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Tungsten halogen lamps are basically incandescent lamps that operate at
higher pressure and temperature than standard incandescent lamps,
producing a whiter light and longer life. The "tungsten" part of the name
comes from the filament material - tungsten. The halogen part refers to the
type of chemical additive that bestows the lamp with its special properties.
It is an advanced form of incandescent lamp.

The filament is composed of ductile tungsten and located in a gas filled bulb
just like a standard tungsten bulb, however the gas in a halogen bulb is at a
higher pressure (7-8 ATM). The glass bulb is made of fused quartz, high-silica glass or
aluminosilicate. This bulb is stronger than standard glass in order to contain the high pressure.
This lamp has been an industry standard for work lights and film/television lighting due to compact
size and high lumen output. The halogen lamp is being replaced slowly by the white LED array
lamp, miniature HID and fluorescent lamps. Increased efficiency halogens with 30+ lumens per
watt may change sale decline in the future.

The most energy efficient halogen lamp is one with an infrared reflective (IR)
coating. The coating redirects the infrared energy back onto the filament, while
letting the visible energy pass through the coating. The redirected (or recycled)
infrared energy improves the output to approximately 82% infrared heat and 18%
visible light - instead of the 90-10 heat to light ratio of a standard lamp.

a. Halogen Lamps are small, lightweight

1. Extremely hot (easily capable of causing
severe burns if the lamp is touched).


Low cost to produce

2. The lamp is sensitive to oils left by the human
skin, if you touch the bulb with your bare hands
the oil left behind will heat up once the bulb is
activated, this oil may cause an imbalance and


CFLs(fluorescent) or mercury vapor lights

3. Explosion, the bulb is capable of blowing and
sending hot glass shards outward. A screen or

Better color temperature than standard tungsten (2800-3400 Kelvin). APPLICATIONS: DRAMA Low voltage halogen lighting can be used to create dramatic contrast . This type of lighting used to be used only in offices. . here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of this type of lighting to help you decide if it's right for you. on the other hand. d.calling attention to featured artwork in a space. it is closer to sunlight than the more "orangy" standard tungsten. e. and it is dimmable f. Fluorescent lighting is a type of electrical lamp choice that works through the use of mercury andneon gas.layer of glass on the outside of the lamp can protect users. If you are considering it for your home. recessed lighting DECORATIVE pendant lights over surfaces TASK LIGHTING reading and other tasks B. but is now becoming more and more popular in homes because of their many advantages. standard incandescent bulbs. work by reacting to heat. no warm up time.      RETAIL highlighting merchandise either from track or recessed luminaries MUSEUMS lighting artwork and sculpture RESIDENTIAL track lighting. Longer life than a conventional incandescent Instant on to full brightness. producing a chemical reaction. FLUORESCENT LAMPS PROPERTIES: Fluorescent lamps produce light by passing an electric arc through a mixture of an inert gas (argon or argon / krypton) and mercury (a tiny amount). The mercury radiates ultraviolet energy that is transformed to visible light by the PHOSPHOR coating on the bulb.

000 hours. An integrated type of CFL combines the lamp and ballast in one unit. allow only the lamp to be replaced . In fact.  COMPACT FLUORESCENT operate on the same principle as regular fluorescent. their efficacy is 4-8 times that of the filament sources. a 60W incandescent with a life of 1000 hours could be replaced with a 15W screw-based CFL having 6-10 times the life. Some of these are one-piece units while others. wall sconces. with a few even beyond that. They are meant to be an energy-saving." CFLs became popular in the mid-to-late 1980's. . These lamps are available in a myriad of sizesand shapes to fit many applications . There are two general categories of fluorescent lamp:  LINEAR FLUORESCENT Linear fluorescent lamps come in a range of wattages and sizes . but are more "compact.500 hours to 24. pole lights. ballast type.4 and 8 foot lamps are most common for commercial uses such as office buildings and warehouses. which can be screwed into a standard incandescent lamp socket. The original concept was to provide an energy efficient replacement for incandescent lamps. longer-life alternative to incandescent lamps. For example. Life is dependent on many variables such as lamp type. operating environment and how often they are switched on and off. where the lamp and ballast are separate . Fluorescent lamps have life ratings from 7.Fluorescent lamps are more efficient at producing light compared to standard incandescent or even halogen. recessed fixtures. etc.table lamps.

. Once the flicking becomes obvious to the eye. ADVANTAGES: 1. Exterior CFLs are specially designed to operate properly in cold ambient temperatures. and can be turn on and off without being afraid of burning it. Some fluorescent bulbs can flicker noticeably and produce an uneven light that may bother some users. DISADVANTAGES: 1. 2. as the electrical connections are more complex. They tend to burn less after continuous use. 2. Fluorescent lighting is 66% cheaper than regular lighting while providing the same brightness. 4. 3. The initial cost of fluorescent lighting can be up to three times higher than other types of bulbs. 3. there is no choice but to replace the lamp. which makes them great for area lightning and for areas where additional heat can cause equipment to malfunction or bother the users.Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) are available for both interior and exterior use. 4. Fluorescent bulbs last longer. The lights do not give off heat. Fluorescent lighting is often less attractive APPLICATIONS: Fluorescent sources can be used in a variety of applications. These louvered systems provide shielding to reduce glare for both task and general lighting. Some lighting may require professional installation the first time around.

continually losing light output and changing color toward an unattractive greenish color. Once turned off. . it must cool down to reduce the arc tube pressure before the arc can restrike. the arc becomes extremely intense. HID light is produced directly from the arc itself. HID also require ballasts. There are three basic types of HID lamps. The Federal Government has mandated the limited use of mercury fixtures to special applications only. This arc is relatively short (compared to a fluorescent lamp) and therefore it is considered a point source.they just keep going and going. Some coatings are phosphor-based so they can also change the color of the light along with diffusing it. HID lamps are the most powerful of all of the electric light sources. Since these sources use an arc. Ballast operation is discussed in another section. These intense POINT SOURCES allow a high intensity of light to be projected over long distances. HID is often the best choice for high ceiling applications and commercial accent lighting. as these lamps can be focused for accurate placement of light from long distances.C. they need a piece of auxiliary equipment called aBALLAST. for applications where a directed spotlight (produced by a point source) is not desired. all operating on the same general principle but producing dramatically different results:  MERCURY LAMPS Mercury now has limited use due to its older technology. One quirk of these lamps is their survivability . Some HID types have a coating on the inside surface of the outer bulb to diffuse the light. and they take a few seconds to produce light when first turned on because the ballast needs time to establish the electric arc. Most common application is the familiar "barn light" one can see when traveling country roads at night. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE PROPERTIES: HID lamps produce light a different way than the previous lamp types examined. Due to the high pressure under which these types operate.

3. HPS has the highest EFFICACY of all popular light sources. although as metal halide continually improves. Relatively long life (5.000 to 24. carry a higher installed cost than standard HPS. meaning a momentary interruption of current or a voltage drop too low to maintain the arc will extinguish the lamp. ADVANTAGES: 1. Not all applications require good color rendering. it is replacing HPS in many applications. so HPS is still quite popular. but the average warm-up time is two to six minutes. 2. HID lamps have a "restrike" time. METAL HALIDE Developed around 1960. APPLICATIONS: Indoor Applications  Retail stores  Atriums  Warehouses and Industrial facilities  Airport terminals . The color rendering is greatly improved. it uses sodium (and mercury) to produce light with a characteristic golden yellow color. with CRI ratings from 65 . As the name implies. parking and other applications.95 and a choice of color temperatures is available. but still is limited in use due to its poor color (CRI in the low 20's).000+ hrs) Relatively high lumen output per watt Relatively small in physical size DISADVANTAGES: 1. They also. If you have ever flown in an airplane over a large city at night. Common applications include:  HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM (HPS) This variant was developed in the mid-Sixties and is quite different from the previous two. 2. HID lamps require time to warm up. Some lamp manufacturers offer improved HPS lamps that are whiter (less yellow) in color appearance and have higher CRI. then you have seen HPS in roadway. Finding your blue car in a parking lot could be a challenge. however. It varies from lamp to lamp. this technology is a big improvement of the mercury lamp.

LED LIGHTS PROPERTIES: LEDs. such as the metal halide used at the Seattle US Bank Centre. and it has no failure-prone moving parts.Outdoor Applications  Street lighting  Area Lighting  Sports stadiums  Parking garages and lots  Building façade lighting  Bridges. or light-emitting diodes. Tunnels  Airport exterior gate areas HID lamps are ideal for high ceiling applications. and gas-discharge lamps. it has no fragile glass bulb. Tokyo. D. HID lamps brightly illuminate the city streets of the Ginza district. no lead. LEDs become illuminated by the movement of electrons through a semiconductor material. are electronic light sources. An LED is a semiconductor device that emits visible light of a certain color. Japan. An LED is a type of solid-state diode that emits light when voltage is applied. no gas or filament. An LED uses no mercury. LED lighting is fundamentally different from conventional light sources such as incandescent. fluorescent. .

5.LED’s light instantly – in nanoseconds Not affected by cold temperatures . which causes deterioration of the LED chip itself. This requires some electronics expertise to design the electronic drivers. LEDs must be supplied with the correct voltage and current at a constant flow. 4. APPLICATIONS: LED lighting is often used for to provide white lighting but can also add color and interest to a space. 9. 4.With LED’s you can direct the light where you want it. LED lighting uses both light and energy more efficiently. Over-driving the LED or not engineering the product to manage heat in high ambient temperatures may result in overheating of the LED package. Another benefit is that LEDs emit light in a specific direction. 8. whereas a fluorescent lamp is "diffuse" and emits light and heat in all directions. on an initial capital cost basis.LED’s can be controlled for brightness and color DISADVANTAGES 1. Also two different white LED will have two different color characteristics. 6. 2.LED’s do not wash out colors like other light sources such as fluorescents. which affect how the light is perceived. eventually leading to device failure. LEDs are currently more expensive.50.LED’s are also called “Solid State Lighting (SSL) as they are made of solid material with no filament or tube or bulb to break No warm-up period .LED’s “like” low temperatures and will startup even in subzero weather Directional .LED lighting is more efficient. versatile and longer lasting than incandescent lighting. Energy efficient . 7.LED’s contain no mercury or other hazardous substances Controllable . price per lumen.LED’s are now capable of outputting 135 lumens/watt Long Lifetime . LED performance largely depends on correctly engineering the fixture to manage the heat generated by the LED. 3. 3.000 hours or more if properly engineered Rugged . 2. durable. thus no light is wasted Excellent Color Rendering . . ADVANTAGES 1. making them perfect for displays and retail applications Environmentally friendly . LED’s can shift color due to age and temperature. than more conventional lighting technologies.

control. application and/or by photometric characteristics. sockets to position and protect the lamps to a supply of electric power. A discrete aperture attaches to the housing. and distribute light. INDOOR AND RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES: A LUMINAIRE is defined as a device to produce. but are also available as adjustable luminaires which may be used to deliver intense beams for accent lighting. LUMINAIRES come in many shapes and sizes. from which the light is directed into the room below. construction. . and the mechanical components required to support or attach the housing. making the space look more open and larger. TYPES:  SURFACE MOUNTED These luminaires can provide general or ambient lighting with the added feature that some of the light can be emitted upward to produce some ceiling brightness. A complete lighting unit consists of the following components: one or more lamps. mounting. They are usually classified according to source. optical devices designed to distribute light. Lamps are often concealed behind glass or plasticDIFFUSERS or other types of lenses which help to reduce glare and distribute the light into the space below. The electrical components are contained in "housings" which conceal mechanical parts above the ceiling or behind the wall. Recessed downlights often provide general or ambient lighting.LUMINAIRES A.  RECESSED DOWNLIGHTS Recessed downlights are almost entirely hidden in the ceiling.

They can be ceiling recessed. These are very common in retail and other light commercial applications. These adjustable luminaires can be moved anywhere along the track system. Pendants or cables usually suspend them from the ceiling. Wall washers can be recessed. surface mounted or wall mounted. Track systems can be used in homes or in a range of commercial applications. TRACK Track lighting refers to a system that includes luminaires (track heads) and a track or rail that is designed to provide mounting and deliver power.  WALLWASHERS Wallwash luminaires are used to produce a distribution of light that changes gradually from high levels at the top of the wall to lower levels at the bottom of the wall. Luminaire manufacturers generally provide spacing criteria required for the even distribution of light along the length of a wall or large vertical surface. museums and retail Stores. with lamps that are adjustable or fixed. indirect luminaires can use diffuse or point sources to provide virtually shadow-free general or ambient lighting. Direct-Indirect luminaires are similar to the suspended indirect but provide some downward . typical in office environments. Fluorescent is the most common light source for these types of luminaires. track mounted or surface mounted and are a common luminaire choice for perimeter lighting. as well as some residential applications.  INDIRECT Common in office environments. This provides the flexibility required for lighting dynamic displays in galleries. REFLECTORS are used to help them produce a wide distribution of light. but some types are post-mounted from the floor.  DECORATIVE (ACCENT) LUMINAIRES These luminaires are either themselves ornamental or are designed to produce patterns of light that are ornamental.

Stage lighting may look similar to commercial track lighting used in high-end retail and museum applications. Renders three dimensional objects well without harsh shadows. LEDs lamps are another common choice for cove lighting because of their long life.  COVE These luminaires are designed to be placed in an architectural cove or to have a shape such that when mounted on a wall they look like a COVE. The smaller direct component required makes it easier to control reflective glare in computer screens. Changing lamps in a cove application can be a difficult and expensive maintenance procedure. ADVANTAGES:     Good balance between ambient illumination of the room and accent lighting. but more elaborate forms provide reflectors to control near-wall and ceiling brightness. Because of their large size and weight. they are often individually electrified and secured to pipe sections with a strong clamp. and are designed to provide tight optical control and maximum mounting flexibility.  STAGE Stage luminaires are common in theaters and television studios for lighting stage sets and people. but are not always illuminated to a "track" or electrical raceway.directed light. producing a similar lighting effect. Relatively good energy efficiency even in large spaces. . The simplest form of this luminaire is a fluorescent strip. Disadvantages:   Relatively high installation and maintenance costs. Users often need instruction on how to use the system effectively.

. SCONCE LIGHT MOUNTED LIGHTS RECESSED LUMINAIRES Recessed luminaires can be used to add subtle accent lighting while adding warm and dimension to living spaces.APPLICATIONS: PENDANT LIGHTS Decorative pendants can provide ambient and task lighting. while also contributing to the color and décor in any room.

ADVANTAGES:     Good balance between ambient illumination of the room and accent lighting.  L ow B a y Low bay luminaires are similar. They can be pendant or surface-mounted and use reflectors and refractors to produce a wide variety of lighting distribution options for high ceilings and mounting heights. MAIN CATEGORIES  HIGH BAY High bay luminaires (as seen above) typically use High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps to provide general lighting for industrial areas. . Users often need instruction on how to use the system effectively. COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROPERTIES: Luminaires that are designed for outdoor. Renders three dimensional objects well without harsh shadows. Disadvantages:   Relatively high installation and maintenance costs. but usually have wider distributions for areas with lower ceiling heights. Lamp and ballast operation under a wide range of conditions such as cold temperatures. long hours of operation and DIRT DEPRECIATION are important aspects of their construction. industrial and demanding commercial applications have more complex performance requirements. Relatively good energy efficiency even in large spaces.B. Light sources are typically HID or high wattage compact fluorescents. The smaller direct component required makes it easier to control reflective glare in computer screens.

Exterior building lighting can require luminaires with either narrow or wide distribution. Other accent-type luminaires can be used to mimic moonlighting effects. which usually have a simple reflector attached to the ballast housing. Exit luminaires help direct building occupants to a fire exit. PATHWAY AND LANDSCAPE Lighting for walkways and the grounds of commercial buildings is often accomplished with bollards for localized lighting. Since emergency lights must turn on instantly. Post-top luminaires are also used for path lighting as well as surface mounted and recessed step lights. Column lighting. depending on the mounting height and area to be lighted. Long life sources such as LEDs and compact fluorescents are preferred since these luminaires are energized 24/7.necessary for controlling LIGHT TRESPASS. minimizing glare. These are similar in . Sports lighting luminaires are notable for precise beam control and sharp cut-off angles .APPLICATIONS: STRIP OR INDUSTRIAL These luminaires are often designed forHIGH-OUTPUT (HO) FLUORESCENT LAMPSand are typically found in warehouses or factories. "Industrials" are practical and economical luminaires. shrubbery and other landscaping. not all HID lamps can be used for this application. These luminaires are usually on an electrical circuit that has backup power in the event the main power fails. EMERGENCY AND EXIT Emergency lighting luminaires are designed to provide enough light for egress in emergency situations. FLOODLIGHTS Floodlight luminaires are frequently used for building façade lighting and general area lighting. accent lighting and distant mounting locations require narrow distributions. highlighting trees. and ensuring observer and player comfort.

is coiled around the core (see above. Electromagnetic ballasts are basically transformers made with a steel core that is wrapped with wire and placed in a metal can. They also produce heat. and designed to produce reasonably uniform lighting.) The electromagnetic ballast was the original type introduced along with the first fluorescent lamp. for instance. LIGHTING BALLAST Ballasts are buried deep within a luminaire. provide wide distributions to permit extended pole spacing. Since then. made of copper or aluminum. Insulated wire. .appearance to adjustable low voltage track lighting. but are made of tougher. electronic versions were developed to replace and improve upon the older technology. There are two basic categories of ballasts .electronic andelectromagnetic (or simply magnetic. and insure the lamp receives the correct amount of electricity for starting. and then the correct amount once it is operating. The core is made up of stacked steel laminations. which conducts the heat away from the coils to prevent early failure and to lessen noise. and can also provide guests with a sense of safety and security. STREETS AND ROADWAYS These luminaires are usually mounted on arms on a pole or post-top mounted. Well-shielded luminaires are also available from most roadway lighting manufacturers for applications where a more controlled distribution is needed to minimize glare and light trespass. The electromagnetic ballast was the original type introduced along with the first fluorescent lamp.) These components act as a current-limiting choke. The components are encased in a potting material. which is normally asphalt. Since then. Pathway lighting allows safe egress on the grounds of hotels and other commercial buildings during the evening hours. electronic versions were developed to replace and improve upon the older technology. waterproof construction. These cobra-head-looking luminaires.

Any one of those can operate multiple lamp lengths from 2-foot through 5-foot types. The current through the lamp operates at a much higher frequency and produces less audible noise. allowing 50% of the light to be switched off for energy savings. Dimming ballasts are also available which provide additional control and efficiency. Quite the contrary . bring additional benefits that usually justify their higher price. Electronic ballasts are designed using solid-state circuitry. while a little more costly than electromagnetic.they are still quite popular for many outdoor fluorescent applications like sign lighting and for most HID lamps (there are electronic ballasts for some low wattage .150W and below . 2-. and 4-lamp versions. . DISADVANTAGES:      Increased cost Unproven reliability Increased ballast case size and weight Variations in ballast factor for different lamp types Lower efficacy APPLICATIONS Ballasts can be installed and wired to control two or four lamps in a typical fluorescent four-lamp troffer. You can even mix lengths on the same ballast. They also operate cooler and are more flexible. ADVANTAGES:  provide necessary electrical conditions to start and operate lamps. This is not to say that electromagnetic ballasts are no longer around.HID lamps).  Two general categories . For example.electromagnetic (or just "magnetic") and electronic.  Lamps and ballasts are generally matched to ensure electrical compatibility. 3-.ELECTRONIC BALLAST Electronic ballasts.  Almost all new fluorescent luminaires today use electronic ballasts. fluorescent electronic ballasts for T8 lamps are available in 1-.