ring  on  the  rim  base  so  that  the  ring  split  is  opposite  
the  valve  stem.  Place  the  leading  end  of  the  ring  into  the  groove  
(Fig.  6,  View  B).  

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4. Starting  at  the  valve  side,  progressively  “walk”  the  side  ring  into  
place  (Fig.  6,  View  C).  Check  to  see  that  the  ring  is  fully  seated  in  
the  groove.  NOTE:  Openings  between  the  ends  of  the  split  side  ring  
must  not  be  less  than  3  cm  except  where  the  ring  design  calls  for  
an  abutting  condition,  or  more  than  3  cm  except  where  the  ring  
design  calls  for  an  abutting  condition,  or  more  than  5  cm  inch  after  
ring  is  seated  in  during  operation.  

5. Inflate  the  tyre  as  previously  described,  making  certain  that  all  
safety  precautions  are  followed.  Check  for  leaks.  

 
  A   B   C  

Fig.  6.  

Three-­‐piece  rims  and  wheels  

CAUTION:  Demounting  and  mounting  tuck  tyres  can  be  extremely  


dangerous  if  proper  safety  precautions  are  not  followed.  

Demounting  the  tyre  

1. Place  the  tyre  and  wheel  on  the  floor  with  the  side  ring  up  and  
make  certain  that  the  tyre  is  completely  deflated  with  the  valve  
core  removed.  

2. Insert  hooked  end  of  the  tyre  tools  between  the  side  ring  and  side-­‐
wall  of  the  tyre  (Fig.  7,  View  A).  Pry  the  bead  loose  from  the  side  
ring  by  downward  pressure  on  the  rim  tools.  Continue  prying  
progressively  around  the  tyre  until  the  bead  is  completely  free  
from  the  side  ring.  

3. With  the  side  flange  and  tyre  bead  pushed  down,  insert  the  
tapered  end  of  the  tool  into  the  notch  near  the  spot  in  the  lock  ring  
and  push  downward  to  pry  the  lock  ring  from  the  gutter  groove  of  
the  rim  base  (Fig.  7,  View  B).  

4. Use  the  hooked  end  of  the  tool  to  complete  removal  of  the  lock  
ring  progressively  working  around  the  tyre  (Fig.  7,  View  C).  Lift  off  
the  side  flange.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 69


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5. Turn  the  assembly  over  and  unseat  the  second  tyre  bead  from  the  
rim.  Lift  the  rim  from  the  tyre.  Remove  the  tube  and  flap  (if  used)  
from  the  tyre.  

  A   B   C  

Fig.  7.  

Mounting  the  tyre  

1. Insert  the  tube  and  flap  (if  used)  into  the  tyre  and  inflate  
sufficiently  to  round  out  the  tube.  Apply  rubber  lubricant  to  the  
inside  and  outside  surfaces  of  both  the  tyre  beads  and  to  that  
portion  of  the  tube  and  flap  that  appears  between  the  beads.  

2. Lay  the  rim  flat  on  the  floor  with  the  valve  slot  up.  Align  the  valve  
with  the  rim  valve  slot.  Place  the  tyre  into  the  rim  and  insert  the  
valve  through  the  valve  slot  (Fig.  8,  View  A).  

3. Place  side  flange  on  the  rim  base  and  stand  on  flange  to  position  
the  flange  below  the  gutter  grooves  in  the  rim  base  (Fig.  8,  View  
B).  

4. Snap  the  leading  end  of  the  lock  ring  into  the  gutter  groove  of  the  
rim  base  and  progressively  “walk”  the  lock  ring  into  place  (Fig.  8,  
View  C).  Check  to  ensure  that  the  lock  ring  is  fully  seated  in  the  
gutter  groove.  

5. Inflate  the  tyre  as  previously  described,  making  certain  that  all  
safety  precautions  are  followed.  Check  for  leaks.  

  A   B   C  

Fig.  8.  

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Activity 18: Repair puncture in a tube


Demonstrate for your trainer the repairing of a motor vehicle tube,
from a two piece rim and wheel. Repair the tube and test after
repair. Replace tube in tyre. Ask your trainer for feedback on your
performance.

Sub-task Steps did the learner Yes No


Demount the tyre • place the wheel on the
floor and fully release the
air pressure by removing
the valve core?
• insert the hooked end of
the tyre tools between the
side-ring and the side
wall of the tyre and pry
the bead loose from the
side-ring by downward
pressure on the rim
tools?
• continue prying
progressively around the
tyre until the bead is
completely free from the
side ring?
• remove the tube from the
tyre?
• turn the wheel over to
unseat the second tyre
bead from the rim and lift
the rim from the tyre?
• clean and inspect the
wheel and tyre for
damage?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 71


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TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Sub-task Steps did the learner Yes No


Repair hole in the tube • inflate tube to locate
puncture?
• roughen area around
puncture?
• repair tube with
vulcanising patch or cold
repair patch?
• inflate and check tube for
other leaks?
• replace tube.
Mount the tyre on a • insert the tube and flap
divided-rim wheel. into the tyre and inflate
sufficiently to round out
the tube, then apply
rubber lubricant to the
inside and outside
surfaces of both the tyre
beads and to that portion
of the tube and flap that
appears between the
beads?
• lay the rim flat on the
floor with the valve slot
up. Align the valve with
the valve slot, place the
tyre onto the rim and
insert the valve through
the valve slot?
• place the side-ring on the
rim base so that the ring
split is opposite the valve
stem. Place the leading
end of the ring into the
groove?

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ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Sub-task Steps did the learner Yes No


• starting at the valve side,
progressively `walk’ the
side ring into place, and
check to see that the ring
is fully seated in the
groove? Note: Openings
between the ends of the
split side ring must not be
less than 3 cm except
where the ring design
calls for an abutting
condition, or more than 5
cm after ring is seated in
during operation?
• inflate the tyre, making
certain that all safety
precautions are followed,
check for leaks?
• record work carried out in
accordance with
company procedures?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 73


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TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Tyre  service  

The  failure  of  a  tyre  or  a  wheel  can  easily  lead  to  the  loss  of  vehicle  
control,  resulting  in  an  accident.  For  this  reason,  frequent  inspection  
and  pressure  checks  are  necessary  for  safe  operation.  

Careful  maintenance  of  inflation  pressures  and  repair  of  minor  damage  
will  avoid  excessive  wear  and  the  early  replacement  of  expensive  tyre  
equipment.  

Most  tyre  failures  are  due  to  incorrect  inflation,  usually  under-­‐inflation,  
for  the  load  and  speed  at  which  the  tyre  is  operated.  

The  excessive  flexing  of  the  tyre,  especially  the  sidewall,  when  under  
inflated,  results  in  the  generation  of  higher  temperatures  in  the  tyre.  

If  the  temperatures  are  high  enough,  the  bond  between  the  various  
rubber,  textile  and  steel  components  of  the  tyre  can  be  broken  and  
the  tyre  will  disintegrate.  

Tyre  failure  due  to  other  causes  rarely  results  in  immediate  failure.  

Detection  of  a  cause,  such  as  objects  embedded  in  the  tread,  or  faulty  
wheel  alignment,  will  often  allow  correction  to  be  made  before  
extensive  damage  requiring  tyre  replacement  takes  place.  

Correct  tyre  service  will  include:  


• checking  and  setting  inflation  pressures  
• checking  and  adjusting  wheel  camber  to  manufacturer’s  
specifications  
• checking  and  adjusting  wheel  and  tyre  assembly  for  run-­‐
out  
• check  wheel  balance  and  correct  by  dynamic  or  static  
balance  
• inspection  for  minor  damage  and  damage  control.  

How  often  the  tyres  of  a  vehicle  require  checking  for  inflation  pressure  
and  damage  will  depend,  to  some  extent,  on  the  road  and  driving  
conditions.  Ideally,  this  should  be  carried  out  at  least  as  often  as  the  
vehicle  is  being  fuelled.  Experience  with  a  particular  type  of  vehicle  
under  unchanging  operating  conditions  should  enable  an  effective  
service  interval  to  be  established.  

Page 74 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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Activity 19: Change a wheel on a motor vehicle

Change a wheel on a vehicle specified by your trainer, observing all


OHS requirements.

Ask your trainer to show you on motor vehicles in your workplace


examples of uneven tyre wear.

If there are no examples in your workplace, ask your trainer for


permission for you to go to your local tyre retailer, for printed
information on various tread wear patterns.

If this is not available, ask the tyre retailer to show you examples of
tread wear.

If you are able to obtain examples of tyre wear, stick these into your
learner’s guide.

Below are some examples of tyre wear and how it could have been
prevented.

Tyre wear patterns

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 75


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Additional
resources

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TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Paper  based:  
• The  Australian  Truck  Drivers  Manual.  
• Guidelines  for  the  safe  carriage  of  loads  on  road  vehicles,  Load  
Restraint  Guide.  
• State/Territory  regulation  authority  material,  e.g.  RTA  (NSW)  Heavy  
Vehicle  drivers’  Handbook;  Vic  roads’  The  Victorian  Bus  and  Truck  
Drivers’  Handbook.  Other  material  may  be  obtained  from  various  
State/Territory  authorities.  
• Relevant  government  Acts  and  legislation,  covering  heavy  vehicle  
road  law  and  operation.  
• Relevant  tyre  retailer  information  on  tyre  wear  and  the  reason  for  
the  wear  (obtained  from  your  local  tyre  retailer).  
• May  and  Crouse,  Motor  Mechanics,  Vol  1&2  4th  Ed.  
• Schultz,  EJ.  Diesel  Equipment  1&2.  
• Basic  training  Manual  17-­‐1,  Workshop  Safety.  
• Basic  Training  Manual  17-­‐13,  Vehicle  Body  Electrical  Systems.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 77


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Feedback on
activities
The responses provided in this section are suggested responses.
Because every workplace is different, your responses may vary
according to your specific workplace procedures, the equipment
available and the nature of the business.

Page 78 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 1: What is the purpose of lights on a vehicle

• illumination and to allow the vehicle to be driven at night


• illumination and to indicate to other road users that the vehicle
is being reversed
• light up the instrument panel and allows the driver to maintain a
watch on the instruments for problems.

Activity 7: What could be the reason your headlights are not


working?

Check why your headlights are not working? List below six reasons
why your headlights may not work.
• blown headlight fuse
• blown high and low-beam fuse
• loose or broken lead to headlight switch
• loose or broken lead to dipper switch
• faulty headlight switch
• faulty dipper switch.

Ask your trainer if there are other reasons for your headlight failure.
Write down his/her answer.
• faulty protection device
• blown filaments in both headlights.

Activity 11: Air cleaner servicing

Yes  No 

If yes, why?

The prime role of the air cleaner is to provide sufficient clean air to
the ignition system. If the cleaner is blocked or dirty it must be
removed and cleaned or replaced.

The air cleaner comes in two types, they are:

• oil bath air cleaner

• dry type air cleaner.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 79


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009 ADELG1064
TLIB307C Carry out vehicle servicing and maintenance

Activity 16: Identify the components of an exhaust system

Match the exhaust components to the corresponding letter.

A Pipe assembly

B Clamp assembly

C Extension muffler inlet pipe

D Muffler bracket support

E Muffler assembly

F Muffler pipe outlet

A Converter

B Muffler assembly

Page 80 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1064 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd April 2009