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TLIC3607A Apply safe

driving behaviours
Learner Guide
Contents
What this Learner’s Guide is about ........................................ 2  
Planning your learning ........................................................... 3  

Section 1............................................................................................. 4  
Road law in Victoria ............................................................... 4  

Section 2........................................................................................... 49  
Driving Techniques .............................................................. 49  

Section 3........................................................................................... 60  
Driving Techniques, Observation Skills and Risk Factors.... 60  

Section 4........................................................................................... 73  
Human Perception and Decision Making ............................. 73  

Section 5........................................................................................... 87  
Evasive Action...................................................................... 87  
TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

What this Learner’s Guide is about

This  learning  guide  is  about  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  apply  high-­‐
level  safe  driving  skills  to  enable  drivers  to  apply  safe  driving  behaviours.  This  
includes  higher  order  skills,  such  as  hazard  perception,  risk  control  and  safe  
driving  judgment,  decision  making  and  multi-­‐tasking.  

The  Elements  of  Competency  from  the  unit  TLIC3607A  Apply  safe  driving  
behaviours  covered  in  this  Learner’s  Guide  are  listed  below.  
Define  and  apply  safe  driving  behaviours  
Interpret  and  apply  low-­‐risk  driving  strategies  
Interpret  and  apply  road  rules  applicable  to  safe  driving  
Manage  collision  when  driving  a  vehicle  

This  unit  of  competency  is  from  the  Transport  and  Logistics  Training  Package  
(TLI07).  

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Planning your learning

It  is  important  to  plan  your  learning  before  you  start  because  you  may  already  
have  some  of  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  are  covered  in  this  Learner’s  
Guide.  This  might  be  because:  
1. you  have  been  working  in  the  industry  for  some  time,  and/or  
2. you  have  already  completed  training  in  this  area.  

Together  with  your  supervisor  or  trainer  use  the  checklists  on  the  following  
pages  to  help  you  plan  your  study  program.  Your  answers  to  the  questions  in  
the  checklist  will  help  you  work  out  which  sections  of  this  Learner’s  Guide  you  
need  to  complete.  

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  written  with  the  idea  that  learning  is  made  more  
relevant  when  you,  the  learner,  are  actually  working  in  the  industry.  This  
means  that  you  will  have  people  within  the  enterprise  who  can  show  you  
things,  discuss  how  things  are  done  and  answer  any  questions  you  have.  Also  
you  can  practise  what  you  learn  and  see  how  what  you  learn  is  applied  in  the  
enterprise.  

If  you  are  working  through  this  Learner’s  Guide  and  have  not  yet  found  a  job  
in  the  industry,  you  will  need  to  talk  to  your  trainer  about  doing  work  
experience  or  working  and  learning  in  some  sort  of  simulated  workplace.    

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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Section 1

Road law in Victoria

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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What Laws do I need to be aware of?

The  movement  of  pedestrians,  vehicles,  passengers  and  freight  on  public  
roads  in  Victoria  is  governed  under  the  Road  Safety  Act,  and  the  corresponding  
Road  Safety  Regulations.      The  purpose  of  these  laws  is  to  ensure  a  safe  
environment  for  all  road  users,  while  maintaining  efficient  and  diverse  use  of  
this  limited  public  resource.  

Readers  should  also  bear  in  mind  that  movement  and  transport  on  our  roads  
are  also  controlled  under  other  laws  and  acts  such  as  the  Dangerous  Goods  
Act,  the  Environment  Protection  Act  and  the  Occupational  Health  and  Safety  
Act,  as  well  as  the  regulations  and  by-­‐laws  of  various  government  and  local  
authorities.      Drivers  who  intend  to  engage  in  the  transport  of  goods  or  
passengers  should  ensure  that  requirements  of  these  other  acts  are  also  met.  

Intersections

An  intersection  is  where  two  or  more  highways  meet.  

Intersection:  boundaries  

Where  two  or  more  highways  meet  at  cross  roads:  junctions  of  property  lines;  

Where  two  or  more  highways  meet  not  at  cross  roads:  prolongations  of  the  
property  lines;  

Where  property  lines  are  not  defined  the  area  where  vehicles  on  separate  
highways  may  collide.    

Modified  Intersection  

Has  sign,  island  or  markings  indicating:  

carriageway  of  one  highway  continues  through  the  intersection,  and  

the  other  carriageway(s)  do  not.  


 
Terminating  Intersection    

 (refer  also  to  definition  terminating  


carriageway)  

Is  where  two  or  more  highways  meet  other  


than  at  a  crossroad.    

It  does  not  include:  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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 a modified intersection, or
 an intersection where there is:
 a roundabout sign
 a give way to right sign
 a stop sign;
 a give way sign, and
 traffic lights in operation.

Choked  Intersections    

You  must  not  enter  an  intersection,  if  the  intersection  or  the  carriageway  
beyond  the  intersection  is  blocked  or  will  become  blocked  before  you  can  
pass  through  the  intersection.      This  applies  even  when  you  are  directed  by  a  
traffic  control  signal.    

Zones

Shared  Zone  

Any  driver  entering  or  proceeding  through  a  Shared  Zone  must  give  way  to  
pedestrians  on  or  about  to  enter  Zone.  Speed  limit  in  a  shared  Zone  is  10  kph.  

A  pedestrian  on  a  shared  zone  must  not  unduly  obstruct  or  hinder  the  passage  
of  any  other  pedestrian  or  vehicle  on,  or  about  to  enter  on  the  shared  zone.  
     

Road markings

Double  Lines  

a) Must  not  permit  any  portion  of  your  vehicle  to  travel  on,  or  over  the  
right  of  the  continuous  side  of  double  lines.  You  can  cross  from  the  
broken  or  dotted  side  when  safe  to  do  so.  

b) You  cannot  park  alongside  the  continuous  side  of  double  lines  unless  
parking  provided.  

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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Giving Way

Meaning  of  'Give  Way'  

When  there  is  danger  of  collision  with  other  vehicles  or  pedestrians,  or  if  you  
would  be  creating  a  dangerous  situation  you  should;  
 Slow  down,  stop  or  remain  stationary  for  as  long  as  required  to  
prevent  danger  of  collision.  

Giving  Way  At  An  Intersection  

To  whom  do  you  give  way  at  an  intersection  (including  animals  driven  or  
ridden)?  
 
a) Approach  an  intersection  at  a  speed  that  will  enable  you  to  avoid  a  
collision.  
b) At  a  cross  intersection  where  two  vehicles  each  on  separate  carriageways  
approach  or  enter  the  intersection  and  there  is  danger  of  collision,  give  
way  to  the  vehicle  on  your  right.  
c) At  a  "Terminating"  intersection,  give  way  to  all  vehicles  travelling  along  or  
turning  from  the  intersecting  carriageway,  bicycle  path,  segregated  
footway  or  shared  footway.  
d) While  within  an  intersection  a  driver  must  not  impede  the  progress  of  a  
tram  from  any  direction.  
EXCEPTIONS  ARE:  
 Where  the  driver  having  the  another  vehicle  on  his  right  has  entered  the  
intersection  in  accordance  with  an  instruction  of  a  traffic  control  signal  
displaying  a  green  circle.  
 Where  the  driver  of  a  vehicle  on  the  right  has  passed  or  is  passing  a  Stop  or  
Give  Way  sign  relating  to  that  intersection.  
 Where  the  driver  of  a  vehicle  on  the  right  is  approaching  a  terminating  
intersection.  
 Where  the  driver  of  a  tramcar  is  not  required  to  give  way  to  other  vehicles  
while  entering,  within  or  leaving  a  roundabout.  
 Where  give  way  to  the  right  does  not  apply  when  the  driver  on  right  is  
turning  or  is  about  to  turn  from  a  continuing  carriageway  at  a  modified  
intersection.  
Give  way  turning  (Left)  
 Give  way  to  any  other  vehicle  except  when  the  other  vehicle  intends  or  
makes  a  right  turn  or  U  turn.  
 Give  way  to  pedestrians,  crossing  the  intersecting  carriageway.  

Give  way  turning  (Right)  


 Give  way  to  oncoming  vehicles.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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 Give  way  to  pedestrians  crossing  the  intersecting  carriageway.  


 Give  way  to  any  bicycle  that  has  entered  or  is  approaching  the  intersection  
from  the  same  or  the  opposite  direction  along  a  bicycle  path,  shared  
footway  or  segregated  footway.  
 Give  way  on  a  continuing  carriage  when  at  a  modified  intersection  to  a  
vehicle  coming  from  other  direction  of  continuing  carriageway.  
 At  a  modified  intersection  a  vehicle  travelling  along  a  continuing  
carriageway  is  deemed  not  to  be  turning.  A  vehicle  entering  or  leaving  a  
continuing  carriageway  is  deemed  to  be  turning.  
Note:    If  the  driver  or  bicycle  rider  is  making  a  right  turn  from  left  lane  
according  to  regulations,  they  must  give  way  to  all  vehicles  travelling  along  
the  carriageway  they  are  intending  to  leave  as  well  as  pedestrians  crossing  the  
street  they  are  turning  into.  

Giving  way  while  making  U  Turns  


 You  must  have  clear  view  for  150  metres  of  traffic  from  either  direction.    
 Give  way  to  all  vehicles  except  at  a  roundabout  or  where  another  vehicle  is  
at  a  Stop  or  Give  Way  sign  or  if  approaching  a  terminating  intersection.  
 Give  way  to  pedestrians.  

Turns

 Left  Turns  

The  driver  turning  left  must  start  their  turn  keeping  their  vehicle  to  the  left  of  
other  vehicles  and  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  left  boundary  to  make  their  
turn.  

Exceptions:-­‐  
 Driver  of  a  tram  or  

 Public  commercial  passenger  vehicle  who  has  passed  to  the  right  of  a  
safety  zone  controlled  by  a  traffic  light  with  the  appropriate  white  ‘B’  or  
‘T’.  

The  driver  can  select  a  different  position  provided  signs  or  road  markings  
allow  them  to  use  that  position.    
 It  is  the  driver’s  responsibility  nearer  or  nearest  to  the  left  boundary  to  
remain  to  the  left  of  other  vehicles  throughout  the  turn.  
 It  is  the  driver’s  responsibility  to  the  right  of  any  other  vehicles  to  keep  to  
the  right  of  other  vehicles  throughout  the  turn.  

Right  Turns  

The  driver  making  a  right  hand  turn  on  a  two-­‐way  road    

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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 Must  start  the  turn  as  nearest  practicable  to  the  left  of  the  centre  of  the  
carriageway;    
 Turn  right  of  the  centre  of  the  intersection  and;  
 Finish  the  turn  as  nearest  practicable  to  the  left  of  the  centre  of  the  
carriageway.  

The  driver  can  select  a  different  position  provided  signs  or  road  markings  
allow  them  to  use  that  position.    
 It  is  the  driver’s  responsibility  nearer  or  nearest  to  the  centre  of  the  
carriageway  to  remain  to  the  right  of  other  vehicles  throughout  the  turn.  
 It  is  the  driver’s  responsibility  to  the  left  of  any  other  vehicles  to  keep  to  
the  left  of  other  vehicles  throughout  the  turn.  

The  driver  making  a  right  hand  turn  on  a  one-­‐way  carriageway  into  a  one-­‐way  
carriageway    
 Must  start  the  turn  as  nearest  practicable  to  the  right  boundary;  

 Turn  right  of  the  centre  of  the  intersection  and    


 Finish  the  turn  as  nearest  practicable  to  the  right  boundary.  

Note:-­‐  

If  the  driver  of  a  vehicle  is  turning  right  from  the  left  of  a  tram  line  or  safety  
zone  or  traffic  island  or  reservation,  they  must  not  impede  the  progress  of  
trams  or  public  commercial  vehicles  travelling  in  the  same  or  opposite  
direction.  

Bicycle  riders  may  position  for  a  right  turns,  parallel  and  near  as  practical  to  
the  left  boundary  they  are  leaving  and  line  up  parallel  and  near  as  practical  to  
the  left  boundary  of  the  carriageway  they  are  entering.    Note  if  there  is  traffic  
lights  that  the  rider  must  wait  for  the  green  circle  in  the  carriageway  they  are  
entering.    

Right  turn  from  left  lane  

Where  intersection  is  so  marked  with  signs,  driver  must  complete  right  turn,  
entering  the  intersection  from  the  left  lane  and  in  accord  with  traffic  signals  
and  enter  the  new  carriageway  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  left  of  the  
carriageway.  The  driver  shall  remain  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  left  
boundary  of  the  carriageway  that  they  are  about  to  enter  and  not  leave  the  
intersection  until  in  accordance  with  a  green  light  in  respect  to  the  
carriageway  that  they  are  entering.  

Making  A  "U"  Turn  

Give  right  turn  signal.  


 Must  have  clear  view  for  150  metres  or  traffic  from  either  direction.    

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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 Give  way  to  all  vehicles  except  at  a  Roundabout'  or  where  other  vehicle  is  
at  a  Stop  of  Give  Way  sign  or  if  approaching  a  terminating,  intersection.  
 Give  way  to  pedestrians.  
 If  you  pass  a  "No  U  Turn"  sign  a  "U'  turn  is  not  permitted  until  you  pass  an  
intersection  more  than  6  metres  wide.  

Stop Signs

A  red  octagonal  sign  with  the  word  “Stop”  in  white  with  white  border.    

What Are Your Obligations When Passed Or Passing


A Stop Sign?

Stop  the  vehicle  before  reaching  and  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  stop  line  (if  
any).  If  no  stop  line  exists’  stop  at  the  closest  point  past  the  sign  f  v  which  the  
driver  has  a  clear  view  of  other  vehicles  approaching  the  intersection.  

Give  way  to  every  vehicle  travelling  along  or  turning  from  any  intersecting  
carriageway,  bicycle  path,  segregated  footway  and  shared  footway.  

Give Way Signs

Give  way  to  every  vehicle  travelling  along  or  turning  from  any  intersecting  
carriageway,  bicycle  path,  segregated  footway  and  shared  footway.  

Roundabout Signs

When  Passed  or  Passing  A  Roundabout  Sign  

Triangle  sign,  white  background,  red  border,  black  broken  and  directional  
arrows    

When  Passed  or  Passing  A  Roundabout  Sign  


a) Give  way  to  every  vehicle  within  the  roundabout,  approaching  from  the  
right  
b) Pass  to  left  of  Central  Island,  give  way  to  any  tram  within  or  entering.  

Speed

Speed  limits  

What  Are  The  Victorian  Speed  Limits?  

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

a) 100  kilometres  per  hour  on  any  length  of  highway.  


b) 40  kilometres  per  hour  local  traffic  precinct  sign.  
c) Any  other  speed  indicated  by  a  speed  restriction  sign.  
d) Where  there  is  provision  for  lighting  by  street  lamps  (built-­‐up  area)  or  
urban  development  and  no  restriction  sign,  60  kilometres  per  hour  must  
not  be  exceeded.  
a) In  a  shared  zone  at  a  speed  not  exceeding  10  kph    

Miscellaneous

Use  of  Signals  

If  the  driver  intends  to  suddenly  slow  down,  stop,  turn,  diverge  or  make  a  U  
Turn  they  are  required  to  signal  for  a  minium  of  30  metres  if  they  are  moving.    
Before  moving  they  must  signal  for  a  reasonable  amount  of  time.      

Signal  must  not  remain  in  operation  after  the  completion  of  the  turn  or  
diverging.  

Note:  You  do  not  have  to  show  a  signal  if  you  are  proceeding  straight  at  a  
roundabout.  

Opening  Doors  and  Alighting  From  Vehicle    

A  person  must  not:    


a) open  or  leave  open  a  door  of  a  vehicle;  or  
b) alight  from  a  vehicle—  

so  as—  
a) to  cause  danger  to  other  persons  ,  or  
b) to  impede  the  passage  of  traffic  

Use  Of  Horns  Etc.    

A  person  must  not  use  the  warning  instrument  on  a  vehicle,  except  
a) when  necessary  as  a  traffic  warning  or    
b) as  an  indication  that  the  vehicle  intends  to  overtake  another  
vehicle.    

Choked  Intersections  

Despite  any  instruction  of  a  traffic-­‐control  signal  to  proceed,  a  driver  of  a  
vehicle  must  not  enter  on,  or  attempt  to  cross  an  intersection,  if    
a) the  intersection:  or  
b) the  carriageway  beyond  the  intersection—  

is  blocked  or  is  likely  to  become  blocked  by  vehicles  before  the  driver  can  pass  
through  the  inters.  
© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059
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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Reversing  

A  vehicle  on  a  carriageway  is  permitted  when  it  is  safe  to  do  so  and  the  
distance  is  reasonable.  

Towing  
a) Maximum  distance  between  motor  cycles  and  maximum  length  of  tow  rope    
2.5  metres.  
b) Flag,  cloth  or  other  material,  minium.  30  centimetres  square  and  illuminated  at    
night.  
c) Defective  brakes  -­‐  must  use  approved  rigid  towing  device.  
d) Both  drivers  must  be  licensed  for  vehicle  type.  
e) If  towing  a  caravan  or  trailer  safety  chains  required.  
f) If  towing  at  night,  towed  vehicle  must  be  fitted  with  legal  rear  red  lamp.  
 
Note:
 
a) A  "P"  driver  is  permitted  to  tow  or  be  towed  
b) A  "L"  driver  is  not  permitted  to  tow,  or  be  towed.  

Towed  Vehicles  

You  must  not  drive  a  vehicle  with  another  motor  vehicle  attached  behind,  
which  has  the  wheels  in  contact  with  the  ground,  unless:-­‐        
 a  driver,    licensed  to  drive  that  type  of  vehicle,  is  in  charge  of  the  towed  
vehicle,  
 -exception:      
road  grader  owned  or  used  by  a  highway  authority  attached  by  rigid  
steering  device  and  effective  lights.  
 the  towed  vehicle  can  be  controlled  safely;  and  
 the  brakes  of  the  towed  vehicle  are  not  defective;    

 -exception:    
if  the  towed  vehicle  is  attached  by  means  of  an  approved  coupling  
and  drawbar  
 the  space  between  the  vehicles  is  no  more  than  3.5  metres  (car  
etc);  or  if  either  vehicle  is  a  motor  cycle—2.5  metres;  and  
 if  the  vehicles  are  joined  by  a  rope,  chain  or  wire,  there  is  clearly  
visible  a  flag  or  cloth  not  less  than  30  centimetres  square,  fixed  to  
the  centre  of  the  rope,  
 at  night,    
 flag  must  be  lit  by  white  light  from  towed  vehicle,  so  lit  is  visible.  
 towed  vehicle  must  have  approved  rear  red  lamp(tail  lamp)          
ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009
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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Trailer  
 You  must  not  tow  a  trailer  in  which  a  person  is  riding.        
 A  person  must  not  ride  on  or  in  a  trailer  being  towed,  
 
 except:  
trailer,  (not  a  caravan),  towed  by  a  tractor  at  less  than  25  kph,  or  
 a  machine  designed  for  construction  and  maintenance  work,  or  
 an  articulated  tram,  or  
 an  articulated  commercial  passenger  vehicle  

Communication  Equipment  

The  driver  of  a  motor  vehicle  must  not,  while  driving  the  vehicle,  use  a  hand  
held—  
 telephone;  or  
 microphone;  or  
 similar  instrument  or  apparatus—  in  the  vehicle      

Signs

“  No  Right  Turn”  Sign  

You  cannot  make  a  right  turn  

You  cannot  make  a  U  turn.  

“No  Overtaking  Or  Passing”  Sign  

No  two  vehicles  shall  be  abreast  of  each  other  between  the  signs.  

Regulatory  Signs  

These  signs  inform  us  of  laws  that  must  be  obeyed  and  the  appropriate  action  
that  should  be  taken.    

Warning  signs  

These  signs  inform  you  of  possible  danger  ahead  so  the  appropriate  action  can  
be  taken.  

Temporary  work  signs  

Temporary  work  signs  are  normally  erected  at  work  sites  to  give  advice  of  
potential  danger.  

Freeway  and  guidance  signs  

These  signs  are  there  to  give  information  and  a  general  warning.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Regulatory Signs
Shared  footway  

Segregated  footway  

Tram  signs  

Transit  lane  

Truck  lane  

         
The  footway  is   End  shared   Shared  Zone— End  shared   Tram  Lane  sign.  
shared  by  both   Footway   zone  is  shared   zone  sign   You  must  not  
pedestrians   by  pedestrians   travel  on  the  
and  bicycles;           and  motor   tram  lane  when  
Bicycles  must   vehicles.   the  tram  lane  
give  way  to   Maximum   sign  is  in  
pedestrians   speed  is  10   operation.    
entering  or  on   km/h.  
a  shared   Pedestrians  
footway.         must  not  
obstruct  
vehicles.    
 

         
End  Tram  Lane   Transit  Lane.     End  Transit   Truck  Lane       End  Truck  Lane  
Buses,  taxis,  or   Lane   Only  trucks  &  
vehicles   buses  can  use  
carrying  2  or   this  lane,  unless  
more   you  are  
occupants,  and   entering  or  
motor  cycles   leaving  the  lane  
can  travel  in   within  50  
this  lane.    Some   metres  of  

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

may  permit   making  a  turn.    


bicycles  
 

Bicycle  lane  

Bus  lane  

No  bicycle    

No  goods  carrying  vehicle  

Local  traffic  precinct  

         
Segregated   End   Bicycle  Lane   End  Bicycle   Bus  Lane  
Footway:   Segregated   This  lane  is  for   Lane   This  lane  is  for  
pedestrians   Footway   Bicycles  only   buses  and  may  
and  bicycles   and  may  only   only  be  used  by  
must  keep  to   be  used  by  cars   cars  within  50  
their  section.       if  parking,   metres  of  an  
Pedestrians   making  left   intersection  
must  not  stand,   turns  within  50   you  are  turning  
or  obstruct   metres  of  the   into.  
bicycles  on   intersection  or  
bicycle  side.   if  overtaking  
RHT  vehicles  
turning.  
 

         

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

End  Bus  Lane   No  bicycles.       No  goods   Local  Traffic   End  local  traffic  
Riding  of   carrying   Precinct:     area  
bicycles  is   vehicles  over   Maximum  
prohibited.     4.5  tonnes   Speed  Limit  40  
allowed  to  pass   kph  
sign  without  
permit  from  
VicRoads  or  the  
council  
 
Share  zone  

Speed  restriction  sign  

Stop  here  on  red  signal  

No  overtaking  

Keep  left  unless  overtaking  

Over  dimension  route  

         
End  local  traffic   Shared  Zone   Signifies  end  of   Speed   Speed  
precinct   for  pedestrians   zone  shared  by   restriction  sign,   restriction  
and  vehicles.     pedestrians   usually  found   zone:  
Speed  limit  (10   and  vehicles.     at  start  of   Maximum  
kph)  and   speed  zone:     speed  100  kph  
pedestrians   Maximum  
must  not   speed  60  kph  
obstruct  
vehicles  
 

 
       

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Speed  Zone   Vehicles  must   Indicates   On  multi-­‐laned   Vehicles  with  


sign   not  proceed   narrow  or   carriageway,   over  dimension  
110  kph   while  red  light   dangerous   vehicles  must   permit  must  
(This  only   is  displayed.   road  or  bridge.   keep  left  unless   follow  specific  
found  on   overtaking   routes  in  
certain  major   other  vehicles   metropolitan  
highway).   area.  
OD  sign  
indicates  route.  
 
Pedestrian  crossing  

Children's  crossing  

Safety  zone  

Railway  crossing  

Give  way  to  pedestrians  

Handheld  stop  sign  

       
 
This  sign  is   Pedestrian   Pedestrian   You  must  STOP   This  sign  is  
placed  at  a   Crossing   crossing  MAY   if  any   placed  on  a  
pedestrian   You  must  give   also  have   pedestrian  is   structure  
crossing.      It   way  to  all   alternating   on  the  crossing   alongside  a  
may  also  be   pedestrians  on   flashing  amber   or  if  any  vehicle   tram  track  and  
found  at  the   the  crossing.     lights  erected.   travelling  in  the   erected  for  the  
rear  of  a  tram   same  direction   safety  of  tram  
to  remind  you   has  stopped   passengers.      
to  watch  for   You  must  keep  
pedestrians.   left  of  structure  
at  all  times.  
 

         

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Uncontrolled   You  must  stop   Controlled   Drivers  must   Hand  held  stop  
Railway   at  stop  line  or   railway   give  way  to   sign  used  by  
crossing  ahead   before   crossing,  (2   pedestrians   roadwork  team  
approach  with   crossing,  and   tracks).    Stop  if   before   to  control  
caution.   check  for   lights  are   proceeding.     traffic.  
trains.      When   flashing  (or  bell   Often  seen  at  
safe,  select  low   sounding?).    Do   entrance/  exit  
gear  and  do   not  proceed   of  driveway,  
not  change   until  lights  stop   lanes  etc  
gears  until   flashing.  
across  if  you  
are  in  a  heavy  
vehicle.  
 
Give  way  sign  

Give  way  to  the  right  sign  

Roundabout  signs  

Stop  signs  

No  entry  sign  

Bridge  load  limit  

No  right  turn  

No  left  turn

         
Give  way  to  all   Drivers  must   Roundabout   You  must  STOP   Vehicles  may  
traffic   give  way  to   give-­‐way  sign.   at  stop  line  and   not  pass  this  
travelling  along   vehicles  on  the   Give  way  to  all   then  give  way   sign.  
or  turning  from   right.   vehicles  on  the   to  all  traffic  
any   roundabout,   travelling  along  
intersecting   approaching   or  turning  from  
carriageway,   you  from  the   any  
bicycle  path,   right.   intersecting  
shared  or   carriageway,  
segregated   bicycle  path  
footway.     etc.  
ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009
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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

   

     
Load  Limit   No  right  turn   No  left  turn      
Sign;   sign.   sign  
Maximum   This  also  means  
Gross  Vehicle   'no  U-­‐turn  until  
Mass  or  Gross   you  pass  a  
Train  Mass   intersection  6  
indicated  on   metres  or  more  
sign.   wide.  
 

Clearway  signs   Parking  signs  

         
Clearway  zone.   End  Clearway   Advises  of   Clearway  no   End  of  
No  standing  or   Clearway.  No   standing.       Clearway  
parking  during   standing  within   If  time  limited,   If  no  other  
indicated   the  times   times  will  be   signs,  you  are  
times.   specified  on   displayed  on   permitted  to  
the  sign.      May   the  sign.   stand  /  park  
also  indicate:   beyond  this  
'tow  away   sign.  
zone'  on  sign.  
 

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

         
No  parking   End  of  no   Designated   No  parking   Controlled  
area   parking  area   parking  area   sign.   parking:  
You  must  not   Park  within   number  and  
leave  a  vehicle   marked  bays  or   fraction  beside  
standing  for   lines  if  any.   letter  P  
more  than  15   indicates  
minutes.   maximum  time  
allowed  in  
hours.    Eg    2P  
means  2  hours.  
 
 
Parking  Standing  signs  

         
No  parking  at   Parking   No  parking.    If   Parking   Denotes  end  of  
any  time   permitted,   limited,  times   permitted.      If   previous  
(unless  specific   subject  to  any   or  conditions   limited  time,   parking  area.  
times  are   restrictions   will  be  denoted   hours  indicated  
indicated.)   denoted  on  the   on  the  sign.   by  number  /  
sign.   fraction.  
Other  
conditions  also  
written  on  sign.  
(eg  tickets)  
 

         

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

No  Standing   End  of  no   No  Standing   No  standing   No  standing-­‐    


Area   standing  area.   Area   You  must  not   If  limited,  
You  may  not   (as  previous)   leave  vehicle   conditions  
leave  a  vehicle   standing,  in   written  on  sign  
standing  in  this   direction  of  
area  at  any   arrow  
time.    

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Standing  signs  

Loading  zone  

Permit  zone  

Directional  signs  

         
No  standing  or   End  of  parking   *  Zone     Loading  Zone   Only  vehicles  
parking,   area  which  has   (may  be  bus,   Only  vehicles   with  the  
subject  to  any   a  two  hour   taxi,  truck,  mail   setting  down   appropriate  
conditions   time  limit   or  other)   or  taking  up   permit  are  
listed  on  the   Only  vehicles  of   goods,  and   permitted  to  
sign.      May  also   type  shown  on   vehicle  is  a   stand/  park  
be  indicated  by   sign  may  stand   truck,  a  courier,   here.  
arrow(s)  on   or  park  here.   or  a  delivery  
sign.   vehicle..  

         
This  lane  only   This  lane  only   Vehicles  must   Indicates  all   Indicates  all  
turns  right  –   turns  left  –  you   only  proceed   traffic  must   traffic  must  
you  must  turn   must  turn  left.   only  in  the   turn  right  –   turn  left  –  even  
right.   direction   even  if  more   if  more  than  
shown.    Left  or   than  one  lane.   one  lane.  
right  turns  are  
not  permitted.  
 

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

No  right  turn  from  left  lane  

Left  and  right  turning  only  lanes  

Emergency  stoping  lane  

         
You  must  not   You  must  not   A  U  turn  may   Indicates  that   Right  turn  from  
make  a  left,   proceed   be  made  legally   the   left  lane  only.  
right  or  U  turn.   beyond  this   carriageway   After  entering  
sign.   carries  traffic  in   intersection,  
two  directions.   you  must  stop,  
and  wait  for  
lights  on  right  
before  
completing  
turn.  
 

       
 
Left  lane  may   Lane  may  only   Right  lane  may   Lane  may  only   No  stopping  or  
only  be  used  by   be  used  by   only  be  used  by   be  used  by   parking  in  lane,  
traffic  turning   traffic  turning   traffic  turning   traffic  turning   except  in  case  
left.   left.   right.    From   right   of  emergency.  
From  this  lane   this  lane  you   Erected  on  
you  must  not   must  not   freeway  
proceed   proceed  
straight  ahead   straight  ahead  
or  turn  right.   or  turn  left.  
 
 

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Warning sings
Type  of  bend   Type  of  intersection  

         
Winding  road   Hair-­‐pin  turn   Road  bends  to   Road  bends   Road  bends  
ahead.      Use   (to  the  left)   left..   sharply  to  left.   sharply  to  left,  
caution  and   then  sharply  to  
reduce  speed.   the  right  
 

         
Road  bends   You  are   Intersection:   Y  Intersection:   T  intersection  
right,  then  left   approaching   Cross  roads   Y  road  junction   Road  
the  end  of  a   terminates  at  a  
divided  road   T  intersection.  
and  entering  a  
two  way  
carriageway.    
Beware  of  
oncoming  
traffic  

Stop  sign  ahead  

Roundabout  ahead  

Number  of  lanes  in  either  direction  

Traffic  lights  ahead  

Children  ahead  

Pedestrians  ahead  

Railway  crossing  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

         
You  are   You  are   There  is  one   You  have  a   Warning:  
approaching  a   approaching  a   lane  available   restricted  view   children  
stop  sign   roundabout.   for  traffic  in  the   of  traffic   crossing  the  
ahead,  which   Slow  down  and   direction  you   signals  ahead.     road  
may  not  be   prepare  to  give   are  travelling,   Slow  down  and  
clearly  visible.   way  to  the   and  two  lanes   be  prepared  to  
right   available  for   stop  
traffic  
travelling  in  the  
opposite  
direction.  
 

         
Pedestrians   Approaching  a   Approaching  a   Approaching   Approaching  
crossing  the   railway   railway   an   an  
road   crossing  –   crossing  with   uncontrolled   uncontrolled  
proceed  with   lights-­‐  proceed   railway   railway  
caution   with  caution   crossing.     crossing  on  an  
Proceed  with   angle.    Proceed  
caution.     with  caution.    
 

Railway  crossing  

Stock  crossing  

Merging  traffic  

Gravel  roads  

Narrow  bridge  

Dip  

Steep  decent  

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Slippery  when  wet  

Kangaroo  ahead  

         
Railway   Railway  line   Farm  animals   Road  /   Gravel  road  –  
crossing  on  the   ahead.   cross  road  at   carriageway   reduced  
road  you  could   Caution:  trains   this  point   merges  other   traction  
be  turning  into   road  at  this  
point  
 

         
Narrow  bridge   Your  view  of   You  are   Slippery   Watch  for  
ahead.      Take   approaching   approaching  a   conditions   kangaroos  on  
care  when   traffic  may  be   steep  down  hill   ahead  if  wet,   road  or  
passing  or   restricted   slope.    Reduce   icy  or  snowy   roadside  areas  
overtaking   because  of  a   speed  and   conditions.   (Especially  at  
other  vehicles.   depression  in   select  a  lower   dusk).  
the  road.     gear  if  
Beware  of   necessary.  
approaching  
traffic  and  keep  
to  your  left.  
 
Advisory  bend  speed  

Tourist  route  

National  and  State  route  numbers  

Truck  parking  area    

Play  ground  

Low  clearance  

Height  gauge  for  heavy  vehicles  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

         
Advisory   Tourist  Route   National  and   Indicates  the   Warns  drivers  
maximum     State  route   area  on   to  be  aware  
speed  for  bend   marking  signs  –   highway  where   children  playing  
(in  good   applying  to   heavy  vehicles   in  the  area.  
conditions)  is   major  highways   may  be  lawfully  
55  km/h.   and  roads.   parked.  
 

         
Low  clearance   Indicates   Petrol  available   Telephone   High  vehicles  
sign.   clearance  in   here  –  as   available  here  –   should  use  this  
Bridges  etc.   metres.    Placed   indicated  by   as  indicated  by   lane;  Gauge  will  
Indicates   where   sign.   sign.   indicate  
clearance  in   clearance  is   (flashing  lights)  
metres.   low  but  more   if  vehicle  will  
Placed  where   than  4.3  m   not  pass  
the  clearance  is   clearance.  
less  than  4.3  m  
 
 

Freeway & Guidance Signs


Freeway  

Wrong  way  

Prohibited  things  on  freeway  

Temporary warning signs


Prepare  to  stop  

Road  works  ahead  

Number  of  lanes  in  certain  directions  


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 
   
 
 
Entrance  to   Beginning  of   You  are   Sign  indicating    
existing   freeway.   entering  the   that  
freeway   wrong   pedestrians,  
direction  of  a   bicycles,  
one  way  street.       animals  (or  
Found  at  exit   other  things  as  
of  a  Freeway.   indicated  on  
sign)  are  
prohibited  on  
the  freeway  
 

         
Warning   Temporary   Temporary   Road  works   Left  land  ends,  
drivers  of   roadworks   roadworks   ahead.       merge  right.  
roadworks;   sign.   sign.   Advises  drivers  
Traffic  delays   Traffic  should   You  must  stop.   to  approach  
expected.   proceed  slowly.   with  caution  
 
Road  works  

Part  road  closed  

Loose  gravel  

         

Advanced  warning  of  roadworks  ahead.  


 

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Alcohol and Other Drugs

It  is  an  offence  to  drive  a  motor  vehicle  while:  


 under  the  influence  of  an  intoxicating  liquor  or  of  any  other  drug  to  the  
extent  of  not  having  proper  control  of  the  vehicle    or  
 having  more  than  the  prescribed  level  of  alcohol  in  their  blood  (BAC)  

NOTE:      having  lower  than  the  prescribed  level  BAC  does  not  excuse  the  driver  
from  the  offence  of  driving  under  the  influence  of  alcohol.  

Alcohol  

Prescribed  concentration:  
 Maximum  Blood  Alcohol  Content    (BAC)  allowed  in  Victoria  is  0.05%.    
 LEARNER  DRIVERS  and  PROBATIONARY  DRIVERS    are  restricted  to  0.00  %  
BAC  
 Drivers  of  Heavy  Vehicles  and  taxis  are  also  restricted  to  0.00%  BAC.  

Refer  to  course  notes  on  alcohol  and  its  effects  for  safe  drinking  levels.  

Drivers  required  to  undergo  preliminary  breath  test,  breath  analysis  test  or  
blood  test,  when  required  to  do  so.      Testing  may  be  random  or  specific.    It  is  
an  offence  to  refuse  a  breath  or  blood  test        

However:  
 If  you  give  blood  test,  you  don't  also  have  to  take  breath  test  
 A  second  test  may  be  required  of  you.  
 Test  must  be  conducted  within  3  hours  of  you  having  driven,  (or  believed  
to  have  driven)  
 Test  is  not  lawful  if  conducted  within  15  minutes  of  having  consumed  
alcohol    

Crossings

School  Crossings  

Marked  cross  walks  with  a  sign  or  a  red  flag  with  white  writing  or  an  orange  
flag  with  black  writing  marked  “children  crossing”  and  

an  orange  with  black  writing  or  red  with  white  writing  “STOP”  sign  held  
across    or  partly  across  carriageway.    (Supervisor)  

Approaching  A  School  Crossing  

A  driver  of  a  vehicle  must  approach  at  a  speed  which  would  enable  that  driver  
to  stop  before  reaching  the  crossing  if  necessary.  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Stop  At  A  School  Crossing  

When:  
 a  pedestrian  is  on  the  crossing.  
 a  vehicle  travelling  in  the  same  direction  is  stopped.  
 a  barrier  or  stop  sign  is  facing  a  driver.  

Proceed  Through  the  School  Crossing  

When  the  crossing  is  clear  of  all  pedestrians  and  stop  signs.  

Pedestrian  Crossings  
 alternate  black  and  white  stripes  parallel  to  centre  of  carriageway  or  white  
stripes  if  road  surface  has  enough  contrast  and  
 pedestrian  crossing  sign  (walking  leg  sign)  and  may  have  
 twin  diagonally  opposed  alternating  flashing  yellow  lights  may  be  erected  

Approaching  a  Pedestrian  Crossing  

A  driver  of  a  vehicle  must  approach  at  a  speed  that  would  enable  that  driver  
to  stop  before  reaching  the  crossing  if  necessary.  

Stop  At  a  Pedestrian  Crossing  

When:-­‐  
 a  pedestrian  is  on  the  crossing  and  there  is  danger  of  collision.  
 a  vehicle  travelling  in  the  same  direction  is  stopped.  

Proceed  after  having  ‘given  way”  to  any  pedestrian  on  the  crossing.      

Your Vehicle

Registration  
 It  is  an  offence  to  an  unregistered  motor  vehicle  or  trailer  on  a  highway  
 It  is  an  offence  to  own  an  unregistered  motor  vehicle  or  trailer  which  is  
used  on  a  highway,  
Unless  the  vehicle  is  exempted  from  requirement  to  be  registered.    

Exempt  trailers:        
 Under  200  kg  
 Under  3  m  in  length  (including  draw  bar)  
 No  wider  than  vehicle  towing  it,  
 Not  being  a  boat  trailer.  

Other  vehicles  exempted  from  registration  requirement      

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 A  motor  vehicle  being  towed  on  a  highway  


 Agricultural  implements  and  certain  agricultural  transport  bins  etc.  
 Special  vehicles  operating  within  25  m  of  approved  properties,  in  accord  
with  permission.    
Maintenance  and  condition  

Vehicles  to  be  in  good  order          

A  person  must  not  drive  a  vehicle  or  a  combination  of  a  vehicle  that  is  not  in  a  
safe  condition.                

Seat  belts  

Must  be  worn  correctly  adjusted  and  fastened  by  all  persons  seated  in  a  
moving  vehicle:-­‐  

Exceptions:-­‐  
 VicRoads  exception.    
 Driving  vehicle  in  reverse  
 Medical  reasons  (certificates).  
 Deliveries  of  goods  but  at  no  greater  speed  than  25  kph.  

Child  Restraints  
 Seat  belts  must  be  suitable  for  children's  size  and  mass,  properly  fitted  and  
adjusted  
 If  a  child  less  than  18  years  of  age  the  driver  must  ensure  that  the  child  is  
properly  restrained.  
unless:    
 vehicle  is  not  required  to  be  equipped  by  seatbelts,  and    
 is  not  equipped  with  a  suitable  belt  or  restraint,  or    
 the  vehicle  is  an  ambulance,  or  
 a  proper  medical  certificate  excepting  use  of  restraint  

No  offence  if  child  is  in  rear  seat,  and  driver  proves  to  the  court  that  it  was  not  
possible  to  use  a  restraint..        

However,  this  excuse  does  not  apply  to  children  under  1  year  old,  unless    
 vehicle  is  a  taxi,  or    
 is  registered  in  another  state,  or    
 there  is  no  seating  position  that  is  not  already  occupied..  

Lights

Stationary  vehicle  at  night  

Lamps  required:-­‐  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 Front  clearance  lamps  


 One  white  light  on  each  side  of  front  of  vehicle  visible  for  200  metres'  (if  
one,  must  be  right  of  centre).  
 Rear  clearance  lamps  
 One  or  two  red  lamps  on  rear  (if  one,  must  be  right  of  centre).  
 White  light  to  illuminate  rear  numberplate,  visible  for  20  metres.  
 Rear  reflectors.  These  lights  are  not  required  when  the  vehicle  is  less  than  
2.2  metres  wide  and  is  clearly  visible  for  200  metres  by  street  lamps.  
Vehicle  driven  on  a  highway  

Lamps  required:-­‐  
 Two  headlamps  (or  two  alternative  headlamps  or  two  fog  lamps).  
 Two  parking  lamps.  
 One  or  two  rear  red  lamps  (if  one'  must  be  right  of  centre).  If  registered  
after  7  March  1972  must  have  two  brake  lamps.  
 One  or  two  rear  red  lamps  (if  one'  must  be  right  of  centre).  
 White  light  to  illuminate  rear  number  plate,  visible  for  20  metres  
 Two  reflectors.  

Fog  lamps  

May  only  be  used  during  abnormal  atmospheric  conditions  and  other  
headlights  must  be  extinguished.  

Use  of  Hazard  Warning  Lights  


 The  driver  of  a  vehicle  fitted  with  hazard  warning  lights  must  activate  
those  lights  when—  
a) the  vehicle  is  stationary  in  a  hazardous  position  on  a  carriageway  and  
b) in  the  case  of  a  vehicle  licensed  by  the  Roads  Corporation  for  the  
carriage  of  school  children  to  the  exclusion  of  other  passengers  (other  
than  teachers  or  supervisors)-­‐-­‐  the  vehicle  is  stationary  on  a  
carriageway  for  the  purpose  of  picking  up  or  setting  down  a  school  
child.  
 “hazard  warning  lights”  are  amber  signal  lamps  which  can  be  operated  to  
flash  simultaneously  and  regularly  at  the  front  and  rear  of  the  vehicle  and  
on  both  sides  of  it.    

Heavy Vehicles: safety equipment

Portable  Warning  Signs  for  Disabled  Heavy  Vehicles    

Must  be  3  portable  warning  devices  of  a  type  approved  by  VicRoads  carried  if  
the  vehicle  exceeds  4.5  tonnes  GVM  when:-­‐  
 outside  a  built-­‐up  area;  or  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 in  a  built-­‐up  area  between  sunset  and  sunrise  and  each  of  which  is  capable  
of  being  visible  at  a  distance  of  200  metres  to  oncoming  traffic  when  
placed  on  the  carriageway.  
Loading  
 A   person   must   not   drive   a   motor   vehicle   or   a   motor   vehicle   to   which   is  
attached   a   trailer   unless   the   load   or   equipment   of   that   vehicle,   trailer   or  
other  vehicle  is  secured  
a) by  appropriate  equipment  and    
b) will  prevent  the  load  or  equipment  from—  
c) hanging  or  projecting  from  the  vehicle  in  a  manner  likely—  
d) to  cause  injury  or  damage  to  a  person  or  property  
e) to  cause  a  hazard  to  other  road  users;  or    
f) becoming  dislodged  or  falling  from  the  vehicle.    
Loading  of  Pole-­‐Type  Articulated  Vehicle  

A  person  must  not  drive  a  pole-­‐type  articulated  vehicle  loaded  with  logs  or  
timber  carried  length  ways  unless  the  load  is—  

a) supported  by  steel  chocks;  and  

b) securely  chained  to  the  vehicle  by  2  or  more  sets  of  chains.    

Drive safely

Driving  In  A  Dangerous  Manner      

A  person  must  not  drive  a  vehicle  in  a  careless,  dangerous  or  reckless  m  
manner.    

Occupants  (Positions  of  Drivers  And  Passengers)  

Except  for  a  motor  cycle,  a  driver  or  passenger  of  a  motor  vehicle  must  not  
have  any  part  of  their  body—  
÷ in  contact  with  any  external  step,  the  roof  or  the  bonnet;    
÷ protrude  through  any  door,  window    or  other  opening;  
÷ to  extend  or  protrude  beyond  the  side,  front,  rear  or  extremities  of  the  
vehicle    
Exceptions  
 A  driver  may  give  authorised  hand  signals  
 a  person  (other  than  the  driver  of  a  garbage  vehicle)  engaged  in  the  
collection  of  garbage  or  waste  if—  
o the  speed  of  the  vehicle  does  not  exceed  25  kilometres  an  hour;  
and  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

o the  person  is  on  an  adequately  constructed  step  or  footboard  
and  holding  on  to  hand  grips  firmly  attached  to  the  vehicle.    
o if  the  vehicle  is  an  emergency  vehicle.  
Motorcycles  

A  person  must  not  drive  a  motor  cycle  with  any  person  riding  or  being  carried  
on  the  motor  cycle  other  than—          

 securely  seated  in  the  side-­‐car,  or  


 securely  seated  on  a  pillion  seat  behind  the  driver’s  seat,  
 Driver  and  pillion  passenger  must  wear  approved  type  helmet  
 A  pillion  passenger  must  be  seated  astride  and  facing  forward.  
 To  carry  a  pillion  passenger,  the  seat  must  be  equipped  with  secure  hand  
grips,  and  the  motor  cycle  equipped  with  footrest  (independent  of  the  
driver’s)  each  side  for  the  pillion  passenger.  
Position  on  Road  

The  driver  must  keep  as  near  as  practicable  to  the  left  boundary  of  the  
carriageway.    

Exceptions  
 Left  lane  is  blocked  for  other  usage.  
 If  the  driver  is  about  to  turn  right.  
 You  intend  to  overtake.  
 The  carriageway  is  divided  by  two  or  more  lanes  and  is  exclusive  for  
vehicles  in  the  same  direction  (reservation).  This  does  not  apply  if  you  are  
in  a  ‘keep  left  unless  overtaking’  zone.  
 The  lane  is  allocated  for  other  uses,  eg  ‘bus  lane’  

Overtaking    

When  overtaking  a  moving  vehicle,  other  than  a  tram,  the  driver  of  the  vehicle  
must  pass  to  the  right  of  the  vehicle  at  a  safe  distance.  

Exceptions:  
 If  the  other  vehicle  is  making  a  right  hand  turn,  you  may  overtake  on  the  
left  if  safe  to  do  so.  
 If  the  carriageway  has  2  or  more  marked  lanes  provided  its  safe.  

Note:  
 You  must  not  overtake  a  vehicle  on  any  side  if  the  other  vehicle  is  making  
any  turn  whilst  that  vehicle  is  displaying  a  sign  ‘do  not  overtake  turning  
vehicle’.  
 You  must  not  overtake  any  vehicle  unless  it  is  safe  to  do  so  from  oncoming  
vehicles.  
 Overtaking  trams  whether  stationary  or  moving  must  be  on  the  left  side.  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 Bicycles  must  not  overtake  vehicles  on  the  left,  if  the  other  vehicle  is  
turning  or  intends  to  turn  left.  (  If  the  other  vehicle  is  not  turning  then  a  
bicycle  can  overtake  on  the  left)  
 The  horn  may  be  used  to  warn  the  other  driver  that  you  intend  to  
overtake.  
 You  must  not  resume  your  position  in  front  of  the  other  vehicle  unless  you  
are  safely  clear  of  that  vehicle.  
If  there  is  3  to  5  marked  lanes,  you  may  overtake  in  the  centre  lane  provided  
the  centre  lane  is  free  of  oncoming  vehicles.  

Except;  

When  signs  or  lights  prohibit  the  use  of  this  lane.  

Passing  Vehicles    

You  must  keep  to  the  left  when  passing  a  vehicle  travelling  in  the  opposite  
direction.  

Following  Too  Closely  

The  driver  of  a  vehicle  must  keep  the  vehicle  a  safe  distance  from  the  rear  of  
any  preceding  vehicle.  

The  driver  of  a  long  vehicle,  except  when  overtaking,  if  the  conditions  permit  
must  keep  the  vehicle  at  least  100  metres  from  the  rear  of  any  preceding  long  
vehicle.  

“long  vehicle”  means  a  vehicle.  or  a  combination  of  vehicles  which,  together  
with  any  load  or  projection,  exceeds  7.5  metres  in  length.  

but  this  does  not  apply—  


 in  a  built  up  area;  or  
 if  the  vehicle  is  on  a  dual,  divided  carriageway  

Accidents  

What  is  an  accident  ?  

An  accident  is  where  a  motor  vehicle  is  involved  in  a  collision,  and  there  is  
injury  to  a  person  or  damage  to  property.      Property  includes  other  vehicles,  
private  and  public  property  and  buildings,  roadside  fittings  and  equipment  -­‐  
signs,  poles,  markers  etc.  

Who  is  involved  ?  

If  a  your  vehicle  has  caused  or    contributed  to  an  accident,  or  is  part  of  that  
accident  then  you  are  involved.  The  current  law  states:  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 “...if  owing  to  the  presence  of  a  motor  vehicle  an  accident  occurs...”    

This  regulation  is  very  wide.      It  includes  vehicles  being  driven,  or  stopped  or  
left  parked  on  the  highway  in  a  way  that  causes  a  hazard  to  other  road  users.      
It  is  not  necessary  that  your  vehicle  actually  has  come  in  contact  with  another  
vehicle  or  object,  only  that  the  accident  was  partly  caused  by  the  presence  of  
your  vehicle,  which  includes  its  occupants,  load,  trailer  or  other  fittings.        

I  am  in  an  accident.      What  must  I  do  ?  

You  have  legal  responsibilities  that  are  set  out  below.  


 
 You  must  stop  immediately.  
 You  must  give  whatever  assistance  you  can,  especially  to  injured  persons.        
 At  the  scene  of  the  accident  you  must  provide  your  full  particulars  to:−    
a) all  injured  persons  or  their  representative(s),  and    
b) the  owner(s)  of  property  damaged  or  destroyed,  or  their  
representative,  and    
c) any  police  officer  present.  
 
The  particulars  you  must  give  are:  
a) The  driver’s  name  and  address,  and  
b) The  owner’s  name  and  address,  and  
c) Any  identifying  number  (registration  number)  of  the  vehicle.  
 
Reporting  an  accident.    

You  must  report  an  accident  to  police  if:      


 a  person  is  injured,  or  
 property  is  damaged  or  destroyed,  and  the  owner  or  owner’s  
representative  is  not  present.  
In  this  case,  if  police  do  not  attend,  the  accident  must  be  reported  to  the  
police  station  nearest  the  scene  of  the  accident.  

If  the  owner  of  the  damaged  property  or  his/her  representative  is  present,  and  
nobody  is  injured,  you  are  not  legally  obliged  to  report  the  accident  to  the  
police.        

Showing  your  licence  

You  must  show  your  licence  to  any  police  officer  who  requests  it.      Drivers  of  
heavy  vehicles  must  also  show  their  licence  to  VicRoads  officers  in  uniform,  
when  requested  to  do  so.      You  are  not  legally  required  to  show  your  licence  
to  other  drivers.  

Alcohol  and  Accidents  

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Injured:

After  an  accident  any  injured  person  taken  to  hospital  is  required  by  law  to  
allow  a  blood  sample  to  be  taken  by  the  doctor.      This  applies  to  drivers,  
passengers  and  pedestrians.      There  are  heavy  penalties  for  those  who  refuse  
this  blood  test.  

Driver:  
 Even  if  you  are  not  injured,  a  police  officer  who  attends  the  accident  may  
require  the  driver  to  take  a  Preliminary  Breath  Test    which  gives  an  
indication  of  the  level  of  alcohol  in  your  blood.  
 If  this  test  indicates  your  BAC  is  over  the  legal  limit,  the  police  officer  will  
also  require  you  to  immediately  attend  a  formal  Breath  Analysis  Test  or  
blood  test.  This  test  may  not  be  conducted  within  15  minutes  of  you  having  
consumed  alcohol,(RSPR  303)  and  must  be  within  3  hours  of  you  having  
last  driven  (RSA  48.1).        
 The  results  of  these  tests  are  admissible  in  court  as  evidence  of  an  offence.      
You  must  comply,  and  there  are  very  tough  penalties  for  those  who  refuse  
these  tests.  
Responsibility  for  damage  caused  

Both  the  driver  and  the  owner  of  the  vehicle  are  responsible  for  any  injury  or  
damage  directly  caused  by  that  vehicle.  

Violence  -­‐  “Road  Rage”  

Often  accidents  or  near  misses  can  lead  to  strong  emotional  responses  and  
vigorous  discussions  over  who  was  at  fault.      However  all  forms  of  aggressive  
behaviour  on  the  roads  are  prohibited.    There  are  regulations  dealing  with  
road  violence  -­‐  often  called  ‘road  rage’-­‐    and  the  penalties  are  very  severe.  This  
offence  includes  threats,  violence,  driving  in  a  dangerous  or  intimidatory  
manner  and  general  aggressive  behaviour  on  the  highway.      The  penalties  may  
even  include  a  gaol  term.  

Cleaning  up  afterwards  

Whoever  removes  the  vehicle  from  the  roadway  also  has  the  responsibility  to  
ensure  that  the  road  is  cleared  of  debris,  such  as  broken  glass,    other  parts  or  
spilt  load.      Debris  must  not  be  left  on  the  road  creating  a  hazard  for  other  
vehicles.  

Damage  to  you  vehicle  

You  must  not  drive  an  unroadworthy  vehicle  on  the  road.  If  accident  damage  
to  your  vehicle  makes  it  unroadworthy,  the  vehicle  must  be  repaired  before  it  
can  be  driven  further.        In  many  cases  it  may  be  necessary  to  tow  the  vehicle  
away  from  the  scene.  

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Entering  and  Leaving  a  Highway  

You  must  not  turn  from  a  highway  into  a  private  drive  or  entry  unless  the  turn  
can  be  made  safely.  

A  vehicle  turning  from  a  highway  into  a  private  driveway  must:  


 if  turning  left,  as  near  as  practicable  as  for  a  left  turn  at  an  intersection;  
 if  turning  right,  as  nearly  as  practicable  as  for  making  a  right  turn  at  an  
intersection.  
At  Night  

When  driving  a  vehicle  on  a  highway  at  night,  the  driver  should  adjust  his  or  
her  speed  so  that,  in  the  case  of  an  emergency,  they  are  able  to  stop  within  
the  distance  that  you  can  see.  This  is  your  head  light  range.  

Road Position

A  driver  must  keep  as  near  as  practical  to  the  left  unless:-­‐  
 
• Making  a  right  hand  turn.  
• Overtaking.      
• If  lane  on  left  is  allocated  for  other  uses.  
• Two    or  more  marked  lanes  exclusive  for  vehicles  travelling  in    the  
same  direction  as  the  driver.  
 

If  facing  sign  keep  left  unless  overtaking  you  must  keep  left  unless  overtaking  
or  making  a  right  hand  turn  or  traffic  condition  require  otherwise.  

Lanes

Transit Lane

Marked  lanes  on  carriageway  with  signs  indicating  you  must  not  drive  in  lane  

except  within  50  metres  of  making  a  left  turn.  

Exceptions  are:    

A  vehicle  with  two  or  more  people.  

Tram.  

Bicycle  
© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059
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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Taxi  or  motor  cycle.  

Public  commercial  passenger  vehicle.  

Truck Lane

You  may  not  drive  in  a  truck  lane  unless  driving  a  vehicle  with  a  gross  vehicle  
mass  or  gross  train  mass  exceeding:-­‐          

(a)    4.5  tonnes;  or  

(b)  any  other  GVM  specified  on  a  truck  lane  sign;    

exceptions:  

(a)    when  entering  or  turning  from  the  highway,  or  

(b)    when  overtaking  on  the  left  of  a  vehicle  turning  right,  or  

(c)    when  leaving  parking  area  at  boundary  of  carriageway.  

exception  only  applies  within  50  metres  of  point  of  turning,  overtaking  or  
entering.  

Driver  may  drive  in  truck  lane  if  truck  lane  sign,  with  words  or  symbols,  allows  
that  class  of  vehicle.  

Multi-­‐Lane  Carriageways      
 
÷ On  a  two-­‐way  carriageway  divided  into  3  or  5  marked  lanes,  the  driver  of  a  
vehicle  must  not  drive  the  vehicle  in—         (#RSR  
503).  
 
a) the  centre  lane,  except—  
i. to  overtake  another  vehicle;  or  
ii. in  preparation  for  a  right  turn:  or  
iii. if  the  centre  lane  is  at  the  time  allocated  exclusively  to  vehicles  travelling  
in  the  direction  in  which  the  driver  is  travelling;  or  
b) any  lane  to  the  right  of  the  centre  line,  unless  the  lane  is  marked  for  that  
use.  
 
÷ On  a  two-­‐way  carriageway  divided  into  4  marked  lanes  the  driver  vehicle  
must  not  drive  in  the  far  right  lane.  
Driving Within Lanes Or Single Line Of Traffic
 
÷ You  must  drive  entirely,  or  as  nearly  as  practicable,  in  a  single  lane  or  line  
of  traffic.  
÷ You  must  not  move  laterally  unless  safe  to  do  so.  

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÷ A  vehicle  or  vehicle  combination,  having  length  over  7.5  metres,  with  
approved  sign  saying    “DO  NOT  OVERTAKE  TURNING  VEHICLE”  affixed  to  
rear  (or  rear  of  trailer),  may  move  out  of  marked  lane  if:  
i. it  is  not  practicable  for  turn  to  be  made  entirely  from  within  lane,  and  
ii. can  diverge  safely,  and  
iii. is  within  50  metres  of  making  turn.          (RSR  #  
507).  

Parking
General Rule:
 
Driver  is  permitted  to  park  a  vehicle  on  a  highway  (refer  definition  of  
highway)  unless  particular  restrictions  apply.      These  may  be  :  
 
÷ restricted  areas,  where  only  particular  classes  of  vehicles  can  park,  or  
÷ prohibited  areas,  where  no  vehicle  may  park,  or  
÷ time  limited,  controlled  parking  areas  

How to Park
 
÷ Vehicle  must  be  parked  as  near  as  practicable,  and  parallel  to  the  left  hand  
boundary  of  a  two-­‐way  carriageway,  or  to  either  boundary  of  a  one  way  
carriageway,  unless  parking  restriction  signs  are  erected.  
÷ In  a  marked  parking  area,  vehicles  must  be  left  parked  entirely  within  the  
marked  bays.  

Centre Road Parking


 
It  is  not  permitted  to  reverse  from  these  areas.  

Unattended  Vehicle  
Should  be  parked  so  that:-­‐  
÷ their  wheels  are  turned  to  the  kerb  on  grade;    
÷ the  handbrake  on;  
÷ leave  in  gear;  
÷ stop  the  engine;  
÷ lock  the  ignition;  
÷ remove  the  key;  
÷ secure  the  vehicle  by  locking  the  doors.  
 
Note:
÷ Automatic  leave  in  park.  
÷ Manual  leave  in  low  gear.  
 

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Summary  Of  Parking  Distances  And  Restrictions  


Bicycle   ÷ may  be  parked  on  footway  if  not  obstructing  
pedestrians  or  other  vehicles  
÷ may  be  left  standing  in  bicycle  rack.  

Bicycle  Lane   ÷ parking  restrictions  as  indicated  on  the  signs  

Bicycle  Path   ÷ do  not  park  vehicles  in  front  of  bicycle  path    

Bridge   ÷ not  unless  bridge  is  as  wide  as  approaches,  if  no  
other  restrictions  

Bus  Lane   ÷ parking  restrictions  as  indicated  on  the  signs  

Bus  Stop   ÷ 18  metres  approach  side,  


÷ 9  metres  departure  side  
÷ only  attended  public  commercial  buses  
permitted  to  park  in  bus  stop.  

Clearway   ÷ no  parking  during  times  clearway  is  in  operation  

Disabled   ÷ no  parking  in  disabled  zone,  unless  displaying  


disabled  sticker.  
÷ vehicles  with  disabled  sticker  may  park  in  time  
restricted  parking  area  for  double  the  normal  time  
restriction  

Double  lines   ÷ do  not  park  opposite  double,  unbroken  lines  


÷ if  double  lines,  broken  on  one  side,  do  not  park  
opposite  unbroken  side.  
Driveway   ÷ do  not  park  in  front  of  or  so  close  to  driveway,  as  
to  restrict  access  to  driveway,  passage,  right-­‐of-­‐way  

Excavations   ÷ no  parking  alongside  and  obstruction  or  


excavations  on  carriageway,  if  traffic  will  be  
obstructed.  

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Fire  Hydrant,   ÷ 1  metre  both  sides(include:  plug,  white  diamond,  


blue  marker)  

Footway   ÷ do  not  park  on  footway  


÷ do  not  park  in  front  of  footway  

Freeway   ÷ no  parking  on  freeway  

Intersection    with   ÷ 9  metre  restriction  from  intersection,  when  


carriageway  under  6   crossing  carriageway  is  less  than  6  metres  wide.  
metres  wide  
 
Intersection:   ÷ 18  metres  approach,  9  metres  departure  
(Controlled)  

Intersection:   ÷ 9  metres  both  sides  


(Uncontrolled)   ÷ no  parking  in  intersection,  except  along  the  
continuing  side    of  a  T  intersection,  and.  if  parking  is  
not  otherwise  restricted.  
 
Keep  Clear   ÷ no  parking  in  keep  clear  area  or  zone  

Large  Vehicles   ÷ if  over  6  m  in  length,  no  more  than  1  hour  in  built-­‐
up  area.  
÷ outside  built-­‐up  are,  may  park  on  shoulder  of  
carriageway,  (if  no  restrictions)  

Letter  Box  (Australia   ÷ 3  metres:  approach  and  departure.      Only  


Post)   Australia  Post  vehicles  permitted  to  stop  at  letter  
box.(after  signed  ‘Mail  Zone’)  

Motor  cycle   ÷ may  be  left  standing  on  footway,  if  not  
obstructing  pedestrians  or  other  vehicles.  

No  Parking  Sign   ÷ not  permitted  to  park  in  that  area  for  more  than  
15  minutes  in  any  one  hour,  during  the  times  of  the  
restriction  

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

 
No  Standing  Sign   ÷ not  permitted  to  park  in  that  area  during  the  times  of  
the  restriction  

Pedestrian  Crossing   ÷ 9  metres  both  sides  (  two  way  carriageway)  


÷ 9  metres  approach  side  (one  way  carriageway).  

Railway  Crossing:   ÷ 18  metres  from  nearest  rail  

Reservation   ÷ do  not  park  on  reservation,  unless  parking  has  been  


allowed  by  the  Highway  Authority.  

Safety  Zone   ÷ not  between  safety  zone  and  kerb  


÷ and  9  metres  both  sides  of  safety  zone  

School  Crossing   ÷ 18  metres  both  sided  (two  way  carriageway)  


÷ 18  metres  approach  side  (one  way  carriageway)  

Taxi  Zone   ÷ only  attended  taxis  permitted  to  park  

Traffic  Control   ÷ 9  metres,  both  sides  


Signals  (Not  At  
Intersection-­‐-­‐includes  
intersections  under  6  
m  wide)  
 
Traffic  island   ÷ 9  metres  from  that  park  of  carriageway  opposite  traffic  
island    
 
Traffic-­‐Control   ÷ 18  metres  approach  side,  9  metres  departure  side  
Signals  (At  An  
Intersection)  
 
Tram  Stop   ÷ 9  metres  approach  side  

Transit  Lane   ÷ parking  restrictions  as  indicated  on  the  signs  

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Truck  Lane   ÷ parking  restrictions  as  indicated  on  the  signs  

Tunnel   ÷ not  unless  tunnel  is  as  wide  as  approaches,  and  if  no  
other  restrictions  

ADELG1059 © Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009


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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Lights
Standard traffic light (three circles)

Traffic lights with extra tram control lights

Standard traffic lights with single green arrow

Standard traffic lights with green and amber arrows

Standard traffic lights with green, amber and red arrows

Flashing red lights at fire stations

     
   
Green  light:   Amber  light:   Red  light:   Tram  is   Traffic  is  
You  are  free  to   You  must  stop   You  must  not   controlled  by   permitted  to  
proceed  ahead,   when  you  see   proceed  in  any   their  own  light.   turn  left,  
or  turn  left  or   this  signal   direction  when   proceed  ahead  
right,  when   unless  it  is   facing  this   and  turn  right.  
safe  to  do  so.   dangerous  to   signal  
do  so.  
 

         
All  traffic  must   All  traffic  must   Traffic  is   Buses  only  (and   Flashing  red  
stop,  except   stop,  except   permitted  to   taxis  where   lights  erected  
for  left  turn   right  turn   proceed   indicated)  are   at  fire  station:    
traffic.     traffic.     straight  ahead   permitted  to   Stop  and  give  
and  turn  left.       proceed.   way  to  fire  
Right  turn   trucks  leaving  
traffic  must   fire  station.  
stop.  
 

© Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L January 2009 ADELG1059


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Pedestrian lights

Overhead lane control lights

       
Green,  walking   Flashing  red.   Red  stationary   Coloured  arrows  
figure:   Pedestrians  must   figure:   and  X's  over  lanes  
Pedestrians  may   not  begin  to  cross,   Pedestrians  must   on  road.:  
cross.   but  may  complete   STOP  and  wait  for  a   Green  arrow  -­‐  you  
crossing  if  they   green  signal   may  travel  in  that  
have  already   lane;  Red  X  -­‐  you  
commenced.   may  not  travel  in  
that  lane.  
 
 

Road markings
Right turn only lanes
Centre line markings
Hazard ahead road warning markings

Slip lanes

         

Road  markings   With  double   These  line   You  can  go  on   You  can  go  on  
warns  of  a  right   lines   markings  warn   or  above  a   or  above  a  
turn  only.    It  is   surrounding   drivers  of   single  white   broken  white  
best  to  take   the  entry   approaching   line  provided   line  provided  
position  left  of   markings,  you   danger.   that  it  is  safe  to   that  it  is  safe  to  
centre  of  the   must  not  travel   do  so.   do  so.  
carriageway  as   on  or  above  
early  as   double  lines  
practicable  to   and  be  careful  
stop  overtaking   of  overtaking  
vehicles.   vehicles  on  the  
right  breaking  

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the  law.  
 

       

Overtaking  can   Double  lines   You  must  not   A  Continuous   The  slip  lane  is  
only  occur  with   mean  that  you   travel  in  bike   longitudinal   not  controlled  
the  vehicle   must  not  go  on   lane  unless  you   yellow  line   by  the  traffic  
which  has  the   or  above  these   are  turning  and   marked  on  a   lights.    You  
unbroken   lines.   within  50   carriageway  to   must  give  way  
section  and   metres  of  the   the  left  of  a   to  pedestrians  
when  safe  to   intersection,  or   tram  track.   as  well  as  all  
do  so.   you  are   vehicles.  
overtaking  a  
right  turning  
vehicle.    You  
can  park  the  
vehicle  as  long  
as  there  are  no  
signs  stating  
differently.  
 

Stop  lines  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Stop  line  is  a  single  line  or  2  lines  not  more  than  300  millimetres  apart  across  the  whole  or  
part  of  the  carriageway.  
 

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TLIC3607A Apply safe driving behaviours

Section 2

Driving Techniques

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The road safety picture

Each  year  around  2,000  people  are  killed  and  another  30,000  seriously  injured  
as  a  result  of  road  crashes.  

Road  crashes  are  the  fourth  most  likely  cause  of  death  among  Australians  in  
terms  of  years  of  potential  life  lost.  This  follows  cancer,  heart  disease  and  
suicide.    

On  an  international  scale,  Australia  is  recognised  as  world  leaders  in  road  
safety.    Australia  has  performed  very  strongly  both  in  terms  of  fatalities  per  
10,000  vehicles,  where  we  are  second  only  to  the  UK  and  fatalities  per  100,000  
population,  where  we  are  fourth  behind  the  UK,  Netherlands  and  Japan.  
(Federal  Office  of  Road  Safety,  1997)  

Road  deaths  have  fallen  from  a  high  of  3,800  in  1970  to  2,015  in  1995.    

The  introduction  of  Australian  Design  Rules  for  motor  vehicles  and  
compulsory  seat  belt  wearing  in  1970  and  the  introduction  of  random  breath  
testing  for  drink  driving  in  1978,  were  both  important  in  terms  of  reducing  the  
road  toll  (Federal  Office  of  Road  Safety,  1997).    A  major  social  and  economic  
issue  which  costs  the  Australian  community  $6.1  billion  annually.  To  put  this  
annual  cost  in  perspective,  it's  worthwhile  considering  that  this  is  more  than  
the  total  national  expenditure  on  roads  each  year  (Federal  Office  of  Road  
Safety,  1997).    Each  fatal  crash  is  estimated  to  cost  $750,000  and  each  serious  
injury  $115,000  with  an  annual  total  cost  of  well  over  $1  billion  (Federal  Office  
of  Road  Safety,  1997).    The  Bureau  of  Transport  and  Communications  
Economics,  estimates  there  is  over  half  a  million  road  crashes  each  year.    The  
social  cost  to  the  community  is  incalculable.  The  effect  on  families,  friends  and  
the  local  community  can  be  devastating  and  remain  forever.  

18-­‐25:  young  drivers  

Drivers  aged  between  18-­‐20  years  have  2.5  times  the  accident  rate  of  older  
drivers,  with  drink  driving  and  inexperience  remaining  the  critical  issues  for  
young  drivers  up  to  25  years  of  age.  

Young  male  drivers  are  more  likely  than  young  females  to  be  involved  in  
crashes  due  to  excessive  speed,  while  young  females  appear  to  be  more  
involved  than  males  in  crashes  due  to  inadequate  driving  skills.  

Young  people  aged  between  18  and  25  years  make  up  12%  of  the  population  
but  represented  30%  of  all  road  fatalities  in  1996  (Victorian  Government,  1996).  
Young  drivers  travel  more  at  high-­‐risk  times  than  older  drivers,  for  example,  
late  at  night.    

The  needs  of  novice  drivers  

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As  a  group,  researchers  believe  that  drivers  take  between  five  to  seven  years  
to  reach  mature  risk  levels.    

Skills  and  abilities  of  novice  drivers  

New  drivers  lack  important  skills,  particularly  those  needed  to  acquire  and  
process  information.    They  are  less  able  to  maintain  full  attention  and  less  
likely  to  take  in  the  information  they  need  from  the  driving  environment.    

Normally  novice  drivers  are  not  as  good  as  experienced  drivers  in  scanning  the  
environment,  recognising  potential  hazards  while  at  a  safe  distance  to  make  
tough  decisions  quickly.  They  tend  to  underestimate  the  danger  of  certain  
risky  situations  and  overestimate  if  in  others  as  well  as  overestimate  their  own  
driving  ability  to  handle  emergencies.  

Improved  skills  alone  are  not  sufficient  to  ensure  novice  drivers  safety,  but  
tends  to  build  overconfidence  and  increases  exposure  to  risks.    

Choices  and  behaviourism's  of  novice  drivers  

Crashes  are  caused  by  decisions  drivers  make  as  much  as  by  what  they  are  
able  or  unable  to  do.    The  majority  of  novice  drivers'  risk  taking,  comes  from  
inappropriate  behaviour  reflected  from  taking  deliberate  risks  to  seek  
stimulation.    They  are  travelling  at  high  speeds  and  often  while  impaired  by  
drugs  or  alcohol.    

Compared  to  more  experienced  drivers,  novice  drivers  more  often  choose  to  
drive  too  fast  and  follow  other  vehicles  too  closely.  They  run  yellow  lights,  
accept  smaller  gaps  in  traffic,  and  allow  less  room  for  safety.    As  a  result  of  
their  choices,  and  perhaps  because  of  skill  deficiencies  as  well,  they  have  more  
rear-­‐end  crashes  and  run-­‐off-­‐the-­‐road  crashes  than  experienced  drivers.  

In  traditional  driver  training  many  novice  drivers  do  not  have  the  experience  
to  control  their  vehicle  in  an  emergency  situation.  They  tend  to  rely  too  much  
on  their  reflexes.      

They  often  do  not  leave  enough  space  between  themselves  and  the  vehicle  in  
front.    Therefore,  there  is  a  higher  risk  from  having  to  brake  very  hard  and  lose  
control  of  the  car  or  be  hit  from  behind.    Many  novice  drivers  reduce  their  
vision  by  following  the  vehicle  in  front  too  closely.    Therefore,  they  have  to  
concentrate  on  its  actions  rather  than  looking  further  ahead  to  see  if  there  are  
potential  hazards.  They  have  less  time  to  scan  to  the  sides  and  make  sure  that  
they  are  not  a  danger  to  other  road  users,  including  pedestrians  and  cyclists.  

As  part  of  a  driver  training  strategy,  learners  must  be  encouraged  to  
understand  that  they  must  wear  the  emotional,  financial,  legal  and  medical  
consequences  of  a  possible  crash.    

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Novice  drivers  need  to  be  made  aware  that  the  impatient  driver  behind  them  
can  just  drive  off  and  are  not  very  important.  

General  rules  about  novice  drivers  

Speeding  

Young  drivers  in  their  first  three  years  of  holding  a  license  are  over-­‐
represented  in  serious  speeding  offences.  

Passengers  

Novice  drivers  have  a  much  greater  chance  of  having  an  accident  while  
carrying  two  or  more  passengers.  

Seat  belts  

Novice  drivers  have  a  lower  usage  of  seat  belts  than  other  driving  groups.  

Accidents  involving  young  drivers  

Over  confidence  is  a  major  factor  as  to  why  novice  drivers  are  over  
represented  in  road  crashes  and  this  can  be  due  to  poor  training,  doubtful  
motivation,  personal  and  social  environment,  showing  off,  and  peer  group  
pressure.  

Their  attention  skills  may  be  inadequate  due  to  inexperience.    They  drive  more  
in  the  conscious  realm  instead  of  doing  things  automatically  in  the  
subconscious  realm.    The  other  factors  effecting  attention  may  be  due  to  the  
influence    of  drugs  and/or  alcohol  

Driver  judgement  may  be  poor,  due  to  lack  of  training  and  guided  experience,  
influenced  by  drugs  and/or  alcohol,  or  the  effects  of  fatigue  and  vision.  

Information  processing  capabilities  may  not  be  properly  developed  due  to  lack  
of  interest  or  proper  training  and  experience  in  detecting  potential  hazards,  
making  sound  driving  decisions  on  how  to  protect  from  that  danger.  

Decision  making  skills  may  be  poorly  developed  due  to  lack  of  guidance  as  
they  pick  up  experiential  experience  from  different  road  and  whether  
environments,  volume  of  traffic  and  the  time  of  day.  

Human error
Approximately  95%  of  crashes  involve  human  error  

Learning  to  drive  is  different  from  other  kinds  of  learning  such  as  using  a  
computer.  Unlike  a  trained  computer  operator,  the  newly  licensed  driver  is  not  
sitting  safely  in  an  office.      
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Mistakes  made  when  driving  can  have  serious  consequences  and  lead  to  injury  
or  even  death.  

Since  nearly  all  road  crashes  are  a  result  of  human  error,  the  practise  of  low  
risk  driving  behaviour  can  help  avoid  unnecessary  mistakes.  

Travelling  at  high  speed  

The  human  body  was  designed  for  pedestrian  speeds.  In  fact,  our  reactions  to  
what  we  see  and  hear  are  geared  to  movement  at  about  5  km/h,  yet  vehicles  
move  at  a  speed  many  times  faster.  

60 and over age group

Fatalities  

The  60  years  and  over  age  group  makes  up  16%  of  the  population  and  
comprised  21%  of  all  road  fatalities  in  1996.  In  the  same  year,  14%  of  drivers  
killed  were  aged  60  and  over.  Although  the  absolute  number  is  comparatively  
low,  they  are  disproportionately  involved  on  a  distance  travelled  basis  
(especially  from  age  70  onwards).    

One  of  the  reasons  for  this  over  representation  comes  from  the  tendency  for  
older  drivers  to  become  slower  to  react,  declining  vision  and  hearing  
impairment.    

Generally,  older  drivers  are  involved  in  more  fatal  and  serious  accidents  during  
the  week  than  on  weekends.  They  also  have  a  higher  concentration  of  
accidents  from  mid-­‐morning  to  mid-­‐afternoon.  

Older  drivers  tend  to  be  in  more  accidents  at  intersections  because  of  the  
complex  decision  making  required.    

They  do  however  tend  to  take  fewer  risks  and  are  generally  more  cautious.    
Usually  they  are  less  likely  to  be  involved  in  crashes  due  to  speeding,  drink  
driving  or  fatigue.    

Age related problems

Eye  sight.  

Eyesight  can  cause  difficulty  when  reading  signs  and  reduce  a  persons  ability  
to  scan  the  roadway  judge  speed,  conditions  and  distance  of  their  own  
vehicle,  other  vehicles  and  pedestrians.    Vision  is  also  effected  by  bright  lights,  
such  as  the  glare  from  oncoming  vehicles  at  night  and  multiple  lights  in  busy  
built  up  areas.  

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Information  processing.  

Age  often  causes  a  slow  down  of  information  processing  which  makes  it  hard  
to  focus  attention  between  multi  hazards.    

Experience  

Older  drivers  with  many  years  of  experience  are  also  generally  very  safety  
conscious  in  their  approach  to  driving  and  this  reduces  the  risks  they  
consciously  choose  to  take  whilst  driving.  

Towards  the  year  2011  

The  number  of  licence  holders  aged  over  65  will  increase  more  than  six  fold,  
from  around  100,000  to  about  600,000  in  year  2011.  

Vehicle safety
Anti-­‐lock  braking  systems  (abs)  

The  distance  it  takes  to  stop  a  vehicle  is  widely  influenced  by  many  factors  and  
it  is  subject  to  the  same  laws  of  physics  for  any  other  moving  body.    

Applying  the  brakes  too  heavily  can  causes  the  vehicle  to  skid  thus  resulting  in  
an  increased  stopping  distance.  Finally  the  vehicle  comes  to  a  halt  due  to  
frictional  forces.  Ensuring  that  these  frictional  forces  are  maximised  
continually,  means  reducing  the  amount  of  skidding.    This  can  be  reduced  with  
Anti  Lock  brakes.  

Braking  distances  sometimes  can  be  significantly  reduced  in  wet  weather  with  
an  ABS  vehicle  but  the  real  winner  is  having  positive  steering  when  turning  
and  manoeuvring.    Basically,  ABS  allows  the  wheels  to  continue  turning,  
enabling  the  driver  of  the  vehicle  to  steer  and  still  maintain  maximum  braking  
potential  around  hazards.  

In  short,  the  ABS  senses  the  rotation  of  the  wheels  starting  to  stop  turning  
and  then  it  releases  the  brake  pressure  enough  to  allow  rotation  again.    This  
technique  can  be  duplicated  manually  by  a  highly  trained  driver.    Even  a  highly  
trained  professional  may  not  achieve  the  same  amount  of  precision  as  a  ABS  
system.    It  takes  many  hours  of  practise  on  an  off  road  skid  area  to  achieve  
similar  results.  

Traction  control  

When  traction  control  is  engaged,  it  automatically  reduces  engine  power  and  
if  required,  applies  braking  pressure  to  the  spinning  wheel  to  ensure  smooth  
acceleration  with  maximum  control  under  varying  road  conditions.  

The  human  collision  


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The  focus  of  road  safety  has  been  measuring  the  number  of  fatalities  but  
modernised  emergency  services  and  procedures  along  with  safer  cars  and  
improved  roads,  means  that  serious  injuries  is    occurring  more  than  the  normal  
fatalities  experienced  in  the  past.    

Experts  believe  that  approximately  50%  of  road  accident  victim  admissions  
consist  of  brain  injury  and  approximately  70%  of  these  victims  are  below  25  
years  of  age.    This  figures  are  sourced  from  at  least  3000  road  crash  victims  
according  to  one  hospital's  records.  (Source  Holden  Australia)  

The  human  body  experiences  rapid  deceleration  during  a  crash  and  because  it  
cannot  defy  Newton's  first  law  which  states  that  "a  body  continues  in  its  state  
of  rest,  or  motion  in  a  straight  line,  at  constant  speed,  unless  it  is  compelled  to  
change  that  state  by  an  external  force  acting  upon  it."    When  travelling  at  60  
kmp/h  before  an  accident  both  you  and  the  car  will  try  to  continue  in  that  
state  of  motion.    

The  large  force  which  acts  on  the  car  is  exerted  by  the  object  which  the  car  
strikes  stopping  momentum  while  the  occupants  of  the  car  continue  travelling  
at  60  kmp/h  until  the  force  acts  upon  them.    

The  occupants  come  to  rest  and  this  is  the  difference  between  survival  and  
death.  The  wearing  of  a  correctly  fitted  seat  belt  is  going  to  be  a  major  
contributing  factor  as  to  whether  a  person  survives  or  not.    When  the  crash  
occurs  parts  of  the  human  body  that  are  in  direct  contact  with  the  safety  belt  
are  halted  at  approximately  the  same  rate  as  the  vehicle  but  the  rest  of  the  
body,  head  and  limbs  continue  to  move  according  to  Newtons  Law.    

The  parts  of  the  body  not  restrained  by  the  seat  belt  in  a  high  speed  crash  can  
strike  different  parts  of  the  vehicle.    The  knees  of  the  driver  and  front  
passenger  usually  strike  the  underside  of  the  dashboard.  The  arms  usually  
strike  the  upper  side  of  the  dashboard.  Leg  and  arm  injuries  are  a  lot  easier  to  
heal  than  head  injuries.    The  head,  supported  and  halted  by  the  neck  may  
strike  the  steering  wheel,  dashboard  or  windscreen  depending  on  an  
enormous  amount  of  variables  (Holden).    According  to  Volvo's  crash  testing  
data  the  body  weight  is  equal  to  3000  kg  in  a  crash  at  50  km/h  which  explains  
why  the  seat  belts  stretches  and  catches  the  person  and  why  there  should  not  
be  any  loose  items  in  the  back  of  the  vehicle.  

Inertial  effects  are  primary  causes  of  brain  injury.    A  large  amount  of  force  on  a  
small  area  equates  to  a  large  amount  of  pressure.    

As  explained  in  the  Holden  crash  testing  information,  brain  injury  occurs  
through  inertial  effects  refers  to  the  brain's  state  of  motion.    Before  the  
collision  the  brain  is  travelling  at  60  km/h.    Immediately  after  the  collision  the  
brain  is  at  rest.  The  brain  is  surrounded  by  a  fluid  and  supported  in  place  by  
small  membranes.  The  fluid  and  membranes  try  and  cushion  the  brain  during  
its  sudden  and  rapid  deceleration.  If  the  brain  collides  into  the  skull,  bruising  
occurs.  The  extent  of  the  collision  determines  the  amount  of  bruising  and  
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corresponding  brain  damage.  Damage  to  the  brain  can  lead  to  concussion,  
permanent  brain  damage,  comatisation  or  death.  

The  organs  around  the  abdomen  often  receive  enormous  injuries  as  they  are  
essentially  squashed  by  the  seat  belt.  The  organs  protected  by  the  ribs  are  
relatively  safe  provided  the  rib  cage  doesn't  break.  When  a  rib  breaks  it  may  
result  in  a  punctured  or  collapsed  lung.    

The  air  bag.  

Many  of  today's  survivors  would  have  died  instantly  at  the  scene  of  the  
accident  if  it  was  not  for  the  seat  belt.    As  described  earlier,  seat  belts  play  a  
most  important  role  in  slowing  down  the  momentum  of  the  body  within  the  
vehicle  in  a  catching  effect  but  because  of  the  limitations  of  the  human  body  
and  the  potential  striking  of  objects  in  the  vehicles  a  person  can  still  receive  
serious  injuries  or  possibly  die.    

Prevention  of  some  of  these  injuries  can  come  from  the  use  of  an  air  bag.  
Imagine  a  large  bag  of  soft  cushioning  air  inflating  in  front  of  you  as  the  car  
comes  to  a  sudden  halt.  The  benefits  are  obvious.    

With  an  almighty  BANG,  the  air  bag  leaps  into  action.    In  less  than  a  few  
thousandths  of  a  second  the  air  bag  is  inflated.  Within  a  few  milliseconds  the  
air  bag  starts  to  deflate.  

As  stated  in  the  Holden  crash  testing  information,  an  air  bag  is  designed  to  
inflate  only  when  the  vehicle  experiences  an  impact  with  a  solid  object  at  
around  18  kmp/h  to  20  kmp/h.    Deceleration  must  be  very  high  to  detonate  the  
air  bag.    The  computer  that  controls  the  air  bag  makes  a  decision  in  a  few  
milliseconds  to  detonate  the  gas  cylinders  that  will  inflate  the  air  bag.  The  
propellant  detonates  and  inflates  the  air  bag  while  the  driver  collapses  
towards  the  dashboard.  As  the  body  lunges  forward  into  the  air  bag,  the  bag  
deflates,  allowing  the  body  to  sink  comfortably  towards  the  dashboard  with  
minimal  injury  minimised.  

The  timing  of  the  airbag  is  critical.  There  are  two  main  possible  faults  with  an  
air  bag.    If  the  airbag  is  inflated  too  early  it  will  already  be  deflating  when  the  
driver's  head  strikes  the  airbag.  This  would  result  in  a  reduction  of  
effectiveness  due  to  its  failure  to  support  the  driver's  head.  The  other  possible  
fault  is  if  the  airbag  is  too  late  and  the  driver's  head  is  too  close  to  the  steering  
wheel  it  may  be  struck  suddenly  by  the  inflating  airbag.  The  result  would  
effectively  reduce  impact  time  and  therefore  increase  the  impact  forces.  

The  air  bag  is  only  one  link  in  a  series  of  many  that  form  an  integral  chain  of  
events  that  unfold  during  a  collision.  It  most  certainly  is  not  designed  to  
replace  the  seat  belt.    A  safety  belt  alone  gives  much  better  protection  than  an  
airbag  alone.  The  combination  of  the  two  safety  devices  increases  the  chances  
of  surviving  a  collision  with  minimal  injury.  

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The  occupant  survival  zone.  


As  stated  in  the  Holden  crash  testing  information,  the  collision  between  the  
car  and  the  object  being  struck  is  different  to  the  collision  that  the  occupant  
of  the  vehicle  experiences.    The  occupant  may  experience  much  higher  forces  
than  the  vehicle.  

As  the  vehicle  crumples,  the  occupant  of  the  vehicle  is  still  in  a  state  of  
motion.  Older  style  seat  belts  had  a  lot  of  slack  (these  belts  were  not  always  
adjusted  to  fit  properly).  They  allowed  the  occupants  to  continue  moving  
forward  until  they  received  a  solid  jolt  from  the  seat  belt.    

A  short  and  sudden  stopping  distance  caused  by  an  inelastic  and  poorly  fitted  
safety  belt  creates  enormous  forces.    Modern,  inertia  type  safety  belts  are  
much  better.  During  a  collision  the  seat  belt  locks.  There  is  still  a  considerable  
amount  of  spooling  that  takes  place.  Spooling  is  the  tensioning  of  the  slack  on  
the  real  of  the  seat  belt.  Webbing  clamps  reduce  the  amount  of  spooling  that  
takes  place  during  a  collision.    

The  lap  sash  seat  belt  is  much  better  than  the  lap  belt.    The  New  Commodores  
and  many  other  modern  vehicles  are  fitted  with  lap  sash  belts  for  all  seating  
positions.  The  lap  portion  of  the  seat  belt  should  pass  across  the  hipbone.  This  
bone  is  very  strong  and  can  withstand  relatively  large  forces.  The  lap  portion  
of  the  belt  should  not  be  allowed  to  rise  up  to  the  abdomen.  The  abdomen  
has  very  little  bone  structure  and  consists  mainly  of  soft  organs.  The  soft  
organs  in  the  abdomen  can  be  easily  damaged  in  the  event  of  a  collision.  

The  sash  portion  of  the  seat  belt  should  fit  snugly  across  the  shoulder.  It  
should  not  be  allowed  to  ride  up  towards  the  neck.  It  is  designed  to  restrict  
the  movement  of  the  main  torso.  The  main  torso  contains  a  large  percentage  
of  the  body's  mass  and  therefore  requires  a  large  force  to  halt  its  movement  
during  a  collision.  

The  arms  and  legs  of  the  occupants  of  the  vehicle  are  still  left  unsupported.  It  
is  not  practical  to  restrict  the  movements  of  the  arms  and  legs  during  the  
normal  course  of  travelling.  It  must  therefor  be  assumed  that  these  limbs  will  
be  left  to  the  mercy  of  the  objects  they  collide  with  during  an  accident.  It  is  for  
this  reason  that  the  materials  used  inside  the  cabin  are  energy  absorbing  and  
contain  no  sharp  edges.  

The  backs  of  seats  are  well  padded  for  the  rear  passengers.  The  dashboard  is  
also  padded  and  set  back  as  far  as  possible  to  reduce  the  likelihood  of  injury.  
The  legs  of  the  front  seat  passengers  are  still  likely  to  strike  the  dashboard  
area.  Knee  bolsters  are  fitted  to  minimise  injury.  There  are  no  sharp  objects  
left  in  the  dashboard  area.  

Modem  radios  have  replaced  the  older  style  that  contained  dangerous  knobs.  
Air  vent  controllers  no  longer  contain  long  levers  that  can  easily  penetrate  the  
skin  in  the  case  of  a  serious  accident.  
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The  crumple  zone.  


Solid  old  cars  are  not  safer  than  new  cars  (Holden  Australia,  1995).    New  cars  
are  designed  to  crumple.  A  car  that  crumples  absorbs  energy  reducing  the  
severity  of  impact  on  the  vehicle's  occupants.  There  are  several  simple  
comparisons  which  can  be  made  to  assist  the  understanding  of  this  principle.  

Imagine  you  are  jumping  up  and  down  on  a  trampoline.  It  is  easy  to  reach  
heights  of  three  meters  above  the  trampoline.  As  you  jump  on  the  trampoline,  
the  springs  on  the  trampoline  gradually  retard  your  motion.  The  result  is  a  
smooth  and  harmless  collision.  Compare  this  situation  to  jumping  off  the  roof  
of  a  house  and  landing  on  concrete.  It  is  quite  easy  to  break  your  legs  or  
ankles.  The  collision  is  considerably  more  severe.  The  major  difference  is  the  
stopping  distance.  The  increased  stopping  distance  of  the  trampoline  results  
in  a  much  smaller  impact  force.  The  increased  stopping  distance  of  a  car  
designed  to  crumple,  brings  the  occupants  to  a  more  gradual  stop.  A  greater  
stopping  distance  provides  a  smaller  risk  of  injury.  

Another  example  of  this  principle  is  catching  a  hard  ball.  Imagine  if  someone  
was  to  drop  a  7.5  kg  bowling  ball  into  your  waiting  hands.  Even  from  a  height  
of  50cms  it  would  be  possible  to  catch  the  ball  without  risk  of  injury.  Now  
consider  the  same  event,  this  time  imagine  your  hands  are  fiat  on  the  concrete  
when  the  ball  is  dropped.  The  catch  would  most  likely  result  in  injury.  

In  the  first  example  the  hands  of  the  catcher  are  allowed  to  gradually  absorb  
the  energy  of  the  collision  process.  In  the  second  example  the  hands  of  the  
catcher  would  most  likely  be  crushed.  The  reason  for  this  is  that  the  concrete  
will  not  move  much  as  a  result  of  the  bowling  ball  landing.  There  is  only  a  very  
small  deformation  distance  on  the  hand.  The  action  will  create  enormous  
forces  because  of  the  short  stopping  distance.  

A  critical  factor  in  an  accident  is  the  ability  of  a  vehicle  structure  to  deform  to  
the  maximum  possible  extent  without  intrusion  into  the  cabin  space.  The  
cabin  is  the  survival  capsule.  The  passenger  capsule  is  often  referred  to  as  the  
occupants'  survival  space.    

Objects  should  not  be  allowed  to  penetrate  the  cabin  space.  Some  of  the  
existing  penetrable  objects  are  designed  to  retract  when  an  impact  is  occurs.  
The  foot  pedals  in  the  Holden  Commodore  for  example  are  designed  to  bend  
back  leaving  the  maximum  amount  of  occupant  protection  space.  

When  designing  a  car,  it  is  important  to  make  sure  that  the  car  will  crumple  
progressively.    

The  engine  and  its  components  must  not  be  allowed  to  intrude  into  the  cabin  
of  the  vehicle.    Car  engines  are  now  mounted  in  such  a  way  that  in  the  event  
of  an  accident  the  engine  will  be  pushed  downwards,  under  the  vehicle.  
Engine  components  that  are  very  rigid,  such  as  an  air  conditioner  compressor,  
the  master  brake  cylinder  and  the  alternator,  are  staggered  throughout  the  
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engine  bay.    If  these  solid  components  were  all  in  line,  they  would  not  allow  
the  engine  bay  to  crumple.  Alternately,  they  would  deform  the  firewall  of  the  
cabin  and  intrude  into  the  survival  space.    

The  'speed  kills'  campaign  looks  at  the  effect  that  a  change  in  velocity  has  on  
the  forces  involved  in  a  collision.  Strictly  speaking  it  is  not  the  speed  that  
counts  but  the  change  in  speed  or  velocity  that  counts.  Clearly  a  smaller  
impact  speed  will  result  in  considerably  smaller  impact  forces.  

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Section 3

Driving Techniques, Observation


Skills and Risk Factors

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Road conditions
It  is  important  to  evaluate  what  the  road  is  like.    The  road  itself  is  one  
reason  why  you  always  need  to  be  adjusting  your  speed.  Urban  and  
rural  roads  can  require  different  driving  techniques  and  skills  to  each,  
adding  another  dimension  to  the  scope  of  conditions.  

Poor  road  surfaces  

You  will  need  to  slow  down  for:  


Pot  holes,  dirt  and  gravel  roads.  Road  works  need  extra  care.    Loose  
gravel  is  especially  dangerous.  

Curves  

Slowing  down  (relevant  to  the  angle  and  camber  of  the  curve)  before  
entering  a  curve  is  the  best  driving  practice,  then  accelerate  slightly  
whilst  driving  out  of  the  curve  in  a  front  wheel  drive.    In  a  rear  wheel  
drive  once  the  vehicle  is  balanced,  you  can  accelerate  gently  after  you  
pass  the  apex  of  the  curve,  throwing  the  vehicles  weight  back  onto  the  
drive  wheels.    Braking  heavily  in  the  middle  of  a  curve  can  be  
extremely  dangerous.  Too  much  speed  on  the  approach  to  and  in  a  
curve  is  a  common  cause  of  skidding.    

Slippery  roads  

These  may  be  caused  by  moisture,  gravel,  dirt,  mud  or  ice.  Some  areas  
that  are  often  slippery  will  be  signposted.    There  are  two  main  times  
when  there  is  far  less  traction  than  from  gentle  steady  rain.  When  it  
first  starts  to  rain,  mixing  oil,  rubber  and  dirt  on  the  road  surface  and  
after  some  time  this  is  eventually  washed  away.    The  other  time  is  
when  it  has  been  raining  heavily  and  there  is  a  build  up  of  water  on  the  
surface  and  in  turn  causing  a  build  up  of  water  between  the  tyres  and  
the  road  surface  creating  hydroplaning/aquaplaning.  

On  sealed  roads  in  poor  conditions,  you  should  double  your  space  
cushion  and  with  unsealed  roads,  triple  the  space  cushion.  

Reading  the  road  surface  

The  types  and  conditions  of  road  surface  affect  the  stability  of  a  
vehicle.    

Signs to look out for


 Change  from  bitumen  to  loose  gavel,  which  could  cause  instability  
and  potential  braking  problems.  

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 Types  of  cambers.    (Positive,  negative  and  crown  cambers)  

 Oil,  dust  and  rubber  build  up  at  traffic  lights  (particularly  when  wet  
and  it  has  not  rained  for  some  time).    

 Deterioration  in  the  road  condition  adversely  affects  braking  and  


cornering.  

 Negative  cambers,  which  cause  cornering  problems.  

Other conditions which affect driving greatly.


Danger  signs      

 Noticing  traffic  congesting  ahead  should  prompt  drivers  to  develop  


a  defence  procedure  and  escape  route  for  that  situation.  

 Looking  out  for  speed  scatter  on  freeways,  causing  variation  in  
traffic  flow.  

 Shoulders  of  the  road  may  be  made  of  gravel  and  fall  negatively  
away  from  the  sealed  surfaces.    They  may  be  soft  or  wet  causing  
nearside  wheels  to  run  on  unstable  ground  (problems  with  braking,  
steering  or  sudden  acceleration).  

 When  the  shoulder  is  lower  than  the  sealed  road,  driving  back  onto  
the  road  can  have  a  tram  line  effect,  preventing  the  near  side  
wheels  returning  to  the  road.  

Unsealed  roads  

Unsealed  roads  have  distinctive  problems  associated  with  them:-­‐  

 Road  markings  cannot  be  painted  on  the  surface,  eg.,  centre  lines  
and  edge-­‐lines.  

 It  is  difficult  to  distinguish  between  the  edge  of  the  gravelled  road  
and  the  soft  shoulders.  

 Rain  severely  deteriorates  the  road  surface,  causing  run  off.  

 Tyre  traction  significantly  reduced.  

 Dry  weather  dust  is  a  problem.  

 Other  vehicles  throwing  stones.  

 Scattered  potholes  and  corrugations  minimise  vehicle  stability.  

Added  care  is  needed  to  drive  on  these  looses  surfaces.  

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Damaging  the  suspension  as  well  as  throwing  the  vehicle  around  are  
adverse  effects  that  are  dramatically  increased  with  speed.  

Be  very  wary  of  on  coming  vehicles  on  blind  corners  as  the  driver  may  
not  having  total  control  of  their  vehicle.  

Corrugated  roads  

The  ridges  of  the  corrugations  are  evenly  spaced  but  give  a  rough  ride  
unless  the  vehicle  is  driven  at  or  above  a  certain  speed.  To  ride  
corrugations  smoothly,  the  steering  linkage,  suspension  and  
particularly  the  shock  absorbers  must  be  in  good  condition.    You  
should  not  accelerate  powerfully  or  it  could  provoke  axle  tramp  and  
instability.  

Hairpin  bends  and  zigzag  roads  

These  type  of  corners  are  reasonably  straight  forward  when  


negotiating  a  right-­‐hand  corner  but  left-­‐hand  corners  are  more  difficult  
as  the  curve  is  far  tighter  from  the  correct  side  of  the  road  and  may  be  
smaller  than  the  minimum  turning  circle  of  the  vehicle.  If  the  vehicle  
approaches  a  left-­‐hand  corner  whilst  keeping  close  to  the  left,  it  may  
be  impossible  to  exit  on  the  correct  side  of  the  road,  so  choose  an  
approach  path  out  from  hard  left.    This  increases  the  chance  of  having  
a  head  on  accident,  especially  if  other  vehicles  have  too  much  speed  
causing  understeer.  

Hazardous  periods  

Dusk  and  sunrise  bring  additional  visibility  hazards.    Picking  out  objects  
and  the  natural  movement  of  stock  and  wildlife  are  major  concerns  as  
well  as  some  blindness.  

Slippery  surfaces  

Reduce  speed  as  soon  as  you  even  suspect  that  the  road  surface  is  
likely  to  change  (snow  and  surface  road  water  are  obvious)  and  try  to  
adopt  a  speed  which  will  require  as  little  variation  (braking  or  
acceleration)  as  possible.  A  vehicle  will  not  usually  lose  traction  if  there  
is  no  change  in  speed  or  direction  unless  the  gradient  or  crossfall  of  
the  surface  is  steep.  

If  you  have  to  stop  for  any  reason,  ensure  that  the  driving  wheels  of  
your  vehicle  are  on  the  most  stable  part  of  the  road  so  as  to  be  able  to  
move  off  again  more  safely.  If  you  have  to  turn  round  and  retrace  your  
tracks  and  are  forced  to  place  either  the  front  or  the  rear  wheels  on  
less  stable  ground  in  doing  so,  always  keep  your  driving  wheels  on  the  
most  stable  surface.  

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When  descending  a  very  slippery  surface  always  select  a  lower  gear  to  
avoid  using  the  brakes  as  they  will  most  likely  lock  very  easily  and  be  
difficult  to  remedy.  

Driving  in  fog  

In  daylight,  headlights  should  be  switched  on,  not  for  their  lighting  
effect  but  to  make  you  more  visible  to  other  drivers.  Drive  at  a  speed  
that  will  able  you  to  stop  within  the  distance  of  your  forward  vision.  
Centre  line  or  edge  markings  are  useful  guidelines  in  fog,  both  day  and  
night.  High  beam  must  not  be  used  in  fog,  because  the  light  reflects  
back  from  the  moisture-­‐laden  air,  further  affecting  visibility  so  if  you  
have  fog  lights,  switch  of  your  headlights  and  only  use  fog  lights.  

Use  of  lights  

The  driver  of  a  vehicle  must  turn  on  headlights  between  sunset  and  
sunrise.  The  non-­‐use  of  lights  during  the  hours  of  twilight  or  dusk  has  
been  the  cause  of  many  accidents.    

Headlights  must  be  dipped  within  200  metres  of  the  rear  of  a  vehicle  
that  you  are  following  and  within  200  metres  of  an  oncoming  vehicle.    

The  use  of  high  beam  may  be  very  helpful  when  two  vehicles  are  
approaching  each  other  on  a  blind  corner.  A  high  beam  may  illuminate  
trees,  fence  or  road  cuttings  and  be  visible  to  an  oncoming  driver  
several  seconds  before  he  comes  into  view.    They  can  also  be  use  to  
make  other  drivers  aware  that  you  are  present  in  daylight.  

Night  driving  

Spotlessly  clean  windows  and  particularly  the  front  and  rear  screens,  
both  inside  and  out  is  extremely  important  in  night  driving.    It  is  
important  that  you  select  a  speed  relevant  to  the  visibility  you  
headlights  create.    Remember,  after  dipping  your  head  lights  200  
metres  before  the  other  vehicle,  you  may  need  to  quickly  flash  your  
high  beam  to  determine  what  is  between  you  and  the  oncoming  
vehicle  or  the  vehicle  you  are  following.  

Avoid  looking  directly  into  the  lights  of  an  oncoming  displaying  high  
beam  on  because  it  may  blind  you.    Instead  angle  your  eyes  down  and  
to  the  left  and  guide  the  vehicle  by  the  left  side  or  shoulder  of  the  
road,  never  the  middle.    You  should,  without  blinding  your  self  quickly  
glance  to  determine  the  oncoming  vehicle's  position  because  it  may  
have  drifted  to  your  side.  

Your  eyes  at  night    

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When  bright  headlights  are  about  30  metres  away,  it  is  very  difficult  to  
see  objects  beside  or  beyond  the  approaching  vehicle.    After  the  
vehicle  has  passed,  your  vision  does  not  return  to  normal  for  some  
time.    

Even  the  lights  of  a  single  vehicle  can  create  complex  eye  adjustments  
between  the  time  you  first  see  them  and  the  time  they  pass.    
Observation
Central  vision  and  peripheral  vision  

Faulty  seeing  habits  are  a  major  cause  of  accidents  because  the  novice  
driver  fails  to  see  the  hazard  and  react  appropriately  without  being  
rushed.    

Central  vision  is  used  to  focus,  giving  clarity.    At  30m  the  central  cone  is  
only  a  bare  1.5m  wide,  at  91m  the  cone  is  5m  wide,  and  at  305m,  it  
becomes  16m  wide.    This  is  why  when  the  person  looks  further  up  the  
road,  effectively  their  central  eye  sight  widens.  

Poor  or  inexperienced  drivers  normally  make  the  mistake  of  using  
central  vision  for  steering,  gluing  their  eyes  to  the  road  so  fixedly  that  
significant  changes  in  the  wider  traffic  pattern  may  be  missed.  

Peripheral  vision,  often  called  fringe  vision  works  up,  down  and  side  to  
side,  acting  as  the  attractor  so  as  central  vision  can  be  used  more  
freely.  

Many  novice  drivers  use  peripheral  vision  for  judging  turns  and  gaps  
associated  with  other  vehicles,  which  at  times  can  be  dangerous  
without  reassessment  using  central  vision.    

Visual search techniques

Aim  high  in  steering    

This  means  look  well  ahead  with  the  eyes  aimed  high.  The  basic  rule  is  
the  faster  the  speed,  the  further  it  will  be  necessary  to  aim  your  vision.    
Straight  line  steering  can  be  assisted  using  high  aim  steering  path  
selection  determined  by  the  central  vision  which  should  cause  the  
novice  driver  to  track  the  vehicle  in  the  middle  of  this  path  in  their  
early  stage  of  development.    Many  novice  drivers  fix  their  eyes  on  
objects  they  are  worried  about  hitting  such  as  kerbs,  trees,  poles  and  
other  vehicles.  This  can  be  distracting  not  only  in  terms  of  attention  
but  also  the  vehicle  may  start  to  track  towards  these  objects.  

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It  is  important  when  training  novice  drivers  that  they  learn  to  train  
their  eyes  to  work  between  long  and  short  range  so  as  the  mind  thinks  
between  long,  medium  and  short  range  also.  

With  oncoming  vehicles,  a  driver  should  check  lane  position  and  other  
vehicles  stability  while  they  are  still  a  long  distance  away.    At  night,  the  
driver  should  keep  glancing  well  in  front  of  his  headlight  spray,  looking  
for  dark  shapes  on  the  road  before  turning  high  beam  according  to  
regulations.    The  driver  central  vision  must  determine  whether  there  is  
a  potential  hazard  between  them  and  the  oncoming  vehicle.  

If  the  oncoming  vehicle  is  dazzling  a  driver  with  high  beam,  it  is  
important  that  central  vision  determines  road  position,  using  either  
the  left-­‐hand  lane  markings  or  road  edge  to  minimise  potential  
blindness.      

You  should  also  be  aware  of  an  oncoming  vehicle's  road  position,  using  
your  peripheral  vision  closes  to  your  central  vision  for  quick  glances,  in  
order  to  determine  whether  the  oncoming  vehicle  has  drifted  towards  
you.  

See  the  whole  scene  

Seeing  the  whole  scene  is  observing  all  the  road  and  traffic  situations  
both  ahead  and  behind.    Following  distance  is  critical  to  achieving  big  
picture  observation  because  it  is  important  that  objects  such  as  other  
vehicles,  pedestrians,  road  markings,  signs  and  poles  ahead  are  only  a  
small  part  of  the  traffic  scene.    

Keep  the  eyes  on  the  move  

Keeping  the  eyes  moving  helps  detecting  changes  in  the  speed  and  
direction  of  other  vehicles  and  observe  potential  risks.    Part  of  the  
reason  eyes  must  keep  moving  is  the  need  to  base  decisions  on  a  
holistic  approach  as  well  as  remove  potential  blind  spots  from  the  eyes  
and  things  which  cause  vision  block.    

Mental  awareness  

We  see  with  our  eyes  but  we  observe  with  the  mind.  Your  eyes  are  
only  the  lenses  but  your  mind  is  the  film  and  it  selects  what  it  wants  to  
see.  

Depth  perception  

Depth  perception  refers  to  your  ability  to  judge  the  distance  between  
you  and  an  object  that  you  see.    It  is  also  concerned  with  the  size  and  
shape  of  the  object  in  terms  of  depth  and  plays  a  major  role  in  your  

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decision  making  in  relation  to  how  people  and  pedestrians  approach  
you  and  how  you  approach  other  objects,  vehicles  and  pedestrians.    

Vision  acuity  

Clearness  of  vision  is  called  ‘visual  acuity’  

Eye sight problems

Eye  blind  spot  

If  you  are  teaching  a  person  who  has  only  one  eye,  it  is  important  to  
teach  scanning  techniques  to  compensate  the  natural  blind  spot  in  the  
eye.  

Source:    D.Oldfield.  Basic  and  Advance  Driving  Handbook.    1986  


Gregory's  Scientific  Publications,  Universal  Press  Pty  Ltd  

In  every  human  eye  there  is  a  natural  blind  spot.  In  the  right  eye  it  is  
about  15  degrees  to  the  right  of  the  straight-­‐ahead  line  or  visual  axis  
and  for  the  left  eye  the  same  amount  to  the  left.  The  angle  of  
blindness  is  usually  about  5.5  degrees  horizontally  and  about  7.5  
degrees  vertically.    

At  50  metres  this  would  represent  an  area  of  3  metres  x  4.5  metres,  
enough  to  conceal  a  cyclist,  pedestrian  or  even  a  car.  

This  can  be  demonstrated  by  a  very  simple  test.  On  a  blank  sheet  of  
paper  draw  2  similar  marks  approximately  6  centimetres  apart.  To  test  
the  right  eye,  cover  (do  not  close)  the  left  eye  and  look  straight  ahead  
at  the  left  mark.    Begin  by  holding  the  page  about  30  centimetres  from  
the  eye  and  gradually  move  the  page  closer.    Initially  the  right  mark  will  
be  visible  in  the  peripheral  field  of  the  right  eye,  but  there  will  be  a  
stage,  when  the  page  is  about  20  centimetres  away  from  the  eye,  or  a  
little  more,  when  the  right  mark  will  vanish  momentarily.  It  will  
reappear  as  the  page  is  moved  closer  still.  

                       
   
This  natural  occurrence  can  come  into  play  any  time  the  bridge  on  the  
nose  blocks  either  eye  from  compensating  the  other  eye.  Eg  such  as  
looking  left  and  right  at  intersection  when  the  person  relies  on  turning  
the  eyes  only  with  a  slight  head  movement  or  the  car  pillar  interferes  
with  one  of  the  eyes  vision.      

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Night blindness

Night  driving  requires  special  visual  techniques  because  even  if  the  
driver  has  good  vision  or  advance  observation  skills  they  are  still  
limited  in  many  ways  by  the  range  of  headlights.    

It  is  clear  that  many  experienced  drivers  do  not  recognise  the  visual  
limitations  of  driving  with  headlight  illumination  only  (eg.,  Leibowitz  
and  Owens,  1986),  and  this  needs  to  be  clearly  illustrated  and  linked  to  
an  appropriate  feeling  of  discomfort  at  “driving  blind.”    

Eyes  adjust  much  more  slowly  to  darkness  than  to  light.  Although  most  
of  the  adjustment  takes  place  in  the  first  few  minutes,  there  is  still  
substantial  adjustment  taking  place  for  as  long  as  half  an  hour  in  a  dark  
place.  

The  role  of  the  iris  to  regulate  the  amount  of  light  that  enters  the  eye.  
If  the  iris  cannot  operate  fast  enough  to  allow  more  light  in  the  
adjustment  back  to  dark  is  very  slow.    

The  problem  is  that  even  the  lights  of  one  single  vehicle  causes  
complex  eye  adjustments  from  the  time  the  light  becomes  visible,  
grows  in  intensity  and  then  reduces.    
Factors which effect driving

Choice  of  speed  

Safety  margins  

Novice  drivers  must  commit  to  proper  and  moderate  speed  choice.  To  
do  this  they  have  to  recognise  the  effects  of  excessive  travelling  
speeds  and  error  correction  time  required  by  both  themselves  and  
drivers.    The  main  speed  selected  should  be  based  on  the  road  and  
weather  conditions,  as  well  as  the  amount  of  hazard  density.  Speed  
should  be  selected  to  give  the  driver  time  to  observe  and  make  
appropriate  decisions  to  avoid  the  risk.    

Safe  gap  acceptance  

Novice  drivers  should  be  able  to  define  safe  gap  acceptance  and  
perform  cognitive  skills  related  to  estimating  and  verifying  the  time  of  
impact  relevant  to  the  closing  rate  of  approaching  and  oncoming  
vehicles.  Both  road  and  weather  conditions  should  be  taken  into  
account.  

As  part  of  a  training  strategy,  the  driver  should  be  able  to  discuss  the  
effects  of  frustration  on  gap  acceptance  and  a  safe  and  unsafe  gap.    

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They  also  must  be  able  to  demonstrate  safe  gap  selection  in  different  
manoeuvres,  such  as  pulling  out  and  passing,  giving  way  at  
intersections,  following,  overtaking  and  passing  gaps.    

Note:    When  turning  or  pulling  out  in  front  of  other  vehicles,  it  is  
important  that  the  driver  checks  mirrors  to  verify  safe  gap  selection  
and  the  closing  rate  of  an  approaching  vehicle.      

Risk  priortisation  

Novice  drivers  need  to  priorities  the  risks  in  context,  situations  and  
actions  that  contribute  to  crashes.    To  do  this  the  trainer  must  show  
the  trainee  how  to  priorities  hazards  in  order  of  approach,  where  there  
is  potential  high  risk,  other  vehicles  or  pedestrians.  

Personal  limitations  in  risk  assessment  

It  is  important  for  novice  drivers  to  personalise  their  limits,  particularly  
in  evaluation  of  risk.    It  is  a  good  training  strategy  in  order  to  evaluate  
the  novice  drivers  personal  risk  assessment  and  to  encourage  a  
running  risk  commentary  on  their  evaluation  of  potential  risk.    This  will  
allow  you  to  provide  feedback  showing  the  limits  of  risk  assessment  as  
well  as  enhancing  appraisal  and  maybe  self-­‐monitoring  of  their  own  
ability.    

Considering  other  peoples  differing  point  of  view  

It  is  important  that  a  driver  can  learn  to  predict  the  likely  actions  of  
others  as  well  as  taking  into  account  what  they  think  the  other  driver  
can  see  from  their  positions  and  in  effect  what  they  are  trying  to  do  or  
expect  to  do.    

Space  and  use  of  safety  cushion  

Safety  cushion  

Of  all  the  defensive  driving  techniques  people  use,  one  of  the  most  
important  for  people  with  high  or  low  skill  levels  in  situations  where  
there  is  a  concentration  or  variation  in  vehicles,  bad  road  or  weather  
conditions,  is  a  personalised  safety  cushion.  

In  short  it  maximises  the  time  needed  to  stop  or  manoeuvre  to  avoid  
danger  of  collision  from  any  direction.    As  the  speed  increases  so  
should  the  space  around  you.    If  the  space  is  reduced  the  speed  must  
be  reduced  to  fit  the  space  available.    Safety  cushion  is  achieved  front  
and  rear  by  using  correct  following  distances.    Increase  the  forward  
following  distance  if  the  following  vehicle  does  not  keep  sufficient  
distance  by  adding  the  number  of  seconds  required  by  the  following  
vehicle  to  the  front  of  your  vehicle.    Safety  cushion  also  needs  to  be  

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created  when  passing  or  overtaking  so  position  on  the  road  should  be  
taken  as  early  as  practicable.      

Be  seen  

It  is  very  important  to  be  are  seen  by  other  vehicles  and  you  must  take  
into  account  that  because  a  person  looks  at  you  it  does  not  mean  that  
they  have  seen  you.    They  may  not  be  mentally  thinking  about  you,  
such  as  people  not  looking  for  motor  bikes  but  just  cars.    Also  you  
must  observe  whether  the  person  can  see  you  with  both  their  eyes  so  
as  the  blind  spot  in  eyes  is  removed.    

Our  primary  aid  in  making  ourselves  seen  is  by  the  use  of  signals,  when  
stopping  or  turning.    Sounding  the  horn  or  flashing  the  headlights  can  
be  used  to  attract  attention.    Don't  place  your  car  in  the  blind  spot  of  
others.    Don't  be  obstructed  by  large  vehicles.    Sometimes  you  can  
check  if  you  have  been  seen  by  using  eye  contact  with  the  other  driver.  

Have  an  escape  

As  part  of  the  decision-­‐making  process  when  driving  along  you  should  
consider  alternatives  if  something  were  to  go  wrong.    This  would  allow  
an  escape  route  and  possibly  prevent  an  accident.    The  other  factor  is  
if  an  accident  is  unavoidable,  you  will  need  to  decide  where  the  safest  
impact  is.    Don't  drive  in  the  right  lane  because  it  increases  your  
potential  of  having  a  head  on  collision.    When  approaching  
intersections  at  any  speed,  you  should  cover  the  brake  so  as  to  
minimise  stopping  distance,  thus,  reducing  the  potential  of  having  a  
high  impact  collision.  

Intersection  safety  

Worldwide,  approximately  half  of  all  road  crashes  occur  at  


intersections,  so  it  is  of  the  utmost  importance  to  develop  training  
strategies  that  make  the  trainee  mentally  aware  of  safety  factors  
relevant  to  approaching  intersections.  

"T"  intersections  are  dangerous  but  not  as  dangerous  as  cross  
intersections.    At  cross  intersections  other  vehicles  can  be  driven  at  
high  speed  through  the  intersection.    The  reality  is  that  red  lights  or  
stop  and  give  way  signs  are  not  a  physical  barriers  that  will  stop  the  
other  vehicle.    Because  human  error  plays  a  major  role  when  drivers  
are  distracted  by  many  internal  and  external  problems,  sometimes  
they  are  temporarily  unaware  of  traffic  conditions.    The  general  rule  is  
that  intersections,  where  traffic  is  stationary  is  generally  safer  than  a  
clear  intersection  where  a  vehicle  is  more  likely  to  speed  through  and  
cause  the  crash.  

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Vision  blockout  

Vision  blockout  basically  relates  to  an  external  object  or  internal  part  
of  the  vehicle  like  the  car  pillar  which  blocks  visibility.    Some  examples  
of  blockout  are  trees,  plants,  parked  cars,  car  pillars,  passengers,  
fences,  poles,  other  vehicles  and  buildings  that  block  vision  in  some  
way.  

Two  important  factors  that  relate  to  vision  blockout  that  which  always  
be  taken  into  account  when  driving.  
1. Never  make  a  decision  to  proceed  in  any  direction  unless  that  
decision  is  based  on  a  clear  uninterrupted  view  of  all  potential  
danger.  

2. Never  approach  a  hazard  that  has  vision  blockout  at  a  speed  that  
will  your  vehicle  or  a  following  vehicle  to  break  heavily  to  avoid  
danger  of  collision.  

Approach  speed  at  intersections  

Stopping  distance,  sight  distance  and  the  amount  of  vision  blockout  as  
well  as  other  vehicles,  should  govern  speed  approach  to  intersections.    
Statistics  show  that  the  average  driver  approaches  intersections  18  
kmp/h  above  a  safe  speed  for  stopping,  which  can  be  shown  by  the  
percentage  of  brake  pressure  required  to  stop.    If  a  following  vehicle  is  
driving  aggressively  with  a  poor  following  distance,  due  to  the  added  
reaction  time  the  brake  pressure  will  be  even  greater  for  the  following  
vehicle,  sometimes  causing  rear  end  crashes  when  the  first  vehicle  
unexpectedly  stops.  

As  stated  in  the  law,  vehicles  must  approach  intersections  at  a  speed  
that  will  enable  them  to  stop  if  necessary.    It  is  very  important  that  we  
approach  the  intersection  at  a  speed  which  will  enable  you  to  control  
the  speed  of  the  following  vehicle  and  this  in  effect  allows  us  flexibility  
in  our  driving  actions  if  something  goes  wrong.    

Fatigue  

Drivers  often  make  the  mistake  of  staring  fixedly  at  the  road  ahead  
creating  tunnel  vision  and  highway  hypnosis  when  they  start  to  go  to  
sleep.    This  tends  to  be  most  apparent  on  freeways  during  long  trips.    
Another  factor  that  causes  this  highway  hypnosis  is  motor  sound  
creating  a  constant  dull  hum.  

The  general  rules  which  apply  when  feeling  tired:-­‐.  


 If  someone  else  is  with  you  and  they  are  not  tired  then  let  them  
drive.  

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 Have  at  least  a  15  minute  break  to  rest  every  one  to  two  hours.  

 Do  not  rely  on  coffee  or  "stay  awake"  drugs.  

 Rest  up  before  long  trip.  

 Do  not  drive  during  times  that  you  normally  sleep.    (Most  crashes  
are  caused  by  fatigue  occurring  between  11  PM  and  8  AM)  

 Shifting  your  eyes  and  thoughts  from  one  area  of  the  road  to  
another.  

 Another  high-­‐risk  time  is  early  to  mid-­‐afternoon,  but  this  does  not  
mean  that  fatigue  will  not  occur  at  other  times.  

 If  you  are  on  medication,  check  the  labels  and  ask  your  doctor  or  
pharmacist  about  how  they  would  effect  your  driving  and  any  
possible  side  effects.  

Stress  

It  is  important  to  try  to  relieve  stress  because  it  can  affect  your  driving  
and  you  could  be  up  to  5  times  more  likely  to  be  involved  in  a  crash.    If  
you  have  any  problems  with  health,  family  or  work  then  this  might  
take  your  concentration  away  from  the  tasks  of  driving.  

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Section 4

Human Perception and Decision


Making

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Human  perception  and  decision  making  is  very  subjective  and  hard  to  
measure.  

Motivations  and  attitudes  play  a  major  role  in  how  people  perceive  
what  is  happening  around  them  and  how  they  behave.    Everyone  
interprets  information  differently  and  this  is  why  interpretations  are  
subjective  when  evaluating  the  cause  of  event,  the  degree  of  control  
we  feel  we  have  over  a  situation  and  knowledge  gained  by  past  
experiences.    

People  tend  to  draw  conclusions  based  on  previous  experience.  

Drivers  must  be  trained  to  perceive  potential  danger,  by  learning  to  
perceive  hazard  causing  events  that  they  may  not  have  experienced  
before.  

Perception  consists  of  the  mental  processing  of  information  by  the  
senses.    The  mind  observes  and  processes  making  an  interpretation  
relevant  to  visual  patterns  (templates  or  schemers)  which  results  in  
the  recognition  and  identification  of  potential  hazards.  

These  visual  patterns  are  strongly  influenced  by  what  we  tend  to  
expect  to  see.    For  example,  as  we  drive  down  the  road  things  that  
interest  us  grab  our  attention  like  a  particular  model  or  colour  of  car  
we  may  like  or  want  to  buy.      

Perception  is  also  influenced  by  other  senses  beside  vision  such  as  
hearing,  balance  and  muscle  senses.    These  factors  play  a  large  part  in  
detecting  problems  in  special  hazardous  situations  and  high-­‐
performance  driving,  but  less  so  than  vision  in  routine  driving,  
especially  for  novices.    

Perception limitations

The  driver  is  able  to  observe  and  perceive  only  a  small  fraction  of  the  
information  available  in  the  environment.    This  limitation  plays  a  major  
role  in  hazard  selection  and  how  the  mind  then  starts  to  priorities  and  
effect  recognition  of  different  closing  rates  of  approaching  vehicles  
and  pedestrians.  

Motivation

Emotions,  drives  and  appetites  are  internal  forces  imposing  individual  


to  solicit  gratification  of  individual  requirements.  It  is  this  motivation  
which  influences  behaviour  and  direct  choices.    

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While  motivation  comes  from  within,  it  may  be  closely  associated  with  
external  factors  such  as  individual  incentives  and  disincentives  (eg.,  
Wilde,  1994a)  as  well  as  more  internal  motivators  such  as  personal  
norms  (Parker  et  al.,  1992)  or  “active  caring”  (Geller,  1991).    

In  terms  of  how  motivation  relates  to  driving,  motivations  tend  to  
influence  what  the  driver  chooses  to  do,  as  opposed  to  what  they  are  
able  to  do.    

Skills and experience

If  you  have  never  been  taught  correct  driving  skills  from  the  initial  
stages,  experience  you  gain  over  a  period  of  time  may  not  be  of  
benefit  to  you.  Good  driving  doesn’t  come  naturally  and  it  is  reliant  on  
good  tuition  and  guided  experience  over  a  period  of  time.    In  many  
occasions,  novice  drivers  are  extremely  lucky  to  survive  as  they  build  
experience  both  good  and  bad  in  an  experiential  way,  relying  heavily  
on  trial  and  error  which  can  have  major  consequences  in  hazardous  
situations.  

To  decrease  risk  to  the  novice  driver,  experience  should  be  assisted  by  
encouraging  the  novice  driver  to  provide  a  sound  “margin  for  error",  
while  enhancing  skill  level.    It  is  useful  (wise)  to  encourage  the  novice  
driver  to  strive  to  master  more  difficult  driving  tasks  such  as  those  
required  on  an  extended  trip,  night  driving,  negotiating  different  
terrain  and  conditions.    

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Information processing

Novice  driver  v's  the  experienced  driver  

Taken  from  Drummond,  'A  Review  and  Discussion  of  Issues  Related  to  
Training.'  
Skill  Perception   Novice  driver   Experienced  driver  
   Perceives  non-­‐moving    Generally  interprets  moving  
hazards  being  more   hazards  as  being  more  
dangerous   dangerous  
 Analyses  each  feature    Perceives  recurrent  general  
separately  and  independently,   patterns,  eg.  perceives  a  
therefore  cannot  process  as   pattern  as  a  single  chunk  
much  information   therefore  does  not  have  to  
search  and  integrate  as  much  
Integration    Has  difficulty  in  integrating    
diverse  information  into  
overall  assessment  of  
hazardous  situations.  
Attention    Fails  to  switch  attention    Develops  effective  and  
  flexible  priortising    
 Poor  in  attending  to  relevant    Strategies  therefore  can  
aspects  of  the  driving   switch  attention  rapidly  
environment   between  sub-­‐tasks  
Judgement    Has  difficulty  in  judging  gap    
clearance  and  closure  speeds  
Reaction  times    Slow  for  complex  traffic    Fast  for  complex  traffic  
situations   situations  
Search    Looks  near  the  vehicle.      Looks  further  away  from  the  
Monitors  only  obviously   vehicle  
dangerous  situations   Monitors  potentially  
 Monitors  vehicle  controls  and   dangerous  situations    
uses  mirrors  frequently    Monitors  vehicle  controls  
infrequently  and  uses  mirrors  
 Turns  head  while  changing  
less  frequently  
lanes.  

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Skill   Novice  driver   Experienced  driver  
Car  control    Braking  and  acceleration    Smoother  braking  and  
often  abrupt.   acceleration  
 Slow  recovery  after    Fast  recovery  after  avoidance  
avoidance  manoeuvres   manoeuvres  
Speed    Average  speed  increases    Slows  for  potentially  
during  the  first  year  of   dangerous  situations.  
driving.  
 Fails  to  slow  for  potentially  
dangerous  situations.  
 Shows  a  conscious  
preference  for  speed  over  
safety.  
Confidence    More  likely  to  rate  himself  or    Less  likely  to  rate  himself  or  
herself  as  a  better-­‐than-­‐ herself  as  a  better-­‐than-­‐
average  driver.   average  driver.  
 May  overestimate  the  crash  
risk  in  low  to  medium  risk  
situations  but  underestimate  
risk  of  less  frequent  high  risk  
situations.  
Risks    Seat  belt  used  less  frequently.    
 Drives  closer  to  the  vehicle  in  
front.  
 Underestimates  risks.  
Characteristics  of    Lack  of  thought  about    
deviant   potential  implications.  
behaviour    Feelings  of  repression.  
 Rebelliousness  and  
selfishness.  
  Low  self-­‐esteem  and  regard  
for  civic  responsibility  

Decisions

Decision-­‐making  is  never  ending  in  driving,  as  the  driver  estimates  the  
risks  and  then  determines  a  suitable  course  of  action.    It  is  important  to  
establish  with  the  novice  driver  that  they  form  part  of  the  traffic  scene  
and  that  they  must  make  choices  and  decisions  that  maximise  the  

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safety  of  others  and  themselves  and  these  choices  are  made  
continuously.    

It  is  important  as  a  trainer,  that  you  monitor  whether  the  novice  driver,  
on  approach  to  hazards,  covers  the  brake  pedal  then  slows  down  and  
stops  if  necessary  to  help  their  decision  method.    Early  position  
selection  and  covering  the  brake  pedal  on  approach  to  hazards,  is  a  
practical  way  of  assessing  if  the  novice  driver  has  made  a  decision  to  
avoid  potential  danger.  

How the brain thinks

In  the  conscious  mind,  the  human  brain  thinks  of  approximately  7  to  10  
things  at  once.  

In  the  subconscious  mind,  the  human  brain  thinks  of  approximately  


100  things  at  once.    Things  that  we  are  subconsciously  competent  at,  
are  breathing,  blinking  and  other  thinks  we  do  without  thinking  
consciously.  

How speed effects vision

The  eyes  normally  send  40  complete  new  pictures  per  second  to  the  
brain,  yet,  we  only  observe  7  of  these  pictures.    This  alters  due  to  the  
speed  we  are  travelling  at.  
 Observation  is  best  when  stationary  (100%).  
 At  70  km/h,  visual  acuity  deteriorates  to  about  50%  of  stationary  
awareness.  
 At  100%  km/h,  visual  acuity  deteriorates  to  about  25%  of  stationary  
awareness.  

Mental habits
Attention  of  the  mind    

Training  should  develop  the  novice  driver  to  automatically  become  


‘unconsciously  competent’  at  physical  and  mental  driving  skills.  

The  advantages  of  this  automation  are  that  it  reduces  stress  and  
intense  or  prolonged  concentration,  as  well  as  allows  the  driver  to  
perform  multiple  tasks  simultaneously  without  being  out  of  their  
comfort  zone.    This  allows  the  novice  driver  to  focus  on  and  place  
hazards  in  order  of  priority.    

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When  new  performances  levels  have  to  be  achieved,  conscious  focus  is  
swapped  to  the  new  task.    An  example  of  this  is,  if  a  person  
competently  drives  an  automatic  vehicle  and  decides  to  learn  how  to  
drive  a  manual  vehicle,  the  normal  subconsciously  competent  
observation  skills  and  decision-­‐making  skills  become  impaired.    
Instead,  the  driver  is  driving  within  the  conscious  realm  within  the  
vehicle  learning  to  use  the  clutch  and  change  gears.    This  is  why  you  
must  provide  a  physically  and  emotionally  safe  environment  (comfort  
zone)  that  will  take  the  pressure  away  from  the  driver  until  they  
become  unconsciously  competent.      

Sometimes  it  is  important  to  segregate  physical  and  mental  skills  
during  this  learning  phase,  making  sure  that  the  novice  driver  has  
developed  many  vehicle  control  skills  in  the  subconscious  competence  
before  introducing  enhanced  decision  making  skills  associated  with  
processing  from  scanning,  risk  management  and  calculating  crash  
avoidance  space.  

It  is  important  that  you  focus  the  learner  driver's  attention  on  the  
required  performance,  assisting  the  learner  driver,  when  required,  
with  tasks  that  are  not  automatic.    It  is  important  to  intervene  if  the  
learner  driver  is  not  capable  of  performing  a  task  landing  outside  their  
comfort  zone.  

As  a  training  strategy,  the  learner  driver  should  be  shown  how  to  
rationally  and  practically  select  and  filter  information  so  as  they  can  
switch  their  conscious  attention  in  plenty  of  time,  to  deal  with  new  
events  or  problems  that  require  a  complex  decision.    The  key  factor  
here  is  the  need  to  select  a  speed  at  which  the  novice  driver  can  make  
new  decisions  consciously  without  being  under  pressure.    This  relates  
to  hazard  density,  where  the  more  potential  hazards  need  to  be  
observed  and  decisions  made  and  therefore  the  slower  the  speed  the  
novice  driver  must  drive  in  order  to  compensate.  

Low-­‐risk  driving  (developing  an  in-­‐built  alarm).  

Usually  low-­‐risk  drivers  can  talk  with  passengers  whilst  driving  


competently,  having  no  trouble  in  being  aware  when  to  stop  talking  
and  concentrate  on  the  task  at  hand.    People  with  sound  experience  
have  an  in-­‐built  ‘alarm’  which  alerts  them  to  a  potential  hazard  
whenever  they  are  in  a  new  situation  or  whenever  they  consider  that  
their  response  time  could  be  jeopardising  safety.    

Low-­‐risk  drivers  aim  to  commence  forecasting  events  a  minimum  of  5  


seconds  before  they  occur  which  maximise  their  observation  and  
decision  making  time.    If  their  following  distance  is  not  sufficient  to  
allow  them  to  forecast  potential  hazard  events,  then  they  adjust  speed  
and  position  in  order  to  achieve  this.  

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Utilising  this  training  strategy,  the  instructor  trains  the  learner  driver  to  
calculate  the  "5  second"  distance  at  varying  speeds,  which  shows  how  
distance  increases  with  speed  and  why  it  is  important  to  alternate  
thinking  between  short,  middle  and  long  range  observation.      

This  may  be  done  from  the  passenger  side  so  as  the  novice  driver  is  
under  no  pressure  or  needs  to  think  about  other  factors  in  driving  as  
the  driver  trainer  demonstrates  and  the  novice  driver  verbalises  
technique.  

Optimism  bias    

Psychologists  who  study  the  relationship  between  thinking  styles  and  


behaviour  have  discovered  that  people  who  think  optimistically  
behave  differently  to  those  who  think  pessimistically.    People  who  are  
optimistic  tend  to  be  more  positive  in  the  way  they  think,  believing  
that  they  are  more  in  control  of  their  lives.    In  turn,  they  believe  that  
more  positive  outcomes  will  occur  than  negative  outcomes  for  them  in  
comparison  to  their  peers.  

Normally,  when  optimistic  people  experience  negative  events  they  


tend  to  brush  them  aside,  not  as  failure,  but  more  as  a  temporary  
setback,  most  likely  caused  by  bad  luck  or  unfortunate  circumstances.      

Typically,  optimistic  people  do  not  take  things  personally  if  they  fail,  
instead,  they  tend  to  view  the  failure  as  just  one  incident  and  had  
nothing  to  do  with  their  overall  ability.    Optimistic  people  do  not  tend  
to  spend  a  lot  of  time  on  reflection  after  failure  because  they  still  feel  
that  in  the  future  they  will  still  be  able  to  avoid  any  future  negative  
events.  

Psychologists  argue  that,  as  a  result  of  their  thinking  habits,  optimists  
are  happier  than  pessimists  and  tend  to  make  much  better  progress  
towards  achieving  their  goals.    They  have  a  strong  sense  of  control  and  
disregard  for  failure.  The  negative  side  to  this  is  they  tend  to  take  more  
risks  and  in  turn  this  factor  on  the  road  can  cause  horrific  outcomes.      

Optimistic  people  have  an  exaggerated  sense  of  control,  believing  


nothing  unfortunate  will  happen  to  them.  The  other  person  going  
through  a  stop  sign  illegally  may  be  in  danger  but  if  they  did,  because  
they  have  better  reflexes  and  skills  will  be  able  to  avoid  the  crash.    For  
this  reason  they  do  not  believe  that  they  need  to  be  as  cautious  as  
those  negative  thinking  unskilled  drivers  with  conservative  views  and  
driving  habits.  

Unrealistic  optimism  and  driving  

There  are  links  between  unrealistic  optimism  and  risk  taking  in  driving.  
Unrealistic  optimism  is  common  in  most  drivers.    The  research  of  many  

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road  safety  experts,  often  conclude  with  findings  that  many  average  
drivers  consider  themselves  to  be  of  above  average  and  less  likely  to  
be  involved  in  a  crash  than  their  peers.  

Source:  Framework  of  Driver  Education,  1997  

Following  are  examples  of  thought  processes  that  may  fuel  this  
perception  They  provide  a  guide  to  the  teaching  approach  needed  to  
align  the  drivers'  thinking  more  accurately:  
 'I  learnt  to  drive  in  only  eight  lessons  and  passed  my  test  the  first  
time.'  
 'I  have  good  reflexes  and  so  l  am  more  likely  to  avoid  a  crash.'  
 'I'm  told  driving  is  dangerous  but  I  haven't  crashed.'  
 'I've  driven  in  some  pretty  tough  conditions  and  managed  to  control  
the  car  OK.'  
 'I  see  information  which  says  crashes  are  common  but  I  haven't  
crashed.'  
 'I've  driven  thousands  of  kilometres  and  made  very  few  serious  
mistakes.'  
 'I  see  other  drivers  making  mistakes  all  the  time.'  
 'I  can  guess  which  people  are  most  likely  to  crash  by  the  stupid  
things  they  do.'  
 'I  must  be  less  likely  to  crash  and  if  I  do  crash  it's  move  bad  luck  
than  bad  management.'  

It  is  important  that  part  of  your  driver  training  strategy  addresses  
problems  associated  with  promoting  optimism  bias  views  in  the  
learner  driver.    It  is  also  important  that  when  training  licensed  drivers  
who  display  a  optimistic  view  that  you  show  their  limitations  both  in  
vehicle  control  and  those  relating  to  perception  and  risk  taking.    Your  
training  strategy  must  include  the  recognition  of  failure  and  the  
importance  of  learning  to  reflect  on  this  failure  to  minimise  risk  in  the  
future  from  other  drivers  and  their  own  behaviour.  

Attribution  theory  

Source:-­‐  Framework  of  Driver  Education,  1997  

When  people  explain  what  they  think  caused  an  event,  their  
description  is  based  on  what  may  be  called  their  worldview.    A  
worldview  is  constructed  over  time,  in  response  to  answers  given  to  a  
series  of  questions:  'Why  did  that  happen?'  or  'What  caused  that?'    
Such  a  process  starts  very  early  in  life  and  continues  whenever  
something  new  or  unexpected  is  experienced.  This  world  view  may  
lead  people  to  see  themselves  as  having  caused  either  all  or  part  of  an  

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event,  or  it  may  lead  them  to  see  the  cause  as  being  outside  their  
control.  

Causal  attribution  theory  is  a  psychological  theory  that  argues  that  


people  who  attribute  the  cause  of  an  event  to  factors  outside  their  
control  will  behave  differently  to  those  who  take  all  or  some  
responsibility  for  the  cause  of  those  events.    Taking  responsibility  for  
the  cause  of  an  event  is  called  internalising.    For  situations  that  have  an  
undesired  outcome,  internalising  could  be  described  as  having  a  'my  
mistake  view.  Attributing  cause  to  other  factors,  such  as  other  people  
or  just  bad  luck',  is  called  externalising.  

The  attribution  theory  suggests  that  people  with  a  'my  mistake'  


worldview  will  be  more  cautious  in  risky  situations.    To  avoid  causing  
problems,  they  anticipate  problematic  events.  When  they  make  
mistakes,  they  recognise  the  part  they  play  and  look  for  ways  to  avoid  
repeating  the  mistake.  

People  who  internalise  are  more  likely  to  give  themselves  useful  
feedback  on  their  performance  than  people  who  externalise.  
However,  internalising  in  itself  will  not  guarantee  improved  
performance.    Knowledge  is  necessary,  both  of  the  specific  cause  and  
of  what  may  lead  to  the  solution,  otherwise  the  ''why?'  questions  may  
be  answered  incorrectly.    Hence,  with  the  appropriate  knowledge  and  
skill  and  internal  worldview,  explanations  may  be  explored  and  
improvements  made.    With  an  external  view,  knowledge  is  largely  used  
only  to  provide  excuses.  

Causal  attribution  and  driving  

Source:  Framework  of  Driver  Education,  1997  

The  causal  attribution  theory  presents  itself  as  a  powerful  tool  for  
improving  driver  skill  and,  more  importantly,  driving  behaviour.    
Learning  experiences  should  aim  at  producing,  in  students,  a  world  
view  that:-­‐  
 Recognises  failure  when  it  occurs  and  situations  that  could  have  
resulted  in  failure;  
 Asks  challenging  and  appropriate  Why?'  questions;  
 Seeks  explanations  that  point  to  internal  factors;  
 Provides  achievable  solutions.  

It  is  important  that  the  novice  or  licence  driver  take  ownership  of  all  
events  and  internalises  their  world  view  as  part  of  this  ownership.  

As  a  trainer  how  you  comment  on  potential  danger  can  have  an  effect  
on  whether  the  driver  internalises  or  externalise  the  problem.      

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'Look  out  for  bad  drivers'  can  develop  an  external  view.  

Recognise  where  the  other  driver  can  make  mistakes  and  crash  with  
you,  can  develop  an  internal  view.  The  novice  driver  must  learn  to  
recognise  other  drivers  mistakes  to  be  able  to  internalise.  

Recognise optional responses

Drivers  should  learn  to  describe  optional  courses  of  action  and  how  
much  time  they  have  to  take  this  action  in  response  to  potential  
hazards.    They  should  also  be  able  to  evaluate  which  response  is  more  
appropriate,  discussing  the  reasons  based  on  hazard  priortisation.    It  is  
important  for  them  to  discuss  the  problems  with  inaction.  

Risk  acceptance  

The  driver  should  be  able  to  justify  the  factors  which  shape  their  own  
personal  level  of  risk  acceptance,  discussing  what  level  of  risk  they  
judge  decision  making  by.  

Retry/abort  

If  the  drivers  first  choice  is  not  appropriate,  then  they  must  be  able  to  
quickly  reassess  potential  danger  and  re-­‐alter  course  appropriate  to  
prevent  danger  of  collision.    

Motor  skills  

The  drivers  must  have  competent  psychomotor  skills  in  order  to  
properly  execute  the  intended  action  whilst  the  vehicle  is  under  total  
control.    They  should  be  able  to  verbalise  their  decision  based  on  what  
could  effect  vehicle  control.  

Novice  drivers  risk  acceptance      

Jonah  (1986)  provides  a  good  summary  of  research  on  the  positive  and  
negative  value  (or  “disutility”)  of  risk  for  young  drivers.  He  summarises  
suggested  positive  utilities  such  as:  outlet  for  stress,  impressing  
others,  increasing  stimulation  or  arousal,  taking  control  and  acting  
independently,  opposing  adult  authority,  frustration,  fear  of  failure  at  
school,  and  peer  acceptance.  

Based  on  Finnish  data,  Summala  suggests  that  it  takes  about  50,000  
kilometres  (30,000  miles)  of  driving  “before  a  young  driver  has  
satisfied  his  strongest  extra  motives  and  learnt  to  use  the  car  rationally  
or  as  rationally  as  the  older  experienced  driver:    

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The value of safety

A  competent  driver  who  values  safety,  bases  this  safety  on  


motivations  that  encompasses  the  following:  
 They  highly  value  life,  both  their  own  and  others  as  well  as  property  
in  our  society.  
 They  understand  and  apply  the  road  rules  to  minimise  confusion  by  
their  own  behaviour  with  others  on  the  road.  
 They  understand  what  a  risk  is  and  how  to  priorities  and  protect  
themselves  on  the  approach  to  them.  
 Is  aware  of  the  potential  consequences  of  accidents.  

How to promote safe driving behaviour

The  behaviour  of  drivers  is  seldom  governed  by  altruistic  motives  (ie.  
unselfish  regard  for  others).  Training  should  prepare  drivers  with  an  
attitude  to  preserve  their  own  safety.  

Human  behaviour  is  generally  motivated  more  powerfully  by  self-­‐


preservation.  Therefore,  you  should  aim  to  make  reduced  risk-­‐driving  
strategies  a  personal  motivation  for  survival  (defensive  driving).  

The  world  view  attitudes  to  road  sense  

Attitude    

Attitude  determines  how  knowledge  and  skills  will  be  used.  It  
determines  whether  a  driver  will  be  cooperative  or  competitive  in  
traffic,  whether  he  or  she  will  accept  a  high  level  of  risk  or  put  into  
practice  the  concepts  taught  in  defensive  driving  courses.    

As  a  practice  your  biggest  contribution  to  your  child's  safety  and  


effectiveness  behind  the  wheel  will  be  from  your  example.  Patience,  
courtesy  and  a  willingness  to  improve  will  be  your  greatest  assets.    

The  safety  effects  of  good  driving  skills  appear  to  be  offset  by  
overconfidence  and  increased  exposure  to  risk.    Well  trained  novice  
drivers  become  licensed  sooner  and  drive  more,  in  part  because  of  
their  own  increased  confidence,  but  also  because  their  parents  often  
give  them  more  freedom  to  drive.  

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Hazard perception, risk evaluation, and risk


acceptance

What  drivers  are  able  to  do  and  what  they  choose  to  do  are  two  
different  things.  Knowledge  of  how  to  control  a  car  is  not  as  critical  to  
safety  as  individual  motivation.    Strong  motivation  makes  up  for  weak  
skills  more  so  than  strong  skills  make  up  for  weak  motivation.  Without  
strong  motivation  to  reduce  risk,  advanced  driving  skills  can  lead  to  
more  crashes,  not  fewer.  

Risk  acceptance  is  not  the  same  thing  as  crash  acceptance.  Few  drivers  
will  take  a  risk  if  they  know  it  will  result  in  a  crash.  Instead,  risky  
choices  result  from  poor  risk  perception  and  the  inability  to  detect  
hazards  often  coupled  with  overconfidence.  Good  risk  detection,  good  
risk  evaluation  and  strong  motivation  may  support  each  other.  
However,  if  driver  education  is  to  produce  safer  drivers  it  must  
reinforce  the  individual  and  community  factors  that  positively  
influence  personal  motivation  and  social  responsibility.  

Attention    

Attention  is  meant  to  include  alertness,  arousal,  and  vigilance  that  are  
essentially  'internal'  predispositions  in  respond  to  the  environment.  
Attention  drives  the  searching,  scanning,  and  noticing  that  the  driver  
does.  It  is  assumed  that  attention  is  both  automatic  and  controllable  
by  deliberate  action  of  the  driver,  and  that  the  quality  of  this  control  
can  improve  through  experience.  Critical  factors  in  control  of  attention  
are  dividing  it  over  the  many  driving  tasks  and  switching  the  allocation  
of  attention.  Attention  must  be  distributed  among  different  areas  (eg.,  
ahead  v's.  behind)  and  different  categories  of  objects  or  information  
(eg.,  objects  in  the  road  v's.  instruments)    

It  is  possible  to  be  'paying  attention'  and  still  miss  important  
information  in  the  environment  because  of  scanning  or  other  
detection  or  perception  failures.  Our  model  assumes  that  attention  is  
necessary  but  not  sufficient  for  the  detection  of  visual  targets  and  
other  information  input.    

Alertness

Recognise  effects  of  impaired  states  on  alertness  

Alertness  is  fundamental  to  attention  and  novices  should  understand  


the  range  of  possible  levels  of  alertness  and  be  able  to  identify  the  
internal  states  and  external  factors  that  can  effect  it.  They  should  be  

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able  to  assess  and  recognise  symptoms  of  fatigue,  preoccupation,  and  
substance  effects.  

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Section 5

Evasive Action

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Another car coming head on

 It  is  important  not  to  assume  that  the  other  driver  is  on  the  wrong  
side  of  the  road  because  it  could  be  you.  

 Remember  your  greatest  braking  potential  is  on  a  sealed  road,  so  
reduce  speed  as  much  as  possible  in  case  you  have  to  leave  the  
road.  

 Flash  headlights  to  high  beam  a  short  bursts  as  an  awareness  tool,  
not  a  blinding  tool  and  blow  the  horn  as  well.  

 Look  for  an  escape  to  the  left,  even  if  it  means  leaving  the  road,  
selecting  a  place  where  you  will  not  collide  with  a  tree  or  pole.  

 Do  not  attempt  to  swerve  to  the  right  because  the  other  driver  is  
likely  to  instinctively  swerve  to  the  left  and  even  if  you  miss  that  car  
you  may  hit  following  vehicles.  

Skidding

Remember  there  are  three  types  of  skids,  front  wheel,  rear  wheel  and  
four  wheel.    Unless  you  have  been  trained  to  recognise  the  various  
types  of  skids  as  well  as  trained  to  apply  the  specific  remedy  for  each  
type  of  skid:-­‐  the  best  general  advice  you  can  give  to  a  novice  driver  is  
whatever  you  were  doing  with  the  brake,  accelerator  or  steering  
wheel  when  the  skid  started,  ease  off  gently  and  steadily  and  
undertake  the  following:  

Κ Release  any  braking  or  acceleration  that  has  been  applied.  

Κ Reduce  any  acceleration  that  may  be  the  skid.  

Κ If  the  vehicle  starts  to  oversteer  then  turn  the  steering  wheel  into  
the  skid  being  careful  not  to  oversteer.  
If  the  vehicle  starts  to  understeer  then  it  is  important  to  straighten  the  
wheel  to  regain  traction  and  steering  control.    If  you  still  need  to  brake  
in  order  to  reduce  speed,  it  is  important  to  reduce  the  speed  enough  
so  that  if  you  need  to  turn  you  are  able  to  while  still  maintaining  
traction.    Be  prepared  in  case  the  vehicle  starts  to  oversteer.  

If  you  are  unable  to  regain  control  and  there  is  danger  of  collision  then  
it  is  important  to  brake  heavily  to  stop  the  vehicle  in  case  the  vehicle  is  
in  a  four  wheel  skid.  

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Note:    If  the  vehicle  you  are  driving  does  not  have  ABS  and  you  have  to  
brake  and  steer  around  a  hazard  it  is  import  to  steer  the  vehicle  in  the  
intended  direction  before  applying  an  emergency  braking  technique.  

Foot brake failure

Foot  brake  failure  has  been  very  rare  since  the  mid  1970's  due  to  a  dual  
circuit  braking  system  which  means  two  separate  independent  
hydraulic  systems.    Basically  if  there  is  a  failure  then  whichever  system  
fails  normally  does  not  work  on  all  four  wheels  the  other  system  
should  apply  enough  pressure  to  slow  the  vehicle  down.  

If  the  brakes  fail  the  following  is  the  recommended  procedure:  

 Pump  the  brake  pedal  in  order  to  try  and  increase  hydraulic  
pressure.  

 Apply  the  hand  brake  holding  the  button  in  order  to  gauge  
maximum  brake  potential  before  wheel  lockup.  

 Change  back  to  a  lower  gear  both  in  a  manual  or  automatic  vehicle.  

 Be  prepare  in  case  vehicle  starts  to  weave.  

Brake fade

Brake  fade  occurs  when  the  brakes  have  been  used  excessively,  such  
as  when  going  down  a  mountain  road  or  when  regularly  stopping  
starting  at  high  speeds.    As  the  brakes  heat  up,  it  decreases  brake  
efficiency  which  in  turn  increases  stopping  distance.  

Accelerator sticking

It  is  important  to  remember  that  novice  drivers  when  learning  can  
press  the  brake  and  accelerator  at  the  same  time,  especially  if  they  are  
wear  large  heavy  shoes.  

 If  your  vehicle  has  a  kill  switch  to  shut  down  the  motor  use  it  if  there  
is  danger  of  collision.      

 If  the  vehicle  does  not  have  a  kill  switch  and  there  is  danger  of  
collision  you  must  disengages  the  motor.    

 In  a  manual  car  you  can  depress  the  clutch  pedal  or  knock  the  
vehicle  into  neutral.    (The  motor  will  start  to  over  rev,  so  it  will  be  

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important  to  turn  off  the  ignition  taking  care  not  to  turn  the  key  
back  to  the  steering  lock  position.  

 Remember,  brake  and  steering  efficiency  may  be  effected,  so  be  
prepared  to  come  to  the  assistance  of  the  driver.  

 If  you  are  driving  and  the  accelerator  sticks  then  you  can  turn  off  
the  ignition  taking  care  not  to  turn  the  key  back  to  the  steering  lock  
position.  

 Be  prepared  for  the  steering  to  become  heavy  if  fitted  with  power  
steering  and  the  brake  effectiveness  to  be  reduced.  

 You  can  leave  the  vehicle  in  gear  especially  in  a  manual  where  the  
motor  will  help  with  braking.  

Steering failure

If  the  steering  fails  and  the  vehicle  is  pointing  in  the  direction  you  are  
intending  to  go  and  there  is  no  danger  of  collision,  it  may  be  best  to  
allow  the  vehicle  to  slow  down  naturally  unless  the  hand  brake  
operates  on  the  front  wheels.    If  the  hand  brake  is  used,  it  is  important  
that  you  do  not  lock  up  the  wheels  potentially  causing  the  vehicle  to  
alter  course.    If  the  vehicle  is  not  a  front  wheel  drive  then  you  may  
then  change  back  gears  at  points  where  there  will  be  minimum  motor  
compression  in  slowing.  

If  there  is  potential  danger  of  collision  with  vehicles,  pedestrians  or  
objects  you  will  have  no  choice  but  to  brake  in  an  emergency  and  
provided  that  there  is  no  road  camber  the  vehicle  should  slide  to  a  
stop  in  a  straight  line  wherever  the  vehicle  was  headed.  

Punctures and blowouts

You  have  different  types  of  tyre  blowouts  creating  unique  handling  
reaction  in  the  vehicle  depending  on  whether  it  is  front,  rear  or  
multiple  tyres  have  been  effected.  

Rear  wheel  tyre  blowouts  

The  rear  of  the  vehicle  may  start  to  weave  and  if  practical  you  should  
let  the  vehicle  slow  down  naturally.      

If  you  require  a  quick  stop,  leaving  in  mind  that  the  weight  moves  
forward  under  braking,  the  vehicle  should  stop  in  a  fairly  straight  line.  

Front  wheel  tyre  blowouts  

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Steering  will  become  a  problem  and  if  the  hand  brake  operates  on  the  
rear  wheels  then  if  can  used  by  holding  and  adjusting  the  button  in  
case  the  rear  wheels  start  to  lock.  

If  in  a  front  wheel  drive  vehicle,  do  not  change  down  gears  because  of  
engine  compression.  

If  you  must  brake  to  avoid  danger  collision,  do  it  as  gently  as  possible,  
expecting  the  vehicle  to  alter  course  relevant  to  the  wheels  with  most  
grip.  

The bonnet flies up!

 Look  for  a  gap  under  the  bonnet  to  see  ahead  or  look  out  of  the  
driver's  side  window.  

 Brake  smoothly  and  pull  over  where  it  is  safe  and  practical.  

 Tie  the  bonnet  down  with  wire  or  rope  for  additional  security,  even  
if  it  appears  to  be  OK  after  inspection.  

Broken windscreens

Most  modern  vehicles  have  laminated  windscreens  so  they  do  not  
shatter  from  flying  stones.      

If  the  windscreen  of  an  older  vehicle  was  to  shatter,  then  you  must:  

 Stop  the  vehicle  in  a  safe  position  as  soon  as  practicable,  looking  
out  of  the  side  window  to  improve  visibility.  

 Once  you  have  stopped  it  is  important  to  remove  all  glass  and  if  you  
have  some  adhesive  tape,  it  could  be  used  to  hold  the  glass  in  a  
position  to  make  it  easier  to  remove  without  collapsing  into  the  
vehicle  in  hundreds  of  pieces.  

 You  will  need  to  make  a  decision,  as  to  which  direction  you  will  push  
the  windscreen  and  this  will  be  relevant  to  whether  you  have  a  
sheet  or  rug  to  catch  the  glass.  

 It  is  important  to  remember  that  even  if  you  think  most  of  the  glass  
has  been  removed  when  you  drive  along  you  still  might  get  glass  
particles  in  your  eyes.    For  this  reason,  it  is  important  to  wear  some  
form  of  eye  protection.  

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 It  is  important  to  drive  slowly  with  the  side  windows  up  to  minimise  
the  amount  of  wind  flow,  in  effect,  pressurising  the  cabin  but  you  
must  be  careful  to  not  pop  out  the  rear  window.  

Overheating vehicle

The  most  important  thing  if  the  vehicle  is  overheating,  is  to  stop  the  
vehicle  in  a  safe  place  and  turn  the  engine  off.  

You  should  wait  until  the  motor  cools  down  before  attempting  to  
evaluate  the  cause  of  overheating.    At  no  stage,  while  the  motor  is  hot  
should  you  remove  the  radiator  cap  or  open  the  header  tank  cap.  

If  you  use  a  rag  to  slowly  release  the  radiator  cap  while  the  motor  is  
still  hot  it  important  to  release  cap  in  stages  to  reduce  the  pressure.    
Remember  adding  cold  water  can  cause  hot  metal  to  crack  so  it  is  
advisable  to  continue  running  the  motor  while  you  add  water  
extremely  slowly.  

Fire

If  a  vehicle  catches  fire  it  is  important  that  the  safety  of  passengers  
and  the    community  is  put  first.    If  the  vehicle  runs  on  LPG  then  it  is  
best  to  leave  the  fire  to  be  extinguished  by  professional  fire  fighters.      

If  the  you  have  no  choice  to  put  the  fire  out  then  the  following  factors  
must  be  taken  into  account.  

 Remember  you  must  lift  the  bonnet  very  slowly  trying  to  minimise  
exposure  of  extra  oxygen  to  the  fire.  

 Turn  the  ignition  off  and  if  it  is  an  electrical  fire  and  there  is  no  
danger  from  the  flames,  disconnect  one  of  the  battery  terminal  
leads.  

 Use  an  appropriate  fire  extinguisher.  

 Do  not  use  water  on  petrol  fires.  

 If  you  are  unable  to  gain  access  to  a  fire  extinguisher  then  use  a  rug,  
sand  or  dirt  as  an  alternative.  

Bush fires

The  golden  rule,  if  possible,  is  never  get  caught  in  a  bush  fire.      

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 If  you  are  caught  in  a  bush  fire  and  the  fire  is  about  to  pass  over  you,  
then  it  is  safer  to  stay  inside  the  vehicle.  

 You  should  close  all  windows  and  doors  and  make  the  car  as  airtight  
as  possible  by  closing  or  blocking  the  air  vents.  
Move  the  front  seats  as  far  as  possible  forward,  lying  on  the  back  floor  
with  the  front  seat  angled  slightly  over  you  to  help  protect  you  from  
the  heat.    If  available  cover  yourself  with  a  rug.  

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