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Separation Process I

Dr Chew Thiam Leng

Chapter –

Lesson outcome • Introduction • Working principles of solid-liquid processes • Mode of leaching operations and equipment for leaching • solid-liquid equilibrium .

 Able to estimate the exit stream amounts and compositions of single stage solid-liquid extractor. .Lesson outcome At the end of the session. the students are able to:  Discuss the principles of solid-liquid processes and basic design considerations.

Recap of pervious lesson Countercurrent Multiple-Contact Stages extraction processes Determination of multiple stages required for a desired separation using material balance and graphical method. .

hot water solvent  vegetable oils from nuts and seeds. water/organic solvents .Introduction • Solid-liquid separation/Leaching: A process that involves treatment of a finely divided solid with a liquid that dissolves out and remove a solute contained in the solid. organic solvents (hexane. • Solute(s) from solid medium diffuses into the liquid (solvent) upon intimate contact with the liquid (solvent) Application • Biological and food industries  sugar from sugar beet. ether)  Pharmaceutical products. • Fluid is used to extract out a solute from a solid.

Raw material preparation for leaching processes • Solids must be prepared for extraction/leaching  Grinding/crushing  metals. food  Rolling/flaking – food . inorganic materials • Minimizing diffusion surface  Cut/chop – food  Drying – pharmaceutical.

Overall Process  Bulk solvent solution to solid surface • Solvent diffuses into solid • Solute dissolves into solvent • Solute diffuses to surface • Solute transferred to bulk solution Solute Solvent Solid .

specifically diffusion  Dissolution  rate of mass transfer from solid to solvent controls  For pure solid or very rapid solid diffusion.Overall Process  Key leaching processes  Rate of mass transfer.1 Concentration Saturation solubility of solid . Kg mol of A dissolving to the solution NA  k L (c AS  c A ) A particles surface area mass transfer coefficient 6.

2 • Integrating from t=o to t=t and from CA=CAo to CA=CA  CA C Ao dC A Ak L  C AS  C A V t  dt t 0 6.  Ak L  t V   C AS  C A e  C AS  C Ao 6. thus.3 • Solving. VdC A  N A  Ak L (c AS  c A ) dt 6. the rate of accumulation of A in the solution is equal to the rate of A that dissolves from the inert solid (B). From material balance.4 .

Mode of Leaching Operations   Batch operations Continuous stage operations • • steady state unsteady state .

Equipment for Leaching Fixed bed leaching Movable Cover Solvent Solute Solid Bed Movable Bottom Solute solution .

Equipment for Leaching Moving bed leaching Bucket type .

Equipment for Leaching Moving bed leaching screw conveyor .

Equipment for Leaching Agitated Solid leaching Countercurrent contactor-agitator settler .

material balance or an operating line equation that relates the equilibrium between the two streams are needed.Equilibrium Relations • To analyze single stage or multiple stage leaching processes. the following assumptions are made:  Solute free solids – insoluble in solvent  Sufficient solvent to dissolve all solute – in first stage  No adsorption of solute by solid  Some liquid solution will be retain in the solid – slurry stream • Consequently. Solute concentration at overflow equals that at underflow  x-y plot has a 45o equilibrium line . • For equilibrium analysis.

inert or leached solid (B) and solvent (C) • The two phases are the overflow liquid phase and the underflow slurry phase. • equilibrium data can be plotted on the rectangular diagram as weight fraction (wt) for the three components. ie. .. • Another convenient method of plotting the equilibrium data which is similar to enthalpy-concentration method of distillation processes can be used. solute (A).• Experimental equilibrium data showing the variation of the amount and composition of the solution retained in the solid as a function of the solute composition must be obtained.

kg B kg solid 6. inert solid (B) and solvent (C).5 N  kg A  kg C kg solution Where: N = 0 in the overflow and N = varies in the underflow Similarly.• With the three basic components – solute (A). the composition of solute A in the liquid overflow and underflow will be expressed as . • Let N be concentration of inert solid. B.

In overflow kg A kg solute xA   kg A  kg C kg solution In underflow kg A kg solute yA   kg A  kg C kg solution 6.7 .6 6.

• the bottom layer of N verses xA . the upper curve of N versus yA for the slurry underflow that represents the separated solid under experimental conditions is similar to the actual stage processes as shown in the Figure. The equilibrium line for the two phases coincides with the yA = xA on the 45o line. .Equilibrium Diagram • When solute A is infinitely soluble in solvent C. and lies on x-y diagram (45o line). represents the overflow liquid composition where all the solid has been removed. where N=0 on the axis. • In such cases the tie line are vertical.

so that all the solute is not dissolved .Equilibrium Relations  During the leaching process :  if there is no insufficient contact time. .  In such a case.  adsorption of A on the solid will occur or solute soluble on B. the equilibrium diagram is as shown in the figure and the tie lines are not vertical.

Next lesson  Single stage leaching process  Multiple stage leaching processes .