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Chapter II

CATEGORIES OF LEGISLATIVE ACTS
Article 7. Types of Laws
(1) Law shall be subdivided into three types: constitutional, organic and
ordinary.
(2) Law adoption formula shall indicate the type of the law.
(3) Laws shall be adopted by the majority of vote as specified in the
Constitution.
Article 8. Constitutional Laws
(1) The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova shall be the supreme law of
the society and the state.
(2) Constitutional laws are laws on changes and(or) amendments to the
Constitution (laws on revisions to the Constitution) that are adopted by two
thirds of the parliamentary votes, also laws approved by a republican
referendum.
Article 9. Organic Laws
(1) Organic laws are legislative acts that represent a development of
constitutional norms and apply only to areas directly envisaged by the
Constitution or to other areas of utmost importance for which adoption of an
organic law is considered necessary by the Parliament.
(2) Areas regulated by the organic law shall be established by paragraphs а)
- о), part (3), Article 72 of the Constitution.
(3) In compliance with provisions of paragraph p), part (3), Article 72 of the
Constitution, organic laws shall also regulate:
а) identification of the country’s borders;
b) approval of the national anthem;
с) procedure for language functioning;
d) conditions for acquiring, maintaining and forfeiting citizenship;
е) structure of the national healthcare system and means intended to care
for and protect human physical and mental health;
f) identification of state offices that cannot be occupied by members of
parties;
g) prolongation of the Parliamentary mandate in case of war or disaster;

j) prolongation of the Presidential term in case of war or disaster. [Article 9 amended by Law # 281-XVI dated 14. first deputy prime minister or deputy prime ministers. q) establishing limits for regulation of entrepreneurial activities by the Government and /or bodies of public administration. i) procedure for electing the President of the Republic of Moldova. added to or invalidated by an organic law in accordance with the established procedure.06. also for controlling businesses. (5) As a rule. organization and activities of the Counting Chamber. . effective from 10. o) powers. organic laws or some of their provisions shall be changed. n) particular forms and conditions for autonomy of some settlements on the left bank of the River Dniester and in the south of the Republic of Moldova. Organic laws shall be adopted after at least 2 hearings and shall be subordinated to constitutional laws. (4) Organic laws shall be adopted by the majority of vote of elected parliamentarians unless another majority is stipulated by the Constitution.2008] Article 10. and ministers. l) conditions for nonqualifying as member of Government except for those directly envisaged by the Constitution m) structure of the national defense system.12. Ordinary Laws (1) Ordinary laws shall apply to all areas of social relations except for those regulated by the Constitution and organic laws. maintaining and terminating a business (an entrepreneurial activity). k) selection of other members of the Government except for the prime minister.h) conditions for nonqualifying as parliamentarian except for those directly envisaged by the Constitution. (11) National concepts in major directions of domestic and foreign policy of the state shall be approved by means of legislative acts that as a rule shall be ordinary laws.2007. p) identification of substantive and procedural norms for initiating.

Sometimes Parliament will pass a very general law and leave the relevant minister to fill in the details since that minister is often in the best position to do this. ordinary laws shall be changed. Types of Legislation Statute Laws Statute Laws are those laws that are made by Parliament. especially in terms of economic and social policy. Common Law England also has a body of law known as the Common Law which has developed over centuries from judgements given in courts. however.(2) Ordinary laws shall be adopted by the majority of vote of attending parliamentarians and shall be subordinated to constitutional and organic laws. through the creation of Statutory Instruments that contain rules and regulations. until 1861 there was no Statute Law criminalising murder. European Laws Britain joined the European Union in 1973 and. Statute Laws can be made either directly. European Laws have direct effect within the legal systems of the countries that make up the European Union and actually override national laws in many cases. For example. Delegating such lawmaking powers to ministers ensures expediency and efficiently in the lawmaking process since the Minister does not have to return to Parliament each time a change in circumstances result in the need for a change in law. agreed to be subject to European Community Laws. (3) As a rule. Murder had. fully or partially. Yearly. supplemented and invalidated. through the passing of Acts of Parliament. by an ordinary law in accordance with specially established procedure. or indirectly. Really. the delegation of these powers results in the ministers becoming lawmakers themselves. If Britain ever decided to withdraw from the European Union then European Community Laws would cease to be binding. The Common Law has been hugely important in the development of the English legal system. Parliament creates around one hundred laws through Acts of Parliament and creates around two thousand Statutory Instruments. in doing so. always been considered a crime since courts .

Orders. or.had from the earliest times considered it to be grossly wrong and therefore obviously criminal. which explain in clear English what the Act sets out to achieve and place its effect in context. If the decision of the first judge should happen to be overruled by a higher court. Since 1999. Regulations. Rules) There are also quasi legislation and European Community Legislation. Halsbury's Statutes and its noting up services. subsidiary or .There are usually 25 to 50 new Public Acts each year. If a judge makes a decision in a case then other judges will usually follow the example that has been set and give a similar verdict in cases involving similar facts. Since a judge can only look at what the law actually says. Common Law works through the system of Precedent. Parliament has to be incredibly careful when drafting new laws. but in the Victorian era these Acts were used in relation to boroughs.Statutory Instruments (SIs.these Acts affect a particular locality. canal companies and enclosed land. in print. They are also referred to as subordinate. most Public General Acts are accompanied by Explanatory Notes. Local and Personal Acts . Codes etc.uk however not all legislation is available as amended on that site at present. For up-to-date versions of legislation use LexisLibrary or Westlaw. Legislation is available from legislation.Acts of Parliament or Statutes Secondary legislation . railways. Even in the case of Statute Laws the judges have a vital role to play since it is their task to interpret the laws made by Parliament. then subsequent judges would follow the decision of the higher court instead. Primary legislation There are two types of primary legislation: Public General Acts .gov. Rules. There are two main types of legislation in the UK: Primary legislation . not what Parliament meant it to say. Personal Acts were also one important method of obtaining a divorce before it became available in the secular courts in 1857. There have been less than five per year in recent times. Secondary legislation Statutory Instrument (SI) is a generic term used for Orders. The judge who makes the first decision effectively makes a law since his or her ruling will be followed in the future. person or body. Regulations. which are often called Codes.

It includes Government Circulars (often available from government web sites). Quasi legislation This broad category of legislation is difficult to classify. . Highway Code etc). Rule Books (produced by the body concerned) and Codes (Codes of Practice under Police and Criminal Evidence Act.delegated legislation. They are generally made by Goverment Ministers under under powers delegated by Parliament.