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Theme paper on
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Submitted to: Dr.Pampari Venkataswamy
Submitted By: Nidhi Gupta Enrol.No.-08BSHYD0486 Section-J
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Scope of the study Introduction Case studies Conclusions References
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If you want to make peace, you don’t talk to your friends. You talk to your enemies.Moshe Dayan According to Koontz and O’Donnell, ”Communication is an intercourse by words, letters symbols or messages and is a way that the organization members share meaning & understanding another”. The objectives of this theme paper were to: 1. Study the direction of communication. 2. Study of types of communication • • Interpersonal communication Organizational communication
1. Role of effective communication in an organization 2. Effect of poor communication on the performance of an organization. A comprehensive study on communication has been attempted by collecting data based on the theory as well as practical implications in life. An attempt has also been made to understand the current scenario prevailing in the Indian corporate setup by the studies of Watson Wyatt, a leading global consulting firm. Towards the end of our study, I have also tried to list , analyze & find ways to overcome the hurdles in the existing process of communication in an organization.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to consider typical communication in the workplace and to highlight problem areas and approaches to rectify these. As communications is the cornerstone of business and, indeed, of relationships between various cultures, groups and even nations, it is the most important dynamic in the human context. Yes it is often largely overlooked. This composition will attempt to reinforce that communication is the single most important factor in ensuring overall management success in an organization. Various types of communication and information flows will be examined, as well as triggers for communications failure and the impact of same.
“Any act by which one person gives to or receives from person information about that person’s needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.” Communication plays a key role in the success of any workplace program or policy. Because an individual spent nearly 70% of their working hours communicating-writing, reading, speaking, listening.
DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION Communication can flow vertically or laterally. The vertical dimensions consist of: Downward communication Communication that flows from one level of organization to a lower level is a downward communication .It is used by group leaders or managers to: • • • • assign goals, provide job instructions, inform employees of policies & procedures, Offer feedback about performance.
Upward communication This involves flow of communication from lower level to higher level in a group or organization. Without upward communication, management works in a vacuum, not knowing if messages have been received properly, or if other problems exist in the organization. It is a means to: • • • Provide feedbacks to higher ups, Inform them of progress towards goals & Relay current problems.
Lateral /Horizontal communication When communication takes place among the members of the same work group,among managers at the same level or among any horizontally equivalent personnel,we define it as lateral communication. Horizontal Communication is essential for: • • • • • Solving problems Accomplishing tasks Improving teamwork Building goodwill Boosting efficiency
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION People in any organization rely on oral , written & nonverbal communication. Oral communication The chief means of conveying messages is oral communication. This includes speeches, formal one to one & group discussion and the informal rumor mill or grapevine. The advantage of oral communication is speed & feedback. The major disadvantage is faced whenever the message has to be passed through number of people. The more the people involve, greater is the distortion of message.
Written communication It includes memos, letters, fax transmission, electronic mail, notices placed on bulletin board or any other device that is transmitted via written words of symbol. The need for written communication arises when the message has to be stored for infinite period. People are more careful with the written words than oral words. The Major disadvantage of this is that it is a time consuming process. Nonverbal Communication Communication by means of elements & behaviors that are not coded into words is the nonverbal communication. A glance, a stare, a smile, a frown, a proactive body movementthey all convey meaning.
Nonverbal communication speaks louder than words. Good home and work relationships require the ability to communicate emotions without saying a word. Wordless communication conveyed through facial expressions, body language, pace, intensity and tone of voice captures and holds the attention of others and gives you a powerful means for self expression. A snarling face says something different from a smile. TYPES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. Paralanguage - The vocal cues that accompany spoken language: The way we say words Albert Mehrabian, researcher, estimates that 39% of meaning is affected by vocal cues-not the words but the way they are said. It depends on many factors: • • • • • Rate-speed Pitch Volume Vocal Fillers Quality
2.Kinesics – Study of Body Movements Ekman and Freisen divide Kinesics into 5 categories Emblems-body movements that have direct translation to words: OK Illustator-Accent, emphasizes, or reinforces words: Fish was this big! Regulators- Control the back and forth flow of speaking and listening. Display of feelings- Feelings are shown through face and body motions Adaptor-Way of adjusting to communication situation: Twist hair, tap pen 3. Occulesics -Eye behavior When people sit in a circle, they are more likely to talk to those across the room from them than those side to side. Eye behavior plays very important role in nonverbal communication as it determines the attention of listener.
4. Appearance/Artifacts Aspects of personal appearance such as clothing, hairstyle, jewellery & make up communicate people’s value & social group. In the workplace, the norms for appropriate physical appearance depend on the industry, job & organizational culture. Max Luscher says when people look at red for long periods of time, their blood pressure, respiration; their blood pressure, respiration, and heartbeat all speed up. This highlights the importance of color in nonverbal communication. 5. Proxemics The nonverbal study of individual’s perception & use of space including territorial space is known as proxemics. Terrotorial space varies greatly across cultures. This distance also determines the interest between sender & receiver. .6.Facial Expressions In our body there are 80 muscles in our face that can create more than 7,000 facial expressions.There six main types of facial expressions found in all cultures Happiness- round eyes, smiles, raised cheeks Disgust-wrinkled nose, lowered eyelids and eyebrow, raised upper lip Fear- around eyes, open mouth
Angry- lower eyebrow and stare intensely. Surprise-raised eyebrow, wide open eyes, opens mouth Sadness- Area around mouth and eyes.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Good communication is essential to any group’s or organization effectiveness. Lifeblood of an organization:Communication is the lifeblood of an organization: if we could somehow remove communication flows from an organization, we would not have an organization. It is needed for: • • • • • • • Exchanging information Exchanging options Making plans and proposals Reaching agreement Executing decisions Sending and fulfilling orders Conducting sales
Formal Small-Groups Network Formal networks follow the authority chain & are limited to task related communication.The basic types of communication network are: Chain network: Communication travels up & down through the hierarchy. It rigidly follows the formal chain of commands. Y network: In this case information flows upward & downward through the hierarchy. Wheel network: This network is a faster means of getting information to employees, since the person at the hub of the wheel can do so directly & efficiently. All Channels: This network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other. It is characterized in practice by self managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute & no person takes on a leadership role. Informal communication Communication outside the organization’s formally authorized channels,is known as informal communication. The nature of this type of communication is different from formal communication, but the organization could not survive without it. The Grapevine The formal system is not the only communication network in a group or organization. There is also informal i.e. Grapevine. A survey found that 75% of employees hear about matters first through rumors on the grapevine. The three main characteristics of grapevine are:
It is not controlled by the management It is perceived as the most believable & reliable than formal communication issued by It is largely used to serve the interest of the people within it.
management. • Despite the fact that grapevines sometimes create difficulties when they carry gossip & false rumors, they are a fact of life in organizations. Study: Investigation was done on 67 managerial personnel in a small manufacturing firm. The basic aim was to learn from the each communication recipient how he or she first perceived a given piece of information & then trace back it back to its source. The result of the study showed that, while the grapevine was an important source of information, only 10% of executive acted as liaison individuals i.e. pass the information on to more than one other person. For example if there is a decision of an employee leaving the organization, 81% of the executives knew it, but only 11% transmitted this information to others. These results were in consistent with other investigation survey on state government office employees.
CASE STUDIES: Role of Communication
Problem in Communication: Aviation disaster Can the misunderstanding of a few words literally mean the difference between life & death? This can happen with aviation business. Aviation disaster occurred in 1977 at foggy Tenerif in the canary islands was the worst in history records. The captain of a KLM flight thought that air traffic controller had cleared him to take off. But the controller intended only to give departure instructions. Although the language spoken between the Dutch KLM captain & the Spanish controller was English, confusion was created by heavy accent & improper terminology. The KLM Boeing 747 hit a Pan am 747 at full throttle on the run way, killing 583 people. Bad weather & poor communications paired up again to create another disaster in October 2001, this time at Milano-Linae Airport in Italy. Visibility was poor & tower controllers were not able to establish visual or radar contact with planes. Miscommunications between the controller & the pilots of an SAS commercial jet & a small citation business jet, combined with poor visibility, led to the two planes colliding on the runway. One hundred & ten people died. How can Organizations outperform other Organizations?
The 2003/2004 Watson Wyatt Communication ROI study examines the relationship between an organization strategy & practices &its shareholder returns. The survey results are compelling. Organizations that communicate effectively outperform other organization financially. A significant improvement in communication effectiveness is associated with a 29.5% increase in market value of an organization. Effective communication here is implied when it is linked with: • • • • • Helping employees understand the business Exhibiting strong leadership by management during organizational change. Aligning employees’ actions with customer needs Providing information to employee regarding the value of rewards program. There are a number of potential measures for communication effectiveness. But organization that communicate effectively know which measure will give them the crucial information that can help their bottom lines. Effective Communication: A Leading Indicator of Financial Performance - 2005/2006 Communication ROI Study™ Communication is an important part of the business landscape.It strengthens the organization’s vision, connects employees to the business lead to the progress of employee & brings prosperity for the organization. The 2003/2004 Watson Wyatt Communication ROI Study proves that there is correlation between communication effectiveness, organizational turnover and financial performance. Further research in 2005-06, included 355 U.S. & Canadian companies that had median annual revenue of $1.8 billion & on average 13000 employees. Based on the research the following results are obtained: Results: • • Companies that communicate effectively have a 19.4 percent higher market premium than companies that do not. Shareholder returns for organizations with the most effective communication were over 57 percent higher over the last five years (2000-2004) than were returns for firms with less effective communication. The 2005/2006 study found evidence that communication effectiveness is a leading indicator of financial performance.
Firms that communicate effectively are 4.5 times more likely to report high levels of employee engagement versus firms that communicate less effectively
Is two way communications effective? The study is based on the survey conducted on 11 undertakings (four government & seven private) in Kolkata, Durgapur, Jamshedpur & Delhi whose number of employees ranging from 300 to 19000.All the organizations in both the sector were following written communications emanating from top management & addressed to heads at the departmental level. However, from the heads at the departmental downward to the worker level, verbal communication was in practice.
Results: Actions in an organization Government undertaking Private undertaking Information about future One half i.e. two companies Two-fifths of plans of company (1/2) Verbal communication all between worker & heads Program for improving two One-Fourth(1/4) way communication Suggestion boxes in office Three fourths(3/4) Utility of suggestion box One-third(1/3) Awareness about informal all communication The researcher concluded the study with the following pessimistic remark: “Effective communications from the worker to top management in large industrial undertakings does not exist, & communication from management to worker is poor. The existing downward communication is only connected with job and employment policies like wages, working hours, reporting time, charge sheets & so on. Upward communication is centered on the legal issues of employee grievances. But this is not all in communication. Informing the employee about the company’s future expansion program, telling him where he stands, his roles in company’s production picture, & so forth play an important role in productivity.” Lost in Translation... After 1991 of globalization, when the barrier between the countries were eliminated by trading across the globe then the barriers of communication comes into the picture. Many
companies(2/5) Fourth-fifths(4/5) >fourth-fifths(4/5) <three –fifths(3/5) One-fourth(1/4) Five undertaking
U.S. companies have overseas patent, including DaimlerChrysler AG, Diageo PLC, AngloDutch Unilever PLC. Similarly U.S. Companies have an overseas presence. To avoid communication problems, many companies require their managers to learn the local language. U.S. managers sometimes rely solely on the body language & facial expressions to communicate. The problem arises when there is a cultural difference even in the nonverbal means of communication that may result in serious misunderstandings. To avoid all these problems, there is only one solution left for the managers that is they should equip themselves with their host country’s culture.
In House Journal – A source of canny communications in Indian organizations Indian organizations use colorful people-friendly house journals as a part of their strategy to help manage & motivate employees. Specifically, house journal help them in: • • •
Building images Building a team spirit Educating employees Keeping employees informed
These sources of communication help them in correcting & improving their images as projected by media. For example: In East West Airlines, when there was attracting flak it was its journal to reach out to staffers & & boost employee morale. In an organization, efforts have also been made to use such journal in building team spirits. They are also used to educate their workforce about use of various resources in an organization. For example in National Thermal Power Corporation, employees learn use & abuse of electricity through comics. This also provides a mean to keep the employees informed about their various activities.
For effective communication, not only should the journal be & colorful, concerted efforts also needed more on visual content & drastically reduce the editorial content. Pepsi, for instance, has aptly named its journal Aha to highlight the fact that it is light, frothy & refreshing reading-in fact ,as cool as its soft drinks. The idea is to evoke team spirit & involve everyone.
The various cases used in the study highlighted the fact that companies must prioritize the many best practices in terms of communication improvement programs and lessons learned & fit the critical best practices into an operating strategy. They companies should promote effective communication by helping employees understand the business, Exhibiting strong leadership by management during organizational change, Aligning employees’ actions with customer needs, Providing information to employee regarding the value of rewards program. Employees in organizations should be equipped with the host’s country culture so that they can manage their business in every place of the world.
Books Organizational Behavior By:Stephan P.Robbins, Timothy A.Judge, Seema Sanghi Organizational Behavior By:Fred Luthans
Organizational Behavior By:K.Aswathappa ICMR Websites used www.hr.com www.simply-communicate.com/cgi-bin/item.cgi? id=623&d=136&h=60&f=75 www.watsonwyatt.com/research/resrender.asp?id=w-868&page=1 1000venture.com http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.rizwanashraf.com
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