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TLIC107C

Drive vehicle
Learner Guide
Contents
What this Learner’s Guide is about ........................................ 1  
Planning your learning ........................................................... 2  

Section 1............................................................................................. 7  
Licensing requirements and traffic laws ................................. 7  

Section 2........................................................................................... 23  
Principles relating to car driving ........................................... 23  

Section 3........................................................................................... 62  
Drive a car in a systematic and controlled manner .............. 62  

Section 4........................................................................................... 78  
Describe and demonstrate techniques required to improve the
efficient operation of a car.................................................... 78  

Additional resources ....................................................................... 92  

Feedback on activities .................................................................... 94  


TLIC107C Drive vehicle

What this Learner’s Guide is about

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  about  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  drive  
commercial  light  vehicles  and  cars  safely,  including  the  systematic,  safe  
and  efficient  control  of  all  vehicle  functions,  monitoring  of  traffic  and  
road  conditions,  management  of  vehicle  condition,  and  performance  
and  effective  management  of  hazardous  situations.  Assessment  of  this  
unit  will  usually  be  undertaken  within  a  licensing  examination  
conducted  by,  or  under  the  authority  of,  the  relevant  state/territory  
road  traffic  authority.    

Persons  achieving  competence  in  this  unit  will  need  to  fulfil  all  of  the  
relevant  State/Territory  learner  permit  or  driver  licence  requirements  
before  driving  a  vehicle  on  a  public  road.  

The  Elements  of  Competency  from  the  unit  TLIC107C  Drive  vehicle  
covered  in  this  Learner’s  Guide  are  listed  below.  
Drive  the  vehicle  
Monitor  traffic  and  road  conditions    
Monitor  and  maintain  vehicle  performance  
This  unit  of  competency  is  from  the  Transport  and  Logistics  
Training  Package  (TLI07).  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 1


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Planning your learning

It  is  important  to  plan  your  learning  before  you  start  because  you  may  
already  have  some  of  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  are  covered  in  this  
Learner’s  Guide.  This  might  be  because:  
• you  have  been  working  in  the  industry  for  some  time,  
and/or  
• you  have  already  completed  training  in  this  area.  

Together  with  your  supervisor  or  trainer  use  the  checklists  on  the  
following  pages  to  help  you  plan  your  study  program.  Your  answers  to  
the  questions  in  the  checklist  will  help  you  work  out  which  sections  of  
this  Learner’s  Guide  you  need  to  complete.  

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  written  with  the  idea  that  learning  is  made  more  
relevant  when  you,  the  learner,  are  actually  working  in  the  industry.  
This  means  that  you  will  have  people  within  the  enterprise  who  can  
show  you  things,  discuss  how  things  are  done  and  answer  any  
questions  you  have.  Also  you  can  practise  what  you  learn  and  see  how  
what  you  learn  is  applied  in  the  enterprise.  

If  you  are  working  through  this  Learner’s  Guide  and  have  not  yet  found  
a  job  in  the  industry,  you  will  need  to  talk  to  your  trainer  about  doing  
work  experience  or  working  and  learning  in  some  sort  of  simulated  
workplace.    

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TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Section 1: Licensing requirements and traffic


laws

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. describe  and  explain  current  trends  or  
patterns  in  road  accidents?          
2. describe  and  explain  the  factors  that  
increase  the  risk  of  accident  involvement?        
3. describe  and  explain  the  consequences  of  
road  accident  trauma  to  individuals  and  
society?          
4. describe  the  use  of  protective  devices  in  
minimising  road  accident  trauma?        

Section 2: Principles relating to car driving

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. describe  the  principles  relating  to  car  
driving?          
2. demonstrate  system  of  vehicle  control?        
3. describe  the  six  elements  of  the  system?        
4. describe  the  car  space  cushions?        
5. demonstrate  what  to  do  in  an  emergency?        
6. describe  your  responsibility  in  the  case  of  
an  accident?        

Section 3: Drive a car in a systematic and


controlled manner
Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  
1. demonstrate  vehicle  control?          
2. demonstrate  vehicle  steering?        
3. demonstrate  slow  speed  vehicle  control?        
4. demonstrate  various  steering  techniques?        
5. demonstrate  night  driving?        
6. demonstrate  wet  weather  driving?        

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 3


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7. carry  out  a  commentary  drive  


demonstration?        

Section 4: Describe and demonstrate the


techniques required to improve the
efficient operation of a car

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. identify  the  main  systems  of  the  training  
car?          
2. describe  the  basic  functions  of  these    
systems?        

describe  the  effects  of  regular  car  maintenance?    


   

Page 4 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

How you will be assessed

Assessment  of  this  Unit  of  Competency  will  include  observation  of  real  
or  simulated  work  processes  using  workplace  procedures  and  
questioning  on  underpinning  knowledge  and  skills.  It  must  be  
demonstrated  in  an  actual  or  simulated  work  situation  under  
supervision.  

You  will  be  required  to:  


• demonstrate  driving  a  vehicle  in  a  professional  manner.  
 

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 5


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TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Page 6 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Section 1

Licensing requirements and


traffic laws

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 7


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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Traffic  accident  problems  

Licensing  requirements  

Traffic  signals  and  road  markings  

Hazard  avoidance  

Seat  belts  

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Traffic accidents in Australia

There  are  about  3,500  people  killed  in  road  accidents  each  year  in  
Australia,  another  30,000  to  32,000  are  seriously  injured.  

Information  published  by  the  Commonwealth  Bureau  of  Statistics  and  


various  state/territory  authorities  show  that  road  accidents  have  
certain  trends  or  patterns.    

Here  are  some  examples:  


• Young  drivers  are  involved  in  serious  accidents  to  a  much  
greater  extent  than  would  be  expected  from  their  
numbers  in  the  driving  population.  A  disproportionate  
number  of  accidents  involve  people  in  the  17  to  25  year  age  
range.  
• Drivers  and  passengers  account  for  more  than  two  out  of  
three  people  killed  or  injured  in  traffic  accidents.  
• More  fatal  accidents  occur  on  straight  sections  of  road  
than  at  either  bends  or  intersections.  
• Fridays,  Saturdays  and  Sundays  are  the  worst  days  of  the  
week  for  accidents.  Between  them  these  days  account  for  
more  than  half  of  all  road  casualties  in  Australia.  
• Half  of  the  serious  crashes  at  these  times  involves  alcohol  
and  other  drugs,  compared  with  1  in  7  serious  crashes  at  
other  times.  Almost  one  in  every  five  casualties  is  killed  or  
injured  on  a  Saturday.  
• Of  the  drink  drivers  killed  in  Victoria  50  percent  are  
between  the  age  of  18  to  24  years.  
• The  number  of  accidents  occurring  peak  between  4  pm  
and  midnight.  That  is  nearly  half  of  all  accident  casualties  in  
Australia  happens  between  the  hours  of  4  pm  and  
midnight.  
• Other  factors  that  impact  on  road  accidents  are:  
− driver  stress  and  fatigue  
− adverse  weather  and  road  conditions  
− impairment  to  vision,  such  as,  sun  glare,  rain,  night  driving  and  
blind  spots.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 9


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TLIC107C Drive vehicle

The  economic  cost  of  accidents  

Traffic  accidents  ranks  third  as  the  cause  of  loss  of  life  in  Australia.  
Heart  disease  causes  almost  three  times  more  deaths.  However,  the  
lives  lost  in  traffic  accidents  are  younger  lives  than  those  who  die  from  
heart  disease.  They  are  therefore  far  more  costly,  in  terms  of  economic  
loss  to  the  nation.  

The  human  cost  

Statistics  cannot  clearly  demonstrate  the  human  suffering  involved  


when  3,500  people  die  and  over  30,000  are  seriously  injured  in  motor  
vehicle  accidents.  However,  the  following  statistics  give  some  idea  of  
the  human  cost  involved:  
• The  average  time  spent  in  hospital  by  road  crash  victims  is  
two  weeks.  Some  road  casualties  spend  months  or  even  
years  in  hospital  and  attending  rehabilitation  centres.  
• The  most  common  injuries  are  to  the  head  and  neck.  
About  70  per  cent  of  all  deaths  are  caused  by  damage  to  
the  brain  and  nervous  system.  More  than  half  the  spinal  
cord  victims  admitted  to  hospital  have  suffered  their  
injuries  in  road  accidents.  

Consequences  of  road  accidents  as  they  relate  to  you:  


• physical  
− injury,  minor  or  serious  
− psychological    
− permanent  incapacitation  
− death  
• financial  
− loss  of  income,  to  family  and  self  
− medical  costs  
− inability  to  continue  a  working  career  
− cost  to  the  local  community  and  society.  

Patterns  that  occur  in  car  road  accidents:  


• age  
• driving  experience,  speed  factors  
• alcohol,  fatigue,  stress  and  personal  well  being  
• environmental  conditions  (road,  weather,  time  of  day).  

Page 10 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 1: What factors increase the likelihood of an


accident?

What are the factors that increase the likelihood of an accident?

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There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 11


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 2: What factors cause driver fatigue?

What factors can cause driver fatigue?

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When is the best time to drive?

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What are the signs of driver fatigue?

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There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 12 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Stress  

Stress  can  also  affect  your  driving.  If  you  are  having  problems  at  work  
or  at  home  you  are  up  to  5  times  more  likely  to  be  involved  in  an  
accident.  

Divorce,  for  example  can  affect  your  driving.  Your  accident  rate  can  be  
twice  as  high  as  the  average  driver  and  even  higher  during  the  6  
months  before  and  after  a  divorce.  

Protective  devices  used  to  minimise  accident  trauma:  


• seat  belts  
• anti-­‐locking  braking  systems  
• air  bag  technology.  

Seat belts

Seat  belt  wearing  was  made  compulsory  in  Victoria  in  1970  and  is  now  
required  in  all  states/territories.  Since  then  the  number  of  deaths  on  
the  road  has  dropped  dramatically.  

Seat  belt  law  

Every  driver,  or  passenger,  must  wear  a  seat  belt  or  appropriate  
restraint.  It  is  just  as  important  to  wear  a  seat  belt  in  the  back  seat  as  
the  front.  Seat  belts  must  be  properly  adjusted  and  securely  fastened.  

Drivers  must  ensure  that  passengers  under  18  years  are  properly  
restrained  by  a  seat  belt,  or  a  (child)  restraint  suitable  for  the  height  
and  weight  of  the  child  and  that  it  is  properly  fitted  and  adjusted.  

Seat  belts  and  children  

Children  quickly  get  used  to  wearing  restraints  and  seat  belts  if  they  
are  used  every  time  they  are  in  the  car.  Make  sure  that  the  child  
restraint  you  use  is  marked  to  show  it  meets  the  Australian  Standard  
AS  1754.  Follow  the  fitting  instructions  carefully.  

Babies  aged  under  6  months  should  ride  in  a  special  infant  restraint.  

Drivers  must  make  sure  that  babies  under  one  year  of  age  are  carried  
in  a  approved  child  restraint,  that  is,  one  that’s  correctly  installed  and  
adjusted  to  fit  the  baby.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 13


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Some  guidelines  for  child  restraints:  


• Infant  restraints  are  suitable  for  babies  up  to  9  kilograms  in  
weight  (Victoria,  South  Australia  and  New  South  Wales).  
• Child  car  seats  are  suitable  for  children  between  8  to  18  
kilograms  in  weight  in  Victoria,  9  to  19  kilograms  in  weight  
in  South  Australia  and  8  to  19  kilograms  in  New  South  
Wales.  
• Booster  seats  are  suitable  for  children  between  14  to  32  
kilograms  in  weight  in  Victoria,  9  to  38  kilograms  in  South  
Australia  and  14  to  21  kilograms  in  New  South  Wales.  
• Information  Bulletins  and  brochures  available  from  
relevant  authorities  will  give  you  more  information  
regarding  seat  belts  or  other  road  traffic  information.    
• Contact  your  state/territory  Licensing  Authority  for  
information  on  seat  belt  requirements  or  other  updated  
information  on  traffic  regulations  (see  Additional  
Resources).  

How  seat  belts  work  in  a  crash  

In  a  crash  there  are  really  two  separate  collisions.  The  first  is  the  car’s  
collision,  when  the  car  hits  something  and  comes  to  a  stop.  

The  second  collision  is  the  one  that  hurts.  It’s  the  human  collision.  It  
happens  when  people  in  the  car  hit  something  -­‐  usually  part  of  the  car.  

Without  a  seat  belt,  people  keep  moving  at  the  car’s  original  speed.  
They  slam  into  such  things  as  the  steering  wheel,  windscreen,  back  of  
the  front  seat,  or  some  other  part  of  the  car.  Seat  belts  help  prevent  
this.  The  person  wearing  a  seat  belt  is  much  less  likely  to  hit  hard  or  
sharp  surfaces  inside  and  outside  the  car.  

Wearing  your  seat  belt  correctly  

You  should  wear  your  set  belt  in  the  following  manner:  
• both  lap  and  sash  sections  fairly  tight,  but  comfortable  
• buckle  by  your  side  
• no  twists  in  the  webbing  
• as  low  as  possible  on  your  hips.  

Page 14 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 3: What seat belt exemptions apply in your


state/territory?

Are there any regulations that exempt you from wearing a seat belt
in your state/territory? Write your answer below.

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If a child is not restrained in a car, who is officially responsible?

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There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 15


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Anti-lock brake systems

The  problem  of  wheels  locking  during  braking  and  the  subsequent  
effects  of  increased  stopping  distance  and  lack  of  steering  control,  
have  been  appreciated  for  many  years.  Prior  to  the  availability  of  anti-­‐
lock  braking  systems,  `cadence’  braking  was  widely  taught  as  a  means  
of  avoiding  wheel  lock.  The  principle  of  this  was  to  brake  until  the  
wheels  just  locked  and  then  release,  to  regain  grip,  before  applying  the  
brakes  again.  This  also  had  the  beneficial  effect  that  weight  -­‐  transfer  
onto  the  front  wheels  accompanied  each  application  of  the  brakes.  

Carried  out  by  an  experienced  driver,  this  method  was  effective  and  
the  basic  principle  of  rapidly  applying  and  releasing  the  brakes  is  
employed  in  all  anti-­‐lock  braking  systems.  

Modern  electronic  technology  enables  fast  and  sophisticated  control  


of  the  braking  system  in  response  to  signals  indicating  road  wheel  
speed  and,  therefore,  imminent  lock-­‐up.  This  means  that  the  brakes  
can  be  applied  heavily  in  an  emergency  on  slippery  surfaces  without  
the  risk  of  skidding  and  still  retain  some  steering  control.  However,  no  
anti-­‐lock  system  is  capable  of  defying  the  laws  of  physics  and  stopping  
distances  will  be  significantly  longer  than  when  braking  on  a  good  dry  
surface  where  the  anti-­‐lock  system  in  not  invoked.  

Operation  of  anti-­‐lock  system  

Most  anti-­‐lock  systems  have  solenoid  valves  to  control  (modulate)  the  
pressure  applied  to  each  brake.  These  valves  are  controlled  by  signals  
from  the  electronic  control  unit  (ECU)  and  can  respond  very  quickly  
(several  times  per  second)  to  changing  road  wheel  rotational  speeds,  
either  maintaining,  reducing  or  increasing  the  applied  pressure  to  
individual  wheels.  These  valves  are  built  into  a  modular  assembly.  

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ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
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Anti-lock braking system

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 17


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Activity 4: How does the anti lock system braking operate?

Obtain information on anti-lock systems braking and explain this


safety feature to your trainer.

Ask your trainer to allow you to test drive a vehicle equipped with
anti-lock system braking.

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The Supplemental Restraint System (SRS)

The  SRS  is  intended  as  a  supplement  to  the  protection  offered  by  the  
driver’s  seat  belt  by  deploying  an  air  bag  from  the  centre  of  the  
steering  wheel  during  certain  frontal  crashes.  Deployment  of  the  air  
bag  is  automatic,  making  the  SRS  a  passive  restraint.  The  driver  does  
not  control  the  operation  or  activation  of  the  system.  The  air  bag  
deploys  for  the  driver  (and  passenger  in  some  cases)  when  the  vehicle  
is  involved  in  certain  frontal  (or  near  frontal)  impacts.  The  frontal  
impact  must  be  within  a  60  degree  window,  occurring  no  more  than  30  
degrees  off  the  centreline  of  the  vehicle.  Deployment  is  not  designed  
to  occur  in  rollovers,  side  impacts,  or  rear  impacts  where  air  bag  
inflation  would  not  provide  any  driver  protection  benefit.  

The  frontal  impact  must  have  enough  force  for  the  SRS  to  cause  air  
bag  deployment.  The  minimum  force  required  is  the  equivalent  of  a  
head-­‐on  contact  between  the  vehicle  and  a  barrier  or  other  stationary  
object  at  a  speed  higher  than  approximately  20  km/h.  This  is  also  
equivalent  to  a  moving  vehicle  hitting  a  stationary  vehicle  at  45  km/h.  

For  deployment  to  occur  numerous  factors  must  be  taken  into  
account.  For  instance,  the  crush  area  of  the  other  vehicle  (if  involved  in  
the  crash),  its  mass  and  speed  would  all  contribute  to  raising  or  
lowering  the  force  required  for  deployment  to  occur  as  designed.  Also,  
the  angle  of  impact  force  may  not  be  within  the  60  degree  window  for  
SRS  for  deployment  to  occur  although  the  physical  damage  to  the  
vehicle  may  appear  that  it  was.  

The  sensors  that  controls  the  air  bag  deployment  are  incorporated  in  
the  Sensing  Diagnostic  Module  (SDM)  located  beneath  the  driver’s  
seat.  

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Activity 5: Describe the operation of a SRS

Describe the operation of a Supplemental Restraint System.

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There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

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What are your licensing requirements

Law  for  learner  permit  holders  

While  you  hold  a  learner  permit  you  must:  


• display  L  plates  at  the  front  and  rear  of  the  vehicle  you  are  
driving  
• have  no  alcohol  in  your  blood  when  driving  
• drive  a  car  only,  don’t  tow  a  trailer  or  any  other  vehicle.  
(there  is  no  restriction  on  the  type  of  car  that  can  be  
driven  by  a  learner  driver)  
• always  drive  with  a  licensed  driver  (full  licence  not  
probationary)  sitting  next  to  you  and  instructing  you.  

Your  driver’s  licence  

Drivers  are  entitled  to  use  the  road  system  providing  they  meet  certain  
conditions.  Drivers  must:  
• show  that  they  understand  the  rules  relating  to  driving.  
These  include  both  the  Traffic  Act  and  Motor  Traffic  
Regulations  
• understand  society’s  concerns  to  lessen  the  impact  of  
traffic  on  the  environment,  and  to  use  the  road  system  
efficiently  
• show  the  skills  necessary  to  drive  safely  
• continue  to  obey  road  rules  and  drive  responsibly  
• pay  a  licence  fee  which  goes  towards  maintaining  the  
system.  

When  a  driver  meets  these  conditions  he  or  she  earns  the  right  to  hold  
a  licence.  

This  arrangement  may  be  cancelled  for  traffic  offences.  There  are  
penalties,  such  as:  
• fines  
• licence  cancellation  
• disqualification  
• suspension  
• in  extreme  cases,  imprisonment.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 21


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Section 2

Principles relating to car driving

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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Principles  relating  to  car  driving  

The  six  elements  of  the  system  

Practical  application  

The  space  cushion  

Emergencies  and  what  to  do  

Your  responsibility  in  the  case  of  an  accident  

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Principles relating to car driving

The  driver’s  world  is  subjected  to  constant  change,  the  layout  and  
condition  of  the  road  ahead  varies  from  point  to  point  and  there  is  
always  potential  conflict  with  other  vehicles  and  pedestrians.  Traffic  
controls  are  varied  and  complex  and  there  are  many  other  distractions  
which  are  competing  for  the  driver’s  attention.  Not  only  is  change  an  
important  characteristic  of  the  driving  situation,  but  often  the  change  
is  sudden  and  unexpected.  

To  operate  a  vehicle  skillfully  and  efficiently,  a  driver  must  be  able  to  
select  from    this  ever-­‐changing  situation  all  those  cues  that  are  vital  to  
the  movement  of  the  car  and  must  then  be  able  to  interpret  the  cues  
correctly,  make  the  appropriate  decisions  in  good  time,  and  actuate  
the  controls  of  the  car  to  give  effect  to  these  decisions.  

The  senses  employed  by  the  driver  are  sight,  hearing,  feel,  with  sight  
during  the  most  important.  Body  position,  balance  and  muscle  control  
also  play  a  vital  role.  

The  quality  of  a  motorist’s  driving  is  directly  affected  by  the  speed  and  
accuracy  with  which  the  brain  can  process  the  messages  relayed  from  
various  stimuli.  

The  driver’s  physical  fitness  plays  an  important  role  in  this  continuous  
process  of  observing,  making  judgements  and  putting  decisions  into  
effect.  Obviously  there  is  a  limit  to  the  brain’s  capacity  to  perform  this  
function,  so  the  higher  the  speed,  the  fewer  the  observations  that  can  
be  processed  per  kilometre.  

The  defensive  driver  minimises  danger  and  aggravation  on  the  road  by  
driving:  
• carefully  
• systematically  
• considerately.  

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System  of  Vehicle  Control  (SVC)  

The  System  of  Vehicle  Control  (SVC)  creates  a  simple  and  repetitive  
method  of  driving  which  ensures  that  you  omit  no  detail,  leave  nothing  
to  chance  and,  when  perfected,  will  make  sure  that  you  will  always  be:  
• in  the  right  gear  
• travelling  at  the  appropriate  speed  
• in  the  correct  position.  

SVC  requires  you  to  consider  each  of  the  six  elements  listed  below  as  
you  approach  a  traffic  hazard.  Depending  on  the  circumstances,  some  
or  all  of  the  elements  are  implemented.  

Before  implementing  SVC  you  have  to  first  identify  a  traffic  hazard,  this  
could  be  anything  that  may  be  a  danger  to  you  such  as:  
• hills  and  bends:  
− When  approaching  the  crest  of  a  hill  or  a  bend,  keep  to  the  left  
hand  side  of  the  road  as  your  vision  of  oncoming  vehicles  will  
be  restricted.  
• animals:  
− Animals  are  unpredictable  so,  reduce  your  speed  and  prepare  
to  take  evasive  action  to  prevent  a  collision  (accident)  
• road  works:  
− Reduce  your  speed,  obey  all  road  signs;  you  will  possibly  
encounter  poor  road  surfaces  and/or  detours  
• pedestrians:  
− Pedestrians  may  emerge  from  between  parked  vehicles  and  
cross  against  traffic  signals.  Children  are  unpredictable  and  
may  run  out  into  the  traffic.  Watch  parked  cars  for  drivers  or  
passengers  emerging  into  your  path  
• intersections:  
− At  intersections  slow  and  be  prepared  to  give  way  and  try  to  
anticipate  other  road  users.  Do  not  totally  rely  on  traffic  signals  
that  give  you  right  of  way.  

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The  six  elements  of  the  system  are:  


1. Course:  
• Is  my  road  position  appropriate  for  the  hazard  that  I  am  
approaching?  

2. Mirrors  and  indicators:  


• What  is  behind,  do  I  signal  now  to  change  position?  

3. Speed:  
• What  speed  do  I  need  when  I  reach  the  hazard?  Now  is  the  
time  to  start  reducing  speed.  

4. Gears  and  mirrors:  


• If  speed  was  reduced  sufficiently,  gears  will  need  changing.  
Check  mirrors  again  to  update  what  is  happening  behind.  

5. Evasive  action:  
• Do  I  need  to  stop,  sound  the  horn  or  slow  down  further?  

6. Acceleration:  
• Hazard  passed,  resume  speed.  

Once  you  have  identified  a  traffic  hazard,  commence  with  the  first  
element  and  proceed  to  the  last  (asking  the  question  relating  to  each  
element)  to  see  if  you  should  take  some  defensive  action  with  your  
vehicle  so  that  you  can  safely  negotiate  that  hazard.  

Practical  application  

When  driving  in  moderate  to  heavy  traffic,  some  of  the  six  elements  
(course,  speed,  gears,  accelerator)  can  be  pre-­‐set.  For  example,  
because  of  the  traffic  and  circumstances  you  would  remain  in  one  
particular  road  position  and  drive  your  car  at  a  speed  that  would  be  
appropriate  for  any  circumstance  that  developed.  

This  would  leave  you  to  concentrate  on  scanning,  checking  mirrors  and  
evasive  action.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 27


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Approaching  traffic  lights  

When  approaching  a  green  traffic  light,  implement  the  System  of  


Vehicle  Control  with  an  additional  element,  be  prepare  for  a  traffic  
light  change.  

The  law  requires  that  you  stop  when  a  red  light  is  on  and  allows  you  to  
proceed  if  a  green  light  is  showing.  However,  an  amber  (or  yellow)  
light  is  the  same  as  a  red  light  and  means  that  you  must  stop,  if  safe.  

A  problem  usually  arises  when  you  are  approaching  a  set  of  green  
traffic  lights  and  the  amber  light  come  on.  Because  you  are  getting  
close  to  the  traffic  lights,  often  a  quick  decision  has  to  be  made  
whether  to  stop  or  continue.  

Making  quick  decisions  means  that  you  do  not  have  time  to  take  in  all  
of  the  circumstances  and  often  an  incorrect  decision  is  the  result.  

The  easiest  way  to  deal  with  this  problem  is  to  anticipate  the  `point  of  
no  return,’  on  the  road.  You  can  do  this  in  the  following  manner:  

Firstly,  always  reduce  your  speed  when    approaching  traffic  lights.  By  
reducing  speed  slightly,  your  braking  distance  is  reduced  considerably.  
halving  your  speed  the  braking  distance  is  reduced  four  times.  

As  you  approach  the  green  traffic  light,  look  for  the  stop  line  on  the  
road  that  is  associated  with  the  traffic  light  you  are  approaching.  
Continue  to  glance  at  this  line  as  you  approach.  

By  observing  the  stop  line  your  brain  acts  as  a  computer,  and  can  
estimate  where  the  ‘point  of  not  return’  is  on  the  road.  

Once  this  point  has  been  identified,  then  your  decision  to  stop  or  
continue  on  when  the  amber  light  appears  has  already  been  worked  
out  in  your  head.  

By  this  time  you  will  have  been  using  your  rear  vision  mirrors  which  will  
have  provided  you  with  information  on  how  many  vehicles  there  are  
behind  you  and  how  close.  

This  information  is  useful  should  the  light  turn  amber  just  as  you  have  
reached  the  `point  of  no  return’.  The  closeness  of  the  vehicles  behind  
you  will  influence  your  decision  to  brake  normally  or  more  heavily.  

If  the  amber  light  comes  on  before  the  ‘point  of  no  return’,  you  know  
that  you  have  enough  time  to  stop.  If  the  light  comes  on  after  you  
have  gone  over  the  ‘point  of  no  return’,  you  can  continue  on  -­‐  with  
caution.  

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The  application  of  this  System  will  ensure  that  drivers  omit  no  detail  
and  leave  nothing  to  chance  because  they  will  have  prepared  for  all  
possible  situations.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 29


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Activity 6: What must you look for when approaching traffic


lights?

What must you be looking for when you approach a green traffic
light?

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There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

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Failure  to  recognise  traffic  hazards  

One  of  the  chief  causes  of  accidents  is  the  failure  of  drivers  to  
recognise  traffic  hazards  while  they  still  have  time  to  take  evasive  
action  and  prevent  them.  This  is  why  being  on  the  lookout  for  traffic  
hazards  is  important.  

A  definition  of  a  hazard  is:    

Anything  that  could  cause  danger  

If  you  do  not  look  for  traffic  hazards  you  may  not  see  them  in  time  to  
react  and  avoid  them.  

Your  eye  only  has  a  narrow  cone  in  which  clear  identification  vision  is  
possible.  This  means  that  when  you  are  looking  30  metres  ahead,  all  
you  see  with  your  central  eyesight  is  an  area  1.5  metres  width.  At  91  
metres,  the  width  is  five  metres.  

This  is  the  reason  why  you  must  constantly  be  looking  around  you.  
Never  fix  your  eyes  for  too  long  on  any  one  object.  

In  addition,  never  trust  in  one  look  but  continue  to  scan  the  road  
around  you  constantly  because  on  your  first  scan  you  may  not  observe  
a  vehicle  due  to  its  colour  blending  in  with  the  background.  

Do  not  rely  on  the  movement  of  another  vehicle  to  catch  your  eye.  
Remember,  many  of  the  other  drivers  on  the  road  may  have  a  low  
standard  of  driving  and  may  not  be  scanning.  You  have  to  watch  out  
for  them  as  their  years  of  experience  may  only  make  them  an  
experienced  bad  driver.  

As  a  driver,  you  should  be  looking,  trying  to  find  any  traffic  hazard,  
whether  they  are:  
• behind  
• to  the  left  
• to  the  right  
• ahead  
• beside  you.  

In  a  large  number  of  crashes,  drivers  often  admit  that  they  did  not  see  
the  other  person.  Quite  possibly,  they  were  not  expecting  any  
problems  and  so  were  unprepared  for  something  to  happen.  

Exercise  your  mind  to  constantly  look  for  traffic  hazards,  this  is  a  
learned  skill  that  could  save  your  life  -­‐  or  someone  else’s.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 31


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As  you  drive  along  a  road,  look  well  ahead,  note  any  possible  trouble  
spots  such  as:  
• intersections  for:  
− cars  
− bicycles  
− pedestrians  
• pedestrian  crossings  for:  
− children  
− people  in  a  hurry  
• stationary  buses,  passengers  that  you  cannot  see  walking  
around  the  front  to  cross  the  road  
• parked  cars  with  brake  lights  on  that  may  be  about  to  
move  off  
• children  playing  near  the  road.  

Page 32 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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Activity 7: What are the patterns that cause road accidents?

What are the patterns that cause road accidents?

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There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 33


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 8: What are the five points of good driving?

What are the five points of good driving involving traffic hazards?

1. __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

2. __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

3. __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

4. __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

5. __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 34 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Research  has  shown  that  new  drivers:  


• can  react  quickly  for  simple  tasks  but  are  slow  for  complex  
traffic  situations  
• rate  themselves  as  better  than  the  average  driver  
• are  inconsistent  in  coping  with  similar  situations  
• only  look  near  their  vehicles  instead  of  looking  further  
away  for  problems  in  advance  
• use  mirrors  infrequently  
• are  slow  to  recover  after  avoidance  manoeuvres  
• fail  to  slow  down  for  potential  dangerous  situations.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 35


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 9: Demonstrate the following driving procedures

Demonstrate for your trainer the following driving procedures:

• hazard avoidance
• approaching traffic lights
• the five points of good driving
• driving through an area undergoing road works.

Page 36 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 10: Adjust your vehicle’s mirrors

When should you adjust your vehicle’s mirrors?


• before entering your vehicle? 
• as you move off? 
• after adjusting the seat? 

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 37


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 11: What evasive action would you take?

What action would you take if you sighted a vehicle approaching


from the rear, driving erratically from one side of the road to the
other?

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Page 38 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
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Space cushion

Defensive  drivers  maintain  a  safe  ‘space  cushion’  all  around  their  


vehicle.  The  space  cushion  is  the  distance  from  your  vehicle  to  the  
other  vehicles  around  you.  This  protective  space  cushion  gives  you  the  
room  to  stop,  change  lanes  or  take  any  necessary  action  without  
endangering  you,  your  vehicle  or  other  road  users.  

Spaces  ahead  

The  space  ahead  is  most  important.  Some  authorities  recommend  that  
you  have  one  second  of  following  interval  for  every  3  metres  of  vehicle  
length.    So  if  your  vehicle  is  6  metres,  you  would  allow  2  seconds  
between  your  vehicle  and  the  vehicle  in  front  of  you.  

Most  state/territories  have  legislation  specifying  a  minimum  following  


distance.  In  good  driving  conditions,  your  vehicle  should  be  at  least  2  
seconds  behind  the  vehicle  directly  in  front  of  you.  

If  conditions  are  poor  due  to  rain,  low  visibility  or  bad  road  surfaces,  
this  space  should  be  increased  to  3  or  4  seconds.  If  the  conditions  are  
very  poor  it  should  be  increased  even  further.  Following  another  
vehicle  too  closely  is  one  of  the  most  common,  avoidable  causes  of  
collision.  

A  simple  method  of  checking  your  space  cushion  can  be  to:  
• locate  an  object  such  as  tree  ahead  of  the  leading  vehicle  
• as  soon  as  the  leading  vehicle  reaches  the  first  tree  start  
counting:  
− 1,001  
− 1,002  
• you  should  not  reach  the  tree  until  you  have  completed  
your  count,  if  you  do  ease  of  the  accelerator  slightly.  

Sometimes  you  need  to  keep  more  than  two  seconds  back.  A  larger  
gap  is  needed  when:  
• visibility  is  poor  
• it  is  dark  and  you  can’t  get  as  good  a  view  of  what  the  car  
ahead  is  doing  
• the  road  is  wet  or  slippery  and  you  can’t  stop  as  quickly  
• you  are  tired  and  might  not  react  as  quickly  
• the  road  is  unmade.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 39


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Space  to  the  sides  

Just  as  you  need  a  space  cushion  in  front,  you  also  need  space  to  the  
sides.  Its  purpose  is  also  to  protect  you  from  mistakes.  You  need  to  
keep  away  from  vehicles  that  are:  
• alongside  
− if  you  have  a  choice,  don’t  drive  next  to  another  vehicle  for  too  
long  
• oncoming  
− by  keeping  to  the  left  of  a  multi-­‐lane  road,  you  make  sure  that  
you  keep  enough  distance  from  oncoming  vehicles  
• parked  
− keep  a  space  between  you  and  parked  vehicles.  Someone  may  
get  out  of  a  parked  car  suddenly,  a  pedestrian  may  step  from  
between  cars,  or  a  driver  may  start  up  suddenly  and  pull  out.  

Space  behind  

Obviously  the  space  cushion  behind  your  vehicle  is  mainly  under  the  
control  of  the  driver  following  you.    However,  you  can  help  the  other  
driver  keep  the  correct  distance  by:  
• maintaining  a  constant  speed  
• slowing  down  gradually  
• don’t  change  speed  or  stop  suddenly  
• avoiding  sudden  stops  
• signalling  any  manoeuvres  well  ahead.  

When  you  are  being  tailgated  (followed  too  closely):  


• try  not  to  feel  that  you  have  to  go  faster  
• let  the  other  driver  overtake  as  soon  as  they  can  
• increase  the  space  in  front  of  your  car,  so  if  you  have  to  
stop,  you  can  do  so  more  gently  and  the  car  behind  is  less  
likely  to  hit  you  
• if  you  wish  to  turn,  slow  down  early.  

It  is  against  the  law  to  tailgate.  

Page 40 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 12: When would you need a greater space cushion?

Under what conditions would you need a larger space cushion?

____________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________

If you are driving a motor car when conditions are poor due to rain,
low visibility or bad road surface what space cushion should you
leave?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 41


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Driver  vision  

Drivers  all  round  vision  is  restricted  by:  


• corner  pillars  
• bonnets  
• rear  vision  mirrors  
• load  
• trailer  bodies  
• air  filters.  

A  defensive  driver  is  always  conscious  of  these  blind  spots  and  
watches  for  vehicles  or  pedestrians  moving  into  them.  

Page 42 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
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Activity 13: Demonstrate the blind spots on your vehicle

Demonstrate for your trainer the blind spots on your vehicle. List
these below.

____________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 43


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 14: What are you state/territory regulations for railway


crossings?

What is your state/territory legal requirement for railway crossings


where there are gates, booms or flashing lights?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Ask your trainer to give you a test of ten questions on your


state/territory traffic laws. These questions to be taken from your
state/territory road and transport authority regulations.

____________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Ask your trainer how you did in the test.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 44 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 15: When must you give way to pedestrians?

When must you give way to pedestrians when turning?

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© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 45


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Giveway  rules  

You  will  be  required  to  give  way  from  time-­‐to-­‐time.  For  example:  
• intersections  where  there  are  no  lights  or  signs  
• when  joining  a  stream  of  traffic  from  a  parked  position  
• when  making  a  U-­‐turn  
• changing  lanes  
• entering  or  leaving  the  road  from  private  premises.  

Page 46 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 16: What is the best thing to do when you are tired?

Tick the box with the correct answer.

If you are tired when driving the best thing to do is:


• turn on the radio and open the windows? 
• drink coffee to stay awake? 
• continue to drive at a slower speed? 
• pull of the road and rest? 

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 47


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 17: What must you do in a give way situation?

Tick the box with the correct answer.

When other vehicles are required to give way to you at an


intersection you should:

• always offer to give way to other vehicles? 


• signal all other drivers to see if they want to go first? 
• give way to any other drivers who look as though
they will not give way? 
• always take right of way so as not to confuse the
other drivers? 

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 48 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Concentration  

An  important  factor  of  car  driving  is  the  level  of  concentration  and  
attention  required  during  intervals  of  high  driving  workload.  

These  intervals  may  be  associated  with  negotiating  a  perceived  traffic  


hazard  or  may  be  seen  as  routine.  

During  these  intervals  the  driver  is  confronted  with  several  tasks  that  
can  compete  for  attention  at  the  same  time.  

High  workload  situations  are  among  the  main  causes  of  job  stress,  skill  
failure  and  accidents.  

Driving  to  a  system  permits  the  driver  to  attend  to  the  most  vital  
actions,  one  at  a  time,  in  an  order  of  sequences.  

Handling  a  high  workload  in  a  systematic  sequence  makes  sure:  


• all  vital  actions  get  the  required  attention  
• vital  actions  are  carried  out  at  the  best  time  
• each  vital  action  receives  the  driver’s  full  skill  and  ability  
• peak  workload  and  driver  stress  are  greatly  reduced.  

The  driver  has  spare  capacity  to  deal  with  emergencies.  

Emergencies and what to do

Do  all  you  can  to  avoid  emergencies.  However,  if  you  find  yourself  in  
one  of  the  following  situations,  you  should  know  in  advance  the  best  
thing  to  do:  
• skidding  
• types  of  skids  
• tyre  blow-­‐out  or  rapid  puncture  
• brake  failure  
• being  forced  onto  the  gravel  (at  the  side  of  the  road)  
• decreased  traction  (adhesion).  

Skidding  

Skids  don’t  just  happen.  They  result  from  a  vehicle  being  driven  
incorrectly.  A  car  skids  because  the  driver  is  asking  more  of  the  car’s  
braking  ,  acceleration,  or  steering  than  is  possible  with  the  amount  of  
grip  the  tyres  have  on  the  road.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 49


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Skids  usually  occur  during  cornering,  braking  and  accelerating.  A  car  


seldom  skids  when  it  is  travelling  in  a  straight  line.  

If  the  brakes  are  applied  too  hard,  for  instance,  the  wheels  lock,  
causing  the  car  to  slide  forward.  Turning  the  steering  wheel  has  no  
effect  at  all.  When  the  brakes  are  released,  the  wheels  start  turning  
again.  The  steering  responds  and  the  driver  can  change  direction.  

If  the  road  conditions  are  bad,  e.g.  slippery,  rough  or  a  gravel  surface,  
the  amount  of  grip  decreases.  

The  early  recognition  of  a  skid  is  vital.  A  sensation  of  lightness  or  
floating  you  can  feel  in  the  seat  of  your  pants  is  the  cause  of  the  more  
common  rear-­‐wheel  skid.  The  earlier  you  recognise  them,  the  safer  it  
will  be  and  the  sooner  you  can  correct  the  skid.  Police  drivers  have  to  
learn  how  to  avoid  skids  and  how  to  recover  from  them.  It  is  right  that  
as  an  ordinary  driver  you  should  also  be  aware  of  how  to  correct  the  
skid.  

Rear  wheel  skid  

A  good  driver  doesn’t  get  into  an  uncontrolled  skid.  Remember  that  it  
is  always  easier  to  get  into  a  skid  than  get  out  of  one.  If  you  get  into  a  
skid,  don’t  panic.  Take  your  foot  off  the  accelerator  and  always  turn  in  
the  same  direction  as  the  skid.  Most  drivers  will  do  this  instinctively.  
Then  let  the  engine  gradually  bring  the  car  to  a  stop.  

If  the  back  of  the  car  slides  to  the  left,  take  your  foot  of  the  accelerator  
and  turn  the  steering  left  smoothly  to  control  the  skid,  but  not  too  far,  
otherwise  you  could  induce  a  skid  in  the  opposite  direction.  

Front  wheel  skid  

Front  wheel  skids  don’t  happen  very  often,  but  usually  occur  when  
approaching  a  hazard  too  fast,  or  as  a  result  of  a  sudden  harsh  
movement  of  the  steering  wheel.  To  correct  a  front-­‐wheel  skid,  take  
your  foot  of  the  accelerator  but  don’t  touch  the  brake.  Straighten  the  
front  wheels  momentarily  to  line  them  up  with  the  direction  in  which  
the  front  of  the  car  is  heading.  Then  smoothly  apply  the  steering  to  
bring  the  car  back  on  the  correct  course.  When  under  control  again,  
apply  gentle,  smooth  acceleration.  

Page 50 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 18: Describe to your trainer how to correct a skid

Describe to your trainer how you would correct a:


• front wheel skid
• rear wheel skid.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 51


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

What  to  do  in  the  case  of  a  blow-­‐out  or  a  rapid  puncture  

If  you  get  a  blow-­‐out  don’t  over-­‐react  on  the  steering,  or  slam  on  the  
brakes.  The  car  will  pull  towards  the  burst  tyre  and  you  will  be  glad  you  
were  holding    the  wheel  properly,  and  not  with  one  hand.  Don’t  brake,  
take  your  foot  off  the  accelerator  and  just  try  to  correct  the  slight  drift  
off  course  with  a  controlled,  gentle,  but  firm  action  on  the  steering  
wheel.  It  is  over-­‐reaction  that  that  ruins  things  every  time,  and  puts  
you  in  danger.  

Let  your  speed  run  down  quite  naturally,  then  check  your  mirrors  and,  
if  it  is  safe,  pull  over  to  the  side  of  the  road-­‐way  out  of  harm’s  way.  
Then  apply  your  brakes  very  gently  to  bring  the  car  to  a  halt.  

Page 52 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 19: Describe to your trainer what to do in the case of a


blow-out or a rapid blow-out

Describe to your trainer the actions you would take in the case of a
blow out or a rapid puncture.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 53


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Being  forced  onto  the  gravel  

If  you  are  forced  onto  the  gravel  edge  of  a  country  road  take  your  foot  
off  the  accelerator  but  do  not  slam  on  the  brakes.  If  you  must  brake  
remember  the  gravel  provides  much  less  grip  for  your  tyres.  Keep  a  
firm  grip  on  the  steering  wheel  and  try  to  keep  a  straight  course.  

Take  your  time  to  get  back  on  the  bitumen.  Pick  a  spot  and  carefully  
ease  back  onto  the  road.  

Brake  failure  

If  you  step  onto  the  brake  and  the  pedal  sinks  uselessly  to  the  floor.  
Take  the  following  action:  
• pump  the  brake  pedal  hard  and  fast  (this  may  help)  
• apply  the  hand  brake  carefully  so  that  the  vehicle  doesn’t  
skid  
• if  possible,  change  to  a  lower  gear  (even  in  an  automatic)  
and  use  your  horn  to  alert  other  drivers  
• steer  to  avoid  the  most  severe  collision  if  one  cannot  be  
avoided.  

Decreased  traction  (adhesion)  

• irrespective  of  the  claims  of  some  tyre  manufacturers,  no  tyre  
adheres  as  well  in  the  wet  as  in  the  dry  

• adhesion  is  markedly  lowered.  The  film  of  water  acts  as  a  lubricant,  
reducing  friction  and  consequently  adhesion  

• when  cornering,  centrifugal  force,  because  of  the  reduced  


adhesion,  will  cause  sideways  sliding  at  a  lower  speed  

• the  distance  needed  to  stop  is  increased  considerably  

• when  accelerating,  wheel  spin  is  easily  induced  

• wet  roads  are  at  their  most  dangerous  after  an  initial  fall  of  rain.  All  
the  grease,  oil  and  rubber  dust  from  passing  vehicles  floats  to  the  
surface  and  makes  it  particularly  slippery.  

Action  to  be  taken  

• increase  the  safety  cushion  

• decrease  speed  because  of  the  lower  adhesion  and  to  enable  you  
to  see  the  whole  scene;  be  careful  at  pools  of  water  

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• start  the  braking  action  much  earlier;  pay  particular  attention  to  
the  vehicles  behind  you  before  braking;  reduce  acceleration  

• drive  with  your  headlights  on;  others  will  be  more  aware  of  your  
presence.  

Danger  in  aquaplaning  

A  point  to  remember  is  that  when  you  are  driving  along  at  80  km/h  ,  
during  or  after  heavy  rain,  each  tyre  has  to  disperse  around  4  litres  of  
water  every  second.  Good  tyres  allow  you  to  drive  safely,  as  they  
pump  the  slippery  water  away  and  continue  to  grip  the  road  surface  
properly.  But  bald  tyre  won’t  do  this.  They  will  splash  a  certain  amount  
of  water  out  at  the  sides,  but  not  enough.  Eventually  you  get  a  water  
wedge  forming  which  builds  up  in  front  of  the  tyres  until  it  forces  its  
way  under  them,  and  ‘aquaplaning’  starts.  Instead  of  being  tyre-­‐borne,  
you  are  water  -­‐  borne.  You  loose  steering,  and  your  ability  to  brake.  
You  could  be  within  seconds  of  an  accident  and  possible  death.    

It  is  always  important  to  cut  down  your  speed  during  or  after  heavy  
rain.  Be  particularly  careful  after  a  light  shower  following  a  long  dry  
spell,  when  the  roads  can  be  like  a  skating  rink.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 55


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Activity 20: What is your state/territory regulations regarding


worn tyres?

What are the regulations in your state/territory regarding tyre tread


depth?

_____________________________________________________

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Your  responsibility  in  the  case  of  an  accident  

When  an  accident  occurs,  those  involved  may  be  distressed,  confused  
or  angry.  This  turmoil  may  create  additional  danger  and  lead  to  further  
accidents.  A  crash  is  something  you  will  be  doing  everything  to  avoid.  
However,  should  you  be  involved  in  one,  you  must  know  what  to  do  
afterwards.  

Here  are  some  of  the  things  you  must  do  if  you  are  involved  in  a  crash  
or  an  accident:  
• stop  immediately  
• protect  the  area  to  make  sure  another  crash  does  not  
occur  
• give  assistance  to  any  injured  person  
• send  or  phone  for  police  or  ambulance  if  anyone  is  injured  
• give  your  name,  address,  registration  number  and  the  
vehicle  owner’s  name  to  other  parties  involved  
• remove  all  debris  from  the  road  
• if  there  is  only  property  damage  and  the  owner  (or  a  
representative)  is  not  present,  report  the  crash  to  the  
nearest  police  station  
• report  the  crash  to  the  nearest  police  station  if  anyone  is  
injured  and  police  do  not  attend  the  crash  scene.  

Penalties  

In  Victoria  if  you  do  not  stop  and  give  assistance  after  being  involved  in  
a  crash  causing  death  or  injury  you  can  be  fined  up  to  $8,000  and/or  be  
imprisoned  for  up  to  two  years.  You  will  also  loose  your  licence  for  two  
years.  

Check  your  state/territory  Regulatory  Authority  for  the  penalty  


applying  in  that  state/territory.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 57


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Activity 21: What is the penalty for failing to stop after an


accident in your state/territory?

What is the penalty for failing to stop after an accident causing


death or injury in your state/territory?

_____________________________________________________

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Workplace  procedures  after  an  accident  

There  will  be  a  number  of  workplace  procedures  that  you  must  be  
aware  of  after  an  accident.  For  example:  
• regulatory  and/or  enterprise  emergency  and  reporting  
procedures  
• your  enterprise  medical  plan  
• identifying  and  being  aware  of  emergency  phone  numbers  
• making  arrangements  for  alternative  transport  and  
maintenance  
• informing  next  of  kin  about  the  accident  (check  your  
company  policy  on  who  should  deliver  this  information)  
• responding  to  emergency  vehicles  (police,  ambulance  and  
fire  engines).  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 59


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Activity 22: What must you do if you are involved in an


accident?

Tick the correct answer.

If your vehicle is involved in a crash you must stop and then first of
all:
• care for the injured? 
• protect the area so another crash won’t happen? 
• exchange names, addresses and registration numbers? 

If you stop your vehicle at a crash, you should:


• park very close to the crash? 
• put on your hazard lights? 
• first notify the authorities? 

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 60 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 61


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Section 3

Drive a car in a systematic and


controlled manner

Page 62 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Vehicle  control  

Steering  the  vehicle  

Slow  speed  vehicle  control  

Acceleration  

Steering  around  bends  

Night  driving  

Commentary  drive  demonstration  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 63


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Activity 23: Demonstrate efficient car driving

This demonstration is designed to assess your performance in the


following situations:

• gear changing:
− correct changing in sequence
• acceleration
• steering
• reversing:
− reversing is a dangerous manoeuvre because of limited
vision and steering being a great deal more sensitive
• entering and leaving your vehicle safely
• lane keeping:
− on turns
− curves
− straight lines
• position:
− in preparation for a 90 degree turn
• brake application:
− smoothness when applying
• brake distance:
− judgement of when to apply the brakes at normal stops such
as stop signs
• signalling:
− ample indication (minimum of 3 seconds) before movement
and cancelling signal upon completion of movement
• observation:
− adjusting your mirrors, seat belt and seat
− turns
− lane changing
− approaching intersections.

Obtain from your vehicle licensing department a ‘Traffic


Handbook’ (it may be called something else in your state/territory).

This will give you a description of the performance checks required


in a on-road test.

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Termination of a road test would occur in any of the following


situations:
• disobeying a stop sign or red traffic signal
• failing to give way
• colliding with a vehicle, pedestrian or fixed object
• performing an illegal manoeuvre
• exceeding the speed limit
• refusing to attempt any manoeuvre
• repeated failure to follow instructions
• only action that required outside help to avoid a collision
• lack of control
• causing a dangerous situation
• mounting a kerb with any one wheel.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 65


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Activity 24: Demonstrate a systematic approach to starting


your car and leaving the kerb

Demonstrate and describe for your trainer the process for starting
your car and leaving the kerb. Outline the process steps.

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

When selecting drive in an automatic car, what safety precautions


should you take?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

After moving off from the kerb, what must be done?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 66 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
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Activity 25: Demonstrate for your trainer the process of


returning to the kerb

Demonstrate for your trainer the process of returning to the kerb


and switching off the engine. Ask your trainer for feedback on your
performance.

Demonstrate for your trainer the following:


• reverse parking
• angle parking.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 67


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Activity 26: Demonstrate the following driving processes

Demonstrate slow speed vehicle control with an automatic vehicle.

Demonstrate slow speed vehicle control in a vehicle with a clutch.

Demonstrate multi-point turns.

Ask your trainer for feedback on these demonstrations.

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Acceleration  

The  time  has  come  to  increase  acceleration  and  explore  the  speed  
range  of  the  gears.  There  may  be  an  initial  fear  of  acceleration  but  it  is  
not  dangerous,  as  long  as  the  final  speed  reached  suits  the  conditions.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 69


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Activity 27: Demonstrate the following driving exercises

Complete the following driving demonstrations. They are to be


completed in both automatic and manual vehicles. Select a wide
flat road with minimum traffic.

Automatic vehicles

Quickly accelerate from a standing start until 50 km/h is reached.

Quickly accelerate from a standing start until 60 km/h is reached.

Slowly (so that the automatic gearbox will change upwards)


accelerate to 50 km/h, release accelerator, and apply firm
acceleration, staying in top gear.

Slowly accelerate to 50 km/h, release accelerator, then push


accelerator firmly to the floor. The automatic gearbox kick-down
mechanism will operate, selecting a lower, more accelerative gear.

Manual vehicles

From a standing start, still change at minimum change points but


apply more accelerator between gears.

From a standing start, accelerate hard and hold each gear longer
until 3rd gear is selected.

At 40 km/h in 3rd gear change back to 2nd gear and accelerate


hard.

At 50 km/h in 4th gear change back to 3rd gear and accelerate


hard.

Repeat these processes until you feel comfortable with this


acceleration. Ask your trainer for feedback on your practice.

Page 70 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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Activity 28: Demonstrate the following driving exercises

At the same time as acceleration is practised, harder braking can


be explored. Again select a wide flat road with little or no traffic.

Braking

At 40 km/h apply the footbrake as hard as possible. This will induce


wheel lock and skidding. (Hear the screech!) Probably the vehicle
will pull to one side. This is how you do not use the brakes. Once
skidding has commenced the braking efficiency is reduced
markedly.

From 40 km/h apply the brakes firmly and stop quickly without
locking the wheels (no screech).

From 60 km/h apply the brakes firmly and stop quickly without
locking the wheels.

The instructing person is to ask you to stop quickly at a set point


(unknown to you) and from various speeds. After each stop alight
and walk the stopping distance to develop an appreciation of the
distance needed - it is quite a bit more than you may think. Ask
your trainer for feedback on these exercises.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 71


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Being  ready  

When  driving  place  your  left  foot  flat  against  the  fire  wall  or  the  rest  
spot  provided  for  your  left  foot  (after  top  gear  selection  in  manual  
vehicles).  This  is  the  bracing  foot  at  the  time  of  an  emergency.  

Practise  applying  a  little  weight  to  this  foot.  When  any  influenced  
decision  is  made,  feel  the  left  foot  and  at  the  same  time  concentrate  
on  a  light  steering  grip  and  relaxed  arms.  With  this  stance,  vehicle  
control  can  be  maintained  in  an  emergency.  Constant  practice  will  
make  this  an  automatic  reaction.  

Steering  around  bends  

Until  this  stage  centrifugal  force  has  played  little  or  no  part  in  the  
cornering  process.  With  practice  and  a  more  advanced  approach  to  
driving,  a  higher  speed  will  be  used  on  bends.  You  will  then  notice  the  
reaction  of  the  vehicle  under  centrifugal  force.  

This  will  not  be  a  new  sensation.  You  have  been  experiencing  it  since  
you  first  became  a  passenger  in  a  car.  The  force  that  pushes  you  to  the  
side  of  the  car  when  cornering  is  centrifugal  force.  

Page 72 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
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Activity 29: Demonstrate curve turning to your trainer

Ask your trainer to select a number of curves for you to


demonstrate curve turning. Your trainer should select at least four
types of bends.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 73


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Activity 30: Demonstrate overtaking other vehicles in a


suburban situation

You are required to demonstrate overtaking in a suburban situation.


Initially, demonstrate overtaking in a narrow street where a car is
parked and you must cross the centre of the road to pass or, in a
wider street, practise around double-parked cars. Slow-moving
vehicles can then be overtaken.

The procedure you should use is as follows:


• Judge the distance. Is there sufficient distance between your
vehicle and the approaching traffic to complete the manoeuvre?
If in doubt don’t overtake.
• Check your mirror. Be sure that a fast vehicle from the rear is
not overtaking.
• Indicate that you are turning right.
• Select the gear that will give the best acceleration for the speed
range.
• Make that quick final safety check of blind spots in the car.
• Commencing the manoeuvre at least 15 metres before the
vehicle is reached. Overtake in a gradual arc; sudden steering
wheel movements are not required. Quick acceleration is used
to limit the time on the wrong side of the road.
• Return to the left. The front of the overtaken vehicle appearing
in the central mirror will guarantee that it is clear to move left.
Signal and move left gradually.
• Don’t overtake through intersections or at T-junctions. Vehicles
may turn into your path. When overtaking maintain a good side
safety cushion.
• This manoeuvre can be practised on a slow vehicle in laned
traffic. A judgment of the amount of forward distance and
acceleration needed can be formed without crossing the centre
of the road. In lanes, check the blind spot before moving back.

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When  being  overtaken  


• If  possible  move  to  the  left.  This  does  not  mean  that  you  have  to  
make  your  path  difficult.  
• Don’t  increase  speed.  You  don’t  have  to  reduce  speed  unless  the  
urgency  of  the  situation  requires  it.  

Follow  these  practices  irrespective  of  your  opinion  of  the  driving  habits  
or  attitude  of  the  overtaking  driver.  The  quicker  he  passes  you  the  
safer  you  will  be.  

Night  driving  

The  difficulties  in  night  driving  are:  


• The  scope  of  vision  is  reduced  at  night;  because  of  this  accidents  
increase  after  dark.  
• Eye  contact  becomes  difficult.  Other  drivers’  movements  become  
more  difficult  to  predict.  
• Pedestrians  are  difficult  to  see,  particularly  if  they  are  crossing  from  
the  right  and  the  lights  of  oncoming  vehicles  are  behind  them.  
• The  lights  of  oncoming  vehicles  are  a  problem,  particularly  if  they  
are  on  high  beam.  

Action  to  be  taken  


• Increase  the  safety  cushion.  
• Reduce  speed  overall,  but  especially  in  busy  or  dark  areas,  to  enable  
evaluation  of  the  whole  scene.  
• The  headlight  flashing  unit  can  be  effective  at  night  to  attract  
attention  and  to  make  sure  you  have  been  seen.  
• Never  let  central  vision  focus  on  the  oncoming  high  beam  lights.  
Direct  your  central  vision  to  the  left  and  past  the  oncoming  vehicle.  
The  glare  is  only  a  real  problem  if  central  vision  is  directed  at  the  
lights.  This  can  be  illustrated  by  using  a  household  light;  central  
vision  can  be  focused  quite  close  to  the  globe  without  discomfort.  
Discomfort  only  begins  when  central  vision  is  placed  on  the  globe.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 75


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Activity 31: Demonstrate a commentary drive for your trainer

Carry out a driving demonstration for your trainer. This


demonstration is to be conducted in a wide range of on road
conditions. For example:

• during daylight hours


• during night hours
• wet and dry conditions
• sealed and unsealed roads.

During this driving demonstration you will be required to carry out a


drive commentary for your trainer.

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© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 77


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Section 4

Describe and demonstrate


techniques required to improve
the efficient operation of a car

Page 78 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Identify  the  main  systems  of  a  car  

Describe  the  basic  functions  of  these  systems  

Describe  the  effect  of  regular  car  maintenance  on  the  efficiency  of  the  
vehicle  

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Instruments and gauges

For  the  safe  operation  of  the  vehicle  and  the  engine,  it  is  necessary  for  
you  to  be  able  to  monitor  the:  
• condition  of  the  vital  fluids  (oils,  fuel  and  water)  
• output  of  the  charging  system  
• operation  of  other  electrical  warning  systems  
• vehicle  road  speed.  

Each  of  these  is  monitored  by  a  gauge  or  a  light  switch  which  is  
controlled  by  a  sender  unit.  

The  most  common  circuits  are:  


• engine  oil  pressure  indicator  that  indicates  low  oil-­‐pressure  
• engine  coolant  temperature  indicator  that  warns  of  
overheating  
• charging  indicator  that  indicates  the  charging  system’s  
condition  
• fuel  gauge  that  displays  the  amount  of  fuel  in  the  fuel  tank  
• speedometer  (may  be  a  mechanical,  electrical  or  electronic  
device)  that  registers  the  number  of  kilometres  per  hour  
the  vehicle  is  travelling  and  the  number  of  kilometres  the  
vehicle  has  travelled  
• brake  failure  warning  light  that  warns  of  brake  failure  
• turn  signal  indicators  that  shows  which  set  of  indicators  
are  being  used  and  that  they  are  operating  correctly  
• high  beam  warning  light  that  alerts  the  driver  that  
headlights  are  on  high  beam  
• park  brake  ‘ON’  indicator  that  warns  that  the  park  brake  is  
on  
• rear  window  demister  ‘ON’  indicator  that  shows  that  the  
rear  window  demister  is  on  
• tachometer  or  clock  when  fitted  that  registers  the  engine’s  
rpm  or  displays  the  time,  respectively.  

These  lights  and  gauges  are  grouped  together  on  the  instrument  
panel.  The  instrument  panel  is  designed  so  that  it  can  be  viewed  easily  
by  the  driver.  

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The  training  vehicle  may  also  be  equipped  with  dual  steering  and  dual  
braking  systems.  This  allows  the  trainer  to  exercise  control  over  the  
vehicle  if  the  need  should  arise.  

Ancillaries  (accessories)  

Ancillaries  are  electrical  circuits  that  have  been,  or  can  be,  installed  to  
add  to  the  comfort  and/or  pleasure  of  those  persons  travelling  in  the  
vehicle.  some  of  these  circuits  are:  
• cigarette  lighter  
• clock  
• radio  and/or  cassette  player  
• extra  lights.  

Regular servicing of your car

Proper  service  and  repair  is  important  to  the  safe,  reliable  operation  of  
all  motor  vehicles.  Some  of  these  service  operations  require  the  use  of  
tools  specially  designed  for  the  purpose.  The  special  tools  should  be  
used  as  recommended  in  the  manufacturer’s  manuals.  

Cars  require  regular  servicing.  This  may  be  handled  by  a  motor  
mechanic.  However,  there  are  a  number  of  things  that  you  can  do  to  
make  sure  that  your  vehicle  operates  at  peak  fitness.  

You  need  to  carry  out  regular  checks  to  make  sure  that  the  following  
are  working:  
• brake  lights  
• head  and  tail  lights  
• indicator  lights  
• windscreen  wipers,  windscreen  washers    
• horn.  

When  buying  fuel  at  the  service  station  (or  refuelling  at  your  
workplace),  check  the  following:  
• engine  oil  
• radiator  water  
• battery  acid  
• windscreen  washer  water.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 81


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 32: Carry out a daily inspection check on your car

Carry out a car service check demonstration for your trainer.


Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of
Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
1. Conduct • Check that the park brake
general is applied and holding?
inspection Leaks
• Check beneath the
vehicle for evidence of
fluid leaks, such as:
− petrol
− radiator fluid
− brake fluid
− engine oil
− transmission fluid?
Wheels and rims
• Check that the wheel rims
were not bent or
damaged?
• Check that all wheel nuts
were correctly fitted and
properly tightened?
• Check for grease oil leaks
from wheel bearings?
Tyres
• Check tyre pressures?
• Inspect tyres for wear and
remove any wedged
material from treads?
Fuel system
• Check for leaking or
damaged tanks or lines?

Page 82 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of


Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
2. Conduct General inspection
Engine • Check for damaged or
Compartment missing parts?
Inspection
• Check for fluid leaks and
exhaust gas leaks?
Fluid levels
Check:
• oil levels
• coolant including reservoir
• windscreen washers
• hydraulic brake fluid?
Belts and pulleys
• Check condition and
tension of all drive belts?
Bonnet locks
• Check bonnet locks were
properly secured?
3. Conduct an Vehicle registration
inside car • Check expiry date of
inspection vehicle registration?
Vision and seating
• Clean all windows and
mirrors?
• Clean and check
windscreen wiper blades?
• Adjust seating and
position of mirrors?
Engine start-up
• Check park brake was
applied and holding?
• Start engine with clutch
depressed or vehicle in
park if automatic?
• Check all other
instruments and gauges?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 83


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of


Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
Inside car housekeeping
• Remove rubbish and
loose items?
• Stow other equipment?
Minor controls
Check:
• windscreen wipers and
washers
• horn?
4. Conduct a Lights
systems • Check the condition and
operation cleanliness of all lights?
check for a
stationary • Check driving lights and
vehicle reflectors?
• Confirm brake, turn and
hazard warning lights
were undamaged and
operating correctly?
5. Conduct a Brakes
systems • Confirm park brake was
operation working properly?
check for a
moving vehicle On-road check
• Describe regular interval
checks for overheating?
6. Record and • Complete the daily
report results inspection sheet
of daily according to company
inspection policy and standards?
• Take corrective action on
those matters which are
considered the driver’s
responsibility?
• Report all other faults to
the appropriate company
personnel so that
corrective action may be
taken?

Page 84 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of


Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
7. Observe all • Observe and implement
OHS all Occupational Health
procedures and Safety practices while
conducting the daily
inspection?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 85


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Other  items  of  your  vehicle  that  require  attention:  


• change  air  cleaner  cartridge  according  to  manufacturer’s  
recommendation  
• replace  oil  filter  according  to  manufacturer’s  
recommendation  
• lubricate  door  locks,  hinges  and  striker  plates  
• rotate  wheels    if  necessary  to  equalise  wear  
• check  for  damage  or  looseness  in  bolts  and  fittings.  

Regular  servicing  and  preventative  maintenance  on  your  vehicle  will  


give  you:  
• cost  saving  benefits  
• an  efficient  and  effective  operating  vehicle  
• increased  road  safety  
• environmental  benefits.  

Page 86 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 33: Conduct a weekly inspection on your car


Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of
Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
1. Conduct • Check that the hand brake
general was applied and holding?
inspection • Engage ‘neutral’, if maxi
brakes are fitted, or a gear
contrary to the prevailing
slope?
Leaks
• Check beneath the
vehicle for evidence of
fluid leaks?
Wheels and rims
• Check that the wheel rims
were not bent or
damaged?
• Check that all wheel nuts
were correctly fitted and
properly tightened?
• Check for grease or oil
leaks from wheel
bearings?
Tyres
• Check tyre pressures?
• Inspect tyres for wear and
remove any wedged
materials caught in the
treads?
Brake system
• Where possible check
brake drums for signs of
overheating or damaged?
• Confirm air brake
components were secure
and linkages properly
connected?
• Confirm hydraulic hoses
were free from leaks and
not touching other
components?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 87


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of


Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
Steering system
• Confirm steering gear box
was secure and free from
leaks?
• Confirm that all parts of
the steering linkage were
properly attached?
• Check hoses on power
steering for wear, damage
or leakage?
Suspension system
• Check suspension
linkages and
attachments?
• Check shock absorbers
(and mountings) for
leakage or damage?
Fuel system
• Check for leaking or
damaged fuel tanks or
lines?
Exhaust system
• Confirm that muffler and
exhaust pipes were
secure and not leaking?
2. Conduct General inspection
Engine • Check for damaged or
Compartment missing parts?
Inspection
• Check for fluid leaks and
exhaust gas leaks?
Fluid levels
Check:
• oil levels
• coolant including reservoir
• battery electrolyte
• windscreen washers
• hydraulic brake fluid?

Page 88 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of


Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
Electrical system
• Confirm that battery was
secure and terminals were
secure and free from
corrosion?
• Confirm that all wiring was
properly secured?
Belts and pulleys
• Check condition and
tension of all drive belts?
Cooling system
• Confirm that the radiator
and fan were free from
damage and blockages?
• Check coolant hoses for
weaknesses or leaks?
Bonnet locks
• Confirm bonnet lock was
properly secured?
3. Conduct an Vehicle entry
‘in-side car • Confirm that doors close
inspection and latch properly?
Vehicle registration
• Check expiry date of
vehicle registration?
Emergency and safety
equipment
• Confirm that all
emergency equipment as
required by company
policy was present and in
good condition?
Vision and seating
• Clean all windows and
mirrors?
• Clean and check
windscreen wiper blades?
• Adjust seating and
position of mirrors?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 89


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of


Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
Engine start-up
• Start engine with clutch
depressed or transmission
in park if automatic?
Check all other instruments
and gauges?
Inside vehicle
• Remove rubbish and loose
items from the cab?
• Safely stow other
equipment?
Minor controls
Check correct operation of:
• windscreen wipers and
washers
• horn?
4. Conduct a Lights, reflectors and signs
systems • Check the condition and
operation cleanliness of all lights,
check for a reflectors and signs?
stationary
vehicle • Check driving lights and
reflectors?
• Confirm brake, turn and
hazard warning lights were
undamaged and operating
correctly?
Steering
• Check that steering wheel
free play was within
acceptable limits?
• Check condition of steering
linkages and looseness in
steering joints and steering
arm attachment bolts?
Clutch
• Check that fee-play and
disengagement of the clutch
falls within manufacturer’s
specifications?

Page 90 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Sub-tasks Steps Assessment Initials of


Did the employee: is the Assessor
learner
competent
Yes/No
Pedals
• Check that the condition
of the rubber pads and
operation of the pedals
was comfortable?
Hydraulic brakes
• Check the pedal travel
and firmness?
5. Conduct a Brakes
systems • Confirm hand brake was
operation working properly?
check for a
moving vehicle Steering
• Check for any unusual
noises when wheel is
turned full lock in both
directions?
On-road check
• Describe regular interval
checks for overheating.
6. Record and • Compare the weekly
report results inspection sheet
of weekly according to company
inspection policy and standards?
• Take corrective action on
those matters which are
considered the driver’s
responsibility?
• Report all other faults to
the appropriate company
personnel so that
corrective action may be
taken?
7. Observe all • Observe and implement
OHS all Occupational Health
procedures and Safety practices while
conducting the weekly
inspection?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 91


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Additional
resources

Page 92 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Paper  based:  

Brewer  and  Text  Magazine  Company,  In  Your  Hands:  A  Novice’s  Guide  
to  Driving  and  Surviving,  Federal  Office  of  Road  Safety,  Canberra  1995.  

NSW  Roads  and  Traffic  Authority,  Driving  With  Mind  and  Not  With  
Muscle.  

NSW  Traffic  Education  Centre  (RTA),  Draft  Curriculum  for  Novice  Class  
1A  Driver  Training  Ed.  2.  

The  Royal  Automobile  Club  of  WA  (Inc.)  Driving  Instructor’s  Manual,  
1994.  

Current  relevant  road  and  traffic  acts  and  regulations  of  the  
appropriate  state/territory.  

Other  current  traffic  handbooks  of  the  appropriate  state/territory.  

Learner  handouts  and  reference  materials:  


• case  studies    
• information  from  various  driving  schools  and  organisations  
• driver  trainer  association  code  of  practice  manual  
• guest  speakers:  
− driver  trainers  
− driving  school  managers  
− driver  trainer  association  representatives  
− road  safety  and  accident  research  personnel.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 93


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Feedback on
activities
The responses provided in this section are suggested responses.
Because every workplace is different, your responses may vary
according to your specific workplace procedures, the equipment
available and the nature of the business.

Page 94 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 1: What factors increase the likelihood of an


accident?

• excessive vehicle speed and loss of vehicle control


• high demands on driver concentration e.g., passengers,
complex driving environments
• consumption of alcohol and other drugs
• driver stress and fatigue
• night driving
• adverse weather and road conditions
• social pressures and risk taking
• impairment to vision e.g., sun glare, rain, night driving and blind
spots.

Activity 2: What factors cause driver fatigue?

• lack of sleep
• continuous driving without frequent stops (you should stop after
every 2 or 3 hours driving)
• lack of fresh air (make sure there is plenty of fresh air entering
the car)
• maintain car temperature at a comfortable level, avoid large and
heavy meals
• keep your eyes moving constantly don’t stare straight ahead in a
fixed gaze.

The best time to drive is when you are normally awake.

Signs of fatigue can include:


• frequent yawning
• heavy eyelids
• dryness of the mouth
• sore eyes
• shivering
• double vision.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 95


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 3: What seat belt exemptions apply in your


state/territory?

If you are driving, you are responsible for all children in the car,
even if they are not your children.

Activity 5: Describe the operation of a SRS


For deployment to occur, numerous factors must be taken into
account. For instance, the crush area of the other vehicle (if
involved in the crash), its mass and speed would all contribute to
raising or lowering the force required for deployment to occur as
designed. Also, the angle of impact force may not be within the 60
degree window for SRS for deployment to occur, although the
physical damage to the vehicle may appear that it was. The
sensors that controls the air bag deployment are incorporated in
the Sensing Diagnostic Module (SDM), located beneath the driver’s
seat.

Activity 6: What must you look for when approaching traffic


lights?
Firstly, always reduce your speed when approaching traffic lights.
By reducing speed slightly, your braking distance is reduced
considerably. By halving your speed the braking distance is
reduced four times.
As you approach the green traffic light, look for the stop line on the
road that is associated with the traffic light you are approaching.
Continue to glance at this line as you approach.
By observing the stop line your brain acts as a computer, and can
estimate where the ‘point of not return’ is on the road.

Activity 7: What are the patterns that cause road accidents?

• age
• alcohol
• fatigue
• stress
• personal well being
• environmental conditions.

Page 96 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 8: What are the five points of good driving?

• look far ahead of you


• be aware of what is happening around you
• keep your eyes moving
• look where to go in an emergency
• make sure you are seen, use turn signals in good time.

Activity 10: Adjust your vehicles mirrors


When should you adjust your vehicle’s mirrors?

Before entering your vehicle.  


As you move off.  
After adjusting the seat.  

Activity 12: When would you need a greater space cushion?

Sometimes you need to keep more than two seconds back. A


larger gap is needed when:
• visibility is poor
• it is dark and you can’t get as good a view of what the car
ahead is doing
• the road is wet or slippery and you can’t stop as quickly
• you are tired and might not react as quickly
• the road is unmade.

You should increase your space cushion to 4 or more seconds in


these situations.

Activity 13: Demonstrate the blind spots on your vehicle

• corner pillars
• bonnets
• rear vision mirrors.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 97


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 14: What are you State/Territory regulations for


railway crossings

Start to cross only when signals have stopped flashing and when
the gates or booms are fully opened. There may be another train
coming.

Activity 16: What is the best thing to do when you are tired?

Turn on the radio and open the windows. 

Drink coffee to stay awake. 

Continue to drive at a slower speed. 

Pull of the road and rest. 

Activity 17: What must you do in a give way situation?

Always offer to give way to other vehicles. 

Signal all other drivers to see if they want to go first. 

Give away to any other drivers who look as though they 


will not give way.

Always take right of way so as not to confuse the other drivers. 

Activity 22: What must you do if you are involved in an


accident?

If your vehicle is involved in a crash you must stop and then first of
all:
• Care for the injured. 
• Protect the area so another crash won’t happen. 
• Exchange names, addresses and registration
numbers. 

If you stop your vehicle at a crash, you should:


• Park very close to the crash. 
• Put on your hazard lights. 
• First notify the authorities. 

Page 98 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1040 Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008
TLIC107C Drive vehicle

Activity 24: Demonstrate a systematic approach to starting


your car and leaving the kerb
a. Steps that should be followed.
• check around the car for children, toys or animals
• visually check the tyres
• remove items from rear parcel shelf
• adjust seat, seat belt and mirrors
• check that handbrake is fully applied
• start the motor
• put vehicle in gear or drive
• use mirrors to check the rear
• use your indicator
• release hand brake
• check blind spot
• accelerate to leave the kerb.

b. Place your right foot on the brake.

c. Make sure that your indicators have turned off.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 99


Customised and developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education Pty Ltd August 2008 ADELG1040