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Introduction

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Various disasters like earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruptions, fires, flood and cyclones are natural
hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year.
With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with deforestation, unplanned growth
proliferation non-engineered constructions which make the disaster-prone areas mere vulnerable, tardy
communication, poor or no budgetary allocation for disaster prevention, developing countries suffer more
or less chronically by natural disasters
India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of
its unique geo-climatic conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and
landslides have been a recurrent phenomena.
About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million hectares is
prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is susceptible to
drought.
In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4344 people lost their lives and about 30 million people
were affected by disasters every year. The loss in terms of private, community and public assets has been
astronomical
India has been very vulnerable to natural hazards and calamities. The Bhuj
earthquake accounted for 13805 deaths, the super cyclone in Orissa accounted for
9885 deaths.
At the global level, there has been considerable concern over natural
disasters. Even as substantial scientific and material progress is made, the loss of
lives and property due to disasters has not decreased. In fact, the human toll and
economic losses have mounted.Over the past couple of years, the Government of India have brought
about a paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management.
The steps being taken by the Government covers institutional mechanisms, disaster prevention strategy,
early warning system, disaster mitigation, preparedness and response and human resource
development.Let’s see in detail about the role of government/non-government agencies in disaster
management in further pages
Main types of Disasters
Drought:

Drought's beginning is subtle. thirty three percent of the area receives less than 750mm rainfall and is chronically drought-prone. An estimated 8 million hectares of land are affected annually. they are called 'typhoons'. they are called 'hurricane'.related natural disaster often aggravated by human action. The 1987 drought had a lasting impact on one-third of the country. About 40 million hectares or nearly 1/8th of India's geographical area is flood-prone. tropical cyclones are known to claim a higher share of deaths and distruction world over. In India. Most zones of maximum earthquake intensity and frequency occur at the boundaries between the moving plates that form the crust of the earth. in the Indian ocean they are called 'cyclones' and over North Atlantic. Earthquake Earthquakes are caused by the abrupt release of strain that has built up in the earth's crust. Cyclones occurs usually between April and May (called pre-monsoon cyclonic storms) and between October and December (called post-monsoon cyclonic storms). its progress is insidious and its effects can be devastating. India has a vast coast line which is frequently affected by tropical cyclones causing heavy loss of human lives and property. and thirty five percent of the area with 750-1125mm rainfall is also subject to drought once in four to five years. last indefinitely and attain many degrees of severity drought is a frequent phenomenon over many parts of India.5 million ha during normal floods to 10 million ha during worst flood. Cyclone The intense tropical storms are known in different part of the world by different names. . Thus.Drought is the single most important weather. the loss of lives and damage to the properties can be mitigated if prompt action is taken after receiving timely warnings. 68 percent of the total sown area covering about 142 million hectares are vulnerable to drought conditions. India has faced three major droughts in this century. Drought may start any time. In the Pacific ocean. The cropped area affected annually ranges from 3. Flood India is the worst flood-affected country in the world after Bangladesh and accounts for one-fifth of the global death count due to floods. Records show that about 80 tropical cyclones form over the globe every year.1965-66 and 1986-87. Among various natural calamaties.1904-1905. While cyclonic storms can't be prevented.

Ground deformations. Himachal Pradesh. hot springs and crater lakes as well as earth tremors are preceding volcanic eruptions. changes in the compositions of gases emitting from volcanic vents. The Disaster Management . Role of Government functionaries in Disaster Management Disaster management is a multidisciplinary activity involving a number of a number of Departments/agencies spanning across all sectors of development. The process of drafting the plans at all levels has already begun. A number of studies have been carried out in India using satellite data and aerial photographs to develop appropriate methodologies for terrain classification and preparation of maps showing landslide hazards in the Garhwal Himalayan region. Thermal infrared remote sensing has been applied for volcanic hazard assessment. Similarly. Nilagiri hills in south India and in Sikkim forest area. Landslides Aerial photographs and large-scale satellite images have been used to locate the areas with the incidence of landslide. Bihar. Andaman & Nicobar Administration. Arunachal Pradesh.Volcanic Eruption Many times precursors of volcanic eruptions have been observed in various areas of volcanic activity.Andhra Pradesh. Higher spatial resolution and stereo imaging capability of IRS -IC and -1D enable further refining the location and monitoring of landslides. The changeover has already happened in 11 States/UTs . Each village in multi-hazard prone district will have a Disaster Management Plan. Such studies have been carried out using mostly aerial photographs because of their high resolution enabling contour mapping with intervals of better than 2m in height. The Government of India is working with the State Governments to restructure the Departments of Relief & Rehabilitation into Departments of Disaster Management with an enhanced area of responsibility to include mitigation and preparedness apart from their present responsibilities of relief and rehabilitation. changes in the temperatures of fumaroles. sub-divisional and Block/Taluka level Disaster Management Committees are also being constituted. Nagaland. Rajasthan Tamil Nadu. At the village level Disaster Management Committees and Disaster Management Teams are being constituted. Uttaranchal. Sikkim and Lakshadweep. The change is under process in other States.

search and rescue. The plan encompasses prevention. The Disaster Management Committee will review the disaster management plan at least once in a year. A large number of village level Disaster Management Committees and Disaster Management Teams have already been constituted. primary school teachers etc. The teams are provided basic training in evacuation. . Government functionaries including doctors/paramedics of primary health centres located in the village. The Disaster Management Teams at the village level will consist of members of youth organisations like Nehru Yuvak Kendra and other nongovernmental organisations as well as able bodied volunteers from the village. It would also generate awareness among the people in the village about dos’ and don’ts for specific hazards depending on the vulnerability of the village. mitigation and preparedness measures. local authorities.Committee which draws up the plans consists of elected representatives at the village level. first aid trauma counseling etc. evacuation.