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3 Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone

Server
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server is the Oracle software that provides system support for
an Oracle database including volume management, file system, and automatic restart capabilities. If you plan to
use Oracle Restart or Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), then you must install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure before you install and create the database. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server is the
software that includes Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM. Oracle combines the two infrastructure products into a
single set of binaries that is installed as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
Oracle ASM is a volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that supports single-instance
Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) configurations. Oracle ASM also supports
a general purpose file system for your application needs including Oracle Database binaries. Oracle ASM is
Oracle's recommended storage management solution that provides an alternative to conventional volume
managers, file systems, and raw devices.
Oracle Restart improves the availability of your Oracle database by providing the following:

When there is a hardware or a software failure, Oracle Restart automatically starts all Oracle
components, including the Oracle database instance, Oracle Net Listener, database services, and Oracle
ASM.
Oracle Restart starts components in the proper order when the database host is restarted.
Oracle Restart runs periodic checks to monitor the status of Oracle components. If a check operation
fails for a component, then the component is shut down and restarted.

Note:

If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server before you install and create the database. Otherwise, you must manually register the
database with Oracle Restart.

Oracle Restart is used in single-instance (nonclustered) environments only.

This chapter contains the following sections:

Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation


Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support
Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions
Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server Binaries
Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation

3.1 Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation


The system must meet the following requirements:

Memory Requirements
Disk Space Requirements
Configuring the User's Environment

3.1.1 Memory Requirements


The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server:
Minimum: At least 1.5 GB of RAM for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server; at least 1 GB of
additional RAM if you plan to install Oracle Database after installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server.
Recommended: 4 GB of RAM or more if you plan to install both Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server and Oracle Database.
To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:

# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo

If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more memory before
continuing.
The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the configured swap space
recommendation:

Note:
On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using memorymapped files. If you enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to HugePages
from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
RAM

Swap Space

Between 1.5 GB and 2 GB

1.5 times the size of the RAM

Between 2 GB and 16 GB

Equal to the size of the RAM

More than 16 GB

16 GB

To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo

If necessary, see the operating system documentation for information about how to configure additional swap
space.
To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:
# free

IMPORTANT:

Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the available RAM and swap space before
finalizing a value. This is because the available RAM and swap space keep changing depending on the
user interactions with the computer.

Contact your operating system vendor for swap space allocation guidance for your server. The vendor
guidelines supersede the swap space requirements listed in this guide.

3.1.2 Disk Space Requirements


The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure:

At least 5.5 GB of disk space.


At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory.

To determine the amount of free space available in the /tmp directory, enter the following command:
# df -k /tmp

If there is less than 1 GB of free space available in the /tmp directory, then complete one of the following steps:

Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space requirement.
Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory when setting the oracle
user's environment.
See Also:
"Configuring Oracle Software Owner Environment" for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR

Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the system administrator for
information about extending file systems.

3.1.3 Configuring the User's Environment


Complete the following tasks to set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user's environment:

Review the information in "Logging In to the System as root".


Ensure that you set the path to the Oracle base directory. Oracle Restart and Oracle Database are under
the same Oracle base directory. For example:

# ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle;
# export ORACLE_BASE

Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation
software owner.

Set the DISPLAY environment variable in preparation for installation.

Set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022
in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that the user performing the software installation
creates files with 644 permissions.

If you plan to install Oracle Database, then you must meet additional preinstallation requirements. See Chapter
2.

3.2 Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support


Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) extends Oracle ASM technology to
support of all of your application data in both single instance and cluster configurations. Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) provides volume management services and a
standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System is

layered on Oracle ASM through the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager
interface.
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM are supported on Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 for Linux
x86 and Linux x86-64. Table 3-1 lists the releases, platforms and kernel versions that support Oracle ACFS and
Oracle ADVM.
Table 3-1 Platforms That Support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM
Release

Platform / Operating System

11.2.x

Linux x86: Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise 2.6.18 or later updates to 2.6.18
Linux 5

11.2.0.1

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat


Enterprise Linux 5

11.2.0.2

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 5, Red Hat Enterprise 2.6.18 or later updates to 2.6.18
Linux 5, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3 and
later

11.2.0.3

Kernel

2.6.18

or later updates to 2.6.18

2.6.18 or later updates to 2.6.18


Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 5, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux 5, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3 and Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise
later, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP1
Kernel 2.6.32-100.34.1 and later
updates to 2.6.32-100

11.2.0.3

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 6 (with Oracle


Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel)

Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise


Kernel 2.6.32-100.34.1 and later
updates to 2.6.32-100

11.2.0.3.3 (Oracle
Grid Infrastructure
PSU)

Linux x86-64: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 , Oracle 6.0, 6.1, 6.2
Linux with the Red Hat Compatible Kernel

11.2.0.3.4 (Oracle
Grid Infrastructure
PSU)

Linux x86-64: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 , Oracle 6.3 and later
Linux with the Red Hat Compatible Kernel

11.2.0.3.7 (Oracle
Grid Infrastructure
PSU)

Linux x86-64: Oracle Linux 6 (with Oracle


Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel), SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 11 SP2

Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise


Kernel 2.6.39-100 and later
updates to 2.6.39-100

11.2.0.4

Linux x86-64: SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11


SP3

See Also:

For current information on platforms and releases that support Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM refer to
My Oracle Support Note 1369107.1 at:

https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show&type=NOT&id=1369107.1

For current Patch Set Update (PSU) release and support information refer to the PSU document on My
Oracle Support.

Note:
Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) is not supported on Oracle ACFS file systems.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you create Oracle data files in Oracle ASM disk groups. Creating Oracle data files on
an Oracle ACFS file system is not supported. Oracle ACFS can be used as an option only when Oracle ASM is
configured.
Oracle ACFS resources are not supported for Oracle Restart configurations on all platforms. You must manually
load ACFS drivers after a system restart. Oracle ACFS database home file systems can be placed into the
Oracle ACFS mount registry to be mounted along with other registered Oracle ACFS file systems.
Oracle Database homes can be stored on Oracle ACFS only if the database version is Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 or higher. Earlier releases of Oracle Database cannot be installed on Oracle ACFS.
See Also:

Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux for latest information about supported platforms and releases
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System and Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Dynamic Volume Manager

3.3 Enabling Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart Configurations


To use Oracle ACFS on Oracle Restart configurations, install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
and then enable root access for Oracle ACFS using the following command:
Log in as root
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# perl roothas.pl -lockacfs

3.4 Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions


Use Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to create and modify disk groups when you install
earlier Oracle databases on Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations.
Releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 used Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (Oracle DBCA)
to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle
ASM is installed as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. You can no longer use Oracle DBCA to
perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for details about configuring disk group
compatibility for databases using Oracle Database 10g or earlier software with Oracle Grid Infrastructure

3.5 Upgrading Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management


Instances
If you have an Oracle ASM installation from an earlier release installed on your server, or in an existing Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation, you can use Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant
(Oracle ASMCA) to upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance to 11g Release 2 (11.2), and subsequently
configure disk groups, Oracle ASM volumes and Oracle ASM file systems.
Note:
You must first shut down all databases and applications using an existing Oracle ASM instance before
upgrading it.
During the installation, if you use Oracle ASM, and Oracle ASMCA detects that there is a prior Oracle ASM
version installed in another Oracle ASM home, then after installing the Oracle ASM 11g Release 2 (11.2)
binaries, you can start Oracle ASMCA to upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance.
See Also:

"Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance with Oracle Universal Installer" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide
"Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant" in Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Administrator's Guide
"Downgrading an Oracle ASM Instance in an Oracle Restart Configuration" in Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Administrator's Guide

3.6 Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation


Considerations
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was installed as part of the Oracle
Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an
Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade (upgrades of existing Oracle ASM installations). If you do not have Oracle
ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) is installed as part of the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installation. You must run Oracle ASMCA for installing and
configuring Oracle ASM instances, disk groups, volumes, and Oracle ACFS. In addition, you can use the
ASMCA command-line interface.
See Also:
Chapter 11, "Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide for information about Oracle ASMCA
Apply the following guidelines when you install Oracle ASM:

You must complete the steps listed under "Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Installation" to prepare a disk partition to use for the Oracle ASM disk groups.

Ensure that at least one disk is configured appropriately for use in an Oracle ASM disk group before
beginning the installation.

When you install Oracle ASM, Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle
ASMCA) creates a separate server parameter file (SPFILE) and password file for the Oracle ASM
instance. As soon as Oracle ASM is installed, the ASMSNMP schema and user are created. See Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for more information.

The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk group runs in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home directory.

3.7 Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management


Installation
This section describes how to configure disks for use with Oracle ASM. The following sections describe how to
identify the requirements and configure the disks on each platform:

General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management


Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

Note:
Oracle does not recommend using identifiers for database object names that must be quoted. While these quoted
identifiers may be valid as names in the SQL CREATE statement, such as CREATE DISKGROUP "1data" ..., the
names may not be valid when using other tools that manage the database object.
See Also:
"Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide for information about creating and managing disk groups

3.7.1 General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management


The following are the general steps to configure Oracle ASM:
1. Identify the storage requirements of the site.
2. If you are creating a new Oracle ASM disk group, create partitions for DAS or SAN disks.
3. Configure the disks for use with Oracle ASM. You must provide the Oracle ASM disk configuration
information during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

3.7.2 Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine the number of devices and the
amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this task:
1. Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files, recovery files, or both.
Note:

You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for Oracle Database files and recovery files. You
can use a file system for one file type and Oracle ASM for the other.
If you enable automated backups and you do not have a shared file system available, then you must
choose Oracle ASM for recovery file storage.
During the database installation, if you plan to enable automated backups, then you can choose Oracle
ASM as the storage mechanism for recovery files by specifying an Oracle ASM disk group for the fast
recovery area. Depending on how you create a database during the database installation, you have the
following options:
o

You can run Oracle ASMCA in interactive mode to create and configure the required disk
groups.
During the database installation, if you select an installation method that runs Database
Configuration Assistant in interactive mode (Advanced Installation type), then you can select the
disk groups that you created using Oracle ASMCA.
You have the option to use the disk groups you created using Oracle ASMCA both for database
files and recovery files, or you can use different disk groups for each file type. Ideally, create
separate Oracle ASM disk groups for data files and for recovery files.

If you run Oracle ASMCA in noninteractive mode, then you must use the same Oracle ASM disk
group for data files and recovery files. During the database installation (Typical Installation
type), you must select the same disk group for both data files and recovery files.

See Also:
o
o

"Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command-Line Interface" section in Oracle Automatic


Storage Management Administrator's Guide
"Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group"

2. Choose the Oracle ASM redundancy level to use for each Oracle ASM disk group that you create.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle ASM disk group determines how Oracle ASM
mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of disk space that you
require, as follows:
o

External redundancy
This option does not allow Oracle ASM to mirror the contents of the disk group. Oracle
recommends that you select this redundancy level either when the disk group contains devices,
such as RAID devices, that provide their own data protection or when the database does not
require uninterrupted access to data.

Normal redundancy
To optimize performance and reliability in a normal redundancy disk group, Oracle ASM uses
two-way mirroring for data files and three-way mirroring for control files, by default. In
addition, you can choose the mirroring characteristics for individual files in a disk group. You
can use two-way mirroring or no mirroring.
A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups (or two disk devices)
if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group
is half the sum of the disk space of all of its devices.

For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy disk groups.
o

High redundancy
The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a disk group with
high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure groups (a minimum of three devices).
Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data protection, you must
consider the higher cost of additional storage devices before deciding to use this redundancy
level.

3. Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files and recovery files.
If an Oracle ASM instance is running on the system, then you can use an existing disk group to meet
these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the database
installation.
Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the minimum disk space
requirements for the installation:
Redundancy Level

Minimum Number of Disks

Data Files

Recovery Files

Both File Types

External

1.8 GB

3.6 GB

5.4 GB

Normal

3.6 GB

7.2 GB

10.8 GB

High

5.4 GB

10.8 GB

16.2 GB

4. Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further protect the database
against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in a custom failure group. By default, each
device is included in its failure group. However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group
are attached to the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller fails.
The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
For instance, to avoid failures of this type, you can use two small computer system interface (SCSI)
controllers, each with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This
configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller.
Note:
If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal
redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
5. If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or identify appropriate
disk devices to add to a new disk group. Apply the following guidelines when identifying appropriate
disk devices:
o The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.
See Also:
"Example of a Rules File with User grid" for information about creating or modifying
permissions

o
o

All the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group must be the same size and have the same
performance characteristics.
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group device. Oracle ASM
expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.
Although you can specify a logical volume as a device in an Oracle ASM disk group, Oracle
does not recommend their use because it adds a layer of complexity that is unnecessary with
Oracle ASM. Oracle recommends that if you choose to use a logical volume manager, then use
the logical volume manager to represent a single logical unit number (LUN) without striping or
mirroring, so that you can minimize the effect on storage performance of the additional storage
layer.

See Also:
o
o

"Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management" for information about
completing this task
"Preparing Storage for ASM" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for information about configuring Oracle ASM disk groups

3.7.3 Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Oracle ASM, the disk must have a partition table. Oracle recommends
creating exactly one partition for each disk.
Note:
You can use any physical disk for Oracle ASM, if it is partitioned.

3.7.4 Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management


Oracle provides an Oracle ASM library driver that you can use to simplify the configuration and management
of the disk devices to use with Oracle ASM. A disk that is configured for Oracle ASM is known as a candidate
disk.
If you intend to use Oracle ASM for database storage, then Oracle recommends that you install the Automatic
Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) and associated utilities and use them to configure the devices to
include in an Oracle ASM disk group.
Note:
If you configure disks using the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver, then you must change
the default disk discovery string to ORCL:*. If the diskstring is set to ORCL:*, or is left empty (""), then the
installer discovers these disks.
This section describes how to configure storage for use with Oracle ASM.

Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Using the Automatic Storage
Management Library Driver (ASMLIB)
Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management

3.7.4.1 Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Using the Automatic Storage
Management Library Driver (ASMLIB)
To use the Automatic Storage Management library driver to configure Automatic Storage Management devices,
complete the following tasks:

Installing and Configuring the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver Software
Configuring the Disk Devices to Use the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Library Driver

Administering the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and Disks

Installing and Configuring the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver Software
To install and configure the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver software:
1. Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of the system:
2. # uname -rm

3. If necessary, download the required Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver packages
from the Oracle Technology Network website:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/linux/asmlib/index-101839.html

You must install the following packages, where version is the version of the Oracle Automatic Storage
Management library driver, arch is the system architecture, and kernel is the version of the kernel that
you are using:
oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm

4. Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:


5. # sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
6.
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
7.
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm

If you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3.0 enterprise kernel on an x86 system, then enter a
command similar to the following:
# sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm \
oracleasm-2.4.9-e-enterprise-1.0.0-1.i686.rpm \
oracleasmlib-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm

8. Enter a command similar to the following to determine the UID of the Oracle software owner user that
you are using for this installation and the GID of the OSASM group:
9. # id oracle

10. Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the configure option:
11. # /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure

12. Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script displays:
Prompt

Suggested Response

Default UID to own the driver interface:

Specify the UID of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure owner user


(typically, grid).

Default GID to own the driver interface:

Specify the GID of the OSASM group (typically, asmadmin).

Start Oracle Automatic Storage Management Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Library driver on start (y/n):
library driver when the system starts.
Scan for Oracle ASM disks on boot (y/n):

Enter y to scan for the presence of any Oracle Automatic Storag


Management disks when the system starts.

13.
Configuring the Disk Devices to Use the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Library Driver

To configure the disk devices to use in an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group:
1. If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group, then:
1. If necessary, install or configure the disk devices that you intend to use for the disk group and
restart the system.
2. To identify the device name for the disks to use, enter the following command:
3. # /sbin/fdisk -l

Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary:


Disk
Type

Device Name
Format

IDE
disk

/dev/hdxn

In this example, x is a letter that identifies the IDE disk, and n is the partiti
number. For example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first IDE bus.

SCSI
disk

/dev/sdxn

In this example, x is a letter that identifies the SCSI disk, and n is the parti
number. For example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first SCSI bus.

Description

RAID /dev/rd/cxdypz Depending on the RAID controller, RAID devices can have different devic
/dev/ida/cxdypz
disk
names. In the examples shown, x is a number that identifies the controller,
number that identifies the disk, and z is a number that identifies the partiti
example, /dev/ida/c0d1 is the second logical drive on the first controller

Note:
Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk partition on each disk to use.
4. Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the disk devices to use.
2. Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Oracle Automatic Storage Management
disk:
3. # /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1

In this example, DISK1 is a name assigned to the disk.


Note:
o

If you are using a multipathing disk driver with Oracle Automatic Storage Management, then
ensure that you specify the correct logical device name for the disk.
The disk names that you specify can contain uppercase letters, numbers, and the underscore
character. They must start with an uppercase letter.

To create a database during the installation using the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library driver, you must change the default disk discovery string to ORCL:*.

Administering the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and Disks
To administer the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use the
/usr/sbin/oracleasm initialization script with different options, as described in Table 3-2:

Table 3-2 Disk Management Tasks Using ORACLEASM

Task

Command
Example

Configure or
reconfigure
ASMLIB

oracleasm
configure -i

Change system
restart load
options for
ASMLIB

oracleasm
enable

Use the configure option to reconfigure the Oracle Automatic Storage


Management library driver, if necessary.
To see command options, enter oracleasm configure without the -i
flag.

oracleasm
Load or unload
ASMLIB without restart
restarting the
system

Mark a disk for


use with ASMLIB

Description

Options are disable and enable.


Use the disable and enable options to change the actions of the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver when the system starts.
The enable option causes the Oracle Automatic Storage Management
library driver to load when the system starts.
Options are start, stop and restart.
Use the start, stop, and restart options to load or unload the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management library driver without restarting the
system.

Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device for use with the
oracleasm
Automatic Storage Management library driver and give it a name,
createdisk
labelname is the name you want to use to mark the device, and
VOL1 /dev/sda1
devicepath is the path to the device:

Oracle
where

oracleasm createdisk labelname devicepath

Unmark a named
disk device

oracleasm
deletedisk
VOL1

Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named disk device, where


diskname is the name of the disk:
oracleasm deletedisk diskname

Caution: Do not use this command to unmark disks that are being used by
an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group. You must delete
the disk from the Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group
before you unmark it.
oracleasm
Determine if
ASMLIB is using querydisk
a disk device

Use the querydisk option to determine if a disk device or disk name is


being used by the Oracle Automatic Storage Management library driver,
where diskname_devicename is the name of the disk or device that you
want to query:
oracleasm querydisk diskname_devicename

List Oracle
ASMLIB disks

oracleasm
listdisks

Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of marked Oracle ASM
library driver disks.

Identify disks
marked as
ASMLIB disks

oracleasm
scandisks

Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes to identify which


shared disks have been marked as ASMLIB disks on another node.

Rename ASMLIB
disks

oracleasm
renamedisk

Use the renamedisk option to change the label of an Oracle ASM library
driver disk or device by using the following syntax, where manager
specifies the manager device, label_device specifies the disk you

Task

Command
Example
VOL1 VOL2

Description
intend to rename, as specified either by OracleASM label name or by the
device path, and new_label specifies the new label you want to use for
the disk:
oracleasm renamedisk [-l manager] [-v] label_device
new_label

Use the -v flag to provide a verbose output for debugging.


Caution: You must ensure that all Oracle Database and Oracle ASM
instances have ceased using the disk before you relabel the disk. If you
do not do this, then you may lose data.

3.7.4.2 Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
By default, the 2.6 kernel device file naming scheme udev dynamically creates device file names when the
server is started, and assigns ownership of them to root. If udev applies default settings, then it changes device
file names and owners for the disks, corrupting them when an Oracle ASM instance is restarted. If you use
ASMLIB, then you do not have to ensure permissions and device path persistency in udev.
If you do not use ASMLIB, then you must create a custom rules file. When udev is started, it sequentially
carries out rules (configuration directives) defined in rules files. These files are in the path
/etc/udev/rules.d/. Rules files are read in lexical order. For example, rules in the file 10-wacom.rules are
parsed and carried out before rules in the rules file 90-ib.rules.
Where rules files describe the same devices, on Asianux, Red Hat, and Oracle Linux, the last file read is the one
that is applied. On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 2.6 kernels, the first file read is the one that is applied.
To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:
1. Configure SCSI devices as trusted devices, white listed, by editing the /etc/scsi_id.config file and
adding "options=-g" to the file. For example:
2. # cat > /etc/scsi_id.config
3. vendor="ATA",options=-p 0x80
4. options=-g
5. Using a text editor, create a udev rules

file for the Oracle ASM devices, setting permissions to 0660 for
the installation owner and the group whose members are administrators of the grid infrastructure
software.
For example, on Oracle Linux, to create a role-based configuration rules.d file, where the installation
owner is grid, and the OSASM group is asmadmin, enter commands similar to the following:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
KERNEL=="sd?1", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?2", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?3", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"

6. Load updated block device partition tables on the server using: /sbin/partprobe devicename. You
must do this as the root user.
7. Enter the command to restart the udev service.

On Asianux, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, the commands are:
# /sbin/udevcontrol reload_rules
# /sbin/start_udev

On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11, the command is:
# /etc/init.d boot.udev restart

Verify that your system is configured correctly.

3.8 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only


Installation
A software-only installation only copies the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server binaries to the
specified location. Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and Oracle ASM must be
done manually after the installation is finished.
When you perform a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, you must complete a few
manual configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after you install the software.
Note:
Oracle recommends that only advanced users perform the software-only installation because this installation
method provides no validation of the installation, and this installation option requires manual postinstallation
steps to enable the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software.
Performing a software-only installation involves the following steps:
1. Installing the Software Binaries
2. Configuring the Software Binaries

3.8.1 Installing the Software Binaries


1. Run the runInstaller command from the relevant directory on the Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2) installation media or download directory.
2. Complete a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
See "Configuring the Software Binaries" for information about configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure
after performing a software-only installation.
3. Verify that the server meets the installation requirements using the command runcluvfy.sh stage
-pre hacfg. Ensure that you complete all storage and server preinstallation requirements.

3.8.2 Configuring the Software Binaries


To configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation for Oracle Restart, complete
the following tasks:
1. Login as root and run the roothas.pl script from Grid_home using the following syntax:
2. Grid_home/perl/bin/perl -I Grid_home/perl/lib -I Grid_home/crs/install
3. Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl

For example, if your Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid,


then run the following script:

# /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/perl/bin/perl -I
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/perl/lib -I /u01/app/oracle/product
/11.2.0/grid/crs/install /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/roothas.pl

4. Change the directory to Grid_home/oui/bin, where Grid_home is the path of the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home.
5. Login as the Oracle Restart software owner user and enter the following command:
6. ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName
CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE

For example:
$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
-defaultHomeName CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE

7. Use the SRVCTL utility along with Network Configuration Assistant and Oracle ASMCA to add the
listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and all Oracle ASM disk groups to the Oracle Restart configuration.

3.9 Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a


Standalone Server
If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and then create your database, the database is automatically added to
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration and is automatically restarted when required. However, if you
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure on a host computer on which a database exists, you must manually add the
database, the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and other components to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
configuration.
Note:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure can accommodate multiple single-instance databases on a single host computer.
This section includes the following topics:

Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation


Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database

3.9.1 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation


Perform the following steps to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and then create a database that is managed by
Oracle Restart. First install Oracle Grid Infrastructure, which installs Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM, then
configure Oracle ASM with at least one disk group, and then install Oracle Database that stores database files in
Oracle ASM disk groups. Click the help button on the Oracle Universal Installer page for page level assistance.
You may have to shut down existing Oracle processes before you proceed with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. See "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" for more information.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server with a new database installation:
1. Start Oracle Universal Installer as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user. Complete one of
the following steps depending on the location of the installation files:
o If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the following, where
directory_path is the path of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure directory on the installation media:
o

$ /directory_path/runInstaller

Note:
You must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server from the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure media.
o
o
o

If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the path of the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure (clusterware) directory and enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller

Downloading Updates Before Installation


Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), if you plan to run the installation in a
secured data center, then you can download updates before starting the installation by starting
Oracle Universal Installer on a system that has Internet access in update download mode. To
start Oracle Universal Installer to download updates, enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller -downloadUpdates

Provide the My Oracle Support user name and password, and provide proxy settings if needed.
After you download updates, transfer the update file to a directory on the server where you plan
to run the installation.
See Also:

Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for more
information about response file formats
"Software Updates Option"
"Configuring the User's Environment" for information about setting the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure software owner user's environment

Note:
Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session where you logged in as the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure software owner user and set the user's environment.
If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, see "X Window Display Errors" and "Remote Terminal
Installation Error" for information about troubleshooting.
2. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you can use the Software Updates feature to
dynamically download and apply the latest updates. In the Download Software Updates screen, select
one of the following options and click Next:
o Use My Oracle Support credentials for download: Select this option to download and apply the
latest software updates.
Click Proxy Settings to configure a proxy for Oracle Universal Installer to use to connect to the
Internet. Provide the proxy server information for your site, along with a user account that has
access to the local area network through which the server is connecting. Starting with Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) you can enter the Proxy Realm information. The proxy realm
information is case-sensitive. If you do not have a proxy realm, then you do not have to provide
an entry for the Proxy Username, Proxy Password, and Proxy Realm fields.
Click Test Connection to ensure that your proxy settings are correctly entered, and the installer
can download the updates.
o

Use pre-downloaded software updates: Select this option to apply the software updates
previously downloaded using the -downloadUpdates flag.

Skip software updates: Select this option if you do not want to apply any updates.

3. The Apply Software Updates screen is displayed if you select to download the software updates, or
provide the pre-downloaded software updates location.
1.

If you selected Use My Oracle Support credentials for download in the previous screen, select
Download and apply all updates, and then click Next to apply the updates.
By default, the download location for software updates is placed in the home directory of the
Oracle installation owner you are using to run this installation. If you choose to download the
software updates in another location, then click Browse and select a different location on your
server.

If you selected Use pre-downloaded software updates in the previous screen, select Apply all
updates, and then click Next to apply the updates downloaded before starting the installation.
2. In the Select Installation Option screen, select the Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server option to install and configure Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM. Click Next.
2.

3. In the Select Product Languages screen, select one or more languages. Move the languages from the
Available Languages list to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.
4. The Create ASM Disk Group screen lists all the Oracle ASM disks.
Click Change Discovery Path to select any devices to be used by Oracle ASM but are not listed in the
screen. In the Change Disk Discovery Path window, enter a string to use to search for devices that
Oracle ASM will use. If the disk string is set to ORCL:* or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers
these disks. Click OK.
After you finish selecting the disks to be used by Oracle ASM, click Next.
Note:
During installation, disk paths mounted on Oracle ASM and registered on ASMLIB with the string
ORCL:* are listed as default database storage candidate disks.
Consider the following information about disk devices while performing this step:
o
o

The default Disk Group Name is DATA. You can enter a new name for the disk group, or use the
default name.
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.
See Also:
"Example of a Rules File with User grid" for information about creating or modifying
permissions

Check with your system administrator to determine if the disks used by Oracle ASM are
mirrored at the storage level. If so, select External for the redundancy. If the disks are not
mirrored at the storage level, then select Normal for the redundancy.
Note:
For normal redundancy, you require twice as much disk space to hold the same amount of data.
For example, if your database is 100 GB, then you require approximately 200 GB of storage.

Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An allocation unit is the
fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2.0.3), you can select the AU Size value from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 MB, depending on the
specific disk group compatibility level. The default value is set to 1 MB.

4. In the Specify ASM Password screen, enter the password required to connect to the Oracle ASM
instance. The Oracle ASM instance is managed by a privileged role called SYSASM, which grants full
access to Oracle ASM disk groups. Oracle recommends that you create a less privileged user, ASMSNMP,
with SYSDBA privileges to monitor the Oracle ASM instance.
Enter passwords for the SYS and ASMSNMP user accounts. The passwords should be at least eight
characters in length and include at least 1 alphabetic, 1 numeric, and 1 of the following three
punctuation mark characters: hyphens (-), underscores (_), or number sign (#). No other special
characters are allowed in the password field.
Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you
specify a different password for each account. You must remember the passwords that you specify.
5. In the Privileged Operating System Groups screen, select the name of the operating system group you
created for the OSDBA group, the OSASM group, and the database operator group OSOPER. If you create
only the dba group, then you can use that group for all three privileged groups. If you created a separate
asmadmin group, then use that value for the OSASM group. Click Next.
6. In the Specify Installation Location screen, enter the following information, and click Next:
o

Oracle Base: Enter the location for the Oracle base directory. Do not include spaces in the path.

Software Location: Accept the default value or enter the directory path in which you want to
install the software.The directory path must not contain spaces..

See Also:
o
o

"Identifying Required Software Directories" for information about Oracle base directory and
Oracle home directory
"Naming Directories" for directory naming conventions

7. If you have not installed Oracle software previously on this server, the Create Inventory screen appears.
Change the path for the Inventory Directory, if required. Select oinstall for the oraInventory Group
Name, if required. Click Next.
8. The Perform Prerequisite Checks screen checks if the minimum system requirements are met to perform
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If all the system requirements are met, then you are directed
to the Summary screen. If an installation fails, you can review the error.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if the minimum
requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and check the system
requirements again.
Note:
The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you must run as the root user. This generated
script sets some system parameter values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of
this script. See "Installation Fixup Scripts" for more information.

To get a list of failed requirements, select Show Failed from the list. To get a list of all the prerequisites
checks run by the OUI, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequisites checks that are successful,
select Show Succeeded.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you use caution when selecting the Ignore All option. If you select this option,
then Oracle Universal Installer may not confirm that your system can install Oracle Database
successfully.
9. Review the contents of the Summary screen, and click Install.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can click Save Response File to save all the
installation steps into a response file. This file can be used for a silent installation.
10. The Install Product screen displays the progress of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. During the
installation process, the Execute Configuration Scripts window appears. Do not click OK until you run
the scripts mentioned in this screen.
Run the root.sh and, if required, the orainstRoot.sh configuration scripts as the root user.
11. The Finish screen displays the installation status. Click Close to end the installation, then click Yes to
exit Oracle Universal Installer.
If you encounter any problems, see the configuration log for information. The path to the configuration
log is displayed on the Configuration Assistants window.
12. Oracle ASMCA is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installation.
To create additional disk groups, run the Oracle ASMCA utility. For example, you can create another
disk group named RECOVERY to store the fast recovery area.
See Also:
o
o

"Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups"


"Creating a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group"

Note:
To verify that the Oracle High Availability Service is installed properly, run ./crsctl check has
command from Grid_home/bin directory.
is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a standalone server. ohasd is a daemon
installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure that starts software services, such as Oracle ASM.
Grid_home

13. Install Oracle Database. See "Installing the Oracle Database Software".
Note:
o

If a new database is installed after a grid infrastructure installation, then the listener runs from
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. Because Oracle ASM is installed as part of Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, the default listener is created and runs from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
If you perform a database installation, then the database must use the same listener created
during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
If you are using Oracle Restart, then the default listener and any additional listeners must run
from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.

See "Troubleshooting and Deconfiguring Oracle Restart" to deconfigure Oracle Restart without
removing installed binaries.

3.9.2 Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database


Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and configure it for an
existing Oracle database. Oracle Restart can only manage existing release 11.2 resources and hence you can
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure only for an existing release 11.2 database. However, Oracle database releases
before 11.2 can coexist on the same server without being managed by Oracle Restart.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an existing database:

On the same host computer as the database, use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure, and select Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server as the installation
option.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure components are installed in a separate Oracle home.
See "Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation" for detailed instructions.

Go to the Grid home's bin directory.


Use the srvctl add database command with the -c SINGLE flag to add the database in an Oracle
Restart configuration. Also use the srvctl add command to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance,
all Oracle ASM disk groups, and any database services to the Oracle Restart configuration.
See Also:
"srvctl add" in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information

3.10 Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server


Binaries
After the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server installation, you must first stop the Oracle Restart
stack to modify the software installed in your Grid home. For example, to apply a one-off patch or modify any
of the DLLs used by Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, you must follow these steps to stop and restart the Oracle
Restart stack.
However, if you run the OPatch utility with the auto option, opatchauto, then do not stop and restart the
Oracle Restart stack manually as OPatch stops and starts the software stack for you. If you run OPatch with the
apply option, opatch apply, then you must follow the steps in this section to stop and restart the Oracle
Restart stack manually.
See Also:
Oracle OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for information about using opatchauto
Caution:
Before relinking executables, you must shut down all executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you
are relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle shared libraries.
Prepare the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server home for modification using the following
procedure:

1. Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user and change the directory to the path
Grid_home/bin, where Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home:
2. $ cd Grid_home/bin

3. Shut down the Oracle Restart stack using the following command:
4. $ crsctl stop has -f

5. After the Oracle Restart stack is shut down, perform the updates to the software installed in the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure home.
6. Use the following command to restart the Oracle Restart stack:
7. $ crsctl start has

Relink Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server using the following procedure:
1. Login as root
2. # cd Grid_home/crs/install
3. # perl roothas.pl -unlock

4. Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server owner:


5. $ export ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home
6. $ Grid_home/bin/relink
7. Login as root again:
8. #
9. #
10.
11.

cd Grid_home/rdbms/install/
./rootadd_rdbms.sh
# cd Grid_home/crs/install
# perl roothas.pl -patch

You must relink the Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM binaries every time you apply an operating system
patch or after an operating system upgrade.
See Also:
"Deinstalling Previous Release Grid Home"

3.11 Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management


Disk Groups
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) utility creates a new
Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance if there is no Oracle ASM instance currently configured on the
computer.
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you can also use Oracle ASMCA to create and configure disk
groups, Oracle Oracle ADVM and Oracle ACFS.
To create additional disk groups or manually configure Oracle ASM disks, you can run the Oracle ASMCA as
follows:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
$ ./asmca
Grid_home

is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a standalone server.

See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide

3.12 Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation


To test the Oracle ASM installation, login using the asmcmd command-line utility, which lets you manage
Oracle ASM disk group files and directories. To do this:
1. Open a shell window, and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME environment variables to
specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM instance to use.
For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and the Oracle home is located in the grid
subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following commands to create the required
settings:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:


$
$
$
$

ORACLE_SID=+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
export ORACLE_HOME

C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid

2. Use ASMCMD to list the disk groups for the Oracle ASM instance:
3. $ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd lsdg

ASMCMD connects by default as the SYS user with SYSASM privileges.


If the Oracle ASM instance is not running, you can start the instance with the following:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd startup