You are on page 1of 6

# Santa Clara University

Spring 2013

## Random Supplemental Data

1 acre = 43,560 ft2

1 m = 1000 mm

## 1 mi2 = 640 acres = 2.78784 x 107ft2

1 hectare=2.47 acres

1 m = 3.28 ft

## 1 inch = 2.54 cm = 25.4 mm

1 m = 1000 liters

## Surface area of a sphere = 4r2

1 km2 = 106 m2

=3.14159265358979323846

## Diameter of the earth = 12,756 kilometers (at the equator)

Relative humidity, Rh=e/es ; e = actual vapor pressure of the air. ees at dew point temperature
Weibull plotting position (prob. of exceedence, P): m/(N+1), m=rank; N=total number
P(either A or B) = P(A) + P(B) (if A and B are independent and mutually exclusive)
P(both A and B) = P(A) x P(B) (if A and B are independent)
P(not A) = 1 - P(A)

or

## (Prob. of exceedence) = 1 (Prob. of non-exceedence)

P(no occurrences of A in any of N time periods) = (1 P)N where P is the probability of any one
event occurring (probability of exceedence)
P(one or more occurrence in N time periods) = 1-(1-P)N
1
1
where P=prob. of exceedence; F=prob. of non-exceedence
=
P 1 F
Residence time = Volume/(inflows)

Return Period T: T =

## Standard Normal Deviate, z = (x-)/

Mass (Volume) Balance: I O = dS/dt S/t I=inflow O=outflow
Standard flood frequency analysis equation: X = X + KS
Rational Formula Q=CiA (i in inches/hr, A in acres, Q in cfs; or i in m/s, A in m2, Q in m3/s)
Bed Shear Stress o = yS o where =specific weight of water, y=flow depth and So=bed slope
Reservoir Storage Required=max(I-O) (maximum between peak and subsequent low value)
Infiltration Trench Design: Vin=Qt; Vout=KHLt; Vstorage=WHLn
Infiltration/runoff Equations:
Horton
NRCS
kt
f p = f c + ( f 0 f c )e
(P 0.2S )2 when P> 0.2S P, Q in length units
Q=
P + 0.8S
1000

Ia=0.2S
S =
10
CN

1

## Santa Clara University

Department of Civil Engineering

## CENG 140 Water Resources Engineering

Spring 2013

Equations for time of concentration (length L in m, slope S0 is unitless, time units as noted):
Kirpich
Kerby
NRCS
(nL )0.8
Sheet
Flow:
t
(hrs)
=
0
.
0288
0.77
0.467
s
L
Lr
P20.5 S 00.4
t c (min) = 0.019 0.385

t c (min) = 1.44
S0
S
0
L
Overland/Concentrated Flow: t sc =
Kinematic Wave
Vsc
t c (min) =

6.99 nL
i 0.4 S 0

## where Vsc = kS 00.5

0.6

where i is in mm/h
1.5

129 nL
solved for i: i = 2.5
t c S 0

## Santa Clara University

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013

## Note: F(-z) = 1 F(z)

Values in table are F(z), vertical axis is z to one decimal, columns are for the second decimal
place.

## Santa Clara University

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013

## Unit peak discharge for SCS rainfall distribution type I,

used in TR-55 graphical peak flow formula.

## Santa Clara University

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013

## NRCS TR-55 equations: I a = 0.2 S

=1 for S in inches, =25.4 for S in mm.
Q=

(P 0.2S )2
P + 0.8S

1000

10
S =
CN

## when P> 0.2S (P, S, Q have

same units)

NRCS TR-55 graphical peak flow equation: Qp=quAQF where A is basin area, F is
pond/swamp factor, and qu unit peak flow. For Central/Southern California, assume a Type 1
rain distribution, so qu can be determined from the figure above.
Muskingum method: S1 = K [XI 1 + (1 X )O1 ] = K[weighted flow] O2 = C 0 I 2 + C1 I 1 + C 2 O1
t + 2 X
t 2 X
2(1 X ) t
K
K
K
C2 =
C1 =
C0 =
t
t
t

2(1 X ) +
2(1 X ) +
2(1 X ) +
K
K
K

( )

( )

## Storage indication equation:

( )

( )

( )
( )

2S t
2S

+ Ot = (I t + I t 1 ) + t 1 Ot 1
t
t

2 S t 1
2S

Ot 1 = t 1 + Ot 1 2Ot 1
t
t

## Darcys Law and groundwater hydraulic head

h
h
P
Hydraulic head, h EGL elevation = z +
Q = KA
or V = K
L
L

Actual velocity Vactual = V/n where V=Darcian velocity, determined from Darcy's law.
n=porosity.
Reservoir Trap Efficiency

## Santa Clara University

Department of Civil Engineering

Spring 2013