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TLID1007C  
Operate  a  forklift    

Armstrong’s  Driver  Education  


 
Learner  Guide  
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Page 2 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Contents
What this Learner’s Guide is about ........................................ 2
Planning your learning ........................................................... 3
How you will be assessed ...................................................... 6

Section 1............................................................................................. 8
Before you drive the forklift .................................................... 8

Section 2........................................................................................... 16
Types of forklifts and attachments ....................................... 16

Section 3........................................................................................... 52
Forklift safety........................................................................ 52

Section 4........................................................................................... 66
Driving the forklift ................................................................. 66

Additional resources ....................................................................... 94

Feedback on activities .................................................................... 96

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 1


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

What this Learner’s Guide is about

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  about  the  skills  and  knowledge  required  to  
operate  a  forklift,  including  checking  forklift  condition,  driving  the  
forklift  to  fulfil  operational  requirements,  monitoring  site  conditions  
and  monitoring  and  maintaining  forklift  performance.  Assessment  of  
this  unit  will  usually  be  undertaken  within  a  licensing  examination  
conducted  by,  or  under  the  authority  of,  the  relevant  state/territory  
OHS  Authority.    

Persons  achieving  competence  in  this  unit  will  need  to  fulfil  all  of  the  
relevant  state/territory  OHS  regulatory  requirements  concerning  the  
safe  operation  of  forklifts.  

The  Elements  of  Competency  from  the  unit  TLID1007C  Operate  a  


forklift  covered  in  this  Learner’s  Guide  are  listed  below.  
Check  forklift  condition  
Drive  the  forklift  
Operate  a  forklift  to  handle  loads  
Monitor  site  conditions  
Monitor  and  maintain  forklift  performance  

This  unit  of  competency  is  from  the  Transport  and  Logistics  Training  
Package  (TLI07).  

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Planning your learning

It  is  important  to  plan  your  learning  before  you  start  because  you  may  
already  have  some  of  the  knowledge  and  skills  that  are  covered  in  this  
Learner’s  Guide.  This  might  be  because:  
• you  have  been  working  in  the  industry  for  some  time,  
and/or  
• you  have  already  completed  training  in  this  area.  

Together  with  your  supervisor  or  trainer  use  the  checklists  on  the  
following  pages  to  help  you  plan  your  study  program.  Your  answers  to  
the  questions  in  the  checklist  will  help  you  work  out  which  sections  of  
this  Learner’s  Guide  you  need  to  complete.  

This  Learner’s  Guide  is  written  with  the  idea  that  learning  is  made  more  
relevant  when  you,  the  learner,  are  actually  working  in  the  industry.  
This  means  that  you  will  have  people  within  the  enterprise  who  can  
show  you  things,  discuss  how  things  are  done  and  answer  any  
questions  you  have.  Also  you  can  practise  what  you  learn  and  see  how  
what  you  learn  is  applied  in  the  enterprise.  

If  you  are  working  through  this  Learner’s  Guide  and  have  not  yet  found  
a  job  in  the  industry,  you  will  need  to  talk  to  your  trainer  about  doing  
work  experience  or  working  and  learning  in  some  sort  of  simulated  
workplace.    

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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Section 1: Before you drive the forklift

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. explain  the  current  legal  requirements  for  
you  to  be  able  to  drive  a  forklift  in  your  
workplace?        
2. list  your  responsibilities  and  ‘duty  of  care’  
as  a  forklift  driver?        
3. list  your  employer’s  responsibilities  
concerning  forklift  operations?        

Section 2: Types of forklifts and attachments

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. explain  the  difference  between  the  
counterbalance,  straddle,  order  picker  
and  side-­‐loading  forklifts?        
2. list  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  
internal  combustion  and  electric  forklifts?        
3. identify  the  major  forklift  components?        
4. interpret  the  forklift  manufacturer’s  data  
plate?        
5. define  load  center  distance  and  explain  
how  it  affects  forklift  stability?        
6. identify  forklift  attachments  and  their  uses?        
7. demonstrate  safe  use  of  attachments  
including  jibs  and  associated  equipment?        

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Section 3: forklift safety

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. identify  personal  safety  equipment  used  
while  inspecting  and  operating  a  forklift?        
2. explain  the  safety  steps  that  a  forklift  
driver  needs  to  complete  before  they  drive  
the  forklift?        
3. state  forklift  safety  requirements  with  
regards  to  driving  the  forklift,  forklift  and  
forklift  equipment,  loads,  workplace  
environment,  personal  and  workplace  
safety?        

Section 4: Driving the forklift

Are  you  able  to:   Yes   No  


1. conduct  a  pre-­‐operational  forklift  safety  
check?        
2. conduct  a  pre-­‐operational  work  area  safety  
check?        
3. report  the  results  of  safety  checks?        
4. drive  a  loaded  and  an  unloaded  forklift?        
5. stack  and  de-­‐stack  a  load?        
6. load  and  unload  a  truck?        
7. refuel  or  recharge  a  forklift?        

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

How you will be assessed

Assessment  of  this  Unit  of  Competency  will  include  observation  of  real  
or  simulated  work  processes  using  workplace  procedures  and  
questioning  on  underpinning  knowledge  and  skills.  It  must  be  
demonstrated  in  an  actual  or  simulated  work  situation  under  
supervision.  

You  will  be  required  to:  


• complete  an  oral  or  written  theory  assessment  of  forklift  
operation  
• drive  a  forklift  safely  and  competently  
• maintain  a  logbook  of  practice  undertaken  on  a  forklift    

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
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© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 7


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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Section 1

Before you drive the forklift

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Legal  requirements  

Your  responsibilities  

 Your  employer’s  responsibilities  

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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What do you need to know about forklift


legislation?

Legislation refers to certain rules and conditions that you need to follow.
This  may  be:  
• before  you  are  legally  qualified  to  drive  a  forklift  
• while  you  are  driving  a  forklift.  

Although  it  is  not  quite  the  same,  think  of  it  as  similar  to  the  driver’s  
licence  system.  Before  you  can  legally  drive  a  car  on  the  road  you  have  
to  learn  what  to  do  and  then  be  examined  on  driving  the  car.  You  need  
to  complete  a  theory  test  and  then  be  assessed  on  your  driving  skills.  
Forklift  legislation  requires  you  to  do  the  same.  

Each  State/Territory  may  have  slightly  different  legislation.    In  some  


States/Territories  particular  training  needs  to  be  undertaken  and  in  
other  States/Territories  you  will  need  to  obtain  a  ‘Certificate  of  
Competency’  before  you  can  drive  the  forklift.    However  all  training  
and  licences  will  reflect  the  National  Guidelines  for  Occupational  Health  
and  Safety  Competency  Standards  for  the  Operation  of  Load  shifting  
Equipment  and  Other  Types  of  Specified  Equipment  [NOHSC:  7019  
(1992)].  

Therefore,  it  is  essential  to  know  exactly  what  your  requirements  are.  

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 1: What is the forklift legislation in my state/territory?

As the forklift legislation differs in each state/territory, you need to


find out what you need to do before you can drive a forklift in your
workplace.

Research into what the legislation requires you to do before you


can drive a forklift in your State/Territory. Find out what regulations
cover the use of a forklift in your State/Territory and then what
requirements you need to do or fulfil before you can operate the
forklift in the workplace. You can do this by obtaining information
from the following resources:
• Department for Industrial Affairs
• Worksafe or Workcover Authority
• Occupational Health & Safety Authority
• the people you work with who operate that machinery
• your workplace supervisor or trainer.

When you have completed this task take your answers to your
trainer for checking.

Forklift legislation

In your own words, write down what you need to do before you can
drive a forklift in your workplace.

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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What is ‘Duty of Care’?

The  Occupational  Health,  Safety  and  Welfare  Act  applicable  in  your  
State/Territory  not  only  requires  you  to  fulfil  certain  obligations  before  
you  drive  a  forklift,  but  also  while  you  are  driving  a  forklift.  

These  obligations  are  legal  obligations  and  you  are  required  to  comply  
with  them  by  law.  Failure  to  do  so  would  deem  you  responsible  and  
liable  in  the  event  of  an  accident.  

Workers  are  required  to  show  a  duty  of  care  at  all  times.  

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 2: Define ‘Duty of Care’

Discuss the legal requirements and your Occupational Health,


Safety and Welfare requirements with:
• your supervisor and trainer
• your OHS committee
• your workmates
• Workcover Authority.

Then determine what the term ‘Duty of Care’ means to you, as a


forklift driver. Think of it in terms of the following:

Personal safety

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Safety of workmates

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Safe work practices

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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What are my employer’s responsibilities?

Your  employer  also  has  legal  responsibilities  to  comply  with.    As  these  
responsibilities  directly  affect  you,  it  will  be  helpful  if  you  are  aware  of  
these  responsibilities.  

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 3: Employer responsibilities

Think about the type of responsibilities your employer may have


towards you, the forklift driver. Write these responsibilities in the
spaces provided below.

Facilities

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Equipment

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Information

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Systems of work

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Refer to your OHSW Act to check your answers then discuss with
your trainer.

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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Section 2

Types of forklifts and attachments

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Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Types  of  forklifts  

Power  sources  or  modes  of  propulsion  

Components  of  the  forklift  

Attachments  that  can  be  fitted  to  the  forklift  

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What are the types of forklifts?

The  forklift  is  a  materials  handling  vehicle  that  is  widely  used  in  the  
transport  industry.  It  is  invaluable  for  its  ability  to  move  a  large  amount  
of  material  in  a  very  short  time  using  a  minimum  of  labour.  

There  are  four  main  types  of  forklift  that  you  are  likely  to  see  in  the  
industry.    They  are:  
• counterbalanced  forklift  
• straddle  forklift  or  reach  truck  -­‐  also  known  as  non-­‐
counterbalanced  
• order  pickers  
• side  loading  forklift.  

Each  of  these  forklifts  are  used  for  different  purposes  in  the  
workplace.    They  can  however  be  used  for  a  variety  of  tasks.  

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 4: Identification of the types of forklifts

Investigate the difference between the four main types of forklifts.


You can gain this information from a variety of sources such as:
• sales brochures from retail outlets
• materials handling magazines
• transport and warehouse magazines
• the Internet
• libraries
• books
• previous knowledge and experience.

A worksheet is provided for your use and is located on the following


pages.
Counterbalance forklift

What does a
counterbalanced
forklift look like?
(draw or find a
picture and place in
the space opposite)

Why is it called a
‘counter
balanced’
forklift?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 19


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Where is the
balance point or
fulcrum of a
counterbalanced
forklift found?

List the two main


power source
options that you
could find on a
counterbalanced
forklift.

Straddle forklift or reach truck

What does a
straddle forklift
look like? (draw
or find a picture
and place in the
space opposite)

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

How is the
weight of the
load distributed
on a straddle
forklift?

What is a
straddle forklift
primarily
designed for?

What is the
primary power
source for
straddle
forklifts?

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Order pickers

What does an
order picking
forklift look like?
(draw or find a
picture and place
in the space
opposite)

Why is it called
an ‘order
picker’?

What is the
difference
between an
order picker
and a straddle
forklift?

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Side loading forklift

What does a
side loading
forklift look like?
(draw or find a
picture and place
in the space
opposite)

Why is it called
a ‘side loading’
forklift?

What types of
loads are
handled by the
side loading
forklift?

Give two
examples of
workplaces that
might use the
side loading
forklift.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 23


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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What are the power sources for forklifts?

Power  sources  or  modes  of  propulsion  for  forklifts  can  be  divided  into  
two  main  types.  They  are:  
• internal  combustion  (fuels)  
• electric  (battery).  

The  internal  combustion  motor  in  forklifts  is  similar  to  that  used  in  
motor  vehicles  and  is  designed  to  operate  on  a  variety  of  fuels  such  as:  
• petrol  
• diesel  
• LPG  (Liquid  Petroleum  Gas)  
• natural  gas.  

Electric  forklifts  are  battery  powered  forklifts.  A  bank  of  batteries  or  
one  very  large  battery  is  used  to  power  the  forklift  instead  of  fuel  
substances.    Electric  powered  forklifts  are  becoming  more  and  more  
popular  within  industry  but  electric  powered  forklifts  also  have  some  
disadvantages.  

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 5: Advantages and disadvantages of electric powered


forklifts

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of electric forklift with


one or more of the following:
• your trainer
• your workmates
• someone who drives an electric powered forklift
• forklift distributors.

Then complete the worksheet on the next page.

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Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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Advantages of electric Disadvantages of electric


powered forklifts powered forklifts

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

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TLID1007C Operate a forklift

What are the major components of a forklift?

Just as a car has many features and components that you need to
know before you drive it, so does a forklift.

As you know, different cars have different features with


components being in different places. For example, the handbrake
in a Holden may be in a different place to the handbrake in a Ford.
Forklifts are exactly the same, forklifts will have similar components
but they may be located in different places.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 27


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Activity 6: forklift components

Match the components listed on the right-hand side of the page to


the number shown on the forklift diagram.

Component Number

Overhead guard

Steering wheels

Load Backrest

Forks

Mast

Drive wheels

Counterbalance

Hoist chains

Manufacturer’s data plate

Parking brake

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

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It  is  important  to  understand  how  some  of  these  components  can  
effect  the  safe  operation  of  the  forklift.  For  this  reason  you  will  need  
to  know  about:  
• types  and  use  of  different  tyres  
• types  of  forks  (tines)  available  
• mast  and  lifting  mechanism  
• forklift  controls.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 29


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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Activity 7: Components that can effect safe operations

Research into the topics listed below:


• forklift tyres
• forks
• mast
• forklift controls.

Research into the types available and their use in your industry.
You can research into this by:
• discussing with your trainer
• discussing with a forklift trainer
• reading manuals and books.

A worksheet is provided to guide you in completing this activity.

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Component Types available Uses and limitations

Tyres (Example) Pneumatic tyres Kind to floor surfaces,


possibility of puncture,
common on counterbalance
forklifts

Forks

Masts

Forklift controls

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 31


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
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What information is included on the


Manufacturer’s Data Plate?

By  law,  every  forklift  is  required  to  have  a  manufacturer’s  data  plate.    
This  data  plate  should  include  the  following  information:  
• maximum  safe  working  load  
• load  centre  distance  
• maximum  lift  height  
• make,  model  and  serial  number  
• mast  tilt  (in  degrees)  
• tyre  type  and  recommended  pressure  
• gross  vehicle  weight    
• attachment  details  (if  one  is  fitted).  

It  is  critical  that  you  know  the  information  on  the  manufacturer’s  data  
plate  so  that  the  forklift  is  driven  and  used  within  the  safe  operating  
capacity.  

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 8: Data plate information

Using the activity work sheet, complete the definition and then
select one of your workplace forklifts and give actual data plate
readings.

Information Definition Data plate


information

Load centre (you can indicate with a drawing)

distance

Maximum safe
working load

Maximum lift
height

Mast tilt -
degrees

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 33


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

What is load centre distance?

The  load  centre  distance  is  the  most  important  and  most  difficult  
concept  to  understand  in  forklift  driving.  The  load  centre  distance  
directly  affects  the  forklift’s  stability  and  therefore  affects  safety  as  
well.  

To  understand  the  load  centre  distance  you  need  to  know  what  
‘centre  of  gravity’  is  and  how  to  calculate  the  centre  of  gravity  of  an  
object.  

Your  trainer  will  help  you  with  this  concept,  but  in  general,  the  centre  
of  gravity  of  an  object  is  where  it  would  balance  in  all  directions  (if  you  
could  suspend  the  object  from  this  point).    For  example,  for  a  
basketball  as  it  is  perfectly  symmetrical,  it  would  be  at  the  very  centre  
of  the  ball.    For  a  plate,  it  would  be  the  centre  of  its  base  and  half  way  
through  the  base.    For  a  brick,  it  would  be  at  the  point  where  two  
diagonal  lines  drawn  across  the  face  of  the  brick  meet  and  then  half  
way  through  the  brick.    

Page 34 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 9: Centre of gravity

Indicate where the centre of gravity is on the following shapes:

1200mm

2.2m

1800mm

1.8m

800mm diameter

1.5m

2.5m

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 35


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 10: Load centre distance

The load centre distance, which is described on the manufacturer’s


data plate is the distance between the centre of gravity of the load
and the vertical face of the forks.

Ask your trainer to explain this concept to you and to help you
understand the concept, indicate on the diagram below the load
centre distance.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 36 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

How does load centre distance effect forklift


stability?

A  standard  pallet  is  square  and  has  the  dimensions  1200mm  x  1200mm  
as  per  the  diagram  below.  

1200mm 1200mm

As  the  majority  of  forklift  loads  are  contained  on  pallets,  forklift  
manufacturers  designed  the  forklift  with  a  600mm  load  centre.  This  
matches  with  the  standard  stacked  pallet  centre  of  gravity.    For  
example,  see  diagram:  

1200mm

600mm

Load centre

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 37


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 11: How to calculate load centre and forklift capacity

Discuss with either your trainer or a licensed forklift driver how to


calculate the load centre of a forklift load and how the load centre
affects the capacity of the forklift.

Then answer the following questions:

Question 1

What happens to the capacity of the forklift if the load has a load
centre greater than 600mm?
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Page 38 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Question 2

Imagine that your forklift has the following specifications:


• Maximum safe working load or Capacity - 1000kg
• Load Centre - 600mm
• Max Height - 3500mm.

There are four different loads shown on the next page (drawings
show side elevation). You are to determine and circle the loads
which your forklift can safely lift.

900kg

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 39


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Question 3

If the load centre of the load is less than 600mm, will you be able to
carry more than the maximum safe working load?
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 40 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Forklift attachments

A  forklift  attachment  is  an  extra  piece  of  equipment  that  is  used  on  the  
forklift  in  place  of  the  original  forks.    Sometimes  the  forks  are  removed  
and  the  attachment  is  bolted  to  the  fork  carriage,  and  sometimes  the  
attachment  is  fitted  to  the  forks.  

There  are  many  types  of  forklift  attachments.    Some  are  standard  type  
attachments  and  can  be  purchased  from  a  dealer,  e.g.  drum  clamps.    
Others  are  specially  designed  and  made  to  do  a  specific  task.  

Most  attachments  have  special  safety  considerations  that  you  need  to  
take  into  account  when  you  drive  the  forklift.      

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 41


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 12: Forklift attachments

Forklifts can be fitted with attachments that make them safer to


handle certain loads. However, these forklift attachments change
the way the forklift handles, therefore it is essential to know how the
attachments are used and any safety considerations that you need
to know.

The worksheets on the following pages are designed to help you


through this process.

You can find out the answers to these questions by:


• discussing them with your trainer
• discussing them with a work mate
• discussing with a forklift sales person
• studying books, magazines, brochures or posters.

Page 42 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Drum clamp What are drum clamps used for?

Drum clamps are used instead of transporting


drums on pallets. Why?

Are they fixed to the forks or bolted on in place of


the forks?

What are the safety considerations?

Roll clamps What are roll clamps used for?

How do roll clamps work?

What are the safety considerations?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 43


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Push-pull attachment What are push-pull attachments used for?

How do push-pull attachments work?

What are the safety considerations?

Carpet spike What are carpet spikes used for?

How do carpet spikes work?

What are the safety considerations?

Page 44 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Carton clamps What are carton clamps used for?

How do carton clamps work?

What are the safety considerations?

Bale clamps What are bale clamps used for?

How do bale clamps work?

What are the safety considerations?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 45


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Rotators What are rotators used for?

How do rotators work?

What are the safety considerations?

Pantograph What are pantographs used for?

How do pantographs work?

What are the safety considerations?

Page 46 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Fork extensions What are fork extensions used for?

How do fork extensions work?

What are the safety considerations?

Personnel lifts or work platforms What are personnel lifts used for?

How do personnel lifts work?

What are the safety considerations?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 47


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Jib What is a jib attachment used for?

List other associated equipment that is


commonly used with jib attachments.

What are safety considerations when using


jibs?

Page 48 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 13: Jib equipment safety

When using a jib, heavy items will be carried and suspended by


slings. The slings and associated equipment need to be thoroughly
checked each time they are used to ensure it is safe to do so.

There are also certain safety requirements and procedures that you
need to know before using jibs and slings on a forklift. For
instance, one of the main safety considerations for operators using
jibs is the moving centre of gravity, therefore, extreme care needs
to be taken when determining a safe working load for the forklift.

Complete the worksheet on the next page, stating relevant safety


requirements when using jibs on a forklift.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 49


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Equipment type Safety considerations

Slings (draw an example of a sling in


this space)

Hooks (draw an example of a hook in


this space)

Rings (draw an example of a ring in this


space)

Shackles (draw an example of a


shackle in this space)

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 50 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 51


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Section 3

Forklift safety

Page 52 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

What  to  do  before  you  drive  the  forklift  

Personal  protective  clothing  

Forklift  safety  tips  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 53


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

What is required for forklift safety?

The  most  important  aspect  of  forklift  driving  is  safety.  As  a  forklift  
driver  you  must  be  aware  that  there  are  always  people  working  around  
you  and  if  there  was  an  accident  they  may  be  injured.  It  would  be  a  
terrible  burden  to  have  on  your  conscience  that  your  workmate  was  
injured  by  an  accident  that  you  could  have  prevented.  

Forklift  safety  has  a  very  high  profile  in  Australia  as  statistics  show  ‘one  
in  ten  workplace  accidents  in  Australia  involves  a  forklift’  (1993).    These  
accidents  can  be  prevented  only  if  companies  and  individuals  realise  
the  implications  of  these  accidents  and  take  steps  to  prevent  them  
from  happening.  

Page 54 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 14: Before you drive the forklift

Before you even consider driving the forklift, you need to complete
three tasks. They are:
• plan your work - inspect the work area
• select the correct forklift
• make your presence known.

Complete the worksheet on the next page by explaining what is


involved in these three steps.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 55


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Steps Questions

Plan your work Why do you need to plan your work?

Why do you need to inspect the work area?

What do you look for?

What do you do when a hazard or a risk has been


identified?

Page 56 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Select the correct forklift What do you need to consider when selecting a
forklift to do a job?

Make your presence known When do you need to let people know that you are
about to drive a forklift in the area?

How can you alert people to the fact that a forklift is


operating in the area?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 57


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Personal protective clothing

The  wearing  of  personal  protective  clothing  is  an  important  factor  for  
your  protection  and  is  a  legal  OHS  requirement.  

The  types  of  personal  protective  equipment  are  varied  and  their  use  is  
determined  by  the  nature  of  the  tasks  you  perform.  Some  types  of  
personal  protective  equipment  include:  
• safety  helmets  
• safety  glasses  
• safety  boots  and  shoes  
• gloves  
• aprons    
• overalls.  

Page 58 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 15: Personal protective clothing

Different organisations have different personal protective clothing


requirements for their forklift operators depending upon many
factors.

What protective clothing do you need to wear in your workplace


while driving or inspecting the forklift?
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

What protective clothing do you need to wear in a workplace while


driving the forklift according to national and state regulations?
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 59


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

What are some causes of forklift accidents?

There  are  many  types  of  accidents  that  can  happen  to  a  forklift  
operator  or  workmate.    The  more  common  causes  of  accidents  are:  
• being  hit  by  a  moving  forklift,  including  feet  being  run  over  
• operator  being  hit  by  a  falling  object  
• other  employees  being  hit  by  a  falling  object  
• boarding  or  leaving  the  forklift  
• forklift  tipping  over  
• collision  with  other  vehicles  or  objects  
• parts  of  the  operator’s  body  protruding  outside  of  the  cab  
and  striking  an  object.  

There  are  also  many  safety  rules  that  need  to  be  observed  while  
driving  a  forklift.      

Page 60 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 16: Safety considerations

Discuss forklift safety with any two of the following people:


• your trainer
• a forklift trainer
• an experienced forklift operator.

Then look through the list of forklift safety tips provided to you on
the following pages.

Then categorise each of the tips into the given headings on the
page following these tips.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 61


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

1 Know your forklift and ancillary 2 Inspect prior to use


equipment

3 Report damage or faulty equipment 4 Do not operate the forklift until faults
immediately are corrected

5 Do not make repairs, alterations or 6 For forklifts powered by an electric


adjustments to any forklift unless motor, know the location of the
authorised to do so emergency isolator and know how to
operate it

7 Use the attachments and ancillary 8 Do not use the forklift for any
equipment only for its intended use purpose other than what it is
designed to do

9 Do not allow internal combustion 10 Know your loads and how to carry
engines to idle unnecessarily in an them properly
enclosed or semi-enclosed area

11 Carry only those loads that are rated 12 Handle only stable loads
within the capacity of the forklift

13 Centre the weight of the load between 14 Be aware of rear end swing
the forks

15 Ensure that the forks are fully inserted 16 Always travel with the forks no more
and the load is up against the fork than axle height
back rest

17 Know the load centre distance of the 18 Do not use supplementary


load - be especially careful when using counterweights to increase the
attachments capacity of the forklift

19 Always lift and lower the loads with the 20 Tilt the elevated load forward only
forks tilted slightly back when directly over the unloading
position

21 Watch floor strength everywhere 22 Ensure that you travel in the correct
especially on loading ramps and bridge direction when driving up and down
plates inclines

23 Avoid bumps, dirt, wet spots, rough 24 Check all bridge plates for width,
ground or anything that may cause the capacity and security before driving
forklift to become unstable on

25 Ensure that truck wheels are chocked 26 Do not obstruct emergency exits,
before attempting to load via a bridge aisles or thoroughfares when either
plate using or parking the forklift

27 Cross railway lines diagonally - railway 28 Know critical clearance areas and
lines should be recessed or chocks put locations of overhead pipes, wiring,
in place doorways, etc.

Page 62 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

29 Never turn on an incline or a slope 30 Never take or carry a passenger - no


riders

31 Keep yourself and others clear of the 32 Always travel with the fork tips
lifting mechanism pointed slightly up - even when
unloaded

33 Report all accidents immediately 34 Keep all hands, legs, head, etc.
inside the operator’s compartment

35 Use only secured, approved safety 36 Never allow anyone to go under the
platforms when lifting personnel load or forks

37 Make sure that nobody stands or walks 38 When leaving the forklift, ensure that
between the forklift and a stationary it is in a parked condition - forks
object lowered, park brake on, power shut
off, etc.

39 Always follow proper refuelling 40 Always give way to pedestrians,


procedures ambulances or police

41 Safeguard pedestrians at all times 42 Always sound horn at cross aisles


and blind corners

43 If forward visibility is obstructed, travel 44 Always clean up any spilled fuel, oil
in reverse or flammable liquids before starting
engine

45 Travel slowly around corners 46 If you cant see, don’t go

47 Always concentrate on the job at hand 48 Avoid sudden stops and starts
- never be distracted

49 Always carry the load with the centre 50 Know what the common handling
of gravity directly in the middle of the symbols mean
forks

51 Never elevate loads while on an incline 52 Ensure that all tyre pressures are
correct and the same

53 Use only electric forklifts in enclosed 54 Make sure that you travel slowly
areas when you have a load

55 Do not wear rings, wrist watches, 56 Take extreme care when loading and
jewellery or metal objects when battery unloading containers - they are an
charging as these may contact the enclosed area
electrical parts and cause arcing

57 Take extreme care when driving over 58 Never alter the forks in any way,
wet surfaces. The braking distance shape or form
will be considerably more

59 USE COMMON SENSE

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 63


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Place the number of the forklift safety tip next to the appropriate
category.

Driving the forklift

e.g. 40 ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Forklift and forklift equipment

e.g. 52 ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Forklift loads

e.g. 12 ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Workplace environment

e.g. 21 ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Personal safety

e.g. 34 ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Other peoples’ safety

e.g. 30 ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 64 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 65


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Section 4

Driving the forklift

Page 66 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Section outline

Areas  covered  in  this  section  

Pre-­‐operational  safety  check  of  forklift  

Pre-­‐operational  safety  check  of  work  area  

Reporting  of  checks  

Driving  the  forklift  

Driving  a  loaded  forklift  

Stacking  and  de-­‐stacking  

Loading  and  unloading  

Refuelling  and  recharging  a  forklift  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 67


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Why are pre-operation safety checks


completed?

Before  using  any  forklift  it  is  essential  that  you  conduct  a  pre-­‐operation  
safety  check  on  both  the  forklift  and  the  worksite.  

This  check  is  to  ensure  that  the  equipment  is  safe  to  use  and  the  actual  
worksite  is  safe  to  work  in.  

Note  that  in  relation  to  the  safety  check  on  the  forklift:  
• the  extent  of  the  safety  check  will  be  determined  by  
company  requirements  and  any  OHS  regulations  
• there  may  be  the  need  to  complete  a  checklist  to  fulfil  
workplace  policies  and  regulations  before  using  the  
equipment  
• the  check  is  to  ensure  that  there  are  no  faults  or  damage  
to  the  forklift  which  make  it  unsafe  to  operate.  

Note  that  in  relation  to  the  safety  check  on  the  worksite:  
• this  check  is  to  ensure  that  the  worksite  (the  path  that  you  
will  actually  be  taking  when  moving  the  load)  is  free  from  
obstacles  or  safety  hazards  
• you  should  inform  people  who  may  be  working  in  or  near  
your  path    
• you  should  erect  barriers  and  signs  to  inform  other  people  
of  any  possible  danger  (where  necessary).  

Page 68 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 17: Pre-operational safety check equipment

Watch your trainer or an experienced person demonstrate a pre-


operational safety check on the forklift.

The pre-operational check will include a pre-start check and an


operational check.

The pre-start check is to check for safety features that can be


checked before using the equipment; for example, flat tyres, worn
slings, etc.

The operational check is to determine if all forklift parts are working


properly before using it on a job; for example, brakes, controls, etc.

Whilst the person is performing the pre-operational safety check,


ask them to tell you what they are checking so you can write it
down to form a list. An activity worksheet is provided to help you
and is located on the following pages. Decide if it is a pre-start
check or an operational check and mark accordingly.

Example: forklift (this example is not complete)

Name of equipment Forklift

Parts Checked - Pre start Pre-start Operational

Tyres for damage, pressure ✔

Wheel nut - not missing, tight ✔

Safety cage - damage, not loose ✔

Horn ✔

Park Brake ✔

Steering ✔

Etc.

Etc.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 69


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Forklift

Parts checked Pre-start Operational

Page 70 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Forklift

Parts checked Pre-start Operational

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 71


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 18: Check of work area

Ask you trainer to give you an imaginary forklift task. Check out the
work area where you would be using the forklift and identify any
potential hazards or risk areas that might affect the safety of the
operation.

Write down areas that have potential hazards and any hazards or
risks that you actually found. Then identify the actions that you
would take (or actually took) to eliminate the hazard.

Hazard or risk Action taken

Check out your answers with your trainer and then add any that
you may have missed for future reference.

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Reporting of pre-operation check results

Once  an  inspection  is  complete,  the  results  of  that  inspection  need  to  
be  reported.  Many  workplaces  have  a  standard  checklist  and  
procedure  for  the  reporting  of  forklift  pre-­‐operational  checks.  All  
employees  who  use  the  forklift  use  this  standard  procedure.  

However,  some  workplaces  expect  you,  the  employee,  to  be  


responsible  for  this  process.  

Occupational  Health  and  Safety  regulations  in  some  States/Territories  


require  that  you  do  a  pre-­‐operational  check  before  you  use  the  forklift  
and  equipment.    The  results  then  need  to  be  recorded  and  reported.    
Therefore,  it  may  be  your  responsibility  to  do  this.    

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 73


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 19: Pre-operational checklist

First, find out if your workplace has a standard procedure for


conducting the pre-operational check and for recording and
reporting the results.

If so, obtain a copy of the relevant documentation for your


reference and use.

If not, study the pre-operational checklist on the next page.

Once completed, show the checklist to your trainer and discuss


what items need to be checked and if your organisation has any
other requirements that you need to complete.

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Pre-operational checklist for counterbalanced forklift

Pre-start check - outside Pre-start check - inside


visual engine compartment
No leaks or obstructions under forklift Liquid levels correct - engine oil,
hydraulic oil, brake fluid, cooling water,
transmission oil

Tyres - not flat, not damaged, wheel Fan belt - correct tension
nuts not loose, tyre pressure

Mast assembly - damage, Battery - water level, connections and


obstructions, lubrication, chain tension security

Forks/attachments - condition, secure, Battery (electric forklifts) - sufficient


locking pins secure charge, water levels

Load backrest -secure, not damaged Condition - any leaks, damage or


obstructions

Hydraulic hoses and couplings -


excessive leaking, not damaged

Body damage Operational Check


Safety cage secure Gauges and warning lights - working

Check steering wheels and cylinders Lights - check if working

Check for any loose wiring Warning signals - revolving light,


reverse beeper, indicators

Towing pin secure Horn

Check manufacturers data plate Mast controls

Driver compartment - free from Park brake


obstacles, adjust seat, adjust mirrors

Gas - turn on, check fittings secure, Foot brake


check for leaks, check level of gas

Steering

Name ________________________

Signature ________________ Date _____________

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 75


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 20: Using the checklist

Using your workplace checklist or the checklist shown on the


previous page, practise using the list by checking the forklift and
recording and reporting the results.

Then report the results of the pre-operational check according to


your workplace procedures.

NOTE: Your state/territory legislation may require you to be


licensed before you can use a forklift. If this applies in your
state/territory you will need to be supervised when conducting the
operational check as this involves operating the forklift.

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Forklift start-up procedure

This  part  of  the  unit  deals  with  the  operation  of  the  forklift.  It  
is  essential  that  you  operate  the  forklift  under  supervision  
whilst  you  are  in  training.  

Failure  to  do  so  will  have  both  you  and  your  employer  liable  in  
the  event  of  an  accident.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 77


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 21: forklift start-up procedure

The forklift start-up procedure is similar to the start-up procedure of


a car. There is a definite procedure to follow to ensure that
everybody is safe and the equipment is safe to operate.

Think about the procedure you are supposed to follow when you
first get into a car and start the engine.

Now relate this to the forklift. List the first five steps you would take
when you get into a forklift.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Travelling and parking the forklift

The  forklift  controls  are  different  from  those  of  a  car  or  motorbike  in  
that  they  only  have  one  forward  and  one  reverse  gear.    They  have  no  
clutch  but  they  do  have  a  brake  and  an  accelerator.      

To  operate  the  forklift,  follow  the  given  sequence:  


• release  the  park  brake  
• move  the  direction  lever  in  the  direction  you  wish  to  travel  
• take  your  foot  off  the  foot  brake  
• press  the  accelerator  slowly  until  movement  occurs  
• adjust  the  accelerator  to  the  desired  speed.  

Steering

The  forklift  is  different  from  most  other  vehicles  in  that  it  is  steered  by  
the  back  wheels  and  powered  by  the  front  wheels.  Instead  of  the  
vehicle  following  the  front  wheels  around  a  corner  (as  a  car  does),  the  
back  of  the  forklift  will  swing  out,  thereby  turning  the  vehicle.    This  is  
commonly  called  ‘Tail  Swing’.  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 79


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 22: Tail swing

The tail swing of the forklift occurs whenever the forklift is turned
around a corner and is one of the main skills that you, as a forklift
driver, need to master if you wish to become a competent forklift
driver.

Why do you think the forklift is designed and built with rear wheel
steering?
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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

When  you  first  start  driving  the  forklift  you  will  be  shown  where  the  
pivot  point  is  on  the  forklift.    The  pivot  point  is  an  imaginary  point  
where  the  forklift  pivots  whilst  turning  a  corner.    The  forklift  is  not  like  
a  car  where  a  turning  circle  is  required  as  a  forklift  can  virtually  turn  on  
a  point.  

It  is  essential  to  know  where  the  pivot  point  of  the  forklift  is  so  that  
you  are  able  to  manoeuvre  in  very  small  spaces.    It  differs  slightly  
between  forklifts.  
 

You  will  learn  much  more  about  driving  the  forklift  when  you  begin  
your  practical  driving  part  of  the  unit.      

 
When  driving  a  forklift  you  must  always  be  conscious  of  the  safety  
factor.    There  are  many  rules  and  safety  precautions  that  you  must  
follow  when  you  are  in  charge  of  the  forklift.  

Stopping and parking the forklift

Many  accidents  can  occur  when  the  forklift  is  being  brought  to  a  halt.    
Forklifts  should  be  brought  to  a  halt  gradually  as  wheel  sliding  and  
hard  braking  is  dangerous,  unnecessary  and  harmful  to  the  forklift  
truck.  
 
If  hard  braking  occurs  there  is  a  very  high  possibility  of  the  load  tipping  
over,  thereby  damaging  stock,  wasting  time  and  possibly  causing  injury  
to  somebody.    

After  you  have  brought  the  forklift  to  a  halt,  it  needs  to  be  parked  
correctly.    The  correct  parking  procedure  is:  
• ensure  that  the  forklift  parking  position  is  suitable  -­‐  e.g.  
not    
in  front  of  exits,  level  ground,  not  in  walkways  
• make  sure  that  the  tips  of  the  forks  are  touching  the  
ground  by:  
− tilting  the  mast  slightly  forward    
− lowering  the  forks  until  the  tips  are  touching  the  ground  
• put  the  forklift  in  NEUTRAL  
• apply  the  parking  brake  
• turn  off  the  forklift  and  remove  the  key  (according  to  your  
company  policy)  

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 81


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

• turn  off  gas  (if  gas  powered).  

Page 82 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 23: Shut down

Answer the following questions.

Why is it important to have the fork tips touching the ground?


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Why do you think this is necessary to conduct a post-operational


check on the forklift?
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List the items that you think you would need to look at in the post-
operational check.
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© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 83


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

If you found a fault in conducting the post-operational check what


do you need to do?
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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Refuelling/recharging the forklift

As  part  of  your  driving  skills  you  will  obviously  need  to  know  how  to  
refuel  the  forklift.  

It  is  important  to  follow  specific  instructions  when  refuelling  the  


forklift.    Although  there  are  different  fuels  for  forklifts  and  therefore  
different  refuelling  methods  the  following  rules  apply  to  all  forklifts  
when  refuelling.  

Rules  
• Before  refuelling  shut  off  the  engine  and  the  lights  and  do  
not  restart  engine  until  refuelling  has  finished.  
• Smoking  is  prohibited  in  any  area  where  the  truck  is  being  
refuelled.  
• Refuelling  should  be  done  well  away  from  welding,  open  
flames  and  sparks.  
• If  you  detect  a  fuel  leak,  don’t  start  the  forklift,  pull  it  
outside  and  ask  for  help  (from  your  trainer,  supervisor  or  
maintenance).  

With  LPG  the  refuelling  process  involves  changing  over  a  gas  bottle,  
not  simply  filling  up  the  tank  as  we  do  with  motor  vehicles.  

The  following  procedure  should  be  followed  when  replacing  the  LPG  
gas  cylinder  on  the  forklift.  

Before  changeover  
• Smoking  is  prohibited  in  any  area  where  the  truck  is  being  
refuelled.  
• Keep  the  engine  running.  
• Close  the  cylinder  shut  off  valve  and  let  the  engine  run  
until  it  stops.  
• While  changing  over  cylinder  always  wear  gloves  and  use  
eye  protection.  

Conducting  changeover  
• Unscrew  the  bottle  fitting  making  sure  that  you  are  
wearing  gloves  
• Remove  the  cylinder  and  store  empty  cylinder  upright  in  
the  designated  area  (must  be  under  cover).  
• Connect  up  the  new  cylinder.  
© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 85
Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

After  changeover  
• Start  forklift  and  continue  work.  
• If  a  leak  is  detected  in  the  fuel  system,  stop  immediately,  
turn  off  isolator  valve,  put  an  appropriate  sign  on  forklift  
and  report  leak  to  supervisor.  

Battery  charging  

If  you  have  an  electric  forklift  you  will  obviously  have  to  recharge  the  
battery  rather  than  refuel  the  forklift.  

When  the  forklift  needs  it's  battery  changed,  the  forklift  must  be  
stationary  and  moved  so  that  it  is  in  the  proper  parked  position.    
Batteries  should  be  charged  in  a  designated  area  that  is  free  from  
obstacles,  welding  equipment,  sparks  and  open  flames.    It  should  also  
have  proper  ventilation  as  batteries  during  charging  give  off  hydrogen  
gas  that  is  extremely  flammable.    The  area  should  also  be  a  non-­‐
smoking  as  a  cigarette  could  cause  an  explosion.  

Tips  on  battery  charging  


• Park  the  forklift  in  the  designated  area  and  ensure  the  
handbrake  is  on.  
• Smoking  is  prohibited  in  any  area  where  the  battery  is  
being  recharged.  
• Open  the  battery  compartment  and  leave  this  open  during  
charging  operation.  
• Ensure  vent  caps  are  functioning  properly  and  leave  vent  
caps  in  place  to  avoid  electrolyte  spray.  
• Do  not  wear  rings,  wrist  watches,  jewellery,  or  other  metal  
objects  as  they  may  contact  electrical  parts  which  will  
cause  arcing  and  electrocution.  
• Keep  all  metallic  objects  away  from  the  top  of  the  battery  
as  these  may  also  cause  arcing.  
• If  any  leakage  of  the  battery  electrolyte  occurs  then  flush  it  
away;  report  any  major  spillage.  

Page 86 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 24: Battery charging

The  following  diagram  shows  a  forklift  driver  involved  in  many  unsafe  
practises.    List  the  unsafe  practises  that  you  can  identify.

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© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 87


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Loading and stacking

Loading  and  stacking  is  again  a  very  practical  skill  and  will  need  to  be  
learnt  at  your  practical  sessions.  However  there  is  some  theory  that  
you  can  learn  before  you  drive  the  forklift.  
 
As  a  forklift  driver,  you  will  lift,  stack,  de-­‐stack  and  move  loads  every  
day  and  so  these  skills  will  become  second  nature  to  you  in  time  and  
with  practice.  

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ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 25: Lifting and carrying

The following exercise lists the correct procedures for lifting and
carrying a load. Fill in the missing words

1. Approach the load ................ making sure that the forklift is

square to the load and the forks are ...................... and at the

correct height for sliding under the load.

2. Move forward slowly until the forks are entirely under the

load and the load is ................... against the fork backrest.

Ensure that the load is .................... and take care to ensure

that the forks do not ..................... past the back of the load.

3. Raise the load until all .......................... are cleared.

............ the load backwards to ensure safe handling of the

load.

4. To transport the load, the mast needs to be tilted slightly

............................ to ensure that the load is stable. Do not

travel with the load raised higher than .......................... for

adequate clearance. This is generally no higher than ...............

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 89


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

5. To unload, first the load needs to be .................. slightly

......................... then lowered to the ground. It may then be

necessary to tilt the mast further ....................... to ensure

that the forks are smoothly withdrawn from the load.

6. ..................... back away from the load ensuring that the

forks do not catch on the load.

There is feedback on this activity at the back of this Learner’s


Guide.

Page 90 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Stacking a load

The  following  is  the  correct  procedure  to  use  when  stacking  and  
unstacking  a  load  of  pallets.    You  should  follow  this  procedure  at  all  
times:  
• Approach  the  stack  with  the  load  down  and  tilted  
backwards.  
• Halt  at  the  base  of  the  stack  by  applying  brakes.  
• Raise  the  load  to  the  desired  stacking  height.  
• Drive  forward  until  the  load  is  over  the  stack.  
• Tilt  mast  to  a  vertical  position.  
• Lower  the  load  onto  the  stack.  
• When  the  load  is  stacked  securely,  lower  the  fork  arms  
until  free  of  the  pallets.  
• Move  the  truck  backwards  making  sure  that  the  forks  are  
clear  of  the  pallets.  (Note:    It  may  be  beneficial  to  tilt  the  
forks  forward  as  the  truck  is  moved  backwards).  
• When  the  forks  are  clear  of  the  stack,  lower  the  forks  and  
tilt  slightly  backwards.  

De-­‐stacking  a  load  
• Halt  at  the  base  of  the  stack  -­‐  remember  to  ensure  that  the  
load  is  within  capacity  of  the  forklift.  
• Raise  the  forks  to  the  desired  height.    As  you  do  so  tilt  
mast  until  it  is  vertical.  
• Insert  forks  to  their  full  extent  by  driving  forward.  
• Lift  load  clear  of  stack  and  carefully  apply  backwards  tilt.  
• When  the  load  is  clear  of  the  stack,  move  back  slowly  until  
it  is  clear  -­‐  (remember  to  look).  
• Lower  the  load  carefully  and  smoothly  to  travelling  height,  
apply  further  backward  tilt  before  moving.  

Reach  truck  stacking  

The  stacking  and  de-­‐stacking  with  a  reach  truck  is  the  same  as  a  
counterbalance  truck  except  that  the  reach  truck  has  the  option  to  
move  the  forks  forward  to  pick  and  place  the  load.    This  ensures  that  
the  reach  truck  is  more  compact  and  able  to  move  in  smaller  spaces.  
 

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 91


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Remember  to  always  bring  the  load  within  the  wheel  confines  before  
moving  the  load.    

Loading and unloading vehicles

When  loading  vehicles  the  first  priority  with  any  load  is  to  keep  the  
load  within  the  legal  axle  load  requirements  and  within  the  permissible  
load  dimensions.  
 
To  be  able  to  do  this  you  need  to  be  able  to  understand  some  ‘truckie’  
terms.    

The  ‘truckie’  terms  that  you  will  need  to  understand  are:    
• TARE  -­‐  the  mass  (  weight  )  of  the  vehicle  without  its  load  
• AGGREGATE  MASS  -­‐  the  maximum  allowable  loaded  mass  
of  a  particular  vehicle  

• GROSS  COMBINATION  MASS  -­‐the  loaded  mass  of  the  


vehicle  plus  the  axle  loads  of  any  trailer  being  towed  
(includes  semi  trailers).  

When  loading  vehicles  it  is  essential  to  distribute  the  load  to  keep  the  
centre  of  gravity  as  low  as  possible  and  the  vehicle  evenly  balanced.    If  
possible,  items  should  be  placed  against  the  headboard  of  the  vehicle  
so  that  they  can  be  secured  properly  and  they  are  in  no  danger  of  
moving  during  braking.  
 
Larger,  heavier  items  should  be  placed  at  the  bottom  of  the  load.    The  
vehicle  should  be  loaded  to  give  an  even  weight  distribution  over  its  
floor  area.    This  may  require  packing  such  as  timber  planks  or  block  
wedges.  
 
Try  to  always  distribute  the  load  so  that  light  crushable  objects  are  not  
loaded  in  front  of  the  heavier  large  objects  otherwise  they  might  be  
squashed  during  braking.    Heavy  solid  items  should  also  be  loaded  so  
that  part  of  the  item  is  over  the  region  of  the  axles.    This  will  help  
distribute  the  load  evenly.  
 
If  high  loads  need  to  be  transported  always  try  to  use  low  platform  
vehicles  as  high  loads  will  seriously  affect  the  centre  of  gravity  of  the  
load  and  put  it  in  serious  danger  of  over  turning  when  cornering.    

Page 92 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 26: Loading trucks

In the following exercise an empty truck is drawn. There are also


some loads on the ground next to the truck. Using these loads
draw them onto the truck as it should be loaded according to the
appropriate safety rules.

There is feedbac
Learner’s Guide

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 93


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 27: Driving the forklift

During this activity you will be required to practise using the forklift
within a variety of workplace situations.

This activity must be done so under supervision according to any


regulations or workplace and equipment policies.

This activity only allows you to practise using the equipment. There
will be separate assessment exercises that you need to complete.

Your trainer will give you different workplace tasks to do. They
must include:
• using the forklift unloaded
• using the forklift with a variety of loads
• using the forklift with long, wide loads
• loading and unloading a truck
• stack and de-stack a load (low and high stacks) in both narrow
and wide aisles.

Each time you use the equipment, fill in the logbook contained in
the Assessment Tasks section of this Learner’s Guide.

Once you feel that you are competent in the use of this equipment
in all of the above tasks, approach your trainer and request an
assessment.

Page 94 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Additional
resources

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 95


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Websites:    
• Workcover  Authority  of  NSW  
 
http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/  
• WorkSafe  Victor  
 
http://www.workcover.vic.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/WorkSafe  
• WorkCover  Queensland  
http://www.workcover.qld.gov.au/  
• WorkCover  WA        
http://www.workcover.wa.gov.au/  
• WorkCover  SA    
http://www.workcover.com/home.aspx  
• ACT  WorkCover        
http://www.workcover.act.gov.au/  
• Workplace  Standards  Tasmania  
http://www.wst.tas.gov.au/node/WST.htm  
• NT  WorkSafe  
http://www.worksafe.nt.gov.au/  

Page 96 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Feedback on
activities
The responses provided in this section are suggested responses.
Because every workplace is different, your responses may vary
according to your specific workplace procedures, the equipment
available and the nature of the business.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 97


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 4: Identification of the different types of forklifts

There are four main types of forklifts that you are likely to see within
the road transport industry. These are discussed below:

Counterbalance forklift

What does a
counterbalance
forklift look like?
(draw or find a picture
and place in the space
opposite)

Why is it called a Because the load being picked up is counter


‘counter balance’ balanced by the weight of the vehicle chassis,
engine, counterweight and body
forklift?

Where is the A point on the ground vertically below the front axle
balance point or
fulcrum of a
counterbalance
forklift found?

List the two main internal combustion engine


power source
electric powered - battery
options that you find
on counterbalanced
forklifts.

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TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Straddle forklift or reach truck

What does a
straddle forklift look
like? (draw or find a
picture and place in the
space opposite)

How is the weight of The weight of the load is distributed between the
the load distributed four wheels of the forklift while moving. This
dismisses the need for the forklift to counter-
on a straddle balance any load.
forklift?

What is a straddle The straddle forklift is primarily designed for use in


forklift primarily the warehouse. They are designed to be
manoeuvrable and to lift pallet loads to great
designed for? heights.

What is the primary Most straddle forklifts are electric powered.


power source for
straddle forklifts?

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 99


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Order pickers

What does an order


picking forklift look
like? (draw or find a
picture and place in the
space opposite)

Why is it called an It is called an order picker because that is its


‘order picker’? primary use. To lift the operator to high levels
where he/she can select stock for picking a
customers order.

What is the The order picker and the straddle are quite similar
difference between in their looks but with an order picker the operator
and the forklift controls are actually lifted to the
an order picker and desired height.
a straddle forklift?
With a straddle forklift it is only the load which is
lifted to the desired height.

Page 100 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Side loading forklift

What does a side


loading forklift look
like? (draw or find a
picture and place in the
space opposite)

Why is it called a Because unlike other forklifts the load is picked up


‘side loading’ forklift? from the side of the forklift rather than the front.
This allows the forklift to be manoeuvrable with
long awkward loads.

What types of loads Usually long loads such as timber, pipes, metal
are handled by the bars, containers.
side loading forklift?

Give two examples of Timber yards, timber merchants.


workplaces that
Steel and pipe retailers.
might use the side
loading forklift? Anyone who moves long loads of timber, steel,
plastic.

Container storage areas.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 101


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 5: Advantages and disadvantages of electric powered


forklifts

Advantages of electric Disadvantages of electric


powered forklifts powered forklifts

No exhaust fumes emitted, Batteries are bulky, very heavy


therefore suitable for and very expensive.
enclosed spaces, cool rooms,
warehouses, etc. The actual forklift is usually more
expensive than an internal
Very little engine noise. combustion forklift.

Virtually no vibration. Battery takes quite a few hours to


recharge therefore there is either
Ongoing maintenance costs the need for an extra battery or a
seem to be less than internal long wait between forklift use.
combustion.
Extra cost of battery recharging
Cost saving on fuel. equipment.

Less power than internal


combustion.

Relatively short operating time


between recharges.

Activity 6: forklift components


Component No.
Overhead guard 3
Steering wheels 6
Load Backrest 10
Forks 9
Mast 2
Drive wheels 8
Counter weight 4
Hoist chains 1
Manufacturer’s data 7
plate
Parking brake 5

Page 102 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 8: Data plate information

Complete the chart by completing the definition and then selecting


one of your workplace forklifts and give actual data plate readings.

Information Definition Data plate


information

Load centre The distance between the


distance centre of gravity of the load
and the vertical face of the
forks on the forklift. This is
usually 600mm but may be
500mm on some forklifts.

Maximum safe The maximum weight the


working load forklift can safely carry.

Maximum lift height The maximum height that the


forklift can lift the maximum
safe working load.

Mast tilt - degrees The amount of forward and


reverse tilt in the mast. The
figure is in degrees. For
example, 6 degrees.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 103


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TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 9: Centre of gravity

Indicate where the centre of gravity is on the following shapes:

Centre of Gravity

1200mm
2.1m

600mm

700mm

900mm

1800mm

600mm

1.8m

800mm diameter

Dead centre

1.5m

1.25m 0.75m

2.5m

Page 104 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 10: Load centre distance

The load centre distance, which is described on the manufacturer’s


data plate is the distance between the centre of gravity of the load
and the vertical face of the forks.

Centre of Gravity of the load

Load backrest

Load centre distance

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 105


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 11: How to calculate load centre and forklift capacity

Question 1

What happens to the capacity of the forklift if the load has a load
centre greater than 600mm?

If the load centre distance is greater than 600mm, the capacity of


the forklift (the weight that it can carry) will decrease. When the
load centre is more than 600mm this will cause an effect where the
load will appear heavier than what it actually is.

Question 2

Imagine that your forklift has the following specifications

Capacity - 1000kg

Load centre - 600mm

Max height - 3500mm

There are four different loads shown below. You are to determine
which of the loads can be safely lifted with your forklift. Circle the
loads that can be safely lifted.

900kg

Question 3
If the load centre of the load is less than 600mm, will you be able to
carry more than the maximum safe working load?

No - The maximum weight at any time is the maximum safe


working load.

Page 106 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 13: Jib equipment safety

Equipment type Safety considerations

Slings There are many different types of slings - wire rope,


chain, webbing, natural fibre & synthetic.
Check slings every time you use it - check for excessive
wear, broken fibres or wires, weathering, mould, rot or
sun damage, rust or cracks, cuts or gouges and
stretching or bending of links.
Ensure that the SWL (Safe working load) of the sling is
never exceeded.
All slings must have a label indicating either the SWL or
the WLL (working load limit) - if the label is missing do not
use the sling.

Hooks Many different types.


Ensure that it is an approved type of hook - never
homemade.
Ensure correct SWL - ensure that it is the same or less
than the sling.
Hooks used with jib attachments must always be the
swivelling type - never the fixed type.
Discard if more than 10% wear is evident.

Rings Many different types.


Ensure that it is an approved type of shackle - never
homemade.
Ensure correct SWL - ensure that it is the same or less
than the sling.
Discard if more than 10% wear is evident.

Shackles Many different types.


Ensure that it is an approved type of ring - never
homemade.
Ensure correct SWL - ensure that it is the same or less
than the sling.
Discard if more than 10% wear is evident.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 107


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

Activity 16: Safety considerations

Driving the forklift 14,16,19,20,22,29,32,40,43,45,46,4


8, 51,54,59

Forklift and forklift 1,5,6,7,18,52,58


equipment

Forklift loads 10,11,12,13,15,17,49,50,

Workplace environment 21,23,24,25,27,28,56,57

Personal Safety 2,3,4,8,31,33,34,39,44, 47,55,

Other peoples safety 9,26,30,35,36,37,38,41,42,53,

Note: many of these safety tips could be grouped into a different


category. The answers shown above are one option only.

Activity 25: Lifting and carrying

1. Approach the load slowly making sure that the forklift is square
to the load and the forks are level and at the correct height for
sliding under the load.

2. Move forward slowly until the forks are entirely under the load
and the load is resting against the fork backrest. Ensure that
the load is centred and take care to ensure that the forks do
not protrude past the back of the load.

3. Raise the load until all obstacles are cleared.


Tilt the load backwards to ensure safe handling of the load.

4. To transport the load, the mast needs to be tilted slightly


backwards to ensure that the load is stable. Do not travel with
the load raised higher than necessary for adequate clearance.
This is generally no higher than 150mm (axle height).

5. To unload, first the load needs to be tilted slightly forward then


lowered to the ground. It may then be necessary to tilt the mast
further forward to ensure that the forks are smoothly withdrawn
from the load.

Page 108 © Australian National Training Authority 2003


ADELG1011 Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education P/L July 2009
TLID1007C Operate a forklift

6. Slowly back away from the load ensuring that the forks do not
catch on the load.

Activity 26: Loading trucks

Note: There are numerous ways in which the truck may be loaded
using these loads. This is one example. If your answer differs
from the one shown above, consult your trainer to ensure that your
answer is correct.

© Australian National Training Authority 2003 Page 109


Customised and Developed by Armstrong’s Driver Education July 2009 ADELG1011