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TLID207C Shift a

load using manually


operated equipment
Learner Guide
Contents
What this Learner’s Guide is about ........................................ 1
Planning your learning ........................................................... 2
How you will be assessed ...................................................... 4

Section 1............................................................................................. 5
Assess risks arising from the relocation of a load .................. 5

Section 2........................................................................................... 25
How do you plan a load relocation and relocate loads?....... 25

Additional resources ....................................................................... 39

Feedback on activities .................................................................... 41


TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

What this Learner’s Guide is about

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  about  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  shift  
loads  using  manually-­‐operated  mechanical  equipment,  including  
assessing  the  risks  associated  with  relocating  the  load,  planning  the  
relocation  process  and  carrying  out  the  relocation  with  the  aid  of  the  
equipment  in  accordance  with  the  plan.    

Persons  achieving  competence  in  this  unit  will  need  to  fulfil  all  of  the  
relevant  state/territory  OHS  regulatory  requirements  concerning  the  
safe  lifting  and  handling  of  a  load  using  manually-­‐operated  load-­‐
shifting  equipment.  It  should  be  noted  that  the  use  of  the  term  'SWL'  
(Safe  Working  Load)  is  under  review  by  Standards  Australia  and  may  
be  replaced  in  the  future  by  the  term  'Rated  Capacity'.  

The  Elements  of  Competency  from  the  unit  TLID207C  Shift  a  load  using  
manually-­‐operated  equipment  covered  in  this  Learner’s  Guide  are  
listed  below.  
Assess  risks  arising  from  the  relocation  of  the  load  
Plan  load  relocation  
Relocate  load  

This  unit  of  competency  is  from  the  Transport  and  Logistics  Training  
Package  (TLI07).  
 

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 1


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Planning your learning

It  is  important  to  plan  your  learning  before  you  start  because  you  may  
already  have  some  of  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  are  covered  in  this  
Learner’s  Guide.  This  might  be  because:  
• you  have  been  working  in  the  industry  for  some  time,  
and/or  
• you  have  already  completed  training  in  this  area.  

Together  with  your  supervisor  or  trainer  use  the  checklists  on  the  
following  pages  to  help  you  plan  your  study  program.  Your  answers  to  
the  questions  in  the  checklist  will  help  you  work  out  which  sections  of  
this  Learner’s  Guide  you  need  to  complete.  

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  written  with  the  idea  that  learning  is  made  more  
relevant  when  you,  the  learner,  are  actually  working  in  the  industry.  
This  means  that  you  will  have  people  within  the  enterprise  who  can  
show  you  things,  discuss  how  things  are  done  and  answer  any  
questions  you  have.  Also  you  can  practise  what  you  learn  and  see  how  
what  you  learn  is  applied  in  the  enterprise.  

If  you  are  working  through  this  Learner’s  Guide  and  have  not  yet  found  
a  job  in  the  industry,  you  will  need  to  talk  to  your  trainer  about  doing  
work  experience  or  working  and  learning  in  some  sort  of  simulated  
workplace.    

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ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Section 1: Assess risks arising from the


relocation of a load

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. define  manual  handling  and  explain  its  
importance  to  the  worker  in  a  warehouse  
situation?        
2. understand  the  importance  of  Regulations  
and  Codes  of  Practice  applicable  to  shifting  
materials  safely?        
3. assess  risks  arising  from  relocation  of  
various  loads  (size  up  a  load)?        
4. demonstrate  the  six  steps  to  manually  
shifting  materials  safely?        
5. describe  lifting  equipment  used  in  
transport  and  distribution  (warehousing)  
Industries?        

Section 2: How do you plan a load relocation


and relocate loads?

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. calculate  the  safe  working  load  of  a  sling?        
2. plan  a  load  relocation?        
3. check  your  plan  for  compliance  with  
workplace  practices  and  procedures?        
4. follow  the  relocation  plan?        
5. co-­‐ordinate  team  lifting  tasks?        
6. set  down  and  check  load?        

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 3


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

How you will be assessed

Assessment  of  this  Unit  of  Competency  will  include  observation  of  real  
or  simulated  work  processes  using  workplace  procedures  and  
questioning  on  underpinning  knowledge  and  skills.  It  must  be  
demonstrated  in  an  actual  or  simulated  work  situation  under  
supervision.  

You  will  be  required  to:  


• describe  manual  handling  operations  undertaken  in  the  
warehouse  
• demonstrate  correct  techniques  for  shifting  materials  
safely  
• demonstrate  planning  load  relocation  and  load  relocation.  

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ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Section 1

Assess risks arising from the


relocation of a load

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 5


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

The  need  to  assess  (judge)  risks  arising  from  shifting  materials  

Common  materials  shifting  hazards  and  how  to  minimise  them  

Identifying  and  demonstrating  the  safe  and  correct  methods  for  


shifting  materials  safely  

The  importance  of  correct  manual  handling  to  the  worker  in  the  
warehouse  

Lifting  equipment  that  can  be  used  

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ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

How do you assess risks arising from relocation


of a load?

What is manual materials handling?

Shifting  materials  safely  may  make  up  the  majority  of  the  work  the  
storepeople  do  in  a  warehouse.  

A  large  proportion  of  materials  shifting  may  be  done  manually,  


depending  on  how  your  warehouse  operates.  

Manual  material  handling  is  defined  as:  

‘any  activity  requiring  the  use  of  force  exerted  by  a  person  to  lift,  push,  
pull,  carry  or  otherwise  move,  hold  or  restrain  any  person,  animal  or  
thing’.  

The  main  methods  used  are:    


• pushing,  such  as  pushing  a  drum  
• carrying,  such  as  carrying  a  carton  of  stock  
• lifting,  such  as  lifting  a  box  up  onto  a  shelf  
• reaching  or  holding,  such  as  placing  or  passing  stock  onto  
higher  shelving  
• small,  frequent  tasks  (repetitious)  such  a  keyboard  entries  
or  loading  small  stock  items  from  a  shelf  onto  a  pallet  from  
one  position.    

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 7


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 1: Injuries arising from manual handling

What percentage of workplace injuries are caused by manual


handling?

Place a tick in the space that you think is the correct answer to this
question.

Percentage 

5% ?

10% ?

20% ?

33% ?

50% ?

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

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ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Using  safe  and  correct  methods  to  shift  materials  will:  


• save  time  
• reduce  or  remove  stresses  and  strains  on  your  body  
• prevent  injury.  

How do you identify the correct goods?

There  are  many  small  steps  making  up  the  process  of  risk  assessment  
of  a  load  relocation  job.    

Firstly,  you  need  to  make  sure  you  have  identified  the  correct  goods  or  
materials  to  be  shifted.  Always  make  sure  you  are  looking  at  the  right  
load.  Check  your  product  or  stock  numbers  carefully.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 9


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 2: Stock identification methods

What is the most common way of identifying stock items in your


warehouse?

Please write or draw eight different stock identification codes/labels


and describe the stock they refer to. Check your answers with your
trainer.

Stock code or Description of stock item


label

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ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

What makes up load relocation risk assessment


and why is it important?

What  is  a  hazard?  

A  hazard  is  ‘a  source  of  potential  loss  or  danger’.  In  other  words,  it  is  
an  accident  waiting  to  happen.  It  is  up  to  everyone  involved  in  the  
workplace  to  recognise  hazards  and  fix  them  before  the  accident  can  
happen.  In  particular,  this  is  the  employer’s  responsibility.  This  rule  is  
the  basis  of  a  safe  and  healthy  workplace.  

This  is  done  is  by  following  these  steps:  


• risk  identification  
• risk  assessment  
• risk  control.  

What is a risk?

A  risk  is  ‘the  possibility  of  suffering  harm  or  loss’.  This  means  doing  
something  that  is  likely  to  cause  some  sort  of  damage  or  injury  (harm  
or  loss).    

However,  harm  or  loss  might  not  happen  at  that  particular  time  or  the  
injury  might  not  be  immediately  obvious.  This  is  quite  often  the  case,  
especially  with  back  injuries,  which  tend  to  develop  over  time  and  with  
repetition  of  activity;  for  example,  from  frequent  twisting  and  turning.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 11


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 3: List common warehouse hazards

Can you think of some examples of manual handling hazards and


risks in a warehouse? You should think about the many activities in
a warehouse as well as the types of material (goods or stock) being
handled.

List your ideas of hazards and risks:

Hazards Risks

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

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_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

_____________________ _______________________

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

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ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

The  hazards  and  risks  you  face  will  change  from  place  to  place.  As  you  
are  moving  around  from  section  to  section  (or  business  to  business),  it  
is  important  to  be  constantly  on  the  lookout  for  hazards.  

If  you  are  entering  a  new  situation  with  products  and/or  equipment  


that  are  new  to  you,  it  is  absolutely  essential  that  you  get  training  on  
these  items.  

The  risk  of  injury  can  be  reduced  or  removed  by:  
• doing  tasks  in  new  ways  that  remove  the  need  for  lifting  
and  carrying  
• ensuring  that  tasks  beyond  your  ability  are  only  attempted  
with  help.  Use  teamwork  and/or  mechanical  aids.  

What safe methods can be used for manual


materials handling?

The  key  to  safe  manual  materials  handling  is  in  the  way  you  carry  out  
the  tasks.  Tasks  can  be  made  safer  by:  
• reducing  lifting  and  lowering  forces  
• avoiding  bending,  twisting  and  reaching  
• reducing  pushing,  pulling,  carrying  and  holding.  
 
Parts  of  these  problems  can  be  overcome  by  job  redesign.  This  is  
largely  a  matter  for  management.  You  can  help  by  suggesting  ideas  to  
your  OHS  Committee  or  supervisor.    
 
Job  redesign  can  reduce  the  risk  to  you  by:  
• modifying  (changing)  the  object;  for  example,  making  
smaller  packages  
• modifying  the  workplace  layout  (the  area  you  actually  
work  in)  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 13


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

• rearranging  materials  flow;  for  example,  reducing  


distances  travelled  
• performing  different  (and  less  risky)  actions,  movements  
and  forces  
• using  mechanical  assistance  (this  is  covered  in  a  later  
section)  
• use  of  team  lifting;  for  example,  working  together  to  share  
(and  reduce)  the  burden.  

 
Adjustable work heights. Store heavier and frequently A simple lever and wheels avoids
used items at waist level. stooping and reduces effort.

Page 14 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 4: Improving manual handling

What do you think are some of the ways to improve your manual
handling methods and reduce risks to yourself and others?

List your ideas here:


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Discuss your thoughts with your trainer or supervisor, in a group


session if possible.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 15


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

You  must  be  able  to  accurately  assess  all  the  risks  involved  with  a  
particular  load  relocation  task.  This  includes  risks  to  yourself,  the  load  
and  any  other  materials  on  your  relocation  route.  You  will  only  become  
good  at  assessing  risks  with  practice.  If  you  are  in  any  doubt,  ask  for  
help!  Always  adopt  a  careful  attitude.  

How  do  you  size  up  the  load?  

Estimate  the  weight  of  the  load  before  lifting  by:  


• asking  your  trainer    
• checking  for  a  weight  tag  
• pushing  or  lifting  one  corner  of  the  load.  

Always  test  the  weight  of  the  load  before  attempting  to  lift  it.  Many  
injuries  are  caused  by  trying  to  lift  a  load  that  is  much  heavier  than  
expected.  

When  you  know  the  weight  you  will  also  have  a  good  idea  of  the  
centre  of  gravity.    

If  the  load  seems  to  heavy  or  difficult  to  balance,  don’t  lift  it.      

You  also  need  to  consider  the  effect  that  relocating  part  of  the  load  
will  have  on  the  original  load  base.    

We  have  all  seen  a  cartoon  character  remove  a  can  from  the  bottom  of  
a  pyramid  display  in  a  grocery  store.  Sometimes  the  pile  stays  up,  
defying  gravity,  but  more  often  the  cans  go  everywhere.  That  is  a  very  
obvious  example.  You  will  deal  with  load  relocations  that  are  far  more  
subtle.  

You  must  also  think  about  the  contents  of  the  load.    

Different  load  contents  have  different  behaviour  and  must  be  treated  
accordingly.  For  example,  liquids  behave  very  differently  to  solids  
when  being  moved.    

Dangerous  or  hazardous  materials  require  special  handling  that  is  the  
subject  of  regulations  and  workplace  codes  of  practice.  

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ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 5: Manual handling regulations and codes of practice

What regulations apply to the handling of dangerous or hazardous


goods?

Please list them:


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Do you know where to locate copies of these regulations in your


workplace?

Yes  No 

If not ask your trainer.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 17


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

In  most  instances  of  safely  shifting  materials  that  you  will  undertake,  
you  are  the  person  who  will  make  the  assessment  of  the  risks  arising  
from  relocating  that  load.      

You  are  also  the  person  most  likely  to  suffer  from  a  miscalculation.  

The  six  steps  in  lifting  materials  safely  are  as  follows.    
1. Size  up  the  load  (described  in  detail  above).  

2. Position  your  feet  by:  


− making  sure  they  are  close  to  the  load  
− making  sure  your  feet  will  not  slip  
− not  lifting,  if  you  feel  unsteady.  

3.   Take  a  secure  grip  by:  


− positioning  hands  diagonally  
− using  your  whole  hand  
− keeping  your  arms  bent.  

4.   Keep  your  back  straight.  

5.   Position  head  and  arms  and:  


− keep  your  head  and  chin  tucked  in  
− keep  the  arms  close  to  the  body.  

6.   Use  the  muscles  in  your  legs  to  lift,  not  the  muscles  in  your  back.  

The  correct  method  of  lowering  a  load  is  very  similar  to  the  above  rules  
for  lifting,  except  done  in  reverse!  

Page 18 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 6: Use safe methods for shifting materials

This activity is divided into two parts. It is important that you work
through these in order and review your progress on completion of
each part. Refer to the feedback section at the end of this guide.

Part one

Go to a work area with your supervisor or trainer who will identify


three loads that you will be required to shift safely in Part Two.
Assess all the risks arising from lifting those three loads. Explain to
your supervisor or trainer, in your own words, the thought
processes that you are going through while you make your risk
analysis.

Part two

Under supervision, apply manual handling techniques to the three


situations described below which are to be set up by your trainer.

1. Lift a box not exceeding 60 cm on any side and weighing


between 9 & 12 kg. The box is to be raised from floor level to
bench height.

2. Move a 20 litre drum of liquid over a distance of 15 metres.

3. Remove a container (bag, box, bin or tin) of weight in the range


of 4 to 6 kg. The container is to be removed from a shelf at
about head height and moved to a nearby bench.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 19


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

What manual handling aids and equipment are


used in a warehousing organisation?

Manual  handling  aids  are  generally  defined  as  small  hand-­‐operated  


devices  which  assist  in  the  movement  and  relocation  of  loads.  

They  are  designed  to  provide  assistance  to  the  user.  

They  help  you  to  remove  or  reduce  the  stresses  that  your  body  suffers  
when  carrying  out  manual  handling  tasks.  

When  planning  or  changing  a  warehousing  operation,  organisations  


should  include  manual  handling  needs  in  the  design  of  the  structure.  
That  is,  the  way  tasks  are  carried  out  should  be  studied  to  see  if  there  
is  a  better,  safer  way  of  doing  them.  

Aids  and  equipment  to  improve  manual  handling  can  be  quite  simple  
and  include:  
• safety  stands  
• adjustable  bench  heights  
• ramps  
• roller  conveyors.  

You  should  use  an  aid  to  avoid  actions  that  are  hazardous  to  you.  Aids  
will  remove  or  reduce  the  risk  to  you  when  carrying  out  tasks  that  
involve  bending,  twisting  and  carrying.  

The  most  common  types  of  aids  provide  you  with  leverage.  This  
increases  the  force  that  you  can  apply  with  a  reduced  amount  of  
effort.  Levers  can  come  in  many  forms,  as  shown  in  the  examples  on  
the  next  page.  

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How do you use manual handling aids and


equipment?

It  is  now  time  to  observe  and  practice  the  correct  use  of  manual  
handling  aids  and  equipment  in  your  workplace.  

The  rules  that  you  need  to  apply  when  using  these  aids  are:  
• Understand  the  principle  involved;  e.g.  leverage  helps  you  
to  take  full  advantage  of  the  equipment.  
• Know  how  the  item  actually  works.  
• Use  the  right  aid  for  the  job  at  hand.  
• Check  that  the  aid  is  correctly  maintained  and  in  good  
repair.  
• Carry  out  the  task  to  the  best  of  your  ability.  
• Remember  that  just  because  you  have  a  mechanical  
advantage  does  not  mean  that  you  should  over-­‐exert  
yourself  by  trying  to  do  more.  
• Get  help  to  move  the  load  onto  the  device;  e.g.  when  
sliding  a  drum  onto  a  trolley  or  lifting  a  heavy  box  down  
from  a  shelf  to  place  it  on  a  trolley  jack.  
• Position  the  device  where  it  is  easy  to  reach,  especially  if  
there  are  a  number  of  items  to  be  moved.  Aim  to  avoid  
repetition,  especially  when  the  job  involves  twisting  and  
bending  movements.  

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Activity 7: Observe the use of manual handling aids


Tour your workplace with your trainer and look for the available
equipment being used for manual materials handling.

Identify the correct use of handling aids and try to decide if the best
measures are being used for the tasks that you see.

Jot down your comments below and discuss them with your trainer,
preferably in a group discussion. Your comments should be based
on what you have learnt from this Learner’s Guide up until now.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 23


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Activity 8: Using manual handling aids and equipment

Under supervision, safely and correctly use four manual handling


aids and items of equipment commonly used in the workplace. The
items to be used should be normally found in your workplace. They
will be selected by your trainer.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 24 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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Section 2

How do you plan a load relocation


and relocate loads?

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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Planning  a  load  relocation  task  

Carrying  out  the  task  and  checking  that  the  task  has  been  completed  
to  the  relevant  workplace  standards  

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Planning a load relocation

You  will  need  to  plan  the  relocation  of  the  stock  to  the  correct  site.    Go  
to  the  new  site  and  check  exactly  where  and  how  the  relocated  load  is  
to  be  placed.  Check  all  documentation  to  ensure  that  you  have  correct  
stock  and  have  the  correct  place  for  the  new  location.    

You  will  need  to  consider  all  aspects  of  shifting  materials  safely,  
including  planning  the  route  for  your  relocation.    You  must  also  assess  
all  the  risks  associated  with  the  route  you  are  planning  to  use.    
Wherever  possible,  use  a  mechanical  aid.  

Ask  yourself  these  questions  when  you  are  planning  to  relocate  a  load:  
• Where  are  you  relocating  the  stock  to?  
• Which  route  is  the  quickest?    
• Is  this  route  the  safest  (taking  account  of  protrusions,  
width,  height,  packages  or  pallets  in  aisles,  fragile  goods  
along  the  way)?  
• How  will  you  place  the  load  in  the  new  location?  
• Are  you  adding  the  load  to  an  existing  load?  
• How  will  the  existing  load  be  affected?  
• Have  you  checked  the  points  of  balance  and  total  resulting  
load  weight?  
• Can  you  do  the  job  alone  or  do  you  need  help?  
• Which  load  shifting  equipment  will  you  use?  

For  each  task  you  will  need  to  make  your  assessment  by  close  
observation  and  identification  of  the  stock  or  materials  to  be  moved,  
the  actual  relocation  site,  the  route  to  that  site  and  the  manual  
handling  procedures  most  suitable  to  the  task.    When  you  have  
observed  and  considered  all  these  elements  you  need  to  plan  your  
relocation.  

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Lifting using ropes, slings and chains

Whenever  you  are  using  ropes  slings  or  chains  to  lift  a  load  you  need  to  
know  the  SAFE  WORKING  LOAD  or  SWL  of  each  piece  of  equipment.  

For  a  new  piece  of  equipment,  under  normal  conditions,  the  SWL  will  
be  the  WORKING  LOAD  LIMIT  or  WLL,  as  specified  by  the  
manufacturer.    The  WLL  should  be  displayed  on  any  rope,  sling  or  chain  
you  are  using  for  lifting.  

It  is  your  responsibility  to  check  the  SWL  of  your  equipment  which  can  
vary  from  the  WLL  because  of:  
• wear  
• damage  
• knots  that  reduce  the  strength  of  a  lifting  rope  by  50%  
• angles  it  is  illegal  to  sling  a  load  with  an  angle  over  120  
degrees  
• hitches  that  can  reduce  the  lifting  strength  by  20  to  50%.  

Equipment  for  lifting  has  a  safety  factor:  


• Slings  used  to  support  people  ..................................................... 10  
• Fibre  slings  (webbing  and  round  types) ......................................    8  
• Fibre  rope  slings............................................................................    6  
• Wire  rope  slings ............................................................................    5  
• Alloy  chain  slings...........................................................................    4  

The  working  load  limit  is  equal  to  the  breaking  load  divided  by  the  
safety  factor.  

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Activity 9: Safe working loads

Explain the following two terms in your own words:

Working load limit


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Safe working load


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Collect 3 slings from your workplace and fill in the table below:

Type of sling Safe working load

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 29


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Types of sling

You  need  to  choose  the  right  type  of  sling  for  your  load.  Chain  is  very  
strong  and  durable  but  can  damage  a  soft  load;  natural  fibre  rope  
slings  fray  easily  and  should  not  be  used  on  loads  with  sharp  edges.  

These  are  the  properties  of  various  types  of  lifting  sling:  
• natural  fibre  rope  slings  
− easily  damaged  by  cuts,  chemicals,  damp,  heat  and  sunlight  
− need  packing  to  protect  against  sharp  edges  
− should  be  dried  out  naturally  
• synthetic  fibre  rope  slings  
− can  stretch  40%  before  breaking-­‐the  snap  and  recoil  can  cause  
serious  injury.  
− can  be  damaged  by  cuts,  chemicals,  heat  and  sunlight  
• synthetic  fibre  webbing  slings  
− these  include  double  eye  slings,  endless  slings  and  slings  fitted  
with  metal  end  pieces  
− the  outer  sleeve  should  be  made  of  the  same  material  as  the  
inner  fibre  so  that  internal  damage  and  wear  is  not  obscured  
− can  be  damaged  by  cuts,  chemicals,  heat  and  sunlight  
• flexible  steel  wire  rope  slings  
− are  strong  light  and  durable  
− require  the  use  of  gloves  
− can  be  damaged  by  stretch,  water  (rust),  chemicals  
− wire  rope  clips  or  bulldog  clips  must  never  be  used  to  make  
lifting  slings  
• chain  
− long  lasting,  not  damaged  by  sharp  corners,  heat,  water  and  
most  chemicals  
− expensive  and  heavy;  can  mark  loads  –  needs  to  used  with  
padding  
− if  SWL  is  hard  to  see,  you  can  calculate  it  using  the  formula:  
diameter  x  diameter  x  10  =  SWL  in  kilograms  
− if  you  are  sure  that  the  chain  is  alloy  chain  grade  T  or  8,    
SWL  in  kilograms  =  diameter  x  diameter  x  30    
− you  can  shorten  chain  using  a  grab  hook  or  a  clutch  hook.  

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Safety of slings

You  are  responsible  for  the  equipment  that  you  use,  so  when  using  any  
lifting  equipment:  
• check  that  the  slings  are  marked  with  a  readable  WLL  or  
SWL  tag  
• do  not  use  hand  spliced,  untested  slings  
• do  not  use  bulldog  grips  
• if  you  find  that  the  sling  has  been  damaged,  remove  it  
from  the  working  area  
− check  with  the  manufacturer  to  see  if  it  can  be  repaired  
− if  it  cannot  be  used,  cut  it  up  and  discard  it  
• inspect  slings  before  every  use  
• keep  a  sling  register  and  record:  
− inspections  (a  thorough  inspection  should  be  done  every  3  
months  with  a  check  with  a  full  safe  working  load)  
− repairs    
− other  relevant  information  such  as  prolonged  exposure  to  
heat,  dampness.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 31


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Activity 10: Sling safety register

Start your own sling safety register.

List 5 slings that you use in your workplace, their safe working load
and any observations you make upon close inspection of the sling.
An example has been provided to guide you.

No. Type of sling SWL* Observations

1 wire rope sling 0.57 length = 1.5 m no stretch

very slight rust

no broken wires or kinks

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Lifting using specialised machinery

Other  methods  of  lifting  loads  include:  


• Forklift  machinery  
• cranes  
• hydraulic  tailgates  
• conveyors.  

Operation  of  this  type  of  equipment  may  require  a  separate  license  or  
certificate  of  competency.  

How do you load unusual cargo?

This  section  gives  some  general  points  on  loading  unusual  cargo.    

The  Load  Restraint  Guide  will  give  detailed  regulations  about  each  type  
of  cargo.    

If  you  are  moving  unusual  cargo  you  need  to  study  the  regulations  and  
follow  the  guidelines  exactly.  

You  need  to  take  care  in  preparing  goods  to  be  placed  on  the  vehicle.  
Wherever  possible  goods  should  be  packed  into  cases  or  on  pallets  or  
in  secure  bundles.  This  makes  loading  and  securing  on  the  vehicle  
easier  and  safer.  

Most  of  the  types  of  cargo  dealt  with  here  will  also  need  to  be  
secured,  protected  or  restrained  in  some  way.  

Containers    

When  placing  a  load  in  a  container  the  general  rules  apply:  


• Heavy  goods  should  be  spread  evenly  over  the  floor  area.  
• Light  goods  should  be  placed  on  top  of  heavy  goods.  
• If  the  container  is  not  full,  the  load  must  be  secured  within  
the  container  to  prevent  any  movement  during  
transportation.  

Most  containers  are  built  to  ISO  standards  and  have  corner  castings  
for  lifting  and  for  attaching  to  twist-­‐locks  on  specialised  container  
carriers.    

Remember  that  an  empty  container  rides  higher  than  a  full  one.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 33


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TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity  11:  Planning  load  relocation  

Use this planning checklist to make sure that you have all the
information you need and have considered all risks associated with
shifting materials and relocating loads. You may like to photocopy
these sheets and use them for several load relocation tasks. If you
are shifting materials with a team, you can complete the checklist
together.

Load relocation checklist Answer

How will you identify the


stock you are relocating?

What quantities are you


relocating?

Are there any hazards and


safety regulations covering
the handling of this stock?

Where are you taking the


load?

Have you observed the exact


location?

Which route is the quickest?

Are there any safety hazards


along the way?

How will you avoid or


minimise hazards?

Does the load fit along the


route?

How will you lift the load?

Page 34 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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Load relocation checklist Answer

Do you need any


equipment?

How will you carry the load?

How will you place the load


in the new location?

Are you using a sling?

What is the SWL?

Is your equipment in good


working order?

Can you do the job alone or


do you need help?

Who will help you?

Are you adding the load to


an existing load?

How will the existing load be


affected?

How will you minimise the


effect of relocation on the
exiting load and ensure the
safety of the combined load?

Does this plan comply with


workplace practices and
procedures?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 35


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TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Ask your trainer to check the plan and give you feedback and
suggestions before you perform the task.

Write your trainer’s suggestions here:


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Incorporate your trainer’s suggestions into the relocation plan.

Page 36 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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Relocating the load

Put  your  plan  into  action  and  follow  the  steps  you  have  outlined.    You  
should  not  need  to  make  any  adjustments  to  your  relocation  plan  if  
you  have  considered  everything  carefully  beforehand.    

Since  you  are  taking  responsibility  for  the  task,  you  should  make  sure  
that  all  activities  are  performed  with  due  care  whether  you  are  
working  alone  or  with  a  team.  In  particular,  make  sure  that  your  
manual  handling  techniques  are  followed  correctly.  

If  you  are  working  with  a  team,  make  sure  that  each  team  member  
understands  the  plan  and  the  correct  procedures  for  lifting,  carrying  
pulling,  pushing  and  setting  down.    Make  sure  you  have  a  set  of  agreed  
instructions  for  each  of  the  movements  you  are  making.    Talk  the  team  
through  the  plan  and  the  instructions  you  will  be  calling  to  them.  

Follow  the  exact  route  that  you  have  selected.    Make  sure  you  have  
clearance  beforehand,  especially  if  other  people  are  performing  similar  
tasks  in  the  same  area.  

When  you  have  set  the  goods  down  in  their  new  location,  check  the  
stability  from  all  angles  and  consider  pressures  or  incidents  that  may  
affect  the  stability  of  the  load.    Check  that  the  relocated  goods  comply  
with  workplace  regulations.  

Make  sure  that  you  report  any  changes  to  the  plan  or  to  the  condition  
of  the  goods.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 37


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TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 12: Performance checklist for load relocation

When you have shifted the load and set it down, check through the
following items:

Did you: 

• use the correct lifting, lowering, carrying, pulling or


pushing techniques?

• select appropriate load shifting equipment?

• check equipment for safety, good condition?

• report damaged equipment?

• apply and co-ordinate team lifting tasks if appropriate?

• follow the planned route?

• set down the goods without damage to goods,


personnel or equipment?

• check the stability of the relocated goods?

• check the relocated goods for compliance with


workplace procedures?

• report any damage to goods or variance from


expected outcome?

• return equipment to correct storage area?

Page 38 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


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Additional
resources

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 39


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TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Publications:  
• Ackerman  K.B.  Practical  Handbook  of  Warehousing,  Van  
Nostrand  Reinhold,  New  York  
• Lindkvist  R.G.T  Handbook  of  Materials  Handling,  Ellis  
Horwood  Ltd,  Chichester,  UK  1985  
• Tomkins  &  Smith  The  Warehouse  Management  Handbook,  
Megraw  Hill  Book  Company,  USA  
• Occupational  Health,  Safety  &  Welfare  Regulations,  1995  
• Occupational  Health,  Safety  and  Welfare  Act,  1986.  
Regulations  and  Approved  Code  of  Practice.  Manual  
Handling  No2  1990  
• Workplace  Health  &  Safety  Handbook,  Occupational  Health  
&  Safety  Commission,  1992  
• Understanding  Manual  Handling,  Occupational  Health  &  
Safety  Commission  
• Young  Workers  and  Manual  Handling  -­‐  Issues  for  Employers,  
Occupational  Health  &  Safety  Commission  
• Manual  Handling  -­‐  Health  and  Safety  Issues  for  Women  
Workers,  Occupational  Health  and  Safety  Commission  

Videos:  
• Manual  Handling  -­‐  Safetycare  Series  
• Recognition,  Evaluation  &  Control  of  Hazards  -­‐  Safetycare  
Series  
• Slips,  Trips  and  Falls  -­‐  Safetycare  Series  
• An  easy  guide  to  manual  handling  -­‐  Avoiding  back  strains  
&  pains  -­‐  Workplace  Video  Productions  

Page 40 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Feedback on
activities
The responses provided in this section are suggested responses.
Because every workplace is different, your responses may vary
according to your specific workplace procedures, the equipment
available and the nature of the business.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 41


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 1: Injuries arising from manual handling

What percentage of workplace injuries does manual handling


cause?

Percentage 

5% ?

10% ?

20% ?

33% ? 

50% ?

The actual statistic is one in every three, or 33%.

This is a significant amount when you think of it in relation to the


large number of manufacturing jobs where workers are constantly
involved with machinery. The main objective is to get you to think
more about that statistic of one out of every three workplace
injuries being caused by manual handling.

Page 42 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 3: List common warehouse hazards

Some of the hazards and risks that you might have thought of are:

Hazard Risk

Heavy objects Muscular sprains and strains

Items with sharp or rough Cuts, abrasions and punctures.


edges

Hazardous substances like Burns, poisoning, cancer.


acid, alkaline, radioactive
material

Animals Kicks, bites, scratches.

Small, frequent movements Swelling of ligaments or joints.

Unnatural movement, such as Fatigue, aches & pains, sprains


bending reaching, twisting & strains

Awkward posture with little or Sprains, strains, fatigue,


no freedom increased blood pressure

Vibration Feeling loss, reduced blood flow

Static loading and physical Fatigue, aches & pains,


exertion increased blood pressure

Activity 4: Improving manual handling

Many ideas to improve manual materials handling are presented in


the Manual Handling Approved Code of Practice. You can review
these when you read this reference.

Some of the ideas that you might have considered to improve your
manual handling methods are:
• plan the movement before you lift, carry, hold, push, etc.
• stand close to the load
• bend your legs, not your back - keep your back straight
• apply a firm grip, keep the load close to your body
• don’t jerk the load; move or lift it smoothly
• use your feet to turn, don’t twist your body

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 43


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

• avoid pulling a load - pushing allows you to apply your body


force
• arrange your workstation to ensure that frequently used items
are in easy reach
• avoid reaching down and behind if at all possible
• use any available support
• vary tasks to rest specific muscles
• use mechanical aids or get assistance (team lifting)
• prepare areas for receipt of goods beforehand.

Activity 6: Use manual materials handling techniques

Part one

As you consider all the risks associated with each of the three
loads you will find that a checklist would be very useful.

Create a checklist and discuss it with your trainer; ask for


suggestions.

Incorporate these suggestions in your final checklist.

Part two

Check list for carrying out manual handling tasks:

Did you: Yes No

1. Plan each task?

2. Check weights and size to assess if the object


was within your abilities?

3. Obtain personal assistance if beyond your


abilities?

4. Use mechanical assistance - trolley, cart, steps


(for high level object)?

5. When lifting, place your feet close to the


object, bend at the knees, (not your back) and
get a firm grip on the item?

6. Use appropriate protective equipment; i.e.


gloves?

7. Ensure that the distance to move the object

Page 44 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

was not excessive if you decided to carry the


object?

8. Prepare the space to receive the object prior to


moving it?

Activity 7: Observe the use of manual handling aids


During your tour of the workplace the things that you should be
looking for include:

• Are the tasks being carried out in a safe manner; are the rules
previously covered in this Learner’s Guide being applied?
• Are suitable protective devices being used as necessary, e.g.
gloves, breathing filters, helmets, safety boots, etc?
• Are manual handling aids being used? If not, could an aid
provide the worker with mechanical advantage? If aids are
being used, are they right for the job, serviceable and used
correctly?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 45


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009 ADELG1004
TLID207C Shift a load using manually-operated equipment

Activity 8: Using manual handling aids and equipment


This Learner’s Guide cannot be specific about the type of manual
handling aids that you use in your workplace. However, the general
things that you should be thinking about and doing when using
these aids are:

• choosing the right aid for the task at hand


• make sure that the aid is serviceable
• knowing how to use the aid correctly
• using the aid to gain maximum advantage, e.g., placing it as
close as possible to the load
• using any necessary additional items to assist you, e.g., using a
rope and pulley to lift a heavy item onto a trolley, or using
protective equipment.

Activity 9: Safe working loads

The working load limit is the manufacturer’s recommended limit for


that sling when in good condition and used properly.

The Safe Working Load is the load limit for that sling taking into
account:
• wear and tear
• knots
• hitches
• angles.

Page 46 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1004 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L April 2009