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TE14, lIT14 - product temperature, exit of the heat exchanger, by RTD
TC11 - temperature PID controller, PID1, Loop 1
TCY11, TCV11 - Control valve with Current-to-air positioner (EP)
Product temperature after heat exchanger, TE14/TIT14.
The maximum temperature to use is 65 C when water starts steaming but
note 60 C is adequate
To study temperature control using PID
Procedures 0 : start up
1) Do a final check that the instrument air supply (IAS) is set according to the
pressure indicate at the air pressure regulator.
Check that the overflow drain valve and the vent at tank T11 are opened to operate
T11 as an Open tank.
Check that the external water supply is connected to tank T13 via LSV11 and its
supply-side isolation valve is always opened.
2) Fill tank T12 with water till its level reaches the overflow drain pipe outlet (D)
when tank T11 is half-full. Check that the product buffer tank T13 is filled with
water, at its level sight glass.
3) Check the sight glass of tank T11 to ensure the water in tank T11 completely
covers the heater. Otherwise the heater will be burn out.
4) Turn on the main power supply switch at the electrical cubicle. The control panel
instruments lit up. TIT11, TIT12, TIT13 and TIT14 shows approximately ambient
temperature with TIT11 and TIT12 rising when the heater is turned on.
The PANEL/SCADA/DDC switch should be in the PANEL/SCADA position.
5) Switch on the power for the heaters at both T11 and T12. The heaters ON/OFF
switches are at the front of the electrical panel. The heaters status light bulbs turn
green (ON). Whilst waiting for the water to heat up, proceed as below.

Procedure 1:
1) Switch LIC/FIC11 to 1-element control or Position 1: LIC11, and manually adjust
the output (MV) of LIC 11 to 35%. Visually check the stem position of TCV11 is
about 35%.
2) Start the inflow pump P12 and quickly verify from its by-pass that it is pumping.
Shut the by-pass valve and note the rise of water in tank T11 from the sight glass.
3) Open the other demand valve and it should remain fully opened throughout the
When the level in the tank T11 is about 50%, start the outflow pump P11. verify
P11 is pumping through the Heat Exchanger by visually checking its discharge
into tank T12.
4) Manually regulate both TCV11 and LCV11 from their controllers TIC11 and
LIC11 (in manual modes) so that the level at tank T11 is quite steady at about
500mm (50%).
5) Set the set-point (SV1) of LIC11 to 500mm (50%), with the controller still in
manual (M) mode. Observe the level (red pen) response at the recorder LFTR11.
use trial values below:
1-2-3 Selector switch osition x: FEEDBAC FEEDFORWARD
LICll: A mode PBl = 20%
TIl = 30 SECONDS TDl = 0 SEC
FICll : C mode PB2 = 150%
6) Make sure the 1-2 position selector switch for TIC11/FIC12 is in position 1:
TIC11. With the controller TIC11 still in manual (M) mode, set proportional (P),
Integral (I) and Derivative (D) controls into TIC11 using the following
Firsts (1) set of PID trial values for TIC11 i.e.
First (1) PID trial Values: PID1 for TIC11
PB1 = 10%
TI1 = 50 seconds
TD1 = 12 seconds

Procedure 2 : start product heating a the heat exchanger

1) When SV1, the set point of TIC11 is set, start both product pump P13/P14. Verify
and note its flow rate at the rotatometer FI13. Set the flow rate at maximum by
shutting both their by-pass valves around pumps P13/P14.
2) Display controller TIC11 and switch it to Auto (A) mode. Check that its PID1
values are at First (1) trial values. Make sure the 1-2 position selector switch for
TIC11/FIC12 is in position 1: TIC11

Note that the controlled variable is the product temperature TIT14 and is best
observed at both controllers TIC11 (seePV1) and the recorder LFTR11 (see the
purple pen)
3) The initial flow of product will be overheated if the heat exchanger has been
running for some time without any product flow. Let the product run at maximum
flow rate for a while till it reaches steady state. Note that the igh heat capacity
stored in the heat exchanger takes time to be transferred to the product and is the
cause of process lag, resulting in a slow process with over/undershoot control
Observe patiently the temperature (TIT1) control response (purple pen) at the
recorder (LFTR11) until it shows consistent response for two cycles when the
response is steady and within 0.1 or 0.2 C of the temperature set-point SV1 at

Procedure 3 : Test Disturbances

1) Step increase temperature setpoint SV1 at TIC11 by about 5C higher than the
product tank temperature TIT13, to represent a desire for higher than the
temperature product. Otherwise use a constant setpoint of 40C. Increase to 44C
max later only when TIT13 reaches 37C. DO NOT EXCEED 44C. Observe the
temperature response at the recorder till it is almost steady or show two consistent
cycles, before proceeding to the next test disturbance.
2) When the temperature response is almost steady, switch TIC11 to manual (M)
mode. Step increase its MV by about 20%. Switch TIC11 back to Auto (A) mode.
This introduces a step change in heating medium flow.
3) When the temperature is almost steady, switch OFF P14 for step decrease
disturbance in product flow rate. Observe temperature response similarity.

The recorder LFTR11 records the results of the experiment on PID temperature
control. At each set of PID values, the response of temperature control is different.
Study and compare the different responses for different PID values.
a. Look for an oscillation response that is closest to Quarter Amplitude Damping
b. Look for the response with minimum overshoot, minimum period of oscillation
and minimum offset.
c. Look for the response that gives the minimum total shaded area between its
oscillation around the set-point and the time exist. The total shaded area is the
Integrated Absolute Error (IAE).
d. If uniform oscillation is obtained using only proportional control, the oscillation
period is the natural period Tn* and the PB is the ultimate PB*. The PID values
can be estimated from PB* and Tn* using the Zieglar and Nichols formulae.

The period of oscillation or the dead time in seconds can be determined from the
recorder chart response using the following relationship.

Time or duration, seconds

Distance (mm) along the time axis

Recorder chart speed (mm/sec)

The recorder chart speed is occasionally on the chart, for example at 500mm/Hr or 7.2