You are on page 1of 155

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Introduction

MB / 12811

Course Material
Introduction

- Monroe Brothers Ltd


- Structure of the talk

Principles of Refrigeration

- Carnot efficiency
- Real Efficiency
- Costs

Refrigeration Systems

- Main components
- Cold Box operation

Superconducting RF cavities

- Cooling requirements
- Valve Box & transfer lines
- Control

Other Cooling Requirements

- Cryocoolers
- Economics versus practicalities

MEDSI Shanghai 300-2 Introduction.ppt

Page 1 of 6

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 15 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Introduction

MB / 12811

Background
Over 25 years experience
Pollution control systems

MEDSI Shanghai 300-2 Introduction.ppt

Page 2 of 6

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 15 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Introduction

MB / 12811

Background
20 Years Experience
Pollution control systems
Superconducting magnets
Closed loop helium systems
Low loss cryogenic systems 10 mW
Reaction cooling at 120 kW
Nitrogen for breweries

MEDSI Shanghai 300-2 Introduction.ppt

Page 3 of 6

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 15 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Introduction

MB / 12811

Background
Cryogenics A Range of Applications!

Without
liquid
nitrogen
With
liquid
nitrogen

MEDSI Shanghai 300-2 Introduction.ppt

Page 4 of 6

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 15 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Introduction

MB / 12811

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Where is the other brother(s)?


Founded in 1920 - Shipping
Wound up in 1992
Restarted in 1996

MEDSI Shanghai 300-2 Introduction.ppt

Page 5 of 6

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 15 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Introduction

MB / 12811

Expectations?

MEDSI Shanghai 300-2 Introduction.ppt

Page 6 of 6

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 15 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Introduction
%

% %

(
*

'
*,

'
# +
-

.%

'

/ - # +
* .%

'

(
'

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Overview

!
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Objective
#

'

2 %' $ .%

01

3*

(
#% )

(
4

'

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Bulk Cryogens
$ &

(
'%'

'
'%'

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Helium Liquefiers

(
+

% %

5
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

refrigeration Systems
Helium Refrigeration Systems
1400
1200

Refrigeration W

1000
800
600
400

$ .%

'

Helial LL

L280

L140

Helial ML

'

L70

L1410 / L1610

Helial SL

200

&
6

"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Cryocoolers

&

58
8

0
5 0

29
:

( (

'

&
-

7
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Refrigeration Systems
Helium Refrigeration Systems
1400
1200

Refrigeration W

1000
800
600
400

$ .%

'

Helial LL

L280

Helial ML

L140

L70

Helial SL

'

Cryocoolers

L1410 / L1610

200

&
!

"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Theoretical Performance
,

$ &

8
& )

$ &

'
%

' + %
.%
4

4
4

%'

&
&

+
&

%'
(
+

92

.2

=4

'

8*

8*
.2 .
=
=
92 9
92 9

<
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Theoretical Performance

%'
2

92

.2

.
9
=
=
8* 92 9

8*

.
*

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K
COP =

qC
TC
=
WR TH TC

COP =

qC
4 .3
=
WR 300 4.3

COP =

qC
= 0.015
WR

1
W
= R = 67
COP qC

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

Refrigeration at 4 K

&

MB / 12811

80 K

COP =

qC
TC
=
WR TH TC

COP =

qC
TC
=
WR TH TC

COP =

qC
4 .3
=
WR 300 4.3

COP =

qC
80
=
WR 300 80

COP =

qC
= 0.015
WR

COP =

qC
= 0.376
WR

1
W
= R = 67
COP qC

1
W
= R = 2 .7
COP qC

!
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Strobridge Plot

<6<

*
%
(

%
(

'
8

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Refrigeration Sizing
COPRe al = COPIdeal Percent of Carnot

Re al

qC
TC
=
Percent of Carnot
WR
TH TC
$ .%
&

9 '

9 '

0
5

!>
'

&

'

&

!>

)8

57

8
!

"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Strobridge Plot

<6<

*
%
(

%
(

'
8

5
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Comparison 1969 to 2009


100.0%

Percent of Carnot

10.0%

Strobridge
Air Liquide, Helial Liquefier
Linde L series Liquefier
Linde L series Refrigerator
StirLIN
StirlAIR
Sumitomo GM
Sumitomo PT Single stage
Sumitomo PT Tw o stage
Sumitomo Stirling
Qdrive Accoustic
Cryomech GM
Cryomech PT Single stage
Cryomech PT Tw o stage

1.0%

0.1%
1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

Equivalent Refrigeration (Lowest temperature) Watts


6
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Comparison 1969 to 2009


100.0%

Percent of Carnot

10.0%

Strobridge
Air Liquide, Helial Liquefier
Linde L series Liquefier
Linde L series Refrigerator
StirLIN
StirlAIR
Sumitomo GM
Sumitomo PT Single stage
Sumitomo PT Tw o stage
Sumitomo Stirling
Qdrive Accoustic
Cryomech GM
Cryomech PT Single stage
Cryomech PT Tw o stage

1.0%

0.1%
1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

Equivalent Refrigeration (Lowest temperature) Watts


7
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

Helium Liquefiers
-

MB / 12811

~ 100 Watts

%
3

?7

5 '

&

8
@

A#
A9 '
A2
A ,%

! 0 .%
%
&

7 )8

&

?7

'

'

+
' '4

&
!

"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

Cryocoolers
-

1 watt

%
3

?7

'

A#

8
)8

&

9 '
2
,%
B

?5

&

@
A
A
A
A

MB / 12811

'

!0
&

.%

'

+
' '4

&
;

'

C
<

"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Installed Costs
2 %' *

(
8
.% '

58

D7

D5 )

D 5)

D5)

D!)

D! )

.% '
D

.%

D!

D 65 )

D !5 )
.% '

#% )

D!

D!

D!

%
'
!

"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Basic Principles
'

E
!

2
%

8 '

4%
54

%'
%

$ .%
# +
2 %' &

&

%'

2 %'

&

'
"

!
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons


Technologies

%
'

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Superconductivity

*,

$
'F

'
8

- (
%

5 8

4%

"

!!
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Large Scale Refrigeration Systems


Large Scale Helium Refrigeration Systems
1400
1200

Refrigeration W

1000
800
600

9(
(

400

$ .%

'

Helial LL

L280

Helial ML

L140

Helial SL

'

L70

Cryocoolers

L1410 / L1610

200

&
!

"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Costs

Principles of Refrigeration

4 4
&
&

&

&&

MB / 12811

%'4
%

2
#% ) .%

%'

(
(
(
9
*
(
(
9

!
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Costs

Principles of Refrigeration

4 4
&
&

&

&&

MB / 12811

%'4
%

2
#% ) .%

%'

''
)
'

(
(

%
%'

9
*

(%
% )
1
C

) 9&

(
9

!5
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Costs

%
-

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

*,
H

5 8

2
#% ) .%

D75

%'

'

(
(
(
9
D

D !

)8

D
D

!6
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Low Loss NMR Cryostat

9(
(

&
I *
(

!7
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

Low Loss NMR Cryostat

MB / 12811

2 Helium vessel necks

Magnet

Working inventory of the


liquid helium reservoir

!
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

Low Loss NMR Cryostat

MB / 12811

2 Helium vessel necks

3 Nitrogen reservoir
neck tubes

Working inventory of the


liquid helium reservoir
Nitrogen Screen bore
tube (Full length)

Magnet

Liquid nitrogen
reservoir

Horizontal support for the


Helium Vessel

Horizontal support for the


nitrogen vessel
!<
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

Low Loss NMR Cryostat

MB / 12811

2 Helium vessel necks

3 Nitrogen reservoir
neck tubes
Gas Cooled Screen bore
tube (Half height)
Working inventory of the
liquid helium reservoir
Nitrogen Screen bore
tube (Full length)

Magnet

Liquid nitrogen
reservoir

Horizontal support for the


Helium Vessel and the Gas
Cooled Screen

Horizontal support for the


nitrogen vessel
!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Low Loss NMR Cryostat


+

'

5 '8

!!
<

'

I *'
!
'

3
'

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Costs

%
-

*,

Principles of Refrigeration

$ &$

!
D75

%'

5 '8

5 '8

#% ) .%

I *
$

5 8

$ &$

I *
'

'

D !6

D5

D 5

D !5

6 5 )8

)8

(
(
9
D

D 5

MB / 12811

D6

D 6

D!

D !

)8

D
D

#% ) 3

#% )
I

(
(

!
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Wiggler Magnet
, % &

!
*

%'
8

!0

"
!

"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Wiggler Magnet

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Wiggler Magnet
(

1
E

4 ) F

&
(

&
& ) / *J

'
%
9

'
&

'
%

%
!

"

5
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Costs

%
-

*,

Principles of Refrigeration

$ &$

!
D75

%'

'

D57

(
9
D

D !6

D!

D5

6 5 )8

D !

!6 )8

D6

D 6

D 6

D!

D<
9

3
D75

)8

D 5
D

5 '8

5 '8

#% ) .%

I *
$

5 8

$ &$

I *
'

MB / 12811

D!

)8

D
D

D5

#% ) 3

#% )
I

G*

6
"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

Costs
(

2 %' *

8
.% '

58

#% )

D 65 )

D!

D !5 )

D7

K
.% '

D5 )

D 5)

D5)

D!)

D!

K
.% '

D! )

.%
4

D
-

/4

D!
,+
+

D!
'

% %

D
$ &
GI

(
H

%
'
7

"

&

'

!
%

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Principles of Refrigeration

MB / 12811

!
"

&

'

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Introduction
Introduction

- Monroe Brothers Ltd


- Structure of the talk

Principles of Refrigeration

- Carnot efficiency
- Real Efficiency
- Costs

Refrigeration Systems

- Main components
- Cold Box operation

Superconducting RF cavities

- Cooling requirements
- Valve Box & transfer lines
- Control

Other Cooling Requirements

- Cryocoolers
- Economics versus practicalities

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 1 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Helium Liquefiers

Diamond Light
Source Ltd
MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 2 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Basic Principles
Compressor

Gas buffer
2 to 15 bar A

Pressure
Control
Panel
High
pressure

Warm helium
gas return
Liquefier
Cold Box

Helium two phase flow


& return

Cold helium gas


return

Helium dewar

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Cryogenic system

Page 3 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

Refrigeration at 4K

MB / 12811

~ 100 W

100.0%

TH
qH
10.0%

WR

Percent of Carnot

qC
Strobridge
Air Liquide, Helial Liquefier
Linde L series Liquef ier
Linde L series Ref rigerator
StirLIN
StirlAIR
Sumitomo GM
Sumitomo PT Single stage
Sumitomo PT Tw o stage
Sumitomo Stirling
Qdrive Accoustic
Cryomech GM
Cryomech PT Single stage
Cryomech PT Tw o stage

1.0%

0.1%
1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

TC

COP =

qC
TC
=
WR TH TC

1
W
= R = 67
COP Ideal qC

Equivalent Refrigeration (Lowest temperature) Watts

W
1
= R = 300
COP Re al
qC

Strobridge Plot
MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 4 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

700

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

Compression
Turbine expansion
Joule Thomson
Efficient heat exchangers

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 5 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

Compression
Turbine expansion
Joule Thomson
Efficient heat exchangers

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 6 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

Compression
Turbine expansion
Joule Thomson
Efficient heat exchangers

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 7 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

Compression
Turbine expansion
Joule Thomson
Efficient heat exchangers

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 8 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

Compression
Turbine expansion
Joule Thomson
Efficient heat exchangers

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 9 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

Compression
Turbine expansion
Joule Thomson
Efficient heat exchangers

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 10 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Turbine Expansion
Valve
Isenthalpic
Constant enthalpy
Ideal Turbine
Isentropic
Constant entropy

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 11 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Turbine Expansion
Valve
Isenthalpic
Constant enthalpy

80.0
13.8 bar A

70.0

10.0 bar A

60.0
Temperature K

Ideal Turbine
Isentropic
Constant entropy

Turbine Expansion

50.0 K

50.0
40.0

40.1 K

6.0 bar A

3.0 bar A

35.8 K

30.0

1.15 bar A
18.0 K

20.0
10.0

11.7 K

9.2 K
0.0
8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

13.0

14.0

15.0

Entropy kJ / kg.K

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 12 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K
Turbine expansion
Temperature drop from to 50.0 K to 40.1 K 9.9 K
Temperature drop from to 18.0 K to 11.7 K 6.3 K
Compared to a total drop from 300 K to 4 K

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 13 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

Temperature K

300

Heat Exchangers

250
200
150
100
Turbines
50
0

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 14 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K
Turbine expansion
Temperature drop from to 50.0 K to 40.1 K 9.9 K
Temperature drop from to 18.0 K to 11.7 K 6.3 K
Compared to a total drop from 300 K to 4 K
Joule Thompson expansion
High pressure gas at 13.8 bar A and 5 K
Expansion to 1.3 bar A 4.5 K 63% liquid & 37% vapour

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 15 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K
Pressure Enthalpy Chart
100.0

Joule
Thompson
Expansion

n Curve
JT Inversio

Pressure bar A

10.0

1.0
-10

10

20

30

50

60

10.0 K

8.5 K

7.0 K

6.0 K

4.80 K

5.195 K

4.22 K

3.50 K

0.1

40

Enthalpy kJ / kg

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 16 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K
Pressure Enthalpy Chart
100.0

Joule
Thompson
Expansion

n Curve
JT Inversio

Pressure bar A

10.0

1.0
-10

10

20

30

50

60

10.0 K

8.5 K

7.0 K

6.0 K

4.80 K

5.195 K

4.22 K

3.50 K

0.1

40

Enthalpy kJ / kg

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 17 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K
Pressure Enthalpy Chart
100.0

Joule
Thompson
Expansion

n Curve
JT Inversio

5.0 K & 13.8 bar A


to
1.3 bar A (4.5 K)

Pressure bar A

10.0

1.0

37.2 % vapour&
62.8 % liquid

-10

10

20

30

50

60

10.0 K

8.5 K

7.0 K

6.0 K

4.80 K

5.195 K

4.22 K

3.50 K

0.1

40

Enthalpy kJ / kg

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 18 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

Temperature K

300

Heat Exchangers

250
200
150
100
Turbines
50
0

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 19 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration at 4 K

11

Pressure Enthalpy Chart

The impact of a
100 W heat
load on the
vapour return
line

100.0

n Curve
JT Inversio

10.0

Pressure bar A

5.6 K & 14.0 bar A


to
1.3 bar A (4.5 K)

Notes

1.0

37.2 % vapour&
62.8 % liquid

10

20

30

40

50

60

10.0 K

8.5 K

7.0 K

6.0 K

4.80 K

5.195 K

0.1

4.22 K

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

3.50 K

46.9 % vapour&
53.1 % liquid

-10

Enthalpy kJ / kg

Page 20 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Refrigeration & Liquefaction


Refrigeration - Gas returned cold

Watts

40

70

35

65

30

60

25

55

20

50

15

45

200

10

40

100

35

Refrigeration g / s

Helial 2000

Refrigeration W

600
500
400
300

0
0

30

60

90

120

150

0
0.00

1.00

3.00

4.00

30
5.00

Liquefaction g / s

Liquefaction l / hr

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

2.00

Turbine Flow Rate g / s

Liquefaction - Gas returned warmed Liquid litres per hour

Page 21 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Pressure Control Panel


PCV

PCV
Differential pressure control valve
Holds the HP line at 15 bar above the LP line
Increase Inventory
Absolute pressure control valve
Holds the LP line at 1.05 bar by drawing gas from the buffer
tank
Reduce Inventory
Absolute pressure control valve
Vents gas from the HP line when the LP line is high
MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 22 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Third Turbine

Follow the lines of


constant entropy

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 23 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Third Turbine
Pressure Enthalpy Chart
100.0
.0
14

ba

,
rA

4 .0

.0
14

K
ba

5 .0

.0
14

,
rA

A
ar

,6

.0

.0
14

A
ar

rsion
JT Inve

,7

.0

Curve

Pressure bar A

10.0

1.0
-10

10

20

30

50

60

10.0 K

8.5 K

7.0 K

6.0 K

4.80 K

5.195 K

4.22 K

3.50 K

0.1

40

Enthalpy kJ / kg

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 24 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Third Turbine
Pressure Enthalpy Chart
100.0
.0
14

ba

,
rA

4 .0

.0
14

K
ba

.0

.0
14

5
A,

A
ar

,6

.0

.0
14

A
ar

rsion
JT Inve

,7

.0

Curve

Pressure bar A

10.0

1.0
-10

10

20

30

50

60

10.0 K

8.5 K

7.0 K

6.0 K

4.80 K

5.195 K

4.22 K

3.50 K

0.1

40

Enthalpy kJ / kg

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 25 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Third Turbine

Follow the lines of


constant entropy
Install a turbine
before the JT valve

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 26 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

Third Turbine

MB / 12811

Notes
15

Follow the lines of


constant entropy
Install a turbine
before the JT valve

Third turbine
(+water brake
circuit)

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 27 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Third Turbine
Pressure Enthalpy Chart
100.0
.0
14

ba

,
rA

4 .0

.0
14

K
ba

.0

.0
14

5
A,

A
ar

,6

.0

.0
14

A
ar

rsion
JT Inve

,7

.0

Curve

Pressure bar A

10.0

1.0
-10

10

20

30

50

60

10.0 K

8.5 K

7.0 K

6.0 K

4.80 K

5.195 K

4.22 K

3.50 K

0.1

40

Enthalpy kJ / kg

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 28 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Third Turbine
JT Expansion

Pressure Enthalpy Chart

5.0 K & 13.8 bar A


to
1.3 bar A (4.5 K)

Turbine + JT
Expansion

.0
14

ba

,
rA

4 .0

.0
14

K
ba

5 .0

.0
14

,
rA

A
ar

,6

.0

.0
14

A
ar

rsion
JT Inve

,7

.0

Curve

10.0

Pressure bar A

37.2 % vapour &


62.8 % liquid
599 W

100.0

1.0
-10

10

30

40

50

60

10.0 K

8.5 K

7.0 K

6.0 K

4.80 K

5.195 K

0.1

4.22 K

3.50 K

14.4 % vapour &


85.6 % liquid
816 W

20

Enthalpy kJ / kg

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 29 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Sensitivities
Contamination
Incorrect pressures on the turbines
Low pressure or high temperature on the JT valve
High pressure drop on the return gas line
High temperature on the return gas

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 30 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Compressor
Compressor
Oil Removal System
Gas Management
Panel
Second Compressor
Redundancy
Maintenance
scheduling
MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Diamond Light Source Ltd


Page 31 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Buffer Tank
Either Small buffer regulate the LP / HP line pressures
Or

Large buffer regulate the LP / HP line pressures


plus hold the entire helium inventory
2000 liquid litres
2 bar A to 15 bar A
115 m

Diamond Light Source Ltd


MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 32 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Adsorbers

80 K Adsorber
Single or parallel
20 K Adsorber
Normally single

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 33 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Refrigeration Systems

MB / 12811

Finish

MEDSI Shanghai 302-2 Refrigeration at 4K.ppt

Page 34 of 34

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Introduction
$

%
&*

&

)
&
)

(
& $ +
&
- &

"

&

,
$ +.
&

(
&

&
(

&

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Technologies Superconductivity

(/

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Technologies Suerconductivity

RF Cavities

1E+11

(/

Qo

1E+10

Qo Padamsee

Qo

1E+09

Interpolation

1E+08
1E+07
1E+06
1E+05
1E+04
1

10
100
Temperature K

!!
#

&

'

1000

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Technologies Suerconductivity

(/

'

&

&

!01%,

2 & (3 (

~ 9 :

&

~ ;
!
$

&

'

'

&

~ 2 & (&,
'

&

& ) (

4 567 8
&

'

9 *:

&

&

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Technologies Suerconductivity

(/

)
&

9 :

<
9

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Large Scale refrigeration Systems


Large Scale Helium Refrigeration Systems
1400
1200

Refrigeration W

1000
800
600

3)
)

400

&

%,

(
%

&

Helial LL

L280

'
5

Helial ML

L140

Helial SL

L70

Cryocoolers

L1410 / L1610

200

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Basic Principles
(

>
&

&

<
9<

: (

& (

%,
& $ +
2 & ( '

& '

&

2 & (

%,
& '

'

=
#

&

'

& (
& (
)

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Process Control
(

>
&

&
% '
9<

: (

<
9<

& (

%,
& $ +
&

&
2

&

&

2 & ( '
9< ?

- &

@
#

&

'

%,
& '
< +

&

&

) (
9< ?

& (
& (

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Process Control
(

>
&

&
% '
9<

: (

<
9<

& (

%,
& $ +
&

&
2

&

&

2 & ( '
9< ?

- &

6
#

&

'

%,
& '
< +

&

&

) (
9< ?

& (
& (

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Process Control
(

>
&

&
% '
9<

: (

<
9<

& (

%,
& $ +
&

&
2

&

&

2 & ( '
9< ?

- &

%,
& '
< +

&

&

) (
9< ?

& (
& (

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Process Control - Linde Valve Box

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Process Control
<)
%
<) ?
%
A

<)

(<

&

&
(

<& "-

!
"

#$

#
##

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Process Control
<)
%
<) ?
%
A

<)

(<

&

&
(

<& "-

!
"

#$

#
##

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Process Control

!
"

#$

#
##

!
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Transfer Lines - Justification

&

%,

& (

&

%,

& (

&

%,

&

%,

&&

&&

:B(

:B(

:B(

:B(

&

? )

:B(

&

? )

:B(

&
& & '

? )

9
#

&

'

:B(

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Construction Details
Vacuum jacket

( &
$ && '

&

Low
conductivity
spacer

Vacuum space
(Multilayer
superinsulation)

Flow
pipe

Heat Load of 1 W / m
5
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Multiflow Transfer Lines


Liquid
helium

Cold helium
gas return

Liquid nitrogen
cooled screen
Liquid nitrogen
path
=
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Multiflow Transfer Lines


%,

& ( & '

2 & (
%,

?<
E
5 <
&,
& (F
&,

(
&

&
)
& (

& '

E
&
)
&,

! <
&&)
& (

(
F
)
& (

" %
EBB'''

@
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Multiflow Transfer Lines

53 <

&

& & '

:B(

& '

9:B(

& '

9 :B(

&
"

6
#

&

'

!3 <

3 <

:B(

:B(

9 :B(

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Cryogenic Valves
2

&

- &
&

(
4

& & )
&
8

& '

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Welded Transfer Line Connection


Pump out port

Vacuum space
(Multilayer superinsulation
and sorb pump)

Long thermal path length,


thin wall, low heat load

Flow pipe

Welded joint sleeve


Flow pipe closing weld

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Vacuum Insulated Pipeline Technology

Joint section

Typical 6 metre
pipe length

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Bayonet Couplings

?(<

&

' &&F
% '

&
& '

& & )
&
8
!!

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Modular Tranfser Line Systems

!
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Multiflow Couplings

Liquid helium

9
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Multiflow Couplings

Liquid helium
Cold helium gas return

5
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Multiflow Couplings

Liquid helium
Cold helium gas return
Liquid nitrogen

=
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Multiflow Couplings

Liquid helium
Cold helium gas return
Liquid nitrogen

@
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Multiflow Couplings
#

&

(<

&
*

6
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Pressure Drop

- &
&
& '
& '
&

'

m
G=
A

P f G2
=
L 2 .dh

>

P f 16 m 2
=
L 2 2 .dh5
A

&

& '
&

'

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Pressure Drop - Friction Coefficient

f = max(

!!
#

&

'

0.316 64
)
,
Re 0.25 Re

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Pressure Drop

- &
&
& '
& '
&

'

m
G=
A

P f G2
=
L 2 .dh

>

P f 16 m 2
=
L 2 2 .dh5
A

&

& '
&

'

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Pipeline Sizing

)
,

&

9 I

"
1
1$
1
%(

&

!!
#

&

'

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Two Phase Flow

& '

B
<

%,
%,

& )

==6

* B (J

@ 56

* B (J

& '

& '
3

& & '

& )

&

<) (

55

6 I

!
#

>

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Two Phase Flow


Nitrogen Vapour Quality
100%

)&,

90%

80%

& (

Quality by Volume

70%
0.0 bar G

60%
50%

2.0 bar G

40%

5.0 bar G

30%

10.0 bar G

20%

3 &
<)

&)
L'

&

15.0 bar G

10%
0%
0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Quality by Mass
9
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Two Phase Flow

&& (
5

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Lockhart Martinelli - Two Phase Flow Pressure Drop


&

&
&,

&
DP
X tt =

DP

&

DP
DL L

DL L
9

& '

&

3 < &

% (

% (

3 < &

3 < &

3 < &

<)

&

'

&
=

& '

% (

DP
=
DL TP

A
#

>

% (

3'

DP
DL V

&

%,

DL V

&

X tt + C X tt + 1
X tt

DP
DL L

'

&

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Control Valves

' E

&& & '

$ &&

&

>& <
2

&

&
,

& ) & <


A

&

&

&

9
/

A
+ (
1(
& 'F ( +
1 ( + & 'F (

&

'

( ( ( & '
)

& '

: *

F(
F( +
@

&

F
&

, & )
, & )

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Control Valves

Cv = Q

G
P

Kv = Q

G
P

A
D > &&
0

(J B

&

'
'

<

B(

'

6
#

&

'

<

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Control Valves

& '

&

'

& & '


2

&

)
&) &

&)

'

%,

!
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Control Valves
Valve Lift Flow Curve

100%

Linear Trim

90%

Equal Percentage Trim

80%

Trim Capacity

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Opening
!
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

Cryogenic Valves

% '

Valve Trim Characteristics

&
1.00

'
&

(
& <

0.80

Valve Kv

>
&

MB / 12811

(
&

0.60

0.40

0.20

& <& )

0.00
0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Valve Lift

: * ?>F ' A &


!
#

&

'

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

MB / 12811

Return Line Pressure Drop


(

<&
>

&

&
% '
9<

& $ +
< ?

&
O

<

&

&

2 & ( '
9< ?

- &

!
#

&

&
%

&

'

& (

%,
& $ +

& &
@< ?

: (

<
9<

%,
& '
< +

&

&

) (
9< ?

& (
& (

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Superconducting RF Cavities

!!
#

&

'

MB / 12811

!!

!"
)

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Introduction
Introduction

- Monroe Brothers Ltd


- Structure of the talk

Principles of Refrigeration

- Carnot efficiency
- Real Efficiency
- Costs

Refrigeration Systems

- Main components
- Cold Box operation

Superconducting RF cavities

- Cooling requirements
- Valve Box & transfer lines
- Control

Other Cooling Requirements - Cryocoolers


- Economics versus practicalities
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 1 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Large Scale refrigeration Systems


Large Scale Helium Refrigeration Systems
1400
1200

Refrigeration W

1000
800
600
400

Helial LL

L280

Helial ML

L140

L70

Helial SL

Data from the internet

L1410 / L1610

Cryocoolers

200

Liquefaction duties factored to estimate the Refrigeration power


MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 2 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Cryocoolers

Cooling powers up to 1.5


W at 4 K
40 W at 45 K
Enabling technology
HTSC leads
Zero Loss - cryostats with zero boil-off
Dry Systems - no inventory of cryogens
Sumitomo SRDK-415D
Image courtesy of Sumitomo Heavy Industries
Cryogenics Group

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 3 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

Refrigeration at 4K

MB / 12811

~1W

100.0%

TH
qH
10.0%

WR

Percent of Carnot

qC
Strobridge
Air Liquide, Helial Liquefier
Linde L series Liquef ier
Linde L series Ref rigerator
StirLIN
StirlAIR
Sumitomo GM
Sumitomo PT Single stage
Sumitomo PT Tw o stage
Sumitomo Stirling
Qdrive Accoustic
Cryomech GM
Cryomech PT Single stage
Cryomech PT Tw o stage

1.0%

0.1%
1.E-01

1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

TC

COP =

qC
TC
=
WR TH TC

1
W
= R = 67
COP Ideal qC

Equivalent Refrigeration (Lowest temperature) Watts

W
1
= R = 5000
COP Re al
qC

Strobridge Plot
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 4 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Costs

Equipment
Operating costs

Cryocooler

Helium Refrigerator

1 W to 1.5 W

500 W

$ 40 k to $ 65 k

$ 2 M to 4 M

$ 25 k pa

$ 700 k pa

$ 50 k per W

$ 5 k per W

$ 15 k pa per W

$ 2 k to $ 4 k pa per W

Bulk Cryogens

Specific Costs
- equipment
- refrigeration

$ 100 k to $ 200 k pa per W

Specific Costs
- equipment

$ 20 k per l / hr

- liquefaction

$ 0.50 to $ 2.00 per litre

$ 10 to $ 20 per litre

Design the cryostat to match the capacity of a cryocooler


Avoid the equipment cost of a Liquefier
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 5 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

Principles

Four steps

MB / 12811

Notes

Compression
Cooling
Expansion
Heating

Regenerator

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 6 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Principles

Step 2

Step 1
Warm gas
exits the
regenerator

Step 3

Step 4
Warm gas
enters the
regenerator

Reject
heat QH

Regenerator

Regenerator

Regenerator

Thot
Regenerator

Thot

Compress
the gas
Work WH

Tcold
Cold gas
enters the
regenerator

Cold gas
exits the
regenerator

Tcold
Absorb
heat QC
Expand the
gas
Work WC

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 7 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Regenerator - Ideal Properties

Perfect insulator along the length


High thermal conductivity at the surface
High thermal capacity
Large surface area
Low flow impedance

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 8 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Subcomponents

Compressor (air cooled or water cooled)


Regenerator
Displacer
Coldhead

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 9 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Cryocooler Types

Stirling Cycle

Gifford McMahon

Phase shift between


the compressor and
the cold displacer

Valves on the
coldhead to
sequence the cold
displacer movement

Efficient
Reliable
Low vibration

Effective
Remote
compressor

Compressor close
to the coldhead

Vibration

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Pulse Tube
Cooler
Orifice
instead of
cold displacer.
No cold moving parts.
Effective
Remote
compressor
Low vibration
Low
maintenance
Vertical
axis for the
coldhead
?

Page 10 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Two Stage Cooler Capacity Curves


Cryomech PT407
5.50
0W

Second Stage Temperature K

5.00

20 W

30 W

37 W
1.0 W

4.50
0.7 W
4.00
0.5 W
3.50
0.3 W
3.00

2.50

2.00
25.0

0.0 W

30.0

35.0

40.0

45.0

50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

First Stage Temperature K


MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 11 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Two Stage Cooler Capacity Curves


Cryomech PT407
5.50
0W

Second Stage Temperature K

5.00

20 W

30 W

37 W
1.0 W

4.50
0.7 W
4.00
0.5 W
3.50
0.3 W
3.00

2.50

2.00
25.0

0.0 W

30.0

35.0

40.0

45.0

50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

First Stage Temperature K


MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 12 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Two Stage Cooler Capacity Curves


Cryomech PT407

0W
20 W

30 W

37 W
1.0 W

0.7 W

0.5 W

0.3 W

0.0 W

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 13 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Two Stage Cooler Capacity Curves


Cryomech PT407

0W
20 W

30 W

37 W
1.0 W

0.7 W

0.5 W

0.3 W

0.0 W

23 W at 48 K and 0.65 W at 4.2 K


MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 14 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Cryocoolers versus Helium Liquefiers


Cryocooler

Liquefier

Equipment Cost

Liquefier

$ 40 k Liquefier

Infrastructure

Cryostat mounting $ 40 k

$ 1 000 k

Dewar

TOTAL

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

$ 80 k

Page 15 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

$ 50 k

Transfer lines

$ 100 k

Valve Box

$ 100 k

Infrastructure

$ 200 k
$ 1 500 k

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Zero Loss and Cryogen Free

Zero Loss

Cryogen inventory
Coldhead recondenses cryogens

Cryogen Free

No cryogen inventory
Coldhead connects directly to the system

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 16 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Advantages of Cryocoolers

Zero Loss
Independent of cryogen supply
Cryogen Free
Reduced fabrication cost
Reduced pressure vessel coding requirements
Simplified pressure relief
So what is holding back the applications?
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 17 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Technical Challenges

Limited power
Thermal links
Point heat loads
Magnet quenching
Cryocooler maintenance & loss of performance
Lack of countercooling
HTSC leads
Undercooling (? zero loss systems only)
Vibration
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 18 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Cryocoolers

Cooling powers up to 1.5 W at 4K


40 W at 45 K
HTSC leads
Cryostats with zero boil-off
Systems with no inventory of cryogens

Sumitomo SRDK-415D
Images courtesy of Sumitomo Heavy
Industries
Cryogenics Group
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 19 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Typical Load Map of 4K-GM


(50Hz)
4K-GM Typical Load Map (50Hz)

RDK-415D
RDK-408D2
RDK-305D
RDK-205D
RDK-101D

8.0
4W

7.0

2nd Stage Temp. [K]

5W

6.0
0.3W

5.0

0.2W

0.6W

4.0

1W

0.4W

0.7W

1.5W

0.5W
0.1W

0.2W

0W

3.0

0W
0W

2.0
20.0

0W

25.0

0W
0W

20W

30.0

35.0

4W

30W

15W
0W
0W
0W
40W0W
20W

3W

5W
3W

40.0

1W

45.0

2W
60W

80W

40W

50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

1st Stage Temp. [K]


20

Typical Load Map of 4K-GM


(60Hz)
8.0

7.0

RDK-415D
RDK-408D2
RDK-305D
RDK-205D
RDK-101D

4K-GM Typical Load Map (60Hz)

4W

2nd Stage Temp. [K]

5W

6.0

0.3W

5.0

4.0

0.2W
0.7W

0.6W
1.5W
0.4W

1W

0.5W

0.2W
0W
0W

3.0
0W
0W

2.0
20.0

0.1W

0W
0W

25.0

40W

20W

20W

0W
0W 0W
0W

30.0

20W1W
40W

35.0

2W
6W
4W
60W

40.0

3W

5W

4W
40W

45.0

80W

50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

1st Stage Temp. [K]


21

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Cryocoolers

Cooling powers up to 1.5 W at 4 K


40 W at 45 K
HTSC leads
Cryostats with zero boil-off
Systems with no inventory of cryogens

Cryomech PT410

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 22 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Cryocoolers for HTS

Useful cooling
between from
20 K upwards
Cryomech
Dry systems
or
Zero Loss
(wet systems)
Other suppliers

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 23 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Cryogens, Cryoolers & HTS Applications


Cryogen coolant:
Easier to design and
build than a dry system

Below 60 K
Warmer than this, the
useful performance of
HTSs is disappearing.

Unfortunately
nature has not given us
a working cryogen
between
40 K and 60 K
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Argon

Oxygen

Neon
Hydrogen

10.00

Helium
Pressure bar A

Useful working temperature of


the currently available HTS:
Above 20K
Ccryocoolers are providing
useful cooling powers;

100.00

1.00
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Nitrogen
0.10

0.01
Temperature K

Page 24 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Wiggler Magnet

Four two stage cryocoolers


2 radiation screens
Recondensing helium
3 W at 4.2 K

Image courtesy of Diamond Light Source Ltd


MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 25 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Wiggler Magnet
Cryocooler Design
Principle:
Go for broke!
If the heat loads exceed
the cryocooler capacity then
remedial work is VERY
difficult.
The design has to minimise
the heat loads without
countercooling
Image courtesy of Diamond Light Source Ltd
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 26 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons


Costs

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Superconducting RF
Cavities
(3 Cavities)

Low Loss NMR


Magnet
Small

Low Loss NMR Magnet


Large

Wiggler Magnet

350 W

15 mW

150 mW

3W

20 cc / hr

200 cc / hr

4 300 cc / h

$ 7.50 per litre

$ 30 per litre

$ 15 per litre

$ 7.50

$ 30 million pa !

$ 5 700 pa

$ 26 000 pa

$ 280 000 pa

$ 30 000

$ 50 000

$ 180 000

Electricity

4 kW

6.5 kW

26 kW

Electricity

$ 6 300 pa

$ 10 200 pa

$ 41 000 pa

Maintenance

$ 10 000 pa

$ 13 500 pa

$ 46 000 pa

Total

$ 16 000 pa

$ 24 000 pa

$ 90 000 pa

Heat load
Evaporation rate
Bulk liquid helium
Cryocoolers

Transfer lines $ 200 000

$ 4 000 000 plus

Refrigerator
Electricity

200 kW

Electricity

$ 320 000 pa

Maintenance

$ 80 000 pa

Total

$ 400 000 pa
Refrigerator

$ 50 000 pa
Bulk

Bulk / Cryocoolers

Cryocoolers (Refrigerator)

Noise - Reliability of Supply


MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 27 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Technology
Isolation
Level
control

2 000 l dewar

Wiggle
r
Labyrinth

Level control

Wiggle
r

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 28 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Technology
Isolation
Level
control

2 000 l dewar

Wiggle
r
Labyrinth

Compressor
suction

Batch Filling
Level control

Gas monitoring
Wiggle
r

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 29 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Liquid nitrogen shield


minimises the
quantity of liquid
helium for the
cooldown
Print date 14 Oct 2012
Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Technology
Isolation
Level
control

2 000 l dewar

Wiggle
r
Labyrinth

Compressor
suction

Level control
Gas monitoring
Wiggle
r

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 30 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Cost Evaluation
Transfer lines from a liquefier or dewar batch filled from the
liquefier

Transfer lines to Liquefier

Transfer lines

100 m

$ 150 k

Other equipment

$ 50 k

Total Equipment
Cost

$ 200 k

Running Costs
Helium consumption
Cryocoolers

Cryocoolers

4 litres / hr at $ 1.50 per litre


Electricity, maintenance,
water

$ 180 k

$ 50 k pa
$ 90 k pa

Other Considerations
Real marginal cost of liquid helium
Convenience of factory test, site test commissioning a unit with cryocoolers
MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 31 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Introduction
Introduction

- Monroe Brothers Ltd


- Structure of the talk

Principles of Refrigeration

- Carnot efficiency
- Real Efficiency
- Costs

Refrigeration Systems

- Main components
- Cold Box operation

Superconducting RF cavities

- Cooling requirements
- Valve Box & transfer lines
- Control

Other Cooling Requirements

- Cryocoolers
- Economics versus practicalities

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 32 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Monroe Brothers Ltd

Cryogenics for Synchrotrons

Cryocoolers

MB / 12811

Finish

MEDSI Shanghai 301-3 Cryocoolers.ppt

Page 33 of 33

Monroe Brothers Ltd 2012. Please do not reproduce without the permission of the author.

Print date 14 Oct 2012


Cryogenics for Synchrotrons