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A

PROJECT REPORT
On

Water Level
Indicator
Cum Controller
SESSION 2005-2006

Submitted To:Shri A.K. Choudhary


Lecturer Physics
Dept.

Submitted By:Vandana
Class: XII (Medical)

M.L.N. Sen. Sec.


School
Yamuna Nagar
CONTENTS

ACOKNOWLEGEMENT

INTRODUCTION
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
PCB BASED DIAGRAM
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

CIRCUIT DISCRPTION

WORKING

ACHKNOWLEDGEMENT

We feel our project will not be completed


untill we offers our thanks for the help from various
quarters.
First we thanks to God for the external infinite
and in comprehensible being. The creature of all
things who has chalked the way of our life.
Next of God Specially we are thankful to our
Project Guide Shri A.K. Chaudhary & Shri Vishal
Aggarwal who encouraged us to take pain for us and
complete the project with least less of time. We are

also thankful to our friends who help directly or


indirectly.
We are graceful to our worthy Principal for
kindly providing us the facilities during this project.
We thankful everyone sincerely from our
hearts.
Vandana XII-(Medical)

INTRODUCTION
As we know that water is very precious for us that
is why Indian Govt. and private social services starts
their planning and for saving of water. The Govt. and
the Newspapers gives regularly advertisements for
people to sugges how they can save the water in their
daily routine.
If any other person impress from this project and
take a step for saving of water, then I will satisfy
myself of making this project.
I make this project with the help of circuit and
electronics. There are many kinds of circuit available
in the market for water level indicator or controller,
which

works

indivisually,

but

my

circuit

automatically works as water level indicator and


controller also. This project is very simple and cheep
than any other project. This project is also useful for
home use and industries.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF
WATER LEVEL
INDICATOR

PCB BASED CIRCUIT


DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

RESISTANCE

VALUES

1. R1,R2,R3,R4-

1k

2. R5,R6,R7

680

TRANSISTER:
1. Q1, Q2, Q3

2. Q4

BC547
BD115

SEMICONDUCTOR
1. CAPACITOR

470f 25V

2. LED1

GREEN

3. LED2

YELLOW

4. LED3

RED

5. DIODES {P-N JUNCTION}


6. TRANSFORMOR (STEP-DOWN) 9V-0-9V 230V,
50 Hz

CIRCUIT
DISDRIPTION
There are mainly four transistor used in this
circuit. In these transistor first three transistor Q1, Q2
and Q3 woks for the indication of the level of the
water. They connected with three resistors R1, R2
and R3(1k) through probes of different water
positioning level for low, medium and high. The
collector terminals are connected with positive
supply of 9volt and the emitter of the transistor is
connected with green, yellow and red LEDs through
the resistor of 680 as R5, R6 and R7.

The last transistor R4 is connected with the


relay which derive the motor. The collector is biased
from positive supply of 9volt through the coil of the
relay and emitter is ground. The base terminal is
connected with the probe of high level when tank will
full of water.

WORKING
There are basically three steps of the
working in this circuit.
STEP 1:
When the water level is low the transistor
Q1 will switch on as the base sense positive drive
when water reach the probe P1 and Q1 transistor will
switch on. Thus, collector positive biasing supply

come out through the green LED becomes glow in


forward bias condition.
STEP 2:
In this step when water reaches medium
level the second probe P2 gives a positive drive to
the base of transistor Q2 and the transistor switch on.
As above the collector bias come through emitter and
yellow LED get forward bias and glow.
STEP 3:
In this condition, the transistor Q3 and
Q4 works simultaneously. When the water level
come to maximum level the transistor Q3 is switch
on through probe P3 that gives a indication with Red
LED get forward bias the emitter supply.
After some time when water tank
become full the transistor Q4 is switch on by
providing positive drive through base with the help of
probe P4. Which result, the relay activate the pole

from NC to NO for break the supply of motor for the


purpose of stop the motor.